Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1076

Search results for: domestic

1076 The Evolution of Domestic Terrorism: Global Contemporary Models

Authors: Bret Brooks

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As the international community has focused their attention in recent times on international and transnational terrorism, many nations have ignored their own domestic terrorist groups. Domestic terrorism has significantly evolved over the last 15 years and as such nation states must adequately understand their own individual issues as well as the broader worldwide perspective. Contemporary models show that obtaining peace with domestic groups is not only the end goal, but also very obtainable. By evaluating modern examples and incorporating successful strategies, countries around the world have the ability to bring about a diplomatic resolution to domestic extremism and domestic terrorism.

Keywords: domestic, evolution, peace, terrorism

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1075 Combating Domestic Violence in Malaysia: Issues and Challenges

Authors: Aspalella A. Rahman

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Domestic violence is not an uncommon phenomenon throughout the world. Malaysia is no exception. However, the exact prevalence of domestic violence in Malaysia is difficult to capture due to cultural understanding and sensitivity of the issues existing in the society. This paper aims to examine the issues and problems with the law of domestic violence in Malaysia. As such, it will mainly rely on statutes as its primary sources of information. It will analyse the scope and provisions of the Penal Code as well as the Domestic Violence Act 1994. Any shortcomings and gaps in the laws will be highlighted. It is submitted that domestic violence remains a problem in Malaysia. Although many strategies and plans have been implemented in attempting to combat this social problem, it remains unresolved. This is due to the inefficient implementation of the law. Although much has been done, there is still more to be done by the Malaysian government to combat domestic violence more effectively. For this reason, significant cooperation between the law enforcement authorities, NGOs, and the community must be established.

Keywords: challenges, domestic violence, issues, Malaysia

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1074 Awareness of Turkish Cypriots on Domestic Violence: Exploratory Study of Cultural Influence on Public Health

Authors: Nazif Fuat Turkmen

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Domestic violence is the most common form of violence that risks the health and psychological well-being of victims and its witnesses. Psychology as a scientific field has made contributions in research, exploration, assessment, intervention, and prevention of domestic violence. The present study will be exploring the level of recognition of Turkish Cypriots on domestic violence and their understanding about it in general terms. While discussing the level of awareness of Turkish Cypriots on domestic violence and the effects of this level of awareness on the general well-being of the members of the society, the most common types of domestic violence as well as how Turkish Cypriots recognize and interpret these different types will be explored. The participants consisted of 224 Turkish Cypriots; 48.4% (n= 109) were female, 51.1% (n=115) were male. For the purpose of the study, a 28-item questionnaire was prepared and used for data collection. According to the results, there is a strong relationship between the education level of the respondents and their awareness on domestic violence. The study shows that cultural approaches on child rearing effect people’s recognition of violence in general and awareness on domestic violence in particular.

Keywords: culture, domestic violence, health psychology, public health, Turkish Cypriots, violence

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1073 Investigation of Suicide by Poison as a Result of Domestic Violence

Authors: Nazih Ramadan, Ghada Hassabo

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Background and Aims: Domestic violence and other forms of violence against women and other family members are known to be substantial and widespread, with women more likely than men to be abused mostly by their partner, which is known as gender-based violence. Domestic violence is a major precipitating factor for suicide in many communities especially in our Middle East area. The aim of the study is to show the real relation between suicidal attempts and domestic violence especially in female victims. We tried also through this study to know the most common age at which the abused person attempt suicide, the perpetrator, the educational level of the abused person, and the social level of them. Materials and Methods: In this study, we collect data from 150 victims of suicidal attempts who came to seek medical help at National Poisoning Center. They were asked to answer a preformed questionnaire after giving consent. Results: The study shows that women are at higher risk for suicidal behavior and that suicidal attempt is directly proportionate to low level of education and low social class situation. Conclusion: the study shows the strong relation between attempting suicide and exposure to domestic violence. At the end of this work, we recommend understanding the broad scope and tragic impact of domestic violence; further research is needed concerning domestic violence-related suicide.

Keywords: Cairo, domestic violence, domestic violence-related suicide, violence against women

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1072 The Correlation of Economic Variables on Domestic Investment

Authors: Amirreza Attarzadeh

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This paper aims to investigate the relationship between economic variables, e.g., inflation rate, interest rate, trade openness and the growth rate of GDP, with domestic investment. The present study also draws on conceptual economy related theories to verify the negative effect of interest rates on domestic investment. However, trade openness and growth rate had a positive correlation, and the inflation rate may have a positive or negative impact on domestic investment.

Keywords: inflation rate, growth rate of GDP, interest rate and trade openness, domestic investment

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1071 Economic Growth Relations to Domestic and International Air Passenger Transport in Brazil

Authors: Manoela Cabo da Silva, Elton Fernandes, Ricardo Pacheco, Heloisa Pires

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This study examined cointegration and causal relationships between economic growth and regular domestic and international passenger air transport in Brazil. Total passengers embarked and disembarked were used as a proxy for air transport activity and gross domestic product (GDP) as a proxy for economic development. The test spanned the period from 2000 to 2015 for domestic passenger traffic and from 1995 to 2015 for international traffic. The results confirm the hypothesis that there is cointegration between passenger traffic series and economic development, showing a bi-directional Granger causal relationship between domestic traffic and economic development and unidirectional influence by economic growth on international passenger air transport demand. Variance decomposition of the series showed that domestic air transport was far more important than international transport to promoting economic development in Brazil.

