Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9297

Search results for: objective function

9297 Chemical Reaction Algorithm for Expectation Maximization Clustering

Authors: Li Ni, Pen ManMan, Li KenLi


Clustering is an intensive research for some years because of its multifaceted applications, such as biology, information retrieval, medicine, business and so on. The expectation maximization (EM) is a kind of algorithm framework in clustering methods, one of the ten algorithms of machine learning. Traditionally, optimization of objective function has been the standard approach in EM. Hence, research has investigated the utility of evolutionary computing and related techniques in the regard. Chemical Reaction Optimization (CRO) is a recently established method. So the property embedded in CRO is used to solve optimization problems. This paper presents an algorithm framework (EM-CRO) with modified CRO operators based on EM cluster problems. The hybrid algorithm is mainly to solve the problem of initial value sensitivity of the objective function optimization clustering algorithm. Our experiments mainly take the EM classic algorithm:k-means and fuzzy k-means as an example, through the CRO algorithm to optimize its initial value, get K-means-CRO and FKM-CRO algorithm. The experimental results of them show that there is improved efficiency for solving objective function optimization clustering problems.

Keywords: chemical reaction optimization, expection maimization, initia, objective function clustering

Procedia PDF Downloads 504
9296 Meta Model for Optimum Design Objective Function of Steel Frames Subjected to Seismic Loads

Authors: Salah R. Al Zaidee, Ali S. Mahdi


Except for simple problems of statically determinate structures, optimum design problems in structural engineering have implicit objective functions where structural analysis and design are essential within each searching loop. With these implicit functions, the structural engineer is usually enforced to write his/her own computer code for analysis, design, and searching for optimum design among many feasible candidates and cannot take advantage of available software for structural analysis, design, and searching for the optimum solution. The meta-model is a regression model used to transform an implicit objective function into objective one and leads in turn to decouple the structural analysis and design processes from the optimum searching process. With the meta-model, well-known software for structural analysis and design can be used in sequence with optimum searching software. In this paper, the meta-model has been used to develop an explicit objective function for plane steel frames subjected to dead, live, and seismic forces. Frame topology is assumed as predefined based on architectural and functional requirements. Columns and beams sections and different connections details are the main design variables in this study. Columns and beams are grouped to reduce the number of design variables and to make the problem similar to that adopted in engineering practice. Data for the implicit objective function have been generated based on analysis and assessment for many design proposals with CSI SAP software. These data have been used later in SPSS software to develop a pure quadratic nonlinear regression model for the explicit objective function. Good correlations with a coefficient, R2, in the range from 0.88 to 0.99 have been noted between the original implicit functions and the corresponding explicit functions generated with meta-model.

Keywords: meta-modal, objective function, steel frames, seismic analysis, design

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
9295 Supplier Selection and Order Allocation Using a Stochastic Multi-Objective Programming Model and Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Rouhallah Bagheri, Morteza Mahmoudi, Hadi Moheb-Alizadeh


In this paper, we develop a supplier selection and order allocation multi-objective model in stochastic environment in which purchasing cost, percentage of delivered items with delay and percentage of rejected items provided by each supplier are supposed to be stochastic parameters following any arbitrary probability distribution. To do so, we use dependent chance programming (DCP) that maximizes probability of the event that total purchasing cost, total delivered items with delay and total rejected items are less than or equal to pre-determined values given by decision maker. After transforming the above mentioned stochastic multi-objective programming problem into a stochastic single objective problem using minimum deviation method, we apply a genetic algorithm to get the later single objective problem solved. The employed genetic algorithm performs a simulation process in order to calculate the stochastic objective function as its fitness function. At the end, we explore the impact of stochastic parameters on the given solution via a sensitivity analysis exploiting coefficient of variation. The results show that as stochastic parameters have greater coefficients of variation, the value of objective function in the stochastic single objective programming problem is worsened.

