Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Search results for: silo

12 Finite Element Analysis of Rom Silo Subjected to 5000 Tons Monotic Loads at an Anonymous Mine in Zimbabwe

Authors: T. Mushiri, K. Tengende, C. Mbohwa, T. Garikayi


This paper introduces finite element analysis of Run off Mine (ROM) silo subjected to dynamic loading. The proposed procedure is based on the use of theoretical equations to come up with pressure and forces exerted by Platinum Group Metals (PGMs) ore to the silo wall. Finite Element Analysis of the silo involves the use of CAD software (AutoCAD) for3D creation and CAE software (T-FLEX) for the simulation work with an optimization routine to minimize the mass and also ensure structural stiffness and stability. In this research an efficient way to design and analysis of a silo in 3D T-FLEX (CAD) program was created the silo to stay within the constrains and so as to know the points of failure due dynamic loading.

Keywords: reinforced concrete silo, finite element analysis, T-FLEX software, AutoCAD

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11 A Case Study on Smart Energy City of the UK: Based on Business Model Innovation

Authors: Minzheong Song


The purpose of this paper is to see a case of smart energy evolution of the UK along with government projects and smart city project like 'Smart London Plan (SLP)' in 2013 with the logic of business model innovation (BMI). For this, it discusses the theoretical logic and formulates a research framework of evolving smart energy from silo to integrated system. The starting point is the silo system with no connection and in second stage, the private investment in smart meters, smart grids implementation, energy and water nexus, adaptive smart grid systems, and building marketplaces with platform leadership. As results, the UK’s smart energy sector has evolved from smart meter device installation through smart grid to new business models such as water-energy nexus and microgrid service within the smart energy city system.

Keywords: smart city, smart energy, business model, business model innovation (BMI)

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10 The Construction Technology of Dryer Silo Materials to Grains Made from Webbing Bamboo: A Drying Technology Solutions to Empowerment Farmers in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Authors: Nursigit Bintoro, Abadi Barus, Catur Setyo Dedi Pamungkas


Indonesia is an agrarian country have almost population work as farmers. One of the popular agriculture commodity in Indonesia is paddy and corn. Production of paddy and corn are increased, but not balanced to the development of appropriate technology to farmers. Methods of drying applied with farmers still using sunshine. Drying by this method has some drawbacks, such as differences moisture content of corn grains, time used to dry around 3 days, and less quality of the products obtained. Beside it, the method of drying by using sunshine can’t do when the rainy season arrives. On this season the product obtained has less quality. One solution to the above problems is to create a dryer with simple technology. That technology is made silo dryer from webbing bamboo and wood. This technology is applicable to be applied to farmers' groups as well as the creation technology is quite cheap. The experiment material used in this research will be obtained from the corn grains. The equipment used are woven bamboo with a height of 3 meters and have capacity of up to 900 kgs as a silo, gas, burner, blower, bucket elevators, thermocouple, Arduino microcontroller 2560. This tools automatically records all the data of temperature and relative humidity. During on drying, each 30 minutes take 9 sample for measuring moisture content with moisture meter. By using this technology, farmers can save time, energy, and cost to the drying their agriculture product. In addition, by using this technology have good quality moisture content of grains and have a longer shelf life because the temperature when the heating process is controlled. Therefore, this technology is applicable to be applied to the public because the materials used to make the dryer easier to find, cheaper, and manufacture of the dryer made simple with good quality.

Keywords: grains, dryer, moisture content, appropriate technology

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9 Air Pollution Control from Rice Shellers - a Case Study

Authors: S. M. Ahuja


A Rice Sheller is used for obtaining polished white rice from paddy. There are about 3000 Rice Shellers in Punjab and 50000 in India. During the process of shelling lot of dust is emitted from different unit operations like paddy silo, paddy shaker, bucket elevators, huskers, paddy separator etc. These dust emissions have adverse effect on the health of the workers and the wear and tear of the shelling machinery is also fast. All the dust emissions spewing out of these unit operations of a rice Sheller were contained by providing suitable hoods and enclosures while ensuring their workability. These were sucked by providing an induced draft fan followed by a high efficiency cyclone separator that has got an overall dust collection efficiency of more than 90 %. This cyclone separator replaced two cyclone separators and a filter bag house, which the Rice Sheller was already having. The dust concentration in the stack after the installation of cyclone separator is well within the stipulated standards. Besides controlling pollution there is improvement in the quality of products like bran and the life of shelling machinery has also enhanced. The payback period of this technology is less than four shelling months.