Keywords: air passenger transport, cointegration, economic growth, GDP, Granger causality

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1070 COVID-19 Pandemic and Disruptions in Nigeria’s Domestic Economic Activities: A Pre-post Empirical Investigation

Authors: Amaefule, Leonard Ifeanyi

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The study evaluated the disruptions in Nigeria’s domestic economic activities occasioned by the COVID-19 pandemic: a pre and post-pandemic investigation approach. Domestic economic activities were measured with composite manufacturing purchasing managers index (PMI) and composite non-manufacturing PMI. Production and employment levels indices were proxies for composite manufacturing PMI, while business activities and employment level indices were proxies for non-manufacturing PMI. Data for these indices were sourced from monthly and quarterly publications of the Central Bank of Nigeria for periods covering fifteen (15) months before and 15 months after the outbreak of the virus in Nigeria. Test of equality of means was employed in establishing the significance of the difference of means between the pre and post-pandemic domestic economic activities. Results from the analysis indicated that a significant negative difference exists in each of the measures of domestic economic activities between the pre and post-pandemic periods. These findings, therefore, offer empirical evidence that the COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted domestic economic activities in Nigeria; thus, it exerts a negative influence on the measures of the nation’s domestic economic activities. The study thus recommended (among other things) that the Nigerian government should focus on policies that would enhance domestic production, employment and enhance business activities.

Keywords: COVID-19, domestic economic activities, composite manufacturing indices, composite non-manufacturing indices

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1069 Domestic Violence against Rural Women in Haryana State of India

Authors: Jatesh Kathpalia, Subhash Chander

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Violence against women has spread into a global epidemic. This has debilitating effect over the performance of women. Due to deep-rooted values, traditional Indian culture women fear the consequences of reporting violence and declare an unwillingness to subject themselves to the shame of being identified as battered women. Main interest was to study types of domestic violence which women face and to encourage them to report the matter. The study involved understanding the nature, extent and types of domestic violence. Two hundred rural women respondents were selected at random, interview schedule was prepared, and victims afflicted with domestic violence were identified. Data were collected and analyzed for different forms of domestic violence faced by women. 60% of the respondents faced domestic violence in different forms. Out of 120 women who were affected, 92.5% faced emotional, 90.8% faced verbal, 49.1% faced economic and 58.3% faced physical violence. 45.0% faced violence within three months of the marriage. Out of these, only 6.6% reported the violence to the police. Frequently faced forms of violence were slapping (27.1%), beating (24.3%) and starvation (25.7%). Number of women who were not allowed to spend money of their own stood at 30.5%. About 50% victims of emotional violence were facing constant criticism by their in-laws. Significant association was found between age, education and socio-economic status of the respondents and domestic violence. Rural women in Haryana face grave problem of domestic violence which need to be curbed for improving condition of women in society.

Keywords: domestic violence against women, economic, emotional, physical and verbal violence, marriage, rural women

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1068 ‘Honour’ Crime and the Need for Differentiation from Domestic Violence in UK Law

Authors: Mariam Shah

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‘Honour’ crime has commonly been perceived in the UK as being a ‘domestic violence’ related issue due to incidents perceived to take place within a domestic context, and commonly by familial perpetrators. The lack of differentiation between domestic violence and ‘honour’ related incidents has several negative implications. Firstly, the prevalence and extent of ‘honour’ related crime within the UK cannot be accurately quantified due to ‘honour’ incidents being classed statistically as domestic violence incidents. Secondly, lack of differentiation means that the negative stereotypical attitudes ascribed to domestic violence which has resulted in lower criminal conviction rates that are also impacting the conviction of perpetrators of ‘honour’ crime. Thirdly, ‘honour’ related crime is innately distinct from domestic violence due to the perpetrator’s resolute intent of cleansing perceived ‘shame’ in any way possible, often with the involvement and collusion of multiple perpetrators from within the family and/or community. Domestic violence is typically restricted to the ‘home’, but ‘honour’ crime can operate between national and international boundaries. This paper critically examines the current academic literature and concludes that the few similarities between domestic violence and ‘honour’ related crime are not sufficient to warrant identical treatment under UK criminal law. ‘Honour’ related crime is a distinct and stand-alone offence which should be recognised as such. The appropriate identification and treatment of ‘honour’ crime are crucial, particularly in light of the UK’s first ‘white’ honour killing which saw a young English woman murdered after being deemed to have brought ‘shame’ on her ex-boyfriend’s family. This incident highlights the possibility of ‘honour’ crime extending beyond its perceived ‘ethnic minority’ roots and becoming more of a ‘mainstream’ issue for the multi-cultural and multi-racial UK.