Keywords: dependent chance programming, genetic algorithm, minimum deviation method, order allocation, supplier selection

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9294 A Multi-Objective Programming Model to Supplier Selection and Order Allocation Problem in Stochastic Environment

Authors: Rouhallah Bagheri, Morteza Mahmoudi, Hadi Moheb-Alizadeh


This paper aims at developing a multi-objective model for supplier selection and order allocation problem in stochastic environment, where purchasing cost, percentage of delivered items with delay and percentage of rejected items provided by each supplier are supposed to be stochastic parameters following any arbitrary probability distribution. In this regard, dependent chance programming is used which maximizes probability of the event that total purchasing cost, total delivered items with delay and total rejected items are less than or equal to pre-determined values given by decision maker. The abovementioned stochastic multi-objective programming problem is then transformed into a stochastic single objective programming problem using minimum deviation method. In the next step, the further problem is solved applying a genetic algorithm, which performs a simulation process in order to calculate the stochastic objective function as its fitness function. Finally, the impact of stochastic parameters on the given solution is examined via a sensitivity analysis exploiting coefficient of variation. The results show that whatever stochastic parameters have greater coefficients of variation, the value of the objective function in the stochastic single objective programming problem is deteriorated.

Keywords: supplier selection, order allocation, dependent chance programming, genetic algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
9293 The Whale Optimization Algorithm and Its Implementation in MATLAB

Authors: S. Adhirai, R. P. Mahapatra, Paramjit Singh


Optimization is an important tool in making decisions and in analysing physical systems. In mathematical terms, an optimization problem is the problem of finding the best solution from among the set of all feasible solutions. The paper discusses the Whale Optimization Algorithm (WOA), and its applications in different fields. The algorithm is tested using MATLAB because of its unique and powerful features. The benchmark functions used in WOA algorithm are grouped as: unimodal (F1-F7), multimodal (F8-F13), and fixed-dimension multimodal (F14-F23). Out of these benchmark functions, we show the experimental results for F7, F11, and F19 for different number of iterations. The search space and objective space for the selected function are drawn, and finally, the best solution as well as the best optimal value of the objective function found by WOA is presented. The algorithmic results demonstrate that the WOA performs better than the state-of-the-art meta-heuristic and conventional algorithms.

Keywords: optimization, optimal value, objective function, optimization problems, meta-heuristic optimization algorithms, Whale Optimization Algorithm, implementation, MATLAB

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9292 A Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm of Neural Network for Medical Diseases Problems

Authors: Sultan Noman Qasem


This paper presents an evolutionary algorithm for solving multi-objective optimization problems-based artificial neural network (ANN). The multi-objective evolutionary algorithm used in this study is genetic algorithm while ANN used is radial basis function network (RBFN). The proposed algorithm named memetic elitist Pareto non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-based RBFNN (MEPGAN). The proposed algorithm is implemented on medical diseases problems. The experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm is viable, and provides an effective means to design multi-objective RBFNs with good generalization capability and compact network structure. This study shows that MEPGAN generates RBFNs coming with an appropriate balance between accuracy and simplicity, comparing to the other algorithms found in literature.

Keywords: radial basis function network, hybrid learning, multi-objective optimization, genetic algorithm

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9291 Application of Genetic Algorithm with Multiobjective Function to Improve the Efficiency of Photovoltaic Thermal System

Authors: Sonveer Singh, Sanjay Agrawal, D. V. Avasthi, Jayant Shekhar


The aim of this paper is to improve the efficiency of photovoltaic thermal (PVT) system with the help of Genetic Algorithms with multi-objective function. There are some parameters that affect the efficiency of PVT system like depth and length of the channel, velocity of flowing fluid through the channel, thickness of the tedlar and glass, temperature of inlet fluid i.e. all above parameters are considered for optimization. An attempt has been made to the model and optimizes the parameters of glazed hybrid single channel PVT module when two objective functions have been considered separately. The two objective function for optimization of PVT module is overall electrical and thermal efficiency. All equations for PVT module have been derived. Using genetic algorithms (GAs), above two objective functions of the system has been optimized separately and analysis has been carried out for two cases. Two cases are: Case-I; Improvement in electrical and thermal efficiency when overall electrical efficiency is optimized, Case-II; Improvement in electrical and thermal efficiency when overall thermal efficiency is optimized. All the parameters that are used in genetic algorithms are the parameters that could be changed, and the non-changeable parameters, like solar radiation, ambient temperature cannot be used in the algorithm. It has been observed that electrical efficiency (14.08%) and thermal efficiency (19.48%) are obtained when overall thermal efficiency was an objective function for optimization. It is observed that GA is a very efficient technique to estimate the design parameters of hybrid single channel PVT module.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, energy, exergy, PVT module, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 541
9290 A Fuzzy Programming Approach for Solving Intuitionistic Fuzzy Linear Fractional Programming Problem

Authors: Sujeet Kumar Singh, Shiv Prasad Yadav


This paper develops an approach for solving intuitionistic fuzzy linear fractional programming (IFLFP) problem where the cost of the objective function, the resources, and the technological coefficients are triangular intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. Here, the IFLFP problem is transformed into an equivalent crisp multi-objective linear fractional programming (MOLFP) problem. By using fuzzy mathematical programming approach the transformed MOLFP problem is reduced into a single objective linear programming (LP) problem. The proposed procedure is illustrated through a numerical example.

