Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1476

Search results for: strain hardening

1476 New Dynamic Constitutive Model for OFHC Copper Film

Authors: Jin Sung Kim, Hoon Huh


The material properties of OFHC copper film was investigated with the High-Speed Material Micro Testing Machine (HSMMTM) at the high strain rates. The rate-dependent stress-strain curves from the experiment and the Johnson-Cook curve fitting showed large discrepancies as the plastic strain increases since the constitutive model implies no rate-dependent strain hardening effect. A new constitutive model was proposed in consideration of rate-dependent strain hardening effect. The strain rate hardening term in the new constitutive model consists of the strain rate sensitivity coefficients of the yield strength and strain hardening.

Keywords: rate dependent material properties, dynamic constitutive model, OFHC copper film, strain rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 351
1475 A Crystal Plasticity Approach to Model Dynamic Strain Aging

Authors: Burak Bal, Demircan Canadinc


Dynamic strain aging (DSA), resulting from the reorientation of C-Mn clusters in the core of dislocations, can provide a strain hardening mechanism. In addition, in Hadfield steel, negative strain rate sensitivity is observed due to the DSA. In our study, we incorporated dynamic strain aging onto crystal plasticity computations to predict the local instabilities and corresponding negative strain rate sensitivity. Specifically, the material response of Hadfield steel was obtained from monotonic and strain-rate jump experiments under tensile loading. The strain rate range was adjusted from 10⁻⁴ to 10⁻¹s ⁻¹. The crystal plasticity modeling of the material response was carried out based on Voce-type hardening law and corresponding Voce hardening parameters were determined. The solute pinning effect of carbon atom was incorporated to crystal plasticity simulations at microscale level by computing the shear stress contribution imposed on an arrested dislocation by carbon atom. After crystal plasticity simulations with modifying hardening rule, which takes into account the contribution of DSA, it was seen that the model successfully predicts both the role of DSA and corresponding strain rate sensitivity.

Keywords: crystal plasticity, dynamic strain aging, Hadfield steel, negative strain rate sensitivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
1474 Cyclic Plastic Deformation of 20MN-MO-NI 55 Steel in Dynamic Strain Ageing Regime

Authors: Ashok Kumar, Sarita Sahu, H. N. Bar


Low cycle fatigue behavior of a ferritic, martensitic pressure vessel steel at dynamic strain ageing regime of 250°C to 280°C has been investigated. Dynamic strain ageing is a mechanism that has attracted interests of researchers due to its fascinating inexplicable repetitive nature for quite a long time. The interaction of dynamic strain ageing and cyclic plasticity has been studied from the mechanistic point of view. Dynamic strain ageing gives rise to identical serrated flow behavior in tensile and compressive halves of hysteresis loops and this has been found to gives rise to initial cyclic hardening followed by softening behavior, where as in non-DSA regime continuous cyclic softening has been found to be the dominant mechanism. An appreciable sensitivity towards nature of serrations has been observed due to degree of hardening of stable loop. The increase in degree of hardening with strain amplitude in the regime where only A type serrations are present and it decreases with strain amplitude where A+B type of serrations are present. Masing type of locus has been found in the behavior of metal at 280°C. Cyclic Stress Strain curve and Master curve has been constructed to decipher among the fatigue strength and ductility coefficients. Fractographic examinations have also shown a competition between progression of striations and secondary cracking.

Keywords: dynamic strain ageing, hardening, low cycle fatigue, softening

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1473 Experimental Determination of Aluminum 7075-T6 Parameters Using Stabilized Cycle Tests to Predict Thermal Ratcheting

Authors: Armin Rahmatfam, Mohammad Zehsaz, Farid Vakili Tahami, Nasser Ghassembaglou


In this paper the thermal ratcheting, kinematic hardening parameters C, γ, isotropic hardening parameters and also k, b, Q combined isotropic/kinematic hardening parameters have been obtained experimentally from the monotonic, strain controlled cyclic tests at room and elevated temperatures of 20°C, 100°C, and 400°C. These parameters are used in nonlinear combined isotropic/kinematic hardening model to predict better description of the loading and reloading cycles in the cyclic indentation as well as thermal ratcheting. For this purpose, three groups of specimens made of Aluminum 7075-T6 have been investigated. After each test and using stable hysteretic cycles, material parameters have been obtained for using in combined nonlinear isotropic/kinematic hardening models. Also the methodology of obtaining the correct kinematic/isotropic hardening parameters is presented.