Keywords: differentiation, domestic violence, honour crime, United Kingdom

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1067 Afghan Women’s Definitions, Perceptions and Experience of Domestic Violence, a Qualitative Study with Afghan Women in Australia

Authors: Rojan Afrouz

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The main aim of this study is understanding Afghan women’s perception of domestic violence and their experience of abuse by their family members. The voice of Afghan women has not been heard much particularly in Australia. Their families and communities have silenced some of them in the name of family honour and reputation, and others have not had the opportunity to talk about the issue. Although domestic violence is an issue in every country, research suggests that this is more likely to be considered acceptable behaviour in Afghanistan than elsewhere. Given the high public visibility of initiatives which aim to tackle domestic violence in Australia, it is entirely possible that Afghan women’s perceptions and beliefs about domestic violence will have changed since their arrival in this country. Thus, their understandings, perceptions and their experience of domestic violence have been investigated to improve the Afghan women’s situation in Australia. Methods: This qualitative study has been conducted among Afghan women who have lived in Australia less than ten years. Semi-structured interviews either face to face or by phone have been used to collect data for this study. The interviews have been audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Nvivo software has been used for data analysis. Findings: Participants’ definitions of domestic violence vary. They defined domestic violence in relation to their educational levels, their personal life and experience of domestic violence. Some women tended to change the definitions to be more relevant to their own life and experience. Many women had the knowledge of different domestic violence acts that have been distinguished as violent acts in Australia or other western countries. Some of the participants stated that they had the experience of domestic violence from their partner or one of the family members. Those who have been abused, their experiences were diverse and had been perpetrated by different family members. Majority of participants revealed the story of other women in their family and community that have been abused. Conclusion: Moving to Australia helped women to be aware of the issues and recognising that they are in the abusive relationships. However, intersecting multiple identities in a complex system of oppression, domination or discrimination makes the experience of domestic violence more complicated among Afghan community in Australia that cannot be addressed easily.

Keywords: domestic violence, intersectionality, immigration, afghan women

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1066 Public Attitudes toward Domestic Violence against Women in China and Spain: A Cross-Cultural Study

Authors: Menglu Yang, Ani Beybutyan, Rocio Pina, Miguel Angel Soria

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Domestic violence against women is one of the most serious social problems in the world. Attitudes toward domestic violence against women play an important role in the perpetration of violence against women, the way that victims respond to the violence, and how the community responds to violence against women. China and Spain are countries which have been influenced by the culture which males hold power and dominance over the female for a long time. However, as more connected with other European countries, the legal enforcement related to domestic violence against women developed earlier in Spain, and consequently, social awareness of violence against women evolved differently in two countries. The present study aimed to explore and compare the attitudes toward domestic violence against women across China and Spain, and their influence factors, such as gender equality attitudes and coercive control. Totally 506 participants, 255 from China and 251 from Spain completed questionnaires, including attitudes toward domestic violence against women, definition of violence behavior, justification for violence, gender equity attitudes, and coercive control. Results demonstrated that Chinese participants were less aware of domestic violence against women issue but more agreed that such issue was a crime than Spanish participants. In addition to cultural difference, gender equality attitudes, coercive control, gender, and age also affected attitudes toward domestic violence against women. Our findings imply attitudes toward domestic violence against women differ from countries along with the difference in gender equity attitudes and coercive control; such a difference may arise from cultural, traditional belief and current justice system influence. Despite the developed justice system, male dominance culture may lead to maintain the belief that domestic violence is domestic and private issue which police and justice force may not get involved.

Keywords: cross-cultural differences, domestic violence, public attitudes, violence against women

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1065 The Effects of Family Economic Situation (Poverty) on the Domestic Violence

Authors: Fatemeh Noughani, Seyd Mehdi Sadat

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Violence against women as a global problem is not confined to any geographical and cultural area. The thoughts and opinions propagating the violence are seen in many cultural beliefs of societies. However, the shape, type and nature of it is different in different cultures. Also, many Iranian women have experienced different dimensions of domestic violence in their lives. This experience may vary with the family economic situation and poverty. Therefore, this research had studied the effects of family economic situation (poverty) on the increase of domestic violence against women. The sample of this study includes 126 married women older than 8 years old and they were selected by stratified and quota sampling method. The results showed that there is a direct and significant between the family economic situation and employment situation of women and domestic violence against women. More precisely, having economic capital, financial ability, affects the couple’s relationship and will solve their many social problems and perhaps, it seem that in terms of economic violence, the men who have higher economic capital, exert the lowest level of economic violence against their wives.