Keywords: air pollution, cyclone separator, pneumatic conveying, rice shellers

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8 Effects of the In-Situ Upgrading Project in Afghanistan: A Case Study on the Formally and Informally Developed Areas in Kabul

Authors: Maisam Rafiee, Chikashi Deguchi, Akio Odake, Minoru Matsui, Takanori Sata


Cities in Afghanistan have been rapidly urbanized; however, many parts of these cities have been developed with no detailed land use plan or infrastructure. In other words, they have been informally developed without any government leadership. The new government started the In-situ Upgrading Project in Kabul to upgrade roads, the water supply network system, and the surface water drainage system on the existing street layout in 2002, with the financial support of international agencies. This project is an appropriate emergency improvement for living life, but not an essential improvement of living conditions and infrastructure problems because the life expectancies of the improved facilities are as short as 10–15 years, and residents cannot obtain land tenure in the unplanned areas. The Land Readjustment System (LRS) conducted in Japan has good advantages that rearrange irregularly shaped land lots and develop the infrastructure effectively. This study investigates the effects of the In-situ Upgrading Project on private investment, land prices, and residents’ satisfaction with projects in Kart-e-Char, where properties are registered, and in Afshar-e-Silo Lot 1, where properties are unregistered. These projects are located 5 km and 7 km from the CBD area of Kabul, respectively. This study discusses whether LRS should be applied to the unplanned area based on the questionnaire and interview responses of experts experienced in the In-situ Upgrading Project who have knowledge of LRS. The analysis results reveal that, in Kart-e-Char, a lot of private investment has been made in the construction of medium-rise (five- to nine-story) buildings for commercial and residential purposes. Land values have also incrementally increased since the project, and residents are commonly satisfied with the road pavement, drainage systems, and water supplies, but dissatisfied with the poor delivery of electricity as well as the lack of public facilities (e.g., parks and sport facilities). In Afshar-e-Silo Lot 1, basic infrastructures like paved roads and surface water drainage systems have improved from the project. After the project, a few four- and five-story residential buildings were built with very low-level private investments, but significant increases in land prices were not evident. The residents are satisfied with the contribution ratio, drainage system, and small increase in land price, but there is still no drinking water supply system or tenure security; moreover, there are substandard paved roads and a lack of public facilities, such as parks, sport facilities, mosques, and schools. The results of the questionnaire and interviews with the four engineers highlight the problems that remain to be solved in the unplanned areas if LRS is applied—namely, land use differences, types and conditions of the infrastructure still to be installed by the project, and time spent for positive consensus building among the residents, given the project’s budget limitation.

Keywords: in-situ upgrading, Kabul city, land readjustment, land value, planned area, private investment, residents' satisfaction, unplanned area

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7 The Use of Social Media by Companies Operating on the Polish Market in the Context of the Corporate Reputation Management