Keywords: combined hardening model, kinematic hardening, isotropic hardening, cyclic tests

Procedia PDF Downloads 384
1472 Analysis of Cyclic Elastic-Plastic Loading of Shaft Based on Kinematic Hardening Model

Authors: Isa Ahmadi, Ramin Khamedi


In this paper, the elasto-plastic and cyclic torsion of a shaft is studied using a finite element method. The Prager kinematic hardening theory of plasticity with the Ramberg and Osgood stress-strain equation is used to evaluate the cyclic loading behavior of the shaft under the torsional loading. The material of shaft is assumed to follow the non-linear strain hardening property based on the Prager model. The finite element method with C1 continuity is developed and used for solution of the governing equations of the problem. The successive substitution iterative method is used to calculate the distribution of stresses and plastic strains in the shaft due to cyclic loads. The shear stress, effective stress, residual stress and elastic and plastic shear strain distribution are presented in the numerical results.

Keywords: cyclic loading, finite element analysis, Prager kinematic hardening model, torsion of shaft

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1471 Construction of Strain Distribution Profiles of EDD Steel at Elevated Temperatures

Authors: K. Eshwara Prasad, R. Raman Goud, Swadesh Kumar Singh, N. Sateesh


In the present work forming limit diagrams and strain distribution profile diagrams for extra deep drawing steel at room and elevated temperatures have been determined experimentally by conducting stretch forming experiments by using designed and fabricated warm stretchforming tooling setup. With the help of forming Limit Diagrams (FLDs) and strain distribution profile diagrams the formability of Extra Deep Drawing steel has been analyzed and co-related with mechanical properties like strain hardening COEFFICIENT (n) and normal anisotropy (r−).Mechanical properties of EDD steel from room temperature to 4500C were determined and discussed the impact of temperature on the properties like work hardening exponent (n) anisotropy(r-) and strength coefficient of the material. Also the fractured surfaces after stretching have undergone the some metallurgical investigations and attempt has been made to co-relate with the formability of EDD steel sheets. They are co-related and good agreement with FLDs at various temperatures.

Keywords: FLD, microhardness, strain distribution profile, stretch forming

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
1470 Strain DistributionProfiles of EDD Steel at Elevated Temperatures

Authors: Eshwara Prasad Koorapati, R. Raman Goud, Swadesh Kumar Singh


In the present work forming limit diagrams and strain distribution profile diagrams for extra deep drawing steel at room and elevated temperatures have been determined experimentally by conducting stretch forming experiments by using designed and fabricated warm stretch forming tooling setup. With the help of forming Limit Diagrams (FLDs) and strain distribution profile diagrams the formability of Extra Deep Drawing steel has been analyzed and co-related with mechanical properties like strain hardening coefficient (n) and normal anisotropy (r−).Mechanical properties of EDD steel from room temperature to 4500 C were determined and discussed the impact of temperature on the properties like work hardening exponent (n) anisotropy (r-) and strength coefficient of the material. Also, the fractured surfaces after stretching have undergone the some metallurgical investigations and attempt has been made to co-relate with the formability of EDD steel sheets. They are co-related and good agreement with FLDs at various temperatures.

Keywords: FLD, micro hardness, strain distribution profile, stretch forming

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
1469 A Criterion for Evaluating Plastic Loads: Plastic Work-Tangent Criterion

Authors: Ying Zhang


In ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, the plastic load is defined by applying the twice elastic slope (TES) criterion of plastic collapse to a characteristic load-deformation curve for the vessel. Several other plastic criterion such as tangent intersection (TI) criterion, plastic work (PW) criterion have been proposed in the literature, but all exhibit a practical limitation: difficult to define the load parameter for vessels subject to several combined loads. An alternative criterion: plastic work-tangent (PWT) criterion for evaluating plastic load in pressure vessel design by analysis is presented in this paper. According to the plastic work-load curve, when the tangent variation is less than a given value in the plastic phase, the corresponding load is the plastic load. Application of the proposed criterion is illustrated by considering the elastic-plastic response of the lower head of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and nozzle intersection of (RPV). It is proposed that this is because the PWT criterion more fully represents the constraining effect of material strain hardening on the spread of plastic deformation and more efficiently ton evaluating the plastic load.

Keywords: plastic load, plastic work, strain hardening, plastic work-tangent criterion

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1468 Cellular Automata Modelling of Titanium Alloy

Authors: Jyoti Jha, Asim Tewari, Sushil Mishra


The alpha-beta Titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) is the most common alloy in the aerospace industry. The hot workability of Ti–6Al–4V has been investigated by means of hot compression tests carried out in the 750–950 °C temperature range and 0.001–10s-1 strain rate range. Stress-strain plot obtained from the Gleeble 3800 test results show the dynamic recrystallization at temperature 950 °C. The effect of microstructural characteristics of the deformed specimens have been studied and correlated with the test temperature, total strain and strain rate. Finite element analysis in DEFORM 2D has been carried out to see the effect of flow stress parameters in different zones of deformed sample. Dynamic recrystallization simulation based on Cellular automata has been done in DEFORM 2D to simulate the effect of hardening and recovery during DRX. Simulated results well predict the grain growth and DRX in the deformed sample.