Keywords: economic situation , domestic violence, poverty, Iran

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1064 Problem Solving Courts for Domestic Violence Offenders: Duluth Model Application in Spanish-Speaking Offenders

Authors: I. Salas-Menotti

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Problem-solving courts were created to assist offenders with specific needs that were not addressed properly in traditional courts. Problem-solving courts' main objective is to pursue solutions that will benefit the offender, the victim, and society as well. These courts were developed as an innovative response to deal with issues such as drug abuse, mental illness, and domestic violence. In Brooklyn, men who are charged with domestic violence related offenses for the first time are offered plea bargains that include the attendance to a domestic abuse intervention program as a condition to dismiss the most serious charges and avoid incarceration. The desired outcome is that the offender will engage in a program that will modify his behavior avoiding new incidents of domestic abuse, it requires accountability towards the victim and finally, it will hopefully bring down statistic related to domestic abuse incidents. This paper will discuss the effectiveness of the Duluth model as applied to Spanish-speaking men mandated to participate in the program by the specialized domestic violence courts in Brooklyn. A longitudinal study was conducted with 243 Spanish- speaking men who were mandated to participated in the men's program offered by EAC in Brooklyn in the years 2016 through 2018 to determine the recidivism rate of domestic violence crimes. Results show that the recidivism rate was less than 5% per year after completing the program which indicates that the intervention is effective in preventing new abuse allegations and subsequent arrests. It's recommended that comparative study with English-speaking participants is conducted to determine cultural and language variables affecting the program's efficacy.

Keywords: domestic violence, domestic abuse intervention programs, Problem solving courts, Spanish-speaking offenders

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1063 The Unspoken Truth of Female Domestic Violence: An Integrative Review

Authors: Glenn Guira

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Domestic violence is an international pandemic that has affected women from all walks of life. The World Health Organization (2016), announced that recent global prevalence of violence against women indicates that 1 in 3 (35 %) women worldwide have experienced either physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence or non-partner violence in their lifetime. It further said that violence against women is a major public health problem and violations of women’s human rights. Furthermore, the agency said that the factors associated in an increased risk of experiencing intimate partner and sexual violence include low education, child maltreatment or exposure to violence between parents, abuse during childhood, attitudes accepting violence and gender inequality. This is an integrative review of domestic violence focusing on four themes namely types of domestic violence against women, predictors of domestic violence against women, effects of domestic violence against women and strategies in addressing domestic violence against women. This integrative research study was conducted to identify relevant themes on domestic violence that was conducted and published. This study is geared toward understanding further domestic violence as a public health concern. Using the keywords domestic violence, Google Scholar, MEDLINE PLUS, and Ingenta Connect were searched to identify relevant studies. This resulted in 3,467 studies that fall within the copyright year 2006 – 2016. The studies were delimited to domestic violence against women because there are other types of violence that can be committed such as senior citizens abuse, child abuse, violence against males and gay/lesbian abuse. The significant findings of the research study are the following: the forms of domestic violence against women include physical, sexual, psychological, emotional, economic, spiritual and conflict-related violence against, the predictors of domestic violence against women include demographic, health-related, psychological, behavioral, partner-related and social-stress factors, the effects of domestic violence against women include victim-related factors and child-related factors and the strategies addressing domestic violence against women include personal-related strategies, education-related strategies, health-related strategies, legal-related strategies and judicial-related strategies. Consequent to the foregoing findings, the following conclusions are drawn by the researcher that there are published researches that presented different forms, predictors, effects and strategies addressing domestic violence committed by perpetrators against women. The researcher recommended that the summarized comprehensive data should be use to educate people who are potential victims of domestic violence and that future researchers should continue to conduct research for the development of pragmatic programs aimed at reducing domestic violence.

Keywords: domestic violence, physical abuse, intimate partner violence, sexual violence

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1062 Demand for Domestic Marine and Coastal Tourism and Day Trips on an Island Nation

Authors: John Deely, Stephen Hynes, Mary Cawley, Sarah Hogan

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Domestic marine and coastal tourism have increased in importance over the last number of years due to the impacts of international travel, environmental concerns, associated health benefits and COVID-19 related travel restrictions. Consequently, this paper conceptualizes domestic marine and coastal tourism within an economic framework. Two logit models examine the factors that influence participation in the coastal day trips and overnight stays markets, respectively. Two truncated travel cost models are employed to explore trip duration, one analyzing the number of day trips taken and the other examining the number of nights spent in marine and coastal areas. Although a range of variables predicts participation, no one variable had a significant and consistent effect on every model. A division in access to domestic marine and coastal tourism is also observed based on variation in household income. The results also indicate a vibrant day trip market and large consumer surpluses.

Keywords: domestic marine and coastal tourism, day tripper, participation models, truncated travel cost model

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1061 Addressing the Water Shortage in Beijing: Increasing Water Use Efficiency in Domestic Sector

Authors: Chenhong Peng

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Beijing, the capital city of China, is running out of water. The water resource per capita in Beijing is only 106 cubic meter, accounts for 5% of the country’s average level and less than 2% of the world average level. The tension between water supply and demand is extremely serious. For one hand, the surface and ground water have been over-exploited during the last decades; for the other hand, water demand keep increasing as the result of population and economic growth. There is a massive gap between water supply and demand. This paper will focus on addressing the water shortage in Beijing city by increasing water use efficiency in domestic sector. First, we will emphasize on the changing structure of water supply and demand in Beijing under the economic development and restructure during the last decade. Second, by analyzing the water use efficiency in agriculture, industry and domestic sectors in Beijing, we identify that the key determinant for addressing the water crisis is to increase the water use efficiency in domestic sector. Third, this article will explore the two primary causes for the water use inefficiency in Beijing: The ineffective water pricing policy and the poor water education and communication policy. Finally, policy recommendation will offered to improve the water use efficiency in domestic sector by making and implementing an effective water pricing policy and people-engaged water education and communication policy.