Keywords: triangular intuitionistic fuzzy number, linear programming problem, multi objective linear programming problem, fuzzy mathematical programming, membership function

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9289 Integrated Approach of Quality Function Deployment, Sensitivity Analysis and Multi-Objective Linear Programming for Business and Supply Chain Programs Selection

Authors: T. T. Tham


The aim of this study is to propose an integrated approach to determine the most suitable programs, based on Quality Function Deployment (QFD), Sensitivity Analysis (SA) and Multi-Objective Linear Programming model (MOLP). Firstly, QFD is used to determine business requirements and transform them into business and supply chain programs. From the QFD, technical scores of all programs are obtained. All programs are then evaluated through five criteria (productivity, quality, cost, technical score, and feasibility). Sets of weight of these criteria are built using Sensitivity Analysis. Multi-Objective Linear Programming model is applied to select suitable programs according to multiple conflicting objectives under a budget constraint. A case study from the Sai Gon-Mien Tay Beer Company is given to illustrate the proposed methodology. The outcome of the study provides a comprehensive picture for companies to select suitable programs to obtain the optimal solution according to their preference.

Keywords: business program, multi-objective linear programming model, quality function deployment, sensitivity analysis, supply chain management

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9288 Planning a Supply Chain with Risk and Environmental Objectives

Authors: Ghanima Al-Sharrah, Haitham M. Lababidi, Yusuf I. Ali


The main objective of the current work is to introduce sustainability factors in optimizing the supply chain model for process industries. The supply chain models are normally based on purely economic considerations related to costs and profits. To account for sustainability, two additional factors have been introduced; environment and risk. A supply chain for an entire petroleum organization has been considered for implementing and testing the proposed optimization models. The environmental and risk factors were introduced as indicators reflecting the anticipated impact of the optimal production scenarios on sustainability. The aggregation method used in extending the single objective function to multi-objective function is proven to be quite effective in balancing the contribution of each objective term. The results indicate that introducing sustainability factor would slightly reduce the economic benefit while improving the environmental and risk reduction performances of the process industries.

Keywords: environmental indicators, optimization, risk, supply chain

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
9287 The Application of Pareto Local Search to the Single-Objective Quadratic Assignment Problem

Authors: Abdullah Alsheddy


This paper presents the employment of Pareto optimality as a strategy to help (single-objective) local search escaping local optima. Instead of local search, Pareto local search is applied to solve the quadratic assignment problem which is multi-objectivized by adding a helper objective. The additional objective is defined as a function of the primary one with augmented penalties that are dynamically updated.

Keywords: Pareto optimization, multi-objectivization, quadratic assignment problem, local search

Procedia PDF Downloads 371
9286 Toward a Characteristic Optimal Power Flow Model for Temporal Constraints

Authors: Zongjie Wang, Zhizhong Guo


While the regular optimal power flow model focuses on a single time scan, the optimization of power systems is typically intended for a time duration with respect to a desired objective function. In this paper, a temporal optimal power flow model for a time period is proposed. To reduce the computation burden needed for calculating temporal optimal power flow, a characteristic optimal power flow model is proposed, which employs different characteristic load patterns to represent the objective function and security constraints. A numerical method based on the interior point method is also proposed for solving the characteristic optimal power flow model. Both the temporal optimal power flow model and characteristic optimal power flow model can improve the systems’ desired objective function for the entire time period. Numerical studies are conducted on the IEEE 14 and 118-bus test systems to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed characteristic optimal power flow model.