Keywords: compression test, Cellular automata, DEFORM , DRX

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1467 Simulation of Hamming Coding and Decoding for Microcontroller Radiation Hardening

Authors: Rehab I. Abdul Rahman, Mazhar B. Tayel


This paper presents a method of hardening the 8051 microcontroller, that able to assure reliable operation in the presence of bit flips caused by radiation. Aiming at avoiding such faults in the 8051 microcontroller, Hamming code protection was used in its SRAM memory and registers. A VHDL code and its simulation have been used for this hamming code protection.

Keywords: radiation, hardening, bitflip, hamming

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1466 Impact Deformation and Fracture Behaviour of Cobalt-Based Haynes 188 Superalloy

Authors: Woei-Shyan Lee, Hao-Chien Kao


The impact deformation and fracture behaviour of cobalt-based Haynes 188 superalloy are investigated by means of a split Hopkinson pressure bar. Impact tests are performed at strain rates ranging from 1×103 s-1 to 5×103 s-1 and temperatures between 25°C and 800°C. The experimental results indicate that the flow response and fracture characteristics of cobalt-based Haynes 188 superalloy are significantly dependent on the strain rate and temperature. The flow stress, work hardening rate and strain rate sensitivity all increase with increasing strain rate or decreasing temperature. It is shown that the impact response of the Haynes 188 specimens is adequately described by the Zerilli-Armstrong fcc model. The fracture analysis results indicate that the Haynes 188 specimens fail predominantly as the result of intensive localised shearing. Furthermore, it is shown that the flow localisation effect leads to the formation of adiabatic shear bands. The fracture surfaces of the deformed Haynes 188 specimens are characterised by dimple- and / or cleavage-like structure with knobby features. The knobby features are thought to be the result of a rise in the local temperature to a value greater than the melting point.

Keywords: Haynes 188 alloy, impact, strain rate and temperature effect, adiabatic shearing

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1465 Kinematic Hardening Parameters Identification with Respect to Objective Function

Authors: Marina Franulovic, Robert Basan, Bozidar Krizan


Constitutive modelling of material behaviour is becoming increasingly important in prediction of possible failures in highly loaded engineering components, and consequently, optimization of their design. In order to account for large number of phenomena that occur in the material during operation, such as kinematic hardening effect in low cycle fatigue behaviour of steels, complex nonlinear material models are used ever more frequently, despite of the complexity of determination of their parameters. As a method for the determination of these parameters, genetic algorithm is good choice because of its capability to provide very good approximation of the solution in systems with large number of unknown variables. For the application of genetic algorithm to parameter identification, inverse analysis must be primarily defined. It is used as a tool to fine-tune calculated stress-strain values with experimental ones. In order to choose proper objective function for inverse analysis among already existent and newly developed functions, the research is performed to investigate its influence on material behaviour modelling.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, kinematic hardening, material model, objective function

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1464 Forming Limit Analysis of DP600-800 Steels

Authors: Marcelo Costa Cardoso, Luciano Pessanha Moreira


In this work, the plastic behaviour of cold-rolled zinc coated dual-phase steel sheets DP600 and DP800 grades is firstly investigated with the help of uniaxial, hydraulic bulge and Forming Limit Curve (FLC) tests. The uniaxial tensile tests were performed in three angular orientations with respect to the rolling direction to evaluate the strain-hardening and plastic anisotropy. True stress-strain curves at large strains were determined from hydraulic bulge testing and fitted to a work-hardening equation. The limit strains are defined at both localized necking and fracture conditions according to Nakajima’s hemispherical punch procedure. Also, an elasto-plastic localization model is proposed in order to predict strain and stress based forming limit curves. The investigated dual-phase sheets showed a good formability in the biaxial stretching and drawing FLC regions. For both DP600 and DP800 sheets, the corresponding numerical predictions overestimated and underestimated the experimental limit strains in the biaxial stretching and drawing FLC regions, respectively. This can be attributed to the restricted failure necking condition adopted in the numerical model, which is not suitable to describe the tensile and shear fracture mechanisms in advanced high strength steels under equibiaxial and biaxial stretching conditions.