Keywords: Beijing, water use efficiency, domestic sector, water pricing policy, water education policy

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1060 Utilization of Antenatal Care Services by Domestic Workers in Delhi

Authors: Meenakshi

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Background: The complications during pregnancy are the major cause of morbidity and deaths among women in the reproductive age group. Childbearing is the most important phase in women’s lives that occur mainly in the adolescent and adult years. Maternal health, thus is an important issue as this as this is important phase is also productive time for women as they strive fulfill their capabilities as an individual, mothers, family members and also as a citizen. The objective of the study is to document the coverage of ANC and its determinants among domestic workers. Method: A survey of 300 domestic workers were carried in Delhi. Only respondents in the age group (15-49) and whose recent birth was of 5 years preceding the survey were included. Socio-demographic data and information on maternal health was collected from these respondents Information on ANC was collected from total 300 respondents. Standard of living index were composed based on households assists and similarly autonomy index was computed based on women decision making power in the households taking certain key variables. Cross tabulations were performed to obtain frequency and percentages. Potential socio-economic determinants of utilization of ANC among domestic workers were examined using binary logistic regressions. Results: Out of 300 domestic workers survey, only 70.7 per cent per cent received ANC. Domestic workers who married at age 18 years and above are 4 times more likely to utilize antenatal services during their last birth (***p< 0.01). Comparison to domestic workers with number of living children two or less, domestic workers with number of living children more than two are less likely to utilize antenatal care services (**p< 0.05). Domestic workers belonging to Other Backward Castes are more likely to utilize antenatal care services than domestic workers belonging to scheduled tribes ((**p< 0.05). Conclusion: The level of utilization of maternal health services are less among domestic workers is less, as they spend most of their time at the employers household. Though demonstration effect do have impact on their life styles but utilization of maternal health services is poor. Strategies and action are needed to improve the utilization of maternal health services among this section of workers as they are vulnerable because of no proper labour legislations.

Keywords: antenatal care, domestic workers, health services, maternal health, women’s health

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1059 Complicating Representations of Domestic Violence Perpetration through a Qualitative Content Analysis and Socio-Ecological Approach

Authors: Charlotte Lucke

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This study contributes to the body of literature that analyzes and complicates oversimplified and sensationalized representations of trauma and violence through a close examination and complication of representations of perpetrators of domestic violence in the mass media. This study determines the ways the media frames perpetrators of domestic violence through a qualitative content analysis and socio-ecological approach to the perpetration of violence. While the qualitative analysis has not been carried out, through preliminary research, this study hypothesizes that the media represents perpetrators through tropes such as the 'predator' or 'offender,' or as a demonized 'other.' It is necessary to expose and work through such stereotypes because cultivation theory demonstrates that the mass media determines societal beliefs about and perceptions of the world. Thus, representations of domestic violence in the mass media can lead people to believe that perpetrators of violence are mere animals or criminals and overlook the trauma that many perpetrators experience. When the media represents perpetrators as pure evil, monsters, or absolute 'others,' it leaves out the complexities of what moves people to commit domestic violence. By analyzing and placing media representations of perpetrators into conversation with the socio-ecological approach to violence perpetration, this study complicates domestic violence stereotypes. The socio-ecological model allows researchers to consider the way the interplay between individuals and their families, friends, communities, and cultures can move people to act violently. Using this model, along with psychological and psychoanalytic approaches to the etiology of domestic violence, this paper argues that media stereotypes conceal the way people’s experiences of trauma, along with community and cultural norms, perpetuates the cycle of systemic trauma and violence in the home.

Keywords: domestic violence, media images, representing trauma, theorising trauma

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1058 Victim and Active Subject of the Crime of Violence in Family Reflected in the Criminal Code of the Republic of Moldova

Authors: Nastas Andrei

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Ensuring accessible and functional justice is one of the priority objectives of judicial reform, and protecting the family against any acts that may harm its existence is one of the first priorities that have determined the need to defend the social order. In this context, the correlative approach of the victim and the aggressor becomes relevant as a subject of the crime of domestic violence. Domestic violence is a threat of physical, moral, or material harm, externalized now or in the past, or its provocation, which is characterized by a constant tendency to escalate and a high probability of repetitiveness in the relationship between the social partners, regardless of their legal status or domicile.Studying the legal support to identify the particularities of the victim and the subject of the crime of domestic violence facilitates the identification of the determinants of this crime, therefore, the development of means to prevent domestic violence. The scientific research has been effectuated on the base of the proper and authentic empirical data obtained from the analysis of the judicial practice in the matter of domestic violence, as well as being based on the most recent scientific issues in the field of the Substantive Criminal Law and other branches of science (criminology, psychology, sociology, pedagogy). As a result of the study performed, there have been formulated conclusions and interpretations able to be used in the science of the Substantive Criminal law, as well as in the practice of application of the legal norm in the matter of domestic violence.