Keywords: optimal power flow, time period, security, economy

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
9285 Kinematic Hardening Parameters Identification with Respect to Objective Function

Authors: Marina Franulovic, Robert Basan, Bozidar Krizan


Constitutive modelling of material behaviour is becoming increasingly important in prediction of possible failures in highly loaded engineering components, and consequently, optimization of their design. In order to account for large number of phenomena that occur in the material during operation, such as kinematic hardening effect in low cycle fatigue behaviour of steels, complex nonlinear material models are used ever more frequently, despite of the complexity of determination of their parameters. As a method for the determination of these parameters, genetic algorithm is good choice because of its capability to provide very good approximation of the solution in systems with large number of unknown variables. For the application of genetic algorithm to parameter identification, inverse analysis must be primarily defined. It is used as a tool to fine-tune calculated stress-strain values with experimental ones. In order to choose proper objective function for inverse analysis among already existent and newly developed functions, the research is performed to investigate its influence on material behaviour modelling.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, kinematic hardening, material model, objective function

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9284 Bounded Solution Method for Geometric Programming Problem with Varying Parameters

Authors: Abdullah Ali H. Ahmadini, Firoz Ahmad, Intekhab Alam


Geometric programming problem (GPP) is a well-known non-linear optimization problem having a wide range of applications in many engineering problems. The structure of GPP is quite dynamic and easily fit to the various decision-making processes. The aim of this paper is to highlight the bounded solution method for GPP with special reference to variation among right-hand side parameters. Thus this paper is taken the advantage of two-level mathematical programming problems and determines the solution of the objective function in a specified interval called lower and upper bounds. The beauty of the proposed bounded solution method is that it does not require sensitivity analyses of the obtained optimal solution. The value of the objective function is directly calculated under varying parameters. To show the validity and applicability of the proposed method, a numerical example is presented. The system reliability optimization problem is also illustrated and found that the value of the objective function lies between the range of lower and upper bounds, respectively. At last, conclusions and future research are depicted based on the discussed work.

Keywords: varying parameters, geometric programming problem, bounded solution method, system reliability optimization

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9283 Second Order Optimality Conditions in Nonsmooth Analysis on Riemannian Manifolds

Authors: Seyedehsomayeh Hosseini


Much attention has been paid over centuries to understanding and solving the problem of minimization of functions. Compared to linear programming and nonlinear unconstrained optimization problems, nonlinear constrained optimization problems are much more difficult. Since the procedure of finding an optimizer is a search based on the local information of the constraints and the objective function, it is very important to develop techniques using geometric properties of the constraints and the objective function. In fact, differential geometry provides a powerful tool to characterize and analyze these geometric properties. Thus, there is clearly a link between the techniques of optimization on manifolds and standard constrained optimization approaches. Furthermore, there are manifolds that are not defined as constrained sets in R^n an important example is the Grassmann manifolds. Hence, to solve optimization problems on these spaces, intrinsic methods are used. In a nondifferentiable problem, the gradient information of the objective function generally cannot be used to determine the direction in which the function is decreasing. Therefore, techniques of nonsmooth analysis are needed to deal with such a problem. As a manifold, in general, does not have a linear structure, the usual techniques, which are often used in nonsmooth analysis on linear spaces, cannot be applied and new techniques need to be developed. This paper presents necessary and sufficient conditions for a strict local minimum of extended real-valued, nonsmooth functions defined on Riemannian manifolds.

Keywords: Riemannian manifolds, nonsmooth optimization, lower semicontinuous functions, subdifferential

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9282 Optimality Conditions for Weak Efficient Solutions Generated by a Set Q in Vector Spaces

Authors: Elham Kiyani, S. Mansour Vaezpour, Javad Tavakoli


In this paper, we first introduce a new distance function in a linear space not necessarily endowed with a topology. The algebraic concepts of interior and closure are useful to study optimization problems without topology. So, we define Q-weak efficient solutions generated by the algebraic interior of a set Q, where Q is not necessarily convex. Studying nonconvex vector optimization is valuable since, for a convex cone K in topological spaces, we have int(K)=cor(K), which means that topological interior of a convex cone K is equal to the algebraic interior of K. Moreover, we used the scalarization technique including the distance function generated by the vectorial closure of a set to characterize these Q-weak efficient solutions. Scalarization is a useful approach for solving vector optimization problems. This technique reduces the optimization problem to a scalar problem which tends to be an optimization problem with a real-valued objective function. For instance, Q-weak efficient solutions of vector optimization problems can be characterized and computed as solutions of appropriate scalar optimization problems. In the convex case, linear functionals can be used as objective functionals of the scalar problems. But in the nonconvex case, we should present a suitable objective function. It is the aim of this paper to present a new distance function that be useful to obtain sufficient and necessary conditions for Q-weak efficient solutions of general optimization problems via scalarization.