Keywords: advanced high strength steels, forming limit curve, numerical modelling, sheet metal forming

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1463 Cyclic Stress and Masing Behaviour of Modified 9Cr-1Mo at RT and 300 °C

Authors: Preeti Verma, P. Chellapandi, N.C. Santhi Srinivas, Vakil Singh


Modified 9Cr-1Mo steel is widely used for structural components like heat exchangers, pressure vessels and steam generator in the nuclear reactors. It is also found to be a candidate material for future metallic fuel sodium cooled fast breeder reactor because of its high thermal conductivity, lower thermal expansion coefficient, micro structural stability, high irradiation void swelling resistance and higher resistance to stress corrosion cracking in water-steam systems compared to austenitic stainless steels. The components of steam generators that operate at elevated temperatures are often subjected to repeated thermal stresses as a result of temperature gradients which occur on heating and cooling during start-ups and shutdowns or during variations in operating conditions of a reactor. These transient thermal stresses give rise to LCF damage. In the present investigation strain controlled low cycle fatigue tests were conducted at room temperature and 300 °C in normalized and tempered condition using total strain amplitudes in the range from ±0.25% to ±0.5% at strain rate of 10-2 s-1. Cyclic Stress response at high strain amplitudes (±0.31% to ±0.5%) showed initial softening followed by hardening upto a few cycles and subsequent softening till failure. The extent of softening increased with increase in strain amplitude and temperature. Depends on the strain amplitude of the test the stress strain hysteresis loops displayed Masing behaviour at higher strain amplitudes and non-Masing at lower strain amplitudes at both the temperatures. It is quite opposite to the usual Masing and Non-Masing behaviour reported earlier for different materials. Low cycle fatigue damage was evaluated in terms of plastic strain and plastic strain energy approach at room temperature and 300 °C. It was observed that the plastic strain energy approach was found to be more closely matches with the experimental fatigue lives particularly, at 300 °C where dynamic strain aging was observed.

Keywords: Modified 9Cr-mo steel, low cycle fatigue, Masing behavior, cyclic softening

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1462 Load Relaxation Behavior of Ferritic Stainless Steels

Authors: Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha


High-temperature deformation behavior of ferritic stainless steels such as STS 409L, STS 430J1L, and STS 429EM has been investigated in this study. Specimens with fully annealed microstructure were obtained by heat treatment. A series of load relaxation tests has been conducted on these samples at temperatures ranging from 200 to 900oC to construct flow curves in the strain rate range from 10-6 s-1 to 10-3 s-1. Strain hardening was not observed at high temperatures above 800oC in any stainless steels. Load relaxation behavior at the temperature was closely related with high-temperature mechanical properties such as the thermal fatigue and tensile behaviors. Load drop ratio of 436L stainless steel was much higher than that of the other steels. With increasing temperature, strength and load drop ratio of ferritic stainless steels showed entirely different trends.

Keywords: ferritic stainless steel, high temperature deformation, load relaxation, microstructure, strain rate sensitivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
1461 Simulation of Uniaxial Ratcheting Behaviors of SA508-3 Steel at Elevated Temperature

Authors: Jun Tian, Yu Yang, Liping Zhang, Qianhua Kan


Experimental results show that SA 508-3 steel exhibits temperature dependent cyclic softening characteristic and obvious ratcheting behaviors, and dynamic strain age was observed at temperature range of 200 ºC to 350 ºC. Based on these observations, a temperature dependent cyclic plastic constitutive model was proposed by introducing the nonlinear cyclic softening and kinematic hardening rules, and the dynamic strain age was also considered into the constitutive model. Comparisons between experiments and simulations were carried out to validate the proposed model at elevated temperature.

Keywords: constitutive model, elevated temperature, ratcheting, SA 508-3

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1460 Hot Deformation Behavior and Constitutive Modelling of a Medium-Carbon Steel

Authors: Khalil Boroumanda, Morteza Hadib, Reza Vafaeia


The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of temperature and strain rate on the hot deformation behavior of a medium-carbon structural steel. This steel is known as 30XΓCA steel in GOST standard and contains 3 wt% carbon. To investigate the hot deformation behavior of this steel, hot compression tests were performed on cylindrical samples in temperature ranges from 800 to 1000 °C and strain ranges from 0.001 to 0.1 S-1. Microstructure of samples was characterized using optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The true stress-strain curves of 30XΓCA steel obtained at various deformation conditions showed that the softening phenomenon based on recovery and dynamic recrystallization (DRX) occurred during hot deformation tests. The results indicated that the peak stress decreased with increasing temperature and decreasing strain rate. With increasing temperature from 800 to 1000 °C, the peak stress decreased by 52%, 60% and 38% at strain rates of 0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 S-1, respectively. According to the results, it can be claimed that the DRX was a dominate mechanism of softening in all deformation conditions. The changes of work hardening rate for 30XΓCA steel during hot deformation were analyzed to confirm the results. Accordingly, it was observed that critical stress for the initiation of DRX decreased with increasing temperature and decreasing strain rate. Furthermore, constitutive equations and activation energy of deformation for 30XΓCA steel were successfully determined. Based on the hyperbolic sine equation, the activation energy of hot deformation of 30XΓCA steel was 256.11 kJ/mole.