Keywords: family violence, victim, crime, violence

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1057 Women Domestic Violence in Nepalese Society: A Case Study of Armala Village Development Committee, Kaski

Authors: Rajani Bogati, Gopini Pathak

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Women living in husband’s home (second home) after getting married is a common culture in Nepalese society. Most of the marriages are arranged between the mutual understandings of their parents as per their cultural practice. Culturally, arranged marriage system protects women in the society. Even though, women domestic violence is also still alive in the society. It depends upon the family class, ethnicity, caste, religion etc. Lower class (poor) family always try to get marriage from the higher class (rich) family of girl and also try to send their girl in higher class family. This study analysis the freedom of women of Armala Village Development Committee, Kaski district on the base of the family class of girl where she born (First home). 88% women are getting more respect in their second home if their family class of first home and second homes are same. They feel more comfortable and freedom in their second home. 79% of Women are suffering from domestic violence while the marriage between the boys from higher class and the girls from lower class. But less than 10% women are getting distress from violence if the marriage is accompanied between the girls from higher class and the boys from lower class. Less domestic violence is seem where the both families are educated, even though they are from different class. This study recommends that the society should be educated first to reduce women domestic violence.

Keywords: arranged marriage, women, family class, domestic violence

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1056 Socio Economy of Migrant Women Domestic Workers in India: A Study in Context of Mumbai City

Authors: Sunita Kumari, Abhishek Thakur

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Focusing on female migrant domestic workers from Jharkhand, this study looks at their life before and after migration in Mumbai city. Girls coming from the marginalised communities migrate through different means and organizations like placement agencies, religious institutions such as church, with the help of group of friends or relatives and so forth. Most of them due to low educational attainment get into the unorganized sector jobs such as domestic work. In this backdrop, the paper tries to understand the socio-economic condition of tribal migrant women engaged as the domestic workers in the M ward of Mumbai city. The paper tries to investigate the early life of migrant women domestic workers, explores the reasons behind their migration and also examines the changes in their status after their engagement as domestic workers. The paper argues that though the economic and political reasons are quite explicit but the role of social institutions is also significant in the process of migration of women domestic workers. The study was qualitative in nature where fifteen in depth interviews were conducted and to develop a profound understanding one Focus Group Discussion was carried out at M ward of Mumbai Municipal Corporation (Chembur East). To substantiate the findings, the secondary data was taken from the available resources. The findings of the study shows that situation in the family, lack of education, non availability of better economic opportunities and other factors forced them to migrate. The factors such as income in form of cash rather than in kind, attraction towards the Mumbai city and so on was also the reason behind migration. Finally, this study gives the ample opportunity to look at the lives of the women who are the part of the unorganised sector of our country. It further unbolts exploration in terms of social security legislation at the national level.

Keywords: paid domestic work, women, migration, Mumbai city

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1055 A Study on the Strategy for Domestic Space Industry Activation

Authors: Hangil Park, Hwayeon Song, Jingyung Sim

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In this study, a business ecosystem of a domestic space industry is comprehensively analyzed to derive the influence factors. The priority level of each element as well as the disparity between the ideal and reality are investigated through a literature review and an expert survey. The three major influence factors determined are: (a) investment scale and approach, (b) propulsion system, and (c) industrialization with overseas expansion. Related issues based on the current status are evaluated, followed by a proposed activation strategy. This research's findings offer a direction for R&D budget allocation and law system maintenance for the activation of the domestic space industry.

Keywords: space industry, activation, strategy, business ecosystem

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1054 Civilian and Military Responses to Domestic Security Threats: A Cross-Case Analysis of Belgium, France, and the United Kingdom

Authors: John Hardy

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The domestic security environment in Europe has changed dramatically in recent years. Since January 2015, a significant number of domestic security threats that emerged in Europe were located in Belgium, France and the United Kingdom. While some threats were detected in the planning phase, many also resulted in terrorist attacks. Authorities in all three countries instituted special or emergency measures to provide additional security to their populations. Each country combined an additional policing presence with a specific military operation to contribute to a comprehensive security response to domestic threats. This study presents a cross-case analysis of three countries’ civilian and military responses to domestic security threats in Europe. Each case study features a unique approach to combining civilian and military capabilities in similar domestic security operations during the same time period and threat environment. The research design focuses on five variables relevant to the relationship between civilian and military roles in each security response. These are the distinction between policing and military roles, the legal framework for the domestic deployment of military forces, prior experience in civil-military coordination, the institutional framework for threat assessments, and the level of public support for the domestic use of military forces. These variables examine the influence of domestic social, political, and legal factors on the design of combined civil-military operations in response to domestic security threats. Each case study focuses on a specific operation: Operation Vigilant Guard in Belgium, Operation Sentinel in France, and Operation Temperer in the United Kingdom. The results demonstrate that the level of distinction between policing and military roles and the existence of a clear and robust legal framework for the domestic use force by military personnel significantly influence the design and implementation of civilian and military roles in domestic security operations. The findings of this study indicate that Belgium, France and the United Kingdom experienced different design and implementation challenges for their domestic security operations. Belgium and France initially had less-developed legal frameworks for deploying the military in domestic security operations than the United Kingdom. This was offset by public support for enacting emergency measures and the strength of existing civil-military coordination mechanisms. The United Kingdom had a well-developed legal framework for integrating civilian and military capabilities in domestic security operations. However, its experiences in Ireland also made the government more sensitive to public perceptions regarding the domestic deployment of military forces.