Keywords: weak efficient, algebraic interior, vector closure, linear space

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9281 Sensitivity Analysis during the Optimization Process Using Genetic Algorithms

Authors: M. A. Rubio, A. Urquia


Genetic algorithms (GA) are applied to the solution of high-dimensional optimization problems. Additionally, sensitivity analysis (SA) is usually carried out to determine the effect on optimal solutions of changes in parameter values of the objective function. These two analyses (i.e., optimization and sensitivity analysis) are computationally intensive when applied to high-dimensional functions. The approach presented in this paper consists in performing the SA during the GA execution, by statistically analyzing the data obtained of running the GA. The advantage is that in this case SA does not involve making additional evaluations of the objective function and, consequently, this proposed approach requires less computational effort than conducting optimization and SA in two consecutive steps.

Keywords: optimization, sensitivity, genetic algorithms, model calibration

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
9280 A Method for Solving a Bi-Objective Transportation Problem under Fuzzy Environment

Authors: Sukhveer Singh, Sandeep Singh


A bi-objective fuzzy transportation problem with the objectives to minimize the total fuzzy cost and fuzzy time of transportation without according priorities to them is considered. To the best of our knowledge, there is no method in the literature to find efficient solutions of the bi-objective transportation problem under uncertainty. In this paper, a bi-objective transportation problem in an uncertain environment has been formulated. An algorithm has been proposed to find efficient solutions of the bi-objective transportation problem under uncertainty. The proposed algorithm avoids the degeneracy and gives the optimal solution faster than other existing algorithms for the given uncertain transportation problem.

Keywords: uncertain transportation problem, efficient solution, ranking function, fuzzy transportation problem

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
9279 Coupling Random Demand and Route Selection in the Transportation Network Design Problem

Authors: Shabnam Najafi, Metin Turkay


Network design problem (NDP) is used to determine the set of optimal values for certain pre-specified decision variables such as capacity expansion of nodes and links by optimizing various system performance measures including safety, congestion, and accessibility. The designed transportation network should improve objective functions defined for the system by considering the route choice behaviors of network users at the same time. The NDP studies mostly investigated the random demand and route selection constraints separately due to computational challenges. In this work, we consider both random demand and route selection constraints simultaneously. This work presents a nonlinear stochastic model for land use and road network design problem to address the development of different functional zones in urban areas by considering both cost function and air pollution. This model minimizes cost function and air pollution simultaneously with random demand and stochastic route selection constraint that aims to optimize network performance via road capacity expansion. The Bureau of Public Roads (BPR) link impedance function is used to determine the travel time function in each link. We consider a city with origin and destination nodes which can be residential or employment or both. There are set of existing paths between origin-destination (O-D) pairs. Case of increasing employed population is analyzed to determine amount of roads and origin zones simultaneously. Minimizing travel and expansion cost of routes and origin zones in one side and minimizing CO emission in the other side is considered in this analysis at the same time. In this work demand between O-D pairs is random and also the network flow pattern is subject to stochastic user equilibrium, specifically logit route choice model. Considering both demand and route choice, random is more applicable to design urban network programs. Epsilon-constraint is one of the methods to solve both linear and nonlinear multi-objective problems. In this work epsilon-constraint method is used to solve the problem. The problem was solved by keeping first objective (cost function) as the objective function of the problem and second objective as a constraint that should be less than an epsilon, where epsilon is an upper bound of the emission function. The value of epsilon should change from the worst to the best value of the emission function to generate the family of solutions representing Pareto set. A numerical example with 2 origin zones and 2 destination zones and 7 links is solved by GAMS and the set of Pareto points is obtained. There are 15 efficient solutions. According to these solutions as cost function value increases, emission function value decreases and vice versa.

Keywords: epsilon-constraint, multi-objective, network design, stochastic

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9278 Sensitivity Based Robust Optimization Using 9 Level Orthogonal Array and Stepwise Regression