Keywords: 30XΓCA steel, hot compression, dynamic recrystallization, constitutive equations

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1459 Elasto-Plastic Behavior of Rock during Temperature Drop

Authors: N. Reppas, Y. L. Gui, B. Wetenhall, C. T. Davie, J. Ma


A theoretical constitutive model describing the stress-strain behavior of rock subjected to different confining pressures is presented. A bounding surface plastic model with hardening effects is proposed which includes the effect of temperature drop. The bounding surface is based on a mapping rule and the temperature effect on rock is controlled by Poisson’s ratio. Validation of the results against available experimental data is also presented. The relation of deviatoric stress and axial strain is illustrated at different temperatures to analyze the effect of temperature decrease in terms of stiffness of the material.

Keywords: bounding surface, cooling of rock, plasticity model, rock deformation, elasto-plastic behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
1458 Experimental Investigation and Constitutive Modeling of Volume Strain under Uniaxial Strain Rate Jump Test in HDPE

Authors: Rida B. Arieby, Hameed N. Hameed


In this work, tensile tests on high density polyethylene have been carried out under various constant strain rate and strain rate jump tests. The dependency of the true stress and specially the variation of volume strain have been investigated, the volume strain due to the phenomena of damage was determined in real time during the tests by an optical extensometer called Videotraction. A modified constitutive equations, including strain rate and damage effects, are proposed, such a model is based on a non-equilibrium thermodynamic approach called (DNLR). The ability of the model to predict the complex nonlinear response of this polymer is examined by comparing the model simulation with the available experimental data, which demonstrate that this model can represent the deformation behavior of the polymer reasonably well.

Keywords: strain rate jump tests, volume strain, high density polyethylene, large strain, thermodynamics approach

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1457 Flexural Strength Design of RC Beams with Consideration of Strain Gradient Effect

Authors: Mantai Chen, Johnny Ching Ming Ho


The stress-strain relationship of concrete under flexure is one of the essential parameters in assessing ultimate flexural strength capacity of RC beams. Currently, the concrete stress-strain curve in flexure is obtained by incorporating a constant scale-down factor of 0.85 in the uniaxial stress-strain curve. However, it was revealed that strain gradient would improve the maximum concrete stress under flexure and concrete stress-strain curve is strain gradient dependent. Based on the strain-gradient-dependent concrete stress-strain curve, the investigation of the combined effects of strain gradient and concrete strength on flexural strength of RC beams was extended to high strength concrete up to 100 MPa by theoretical analysis. As an extension and application of the authors’ previous study, a new flexural strength design method incorporating the combined effects of strain gradient and concrete strength is developed. A set of equivalent rectangular concrete stress block parameters is proposed and applied to produce a series of design charts showing that the flexural strength of RC beams are improved with strain gradient effect considered.

Keywords: beams, equivalent concrete stress block, flexural strength, strain gradient

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1456 A Unified Constitutive Model for the Thermoplastic/Elastomeric-Like Cyclic Response of Polyethylene with Different Crystal Contents

Authors: A. Baqqal, O. Abduhamid, H. Abdul-Hameed, T. Messager, G. Ayoub


In this contribution, the effect of crystal content on the cyclic response of semi-crystalline polyethylene is studied over a large strain range. Experimental observations on a high-density polyethylene with 72% crystal content and an ultralow density polyethylene with 15% crystal content are reported. The cyclic stretching does appear a thermoplastic-like response for high crystallinity and an elastomeric-like response for low crystallinity, both characterized by a stress-softening, a hysteresis and a residual strain, whose amount depends on the crystallinity and the applied strain. Based on the experimental observations, a unified viscoelastic-viscoplastic constitutive model capturing the polyethylene cyclic response features is proposed. A two-phase representation of the polyethylene microstructure allows taking into consideration the effective contribution of the crystalline and amorphous phases to the intermolecular resistance to deformation which is coupled, to capture the strain hardening, to a resistance to molecular orientation. The polyethylene cyclic response features are captured by introducing evolution laws for the model parameters affected by the microstructure alteration due to the cyclic stretching.