Keywords: counter-terrorism, democracy, homeland security, intelligence, militarization, policing

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1053 The Effect of Macroeconomic Policies on Cambodia's Economy: ARDL and VECM Model

Authors: Siphat Lim

Abstract:

This study used Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) approach to cointegration. In the long-run the general price level and exchange rate have a positively significant effect on domestic output. The estimated result further revealed that fiscal stimulus help stimulate domestic output in the long-run, but not in the short-run, while monetary expansion help to stimulate output in both short-run and long-run. The result is complied with the theory which is the macroeconomic policies, fiscal and monetary policy; help to stimulate domestic output in the long-run. The estimated result of the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) has indicated more clearly that the consumer price index has a positive effect on output with highly statistically significant. Increasing in the general price level would increase the competitiveness among producers than increase in the output. However, the exchange rate also has a positive effect and highly significant on the gross domestic product. The exchange rate depreciation might increase export since the purchasing power of foreigners has increased. More importantly, fiscal stimulus would help stimulate the domestic output in the long-run since the coefficient of government expenditure is positive. In addition, monetary expansion would also help stimulate the output and the result is highly significant. Thus, fiscal stimulus and monetary expansionary would help stimulate the domestic output in the long-run in Cambodia.

Keywords: fiscal policy, monetary policy, ARDL, VECM

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1052 Investigating of Predisposing Factors for Domestic Violence against Women

Authors: Mozhgan Sigarchian, Shiva Alizadeh, Seyedeh Akram Nazarkardeh

Abstract:

Introduction: The one of the most common forms of violence against women is domestic violence and it is one of the most acute social problems that affecting the individual physical and mental health and, in turn, the health of the family and the community. In all of the world especially in developing country, women suffer violent during her lifetime. Violence against women and girls is a serious threat to health and human rights. Several factors such as low literacy, the low income and poverty affects violence. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors conducive to domestic violence against women in Rasht, Iran, So that based on the findings, preventive measures can be taken to reduce violence and increase support for women. Methods: This is a descriptive-analytic study that was performed on 300 eligible women referred to clinics and physicians' offices in Rasht, Iran, 2017, by convenience sampling method. The questionnaire used included demographic questionnaires and domestic violence with 3 domains: physical, psychological, and sexual violence. Data were analyzed by SPSS software using independent t-test, Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests. Result: The mean age in the group with and without domestic violence was 28.31 ± 6.097 and 32.52 ± 9.8, respectively. 168 women (56%) were reported to be violent. The results indicate that there is a significant relationship between age, husband's age, number of family members, and educational level of women with violence. But, there was no significant relationship between the duration of marriage, the education of husbands, the occupation of women and their husbands, housing situation, smoking with violence. Conclusion: The results showed that some factors such as education, age, and the number of families can affect the level of violence. According to the results, as well as a high prevalence of domestic violence among women in this study, it is suggested that training be given to families to increase women's empowerment and prevent violence against women.

Keywords: domestic violence, predisposing factors, violence, women

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1051 Passive Solar Techniques to Improve Thermal Comfort and Reduce Energy Consumption of Domestic Use

Authors: Naci Kalkan, Ihsan Dagtekin

Abstract:

Passive design responds to improve indoor thermal comfort and minimize the energy consumption. The present research analyzed the how efficiently passive solar technologies generate heating and cooling and provide the system integration for domestic applications. In addition to this, the aim of this study is to increase the efficiency of solar systems system with integration some innovation and optimization. As a result, outputs of the project might start a new sector to provide environmentally friendly and cheap cooling for domestic use.

Keywords: passive solar systems, heating, cooling, thermal comfort, ventilation systems

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1050 An Assessment into Impact of Regional Conflicts upon Socio-Political Sustainability in Pakistan

Authors: Syed Toqueer Akhter, Muhammad Muzaffar Abbas

Abstract:

Conflicts in Pakistan are a result of a configuration of factors, which are directly related to the system of the state, the unstable regional setting, and the geo-strategic location of Pakistan at large. This paper examines the impact of regional conflict onto the socio-political sustainability of Pakistan. The magnitude of the spillover from a conflicted region is similar in size of the equivalent increase in domestic conflict. Pakistan has gone at war three times with India; the border with India is named as the tensest borderlines of the world. Disagreements with India and lack of dispute settlement mechanisms have negatively effected the peace in the region, influx of illegal weapons and refugees from Afghanistan as an outcome of 9/11 incidence, have exasperated the criticality of levels of internal conflict in Pakistan. Our empirical findings are based on the data collected on regional conflict levels, regional trade, global trade, comparative defence capabilities of the region in contrast to Pakistan and the government regime (Autocratic, Democratic) over 1972-2007. It has been proposed in this paper that the intent of domestic conflict is associated with the conflict in the region, regional trade, global trade and the government regime of Pakistan. The estimated model (OLS) implies that domestic conflict is effected positively and significantly with long term impact of conflict in the region. Also, if defence capabilities of the region are better than that of Pakistan it effects domestic conflict positively and significantly. Conflict in neighbouring countries are found as a source of domestic conflict in Pakistan, whereas the regional trade as well as type of government regimes in Pakistan lowered the intensity of domestic conflict significantly, while globalized trade imply risk of domestic conflict to be reduced but not significantly.

Keywords: conflict, regional trade, socio-politcal instability

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1049 Sustainable Development: The Human Rights Approach to Environmental Protection in South Africa

Authors: CM van der Bank, Marjoné van der Bank

Abstract:

International and domestic environmental law has evolved quite rapidly in the last few decades. At the international level the Stockholm and Rio Declarations paved the way for a broad based consensus of the international community on environmental issues and principles. At the Domestic level also many states have incorporated environmental protection in their constitutions and even more states are doing the same at least in their domestic legislations. In this process of evolution environmental law has unleashed a number of novel principles such as; the participatory principle, the polluter pays principle, the precautionary principle, the inter-generational and intra-generational principles, the prevention principle, the sustainable development principle and so on.

Keywords: environment, human rights, international law, protection

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1048 Impact of Foreign Debt on Economic Growth of Nigeria

Authors: Gylych Jelilov

Abstract:

This paper investigates the effect of foreign debt on economic growth. Example has been chosen from Africa, Nigeria. By conducting cointegration test we have tested for a long-run relationship between. GDP = Real gross domestic product, EXTDEBT = External debt, INT = Interest rate, CAB = Current account balance, and EXCHR = Real exchange rate over the period 1990 to 2012. It was found out by the study that there is a negative but insignificant relationship between external debt and real gross domestic product. While a positive relationship exists between external debt and economic growth. Also, showed a negative and significant relationship between interest rate and real gross domestic product and there was a positive but insignificant relationship between current account balance and real gross domestic product.

Keywords: economic growth, foreign debt, Nigeria, sustainable development, economic stability

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1047 The Strategic Gas Aggregator: A Key Legal Intervention in an Evolving Nigerian Natural Gas Sector

Authors: Olanrewaju Aladeitan, Obiageli Phina Anaghara-Uzor

Abstract:

Despite the abundance of natural gas deposits in Nigeria and the immense potential, this presents both for the domestic and export oriented revenue, there exists an imbalance in the preference for export as against the development and optimal utilization of natural gas for the domestic industry. Considerable amounts of gas are still being wasted by flaring in the country to this day. Although the government has set in place initiatives to harness gas at the flare and thereby reduce volumes flared, the gas producers would rather direct the gas produced to the export market whereas gas apportioned to the domestic market is often marred by the low domestic gas price which is often discouraging to the gas producers. The exported fraction of gas production no doubt yields healthy revenues for the government and an encouraging return on investment for the gas producers and for this reason export sales remain enticing and preferable to the domestic sale of gas. This export pull impacts negatively if left unchecked, on the domestic market which is in no position to match the price at the international markets. The issue of gas price remains critical to the optimal development of the domestic gas industry, in that it comprises the basis for investment decisions of the producers on the allocation of their scarce resources and to what project to channel their output in order to maximize profit. In order then to rebalance the domestic industry and streamline the market for gas, the Gas Aggregation Company of Nigeria, also known as the Strategic Aggregator was proposed under the Nigerian Gas Master Plan of 2008 and then established pursuant to the National Gas Supply and Pricing Regulations of 2008 to implement the domestic gas supply obligation which focuses on ramping-up gas volumes for domestic utilization by mandatorily requiring each gas producer to dedicate a portion of its gas production for domestic utilization before having recourse to the export market. The 2008 Regulations further stipulate penalties in the event of non-compliance. This study, in the main, assesses the adequacy of the legal framework for the Nigerian Gas Industry, given that the operational laws are structured more for oil than its gas counterpart; examine the legal basis for the Strategic Aggregator in the light of the Domestic Gas Supply and Pricing Policy 2008 and the National Domestic Gas Supply and Pricing Regulations 2008 and makes a case for a review of the pivotal role of the Aggregator in the Nigerian Gas market. In undertaking this assessment, the doctrinal research methodology was adopted. Findings from research conducted reveal the reawakening of the Federal Government to the immense potential of its gas industry as a critical sector of its economy and the need for a sustainable domestic natural gas market. A case for the review of the ownership structure of the Aggregator to comprise a balanced mix of the Federal Government, gas producers and other key stakeholders in order to ensure the effective implementation of the domestic supply obligations becomes all the more imperative.

Keywords: domestic supply obligations, natural gas, Nigerian gas sector, strategic gas aggregator

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