Authors: K. K. Lee, H. W. Han, H. L. Kang, T. A. Kim, S. H. Han


For the robust optimization of the manufacturing product design, there are design objectives that must be achieved, such as a minimization of the mean and standard deviation in objective functions within the required sensitivity constraints. The authors utilized the sensitivity of objective functions and constraints with respect to the effective design variables to reduce the computational burden associated with the evaluation of the probabilities. The individual mean and sensitivity values could be estimated easily by using the 9 level orthogonal array based response surface models optimized by the stepwise regression. The present study evaluates a proposed procedure from the robust optimization of rubber domes that are commonly used for keyboard switching, by using the 9 level orthogonal array and stepwise regression along with a desirability function. In addition, a new robust optimization process, i.e., the I2GEO (Identify, Integrate, Generate, Explore and Optimize), was proposed on the basis of the robust optimization in rubber domes. The optimized results from the response surface models and the estimated results by using the finite element analysis were consistent within a small margin of error. The standard deviation of objective function is decreasing 54.17% with suggested sensitivity based robust optimization. (Business for Cooperative R&D between Industry, Academy, and Research Institute funded Korea Small and Medium Business Administration in 2017, S2455569)

Keywords: objective function, orthogonal array, response surface model, robust optimization, stepwise regression

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9277 The Implementation of Secton Method for Finding the Root of Interpolation Function

Authors: Nur Rokhman


A mathematical function gives relationship between the variables composing the function. Interpolation can be viewed as a process of finding mathematical function which goes through some specified points. There are many interpolation methods, namely: Lagrange method, Newton method, Spline method etc. For some specific condition, such as, big amount of interpolation points, the interpolation function can not be written explicitly. This such function consist of computational steps. The solution of equations involving the interpolation function is a problem of solution of non linear equation. Newton method will not work on the interpolation function, for the derivative of the interpolation function cannot be written explicitly. This paper shows the use of Secton method to determine the numerical solution of the function involving the interpolation function. The experiment shows the fact that Secton method works better than Newton method in finding the root of Lagrange interpolation function.

Keywords: Secton method, interpolation, non linear function, numerical solution

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9276 Throughput of Point Coordination Function (PCF)

Authors: Faisel Eltuhami Alzaalik, Omar Imhemed Alramli, Ahmed Mohamed Elaieb


The IEEE 802.11 defines two modes of MAC, distributed coordination function (DCF) and point coordination function (PCF) mode. The first sub-layer of the MAC is the distributed coordination function (DCF). A contention algorithm is used via DCF to provide access to all traffic. The point coordination function (PCF) is the second sub-layer used to provide contention-free service. PCF is upper DCF and it uses features of DCF to establish guarantee access of its users. Some papers and researches that have been published in this technology were reviewed in this paper, as well as talking briefly about the distributed coordination function (DCF) technology. The simulation of the PCF function have been applied by using a simulation program called network simulator (NS2) and have been found out the throughput of a transmitter system by using this function.

Keywords: DCF, PCF, throughput, NS2

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9275 A Computational Fluid Dynamics Study of Turbulence Flow and Parameterization of an Aerofoil

Authors: Mohamed Z. M. Duwahir, Shian Gao


The main objective of this project was to introduce and test a new scheme for parameterization of subsonic aerofoil, using a function called Shape Function. Python programming was used to create a user interactive environment for geometry generation of aerofoil using NACA and Shape Function methodologies. Two aerofoils, NACA 0012 and NACA 1412, were generated using this function. Testing the accuracy of the Shape Function scheme was done by Linear Square Fitting using Python and CFD modelling the aerofoil in Fluent. NACA 0012 (symmetrical aerofoil) was better approximated using Shape Function than NACA 1412 (cambered aerofoil). The second part of the project involved comparing two turbulent models, k-ε and Spalart-Allmaras (SA), in Fluent by modelling the aerofoils NACA 0012 and NACA 1412 in conditions of Reynolds number of 3 × 106. It was shown that SA modelling is better for aerodynamic purpose. The experimental coefficient of lift (Cl) and coefficient of drag (Cd) were compared with empirical wind tunnel data for a range of angle of attack (AOA). As a further step, this project involved drawing and meshing 3D wings in Gambit. The 3D wing flow was solved and compared with 2D aerofoil section experimental results and wind tunnel data.