Keywords: cyclic loading unloading, polyethylene, semi-crystalline polymer, viscoelastic-viscoplastic constitutive model

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1455 Impact Tensile Mechanical Properties of 316L Stainless Steel at Different Strain Rates

Authors: Jiawei Chen, Jia Qu, Dianwei Ju


316L stainless steel has good mechanical and technological properties, has been widely used in shipbuilding and aerospace manufacturing. In order to understand the effect of strain rate on the yield limit of 316L stainless steel and the constitutive relationship of the materials at different strain rates, this paper used the INSTRON-4505 electronic universal testing machine to study the mechanical properties of the tensile specimen under quasi-static conditions. Meanwhile, the Zwick-Roell RKP450 intelligent oscillometric impact tester was used to test the tensile specimens at different strain rates. Through the above two kinds of experimental researches, the relationship between the true stress-strain and the engineering stress-strain at different strain rates is obtained. The result shows that the tensile yield point of 316L stainless steel increases with the increase of strain rate, and the real stress-strain curve of the 316L stainless steel has a better normalization than that of the engineering stress-strain curve. The real stress-strain curves can be used in the practical engineering of impact stretch to improve its safety.

Keywords: impact stretch, 316L stainless steel, strain rate, real stress-strain, normalization

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1454 Bake Hardening Behavior of Ultrafine Grained and Nano-Grained AA6061 Aluminum Alloy

Authors: Hamid Alihosseini, Kamran Dehghani


In this study, the effects of grain size of AA6061 aluminum on the bake hardening have been investigated. The grains of sample sheets refined by applying 4, 8, and 12 passes of ECAP and their microstructures and mechanical properties were investigated. EBSD and TEM studies of the sheets showed grain refinement, and the EBSD micrograph of the alloy ECAPed for 12 passes showed nano-grained (NG) ∼95nm in size. Then, the bake hardenability of processed sheet was compared by pre-straining to 6% followed by baking at 200°C for 20 min. The results show that in case of baking at 200°C, there was an increase about 108%, 93%, and 72% in the bake hardening for 12, 8, and 4 passes, respectively. The maximum in bake hardenability (120 MPa) and final yield stress (583 MPa) were pertaining to the ultra-fine grain specimen pre-strained 6% followed by baking at 200◦C.

Keywords: bake hardening, ultrafine grain, nano grain, AA6061 aluminum,

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1453 The Effect of Addition of Some Rare Earth Materials to Zinc Aluminum Alloy ZA-22

Authors: Adnan I. O. Zaid


Zinc aluminum alloys are versatile materials which are widely used in manufacturing several parts in the automobile and aircraft industries. The effect of grain refinement of these alloys by rare earth elements on their mechanical characteristics is scarce. The equal channel angular pressing is relatively recent method for producing severe plastic deformation in materials subjected to it resulting in refinement of their structure and enhancement of their mechanical characteristics. The phase diagram of these alloys indicates that large dendrites of large grain size can be formed during their solidification of the cast which tends to deteriorate their mechanical strength and surface quality. To overcome this problem they are normally grain refined by either titanium or titanium + boron to their melt prior to solidification. In this paper, comparison between the effect of adding either titanium, (Ti), titanium+boron, (Ti+B), or Molybdenum, Mo, to zinc-aluminum22, alloy, (ZA22) on its metallurgical and mechanical characteristics in the cast condition and after pressing by the ECAP process is investigated. It was found that addition of either Ti, Ti+B, or Mo to the ZA22 alloy in the cast condition resulted in refining of their structure being more refined by the addition of Mo, then .Ti+B and less refining by Ti addition. Furthermore, the ECAP process resulted in further refinement of the alloy micro structure except in case of Ti+B addition where poisoning i.e. coarsening of the grains has occurred. Regarding the addition of these element on the mechanical behavior; it was found that addition of Ti Or Ti+B resulted in little enhancement of the alloy strength factor and its flow stress at 20% true strain; whereas, the addition of resulted in deteriorating of its mechanical behavior as % decrease in the strength factor and % in its flow stress of 20%. As for the strain hardening index; addition of any of these elements resulted in decreasing the strain hardening index.

Keywords: addition, grain refinement, mechanical characteristics, microstructure, rare earth elements, ZA-22, Zinc- aluminum alloy

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1452 Improvement of Wear Resistance of 356 Aluminum Alloy by High Energy Electron Beam Irradiation

Authors: M. Farnush


This study is concerned with the microstructural analysis and improvement of wear resistance of 356 aluminum alloy by a high energy electron beam. Shock hardening on material by high energy electron beam improved wear resistance. Particularly, in the surface of material by shock hardening, the wear resistance was greatly enhanced to 29% higher than that of the 356 aluminum alloy substrate. These findings suggested that surface shock hardening using high energy electron beam irradiation was economical and useful for the development of surface shock hardening with improved wear resistance.

Keywords: Al356 alloy, HEEB, wear resistance, frictional characteristics

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1451 Substitution of Natural Aggregates by Crushed Concrete Waste in Concrete Products Manufacturing

Authors: Jozef Junak, Nadezda Stevulova


This paper is aimed to the use of different types of industrial wastes in concrete production. From examined waste (crushed concrete waste) our tested concrete samples with dimension 150 mm were prepared. In these samples, fractions 4/8 mm and 8/16 mm by recycled concrete aggregate with a range of variation from 0 to 100% were replaced. Experiment samples were tested for compressive strength after 2, 7, 14 and 28 days of hardening. From obtained results it is evident that all samples prepared with washed recycled concrete aggregates met the requirement of standard for compressive strength of 20 MPa already after 14 days of hardening. Sample prepared with recycled concrete aggregates (4/8 mm: 100% and 8/16 mm: 60%) reached 101% of compressive strength value (34.7 MPa) after 28 days of hardening in comparison with the reference sample (34.4 MPa). The lowest strength after 28 days of hardening (27.42 MPa) was obtained for sample consisting of recycled concrete in proportion of 40% for 4/8 fraction and 100% for 8/16 fraction of recycled concrete.

Keywords: recycled concrete aggregate, re-use, workability, compressive strength

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1450 Surface Nanocrystalline and Hardening Effects of Ti–Al–V Alloy by Electropulsing Ultrasonic Shock

Authors: Xiaoxin Ye, Guoyi Tang


The effect of electropulsing ultrasonic shock (EUS) on the surface hardening and microstructure of Ti6Al4V alloy was studied. It was found that electropulsing improved the microhardness dramatically both in the influential depth and maximum value, compared with the only ultrasonic-shocked sample. It’s indicated that refined surface layer with nanocrystalline and improved microhardness were obtained on account of surface severe plastic deformation, dynamic recrystallization (DRX) and phase change, which was implemented at relative low temperature and high strain rate/capacity due to the coupling of the thermal and athermal effects of EUS. It’s different from conventional experiments and theory. It’s discussed that the positive contributions of EPT in the thermodynamics and kinetics of microstructure and properties change were attributed to the reduction of nucleation energy barrier and acceleration of atomic diffusion. Therefore, it’s supposed that EUS is an energy-saving and high-efficiency method of surface treatment technique with the help of high-energy electropulses, which is promising in cost reduction of the surface engineering and energy management.

Keywords: titanium alloys, electropulsing, ultrasonic shock, microhardness, nanocrystalline

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1449 Enhancement of Hardness Related Properties of Grey Cast Iron Powder Reinforced AA7075 Metal Matrix Composites Through T6 and T8 Heat Treatments

Authors: S. S. Sharma, P. R. Prabhu, K. Jagannath, Achutha Kini U., Gowri Shankar M. C.


In present global scenario, aluminum alloys are coining the attention of many innovators as competing structural materials for automotive and space applications. Comparing to other challenging alloys, especially, 7xxx series aluminum alloys have been studied seriously because of their benefits such as moderate strength; better deforming characteristics, excellent chemical decay resistance, and affordable cost. 7075 Al-alloys have been used in the transportation industry for the fabrication of several types of automobile parts, such as wheel covers, panels and structures. It is expected that substitution of such aluminum alloys for steels will result in great improvements in energy economy, durability and recyclability. However, it is necessary to improve the strength and the formability levels at low temperatures in aluminium alloys for still better applications. Aluminum–Zinc–Magnesium with or without other wetting agent denoted as 7XXX series alloys are medium strength heat treatable alloys. Cu, Mn and Si are the other solute elements which contribute for the improvement in mechanical properties achievable by selecting and tailoring the suitable heat treatment process. On subjecting to suitable treatments like age hardening or cold deformation assisted heat treatments, known as low temperature thermomechanical treatments (LTMT) the challenging properties might be incorporated. T6 is the age hardening or precipitation hardening process with artificial aging cycle whereas T8 comprises of LTMT treatment aged artificially with X% cold deformation. When the cold deformation is provided after solution treatment, there is increase in hardness related properties such as wear resistance, yield and ultimate strength, toughness with the expense of ductility. During precipitation hardening both hardness and strength of the samples are increasing. Decreasing peak hardness value with increasing aging temperature is the well-known behavior of age hardenable alloys. The peak hardness value is further increasing when room temperature deformation is positively supported with age hardening known as thermomechanical treatment. Considering these aspects, it is intended to perform heat treatment and evaluate hardness, tensile strength, wear resistance and distribution pattern of reinforcement in the matrix. 2 to 2.5 and 3 to 3.5 times increase in hardness is reported in age hardening and LTMT treatments respectively as compared to as-cast composite. There was better distribution of reinforcements in the matrix, nearly two fold increase in strength levels and upto 5 times increase in wear resistance are also observed in the present study.