Keywords: CFD simulation, shape function, turbulent modelling, aerofoil

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9274 A Study on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)-Based Design Optimization Techniques Using Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms (MOEA)

Authors: Ahmed E. Hodaib, Mohamed A. Hashem


In engineering applications, a design has to be as fully perfect as possible in some defined case. The designer has to overcome many challenges in order to reach the optimal solution to a specific problem. This process is called optimization. Generally, there is always a function called “objective function” that is required to be maximized or minimized by choosing input parameters called “degrees of freedom” within an allowed domain called “search space” and computing the values of the objective function for these input values. It becomes more complex when we have more than one objective for our design. As an example for Multi-Objective Optimization Problem (MOP): A structural design that aims to minimize weight and maximize strength. In such case, the Pareto Optimal Frontier (POF) is used, which is a curve plotting two objective functions for the best cases. At this point, a designer should make a decision to choose the point on the curve. Engineers use algorithms or iterative methods for optimization. In this paper, we will discuss the Evolutionary Algorithms (EA) which are widely used with Multi-objective Optimization Problems due to their robustness, simplicity, suitability to be coupled and to be parallelized. Evolutionary algorithms are developed to guarantee the convergence to an optimal solution. An EA uses mechanisms inspired by Darwinian evolution principles. Technically, they belong to the family of trial and error problem solvers and can be considered global optimization methods with a stochastic optimization character. The optimization is initialized by picking random solutions from the search space and then the solution progresses towards the optimal point by using operators such as Selection, Combination, Cross-over and/or Mutation. These operators are applied to the old solutions “parents” so that new sets of design variables called “children” appear. The process is repeated until the optimal solution to the problem is reached. Reliable and robust computational fluid dynamics solvers are nowadays commonly utilized in the design and analyses of various engineering systems, such as aircraft, turbo-machinery, and auto-motives. Coupling of Computational Fluid Dynamics “CFD” and Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms “MOEA” has become substantial in aerospace engineering applications, such as in aerodynamic shape optimization and advanced turbo-machinery design.

Keywords: mathematical optimization, multi-objective evolutionary algorithms "MOEA", computational fluid dynamics "CFD", aerodynamic shape optimization

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9273 Fuzzy Optimization Multi-Objective Clustering Ensemble Model for Multi-Source Data Analysis

Authors: C. B. Le, V. N. Pham


In modern data analysis, multi-source data appears more and more in real applications. Multi-source data clustering has emerged as a important issue in the data mining and machine learning community. Different data sources provide information about different data. Therefore, multi-source data linking is essential to improve clustering performance. However, in practice multi-source data is often heterogeneous, uncertain, and large. This issue is considered a major challenge from multi-source data. Ensemble is a versatile machine learning model in which learning techniques can work in parallel, with big data. Clustering ensemble has been shown to outperform any standard clustering algorithm in terms of accuracy and robustness. However, most of the traditional clustering ensemble approaches are based on single-objective function and single-source data. This paper proposes a new clustering ensemble method for multi-source data analysis. The fuzzy optimized multi-objective clustering ensemble method is called FOMOCE. Firstly, a clustering ensemble mathematical model based on the structure of multi-objective clustering function, multi-source data, and dark knowledge is introduced. Then, rules for extracting dark knowledge from the input data, clustering algorithms, and base clusterings are designed and applied. Finally, a clustering ensemble algorithm is proposed for multi-source data analysis. The experiments were performed on the standard sample data set. The experimental results demonstrate the superior performance of the FOMOCE method compared to the existing clustering ensemble methods and multi-source clustering methods.

Keywords: clustering ensemble, multi-source, multi-objective, fuzzy clustering

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9272 Synthesis of a Model Predictive Controller for Artificial Pancreas

Authors: Mohamed El Hachimi, Abdelhakim Ballouk, Ilyas Khelafa, Abdelaziz Mouhou


Introduction: Type 1 diabetes occurs when beta cells are destroyed by the body's own immune system. Treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus could be greatly improved by applying a closed-loop control strategy to insulin delivery, also known as an Artificial Pancreas (AP). Method: In this paper, we present a new formulation of the cost function for a Model Predictive Control (MPC) utilizing a technic which accelerates the speed of control of the AP and tackles the nonlinearity of the control problem via asymmetric objective functions. Finding: The finding of this work consists in a new Model Predictive Control algorithm that leads to good performances like decreasing the time of hyperglycaemia and avoiding hypoglycaemia. Conclusion: These performances are validated under in silico trials.