Keywords: reinforcement, precipitation, thermomechanical, dislocation, strain hardening

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1448 Microscopic and Mesoscopic Deformation Behaviors of Mg-2Gd Alloy with or without Li Addition

Authors: Jing Li, Li Jin, Fulin Wang, Jie Dong, Wenjiang Ding


Mg-Li dual-phase alloy exhibits better combination of yield strength and elongation than the Mg single-phase alloy. To exploit its deformation behavior, the deformation mechanisms of Mg-2Gd alloy with or without Li addition, i.e., Mg-6Li-2Gd and Mg-2Gd alloy, have been studied at both microscale and mesoscale. EBSD-assisted slip trace, twin trace, and texture evolution analysis show that the α-Mg phase of Mg-6Li-2Gd alloy exhibits different microscopic deformation mechanisms with the Mg-2Gd alloy, i.e., mainly prismatic slip in the former one, while basal slip, prismatic slip and extension twin in the latter one. Further Schmid factor analysis results attribute this different intra-phase deformation mechanisms to the higher critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) value of extension twin and lower ratio of CRSSprismatic /CRSSbasal in the α-Mg phase of Mg-6Li-2Gd alloy. Additionally, Li addition can induce dual-phase microstructure in the Mg-6Li-2Gd alloy, leading to the formation of hetero-deformation induced (HDI) stress at the mesoscale. This can be evidenced by the hysteresis loops appearing during the loading-unloading-reloading (LUR) tensile tests and the activation of multiple slip activity in the α-Mg phase neighboring β-Li phase. The Mg-6Li-2Gd alloy shows higher yield strength is due to the harder α-Mg phase arising from solid solution hardening of Li addition, as well asthe strengthening of soft β-Li phase by the HDI stress during yield stage. Since the strain hardening rate of Mg-6Li-2Gd alloy is lower than that of Mg-2Gd alloy after ~2% strain, which is partly due to the weak contribution of HDI stress, Mg-6Li-2Gd alloy shows no obvious increase of uniform elongation than the Mg-2Gd alloy.But since the β-Li phase is effective in blunting the crack tips, the Mg-6Li-2Gd alloy shows ununiform elongation, which, thus, leads to the higher total elongation than the Mg-2Gd alloy.

Keywords: Mg-Li-Gd dual-phase alloy, phase boundary, HDI stress, dislocation slip activity, mechanical properties

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1447 Destructive and Nondestructive Characterization of Advanced High Strength Steels DP1000/1200

Authors: Carla M. Machado, André A. Silva, Armando Bastos, Telmo G. Santos, J. Pamies Teixeira


Advanced high-strength steels (AHSS) are increasingly being used in automotive components. The use of AHSS sheets plays an important role in reducing weight, as well as increasing the resistance to impact in vehicle components. However, the large-scale use of these sheets becomes more difficult due to the limitations during the forming process. Such limitations are due to the elastically driven change of shape of a metal sheet during unloading and following forming, known as the springback effect. As the magnitude of the springback tends to increase with the strength of the material, it is among the most worrisome problems in the use of AHSS steels. The prediction of strain hardening, especially under non-proportional loading conditions, is very limited due to the lack of constitutive models and mainly due to very limited experimental tests. It is very clear from the literature that in experimental terms there is not much work to evaluate deformation behavior under real conditions, which implies a very limited and scarce development of mathematical models for these conditions. The Bauschinger effect is also fundamental to the difference between kinematic and isotropic hardening models used to predict springback in sheet metal forming. It is of major importance to deepen the phenomenological knowledge of the mechanical and microstructural behavior of the materials, in order to be able to reproduce with high fidelity the behavior of extension of the materials by means of computational simulation. For this, a multi phenomenological analysis and characterization are necessary to understand the various aspects involved in plastic deformation, namely the stress-strain relations and also the variations of electrical conductivity and magnetic permeability associated with the metallurgical changes due to plastic deformation. Aiming a complete mechanical-microstructural characterization, uniaxial tensile tests involving successive cycles of loading and unloading were performed, as well as biaxial tests such as the Erichsen test. Also, nondestructive evaluation comprising eddy currents to verify microstructural changes due to plastic deformation and ultrasonic tests to evaluate the local variations of thickness were made. The material parameters for the stable yield function and the monotonic strain hardening were obtained using uniaxial tension tests in different material directions and balanced biaxial tests. Both the decrease of the modulus of elasticity and Bauschinger effect were determined through the load-unload tensile tests. By means of the eddy currents tests, it was possible to verify changes in the magnetic permeability of the material according to the different plastically deformed areas. The ultrasonic tests were an important aid to quantify the local plastic extension. With these data, it is possible to parameterize the different models of kinematic hardening to better approximate the results obtained by simulation with the experimental results, which are fundamental for the springback prediction of the stamped parts.

Keywords: advanced high strength steel, Bauschinger effect, sheet metal forming, springback

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