Keywords: artificial pancreas, control algorithm, biomedical control, MPC, objective function, nonlinearity

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9271 Assessment of Association Between Microalbuminuria and Lung Function Test Among the Community of Jimma Town

Authors: Diriba Dereje


Background: Cardiac and renal disease are the most prevalent chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCD) affecting the community in a significant manner. The best and recommended method in halting CNCD is by working on prevention as early as possible. This is only possible if early surrogate markers are identified. As part of the stated solution, this study will identify an association between microalbuminuria (an early surrogate marker of renal and cardiac disease) and lung function test among adult in the community. Objective: The main aim of this study was to assess an association between microalbuminuria (an early surrogate marker of renal and cardiac disease) and lung function test among adult in the community. Methodology: Community based cross sectional study was conducted among 384 adult in Jimma town. A systematic sampling technique was used in selecting participants to the study. In searching for the possible association, binary and multivariate logistic regression and t-test was conducted. Finally, the association between microalbuminuria and lung function test was well stated in the form of figures and written description. Result and Conclusion: A significant association was found between microalbuminuria and different lung function test parameters.

Keywords: microalbuminuria, lung function, association, test

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9270 Vendor Selection and Supply Quotas Determination by Using Revised Weighting Method and Multi-Objective Programming Methods

Authors: Tunjo Perič, Marin Fatović


In this paper a new methodology for vendor selection and supply quotas determination (VSSQD) is proposed. The problem of VSSQD is solved by the model that combines revised weighting method for determining the objective function coefficients, and a multiple objective linear programming (MOLP) method based on the cooperative game theory for VSSQD. The criteria used for VSSQD are: (1) purchase costs and (2) product quality supplied by individual vendors. The proposed methodology is tested on the example of flour purchase for a bakery with two decision makers.

Keywords: cooperative game theory, multiple objective linear programming, revised weighting method, vendor selection

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9269 Interval Bilevel Linear Fractional Programming

Authors: F. Hamidi, N. Amiri, H. Mishmast Nehi


The Bilevel Programming (BP) model has been presented for a decision making process that consists of two decision makers in a hierarchical structure. In fact, BP is a model for a static two person game (the leader player in the upper level and the follower player in the lower level) wherein each player tries to optimize his/her personal objective function under dependent constraints; this game is sequential and non-cooperative. The decision making variables are divided between the two players and one’s choice affects the other’s benefit and choices. In other words, BP consists of two nested optimization problems with two objective functions (upper and lower) where the constraint region of the upper level problem is implicitly determined by the lower level problem. In real cases, the coefficients of an optimization problem may not be precise, i.e. they may be interval. In this paper we develop an algorithm for solving interval bilevel linear fractional programming problems. That is to say, bilevel problems in which both objective functions are linear fractional, the coefficients are interval and the common constraint region is a polyhedron. From the original problem, the best and the worst bilevel linear fractional problems have been derived and then, using the extended Charnes and Cooper transformation, each fractional problem can be reduced to a linear problem. Then we can find the best and the worst optimal values of the leader objective function by two algorithms.

Keywords: best and worst optimal solutions, bilevel programming, fractional, interval coefficients

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9268 Maintenance Performance Measurement Derived Optimization: A Case Study

Authors: James M. Wakiru, Liliane Pintelon, Peter Muchiri, Stanley Mburu


Maintenance performance measurement (MPM) represents an integrated aspect that considers both operational and maintenance related aspects while evaluating the effectiveness and efficiency of maintenance to ensure assets are working as they should. Three salient issues require to be addressed for an asset-intensive organization to employ an MPM-based framework to optimize maintenance. Firstly, the organization should establish important perfomance metric(s), in this case the maintenance objective(s), which they will be focuss on. The second issue entails aligning the maintenance objective(s) with maintenance optimization. This is achieved by deriving maintenance performance indicators that subsequently form an objective function for the optimization program. Lastly, the objective function is employed in an optimization program to derive maintenance decision support. In this study, we develop a framework that initially identifies the crucial maintenance performance measures, and employs them to derive maintenance decision support. The proposed framework is demonstrated in a case study of a geothermal drilling rig, where the objective function is evaluated utilizing a simulation-based model whose parameters are derived from empirical maintenance data. Availability, reliability and maintenance inventory are depicted as essential objectives requiring further attention. A simulation model is developed mimicking a drilling rig operations and maintenance where the sub-systems are modelled undergoing imperfect maintenance, corrective (CM) and preventive (PM), with the total cost as the primary performance measurement. Moreover, three maintenance spare inventory policies are considered; classical (retaining stocks for a contractual period), vendor-managed inventory with consignment stock and periodic monitoring order-to-stock (s, S) policy. Optimization results infer that the adoption of (s, S) inventory policy, increased PM interval and reduced reliance of CM actions offers improved availability and total costs reduction.

Keywords: maintenance, vendor-managed, decision support, performance, optimization

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