Authors: Danuta Szwajca


Reputation The exponential growth of the Internet and social media (SM) in the recent years has contributed to changing the communication environment, in which stakeholders: customers, investors, business partners, employees, like their users, may post and distribute their opinions about the company and its products. This generates a number of potential threats to the image and reputation of both people and organizations. Social media create new opportunities not only for rapid and interactive communication but also for organizing themselves into strong pressure groups which may effectively affect the decisions of various organized bodies. Companies cannot ignore this fact and should use SM not only as an additional communication marketing channel but in a broader context - as a tool to build and protect their reputation. This article aims to identify the extent, scope, and directions of the use of SM in the activities of companies operating in the Polish market, as well as to identify threats and opportunities generated by the media in the area of reputation management. The results of research presented in the article showed that Polish companies recognize the potential of SM and try to apply them in their marketing efforts. However, his activity is limited only to maintain communication with customers through two portals: Facebook and Twitter. In the approach to the SM as a communication channel, the traditional way of thinking dominates, in which they are treated as just another promotional tool used by two departments: marketing and PR. This approach is called "silo" and is not integrated. This way of using SM does not allow effective building and protecting reputation in the Internet environment. To achieve this goal, the following research methods were used: the critical analysis of literature, analysis of secondary sources in a form of the report from the research conducted by Harvard Business Review Poland together with Capgemini Poland and case study.

Keywords: corporate reputation, reputation management, social media, risk reputation

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6 Assessment of Physical Characteristics of Maize (Zea Mays) Stored in Metallic Silos

Authors: B. A. Alabadan, E. S. Ajayi, C. A. Okolo


The storage losses recorded globally in maize (Zea mays) especially in the developing countries is worrisome. Certain degenerating changes in the physical characteristics (PC) of the grain occur due to the interaction between the stored maize and the immediate environment especially during long storage period. There has been tremendous reduction in the storage losses since the evolution of metallic silos. This study was carried out to assess the physical quality attributes of maize stored in 2500 MT and 1 MT metallic silos for a period of eight months. The PC evaluated includes percentage moisture content MC, insect damage ID, foreign matters FM, hectolitre weight HC, mould M and germinability VG. The evaluation of data obtained was done using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS 20) for windows evaluation version to determine significant levels and trend of deterioration (P < 0.05) for all the values obtained using Multiple Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) and Duncan’s multivariate test. The result shows that the PC are significant with duration of storage at (P < 0.05) except MI and FM that are significant at (P > 0.05) irrespective of the size of the metallic silos. The average mean deviation for physical properties from the control in respect to duration of storage are as follows: MC 10.0 ±0.00%, HC 72.9 ± 0.44% ID 0.29 ± 0.00%, BG 0.55±0.05%, MI 0.00 ± 0.65%, FM 0.80± 0.20%, VG 100 ± 0.03%. The variables that were found to be significant (p < 0.05) with the position of grain in the bulk are VG, MI and ID while others are insignificant at (p > 0.05). Variables were all significant (p < 0.05) with the duration of storage with (0.00) significant levels, irrespective of the size of the metallic silos, but were insignificant with the position of the grain in the bulk (p > 0.05). From the results, it can be concluded that there is a slight decrease of the following variables, with time, HC, MC, and V, probably due to weather fluctuations and grain respiration, while FM, BG, ID and M were found to increase slightly probably due to insect activity in the bigger silos and loss of moisture. The size of metallic silos has no remarkable influence on the PC of stored maize (Zea mays). Germinability was found to be better with the 1 MT silos probably due to its hermetic nature. Smaller size metallic silos are preferred for storage of seeds but bigger silos largely depend on the position of the grains in the bulk.

Keywords: maize, storage, silo, physical characteristics

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5 Innovations for Freight Transport Systems

Authors: M. Lu


The paper presents part of the results of EU-funded projects: [email protected] (Sustainable Organisation between Clusters Of Optimized Logistics @ Europe), DG-RTD (Research and Innovation), Regions of Knowledge Programme (FP7-REGIONS-2011-1). It will provide an in-depth review of emerging technologies for further improving urban mobility and freight transport systems, such as (information and physical) infrastructure, ICT-based Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS), vehicles, advanced logistics, and services. Furthermore, the paper will provide an analysis of the barriers and will review business models for the market uptake of innovations. From a perspective of science and technology, the challenges of urbanization could be mainly handled through adequate (human-oriented) solutions for urban planning, sustainable energy, the water system, building design and construction, the urban transport system (both physical and information aspects), and advanced logistics and services. Implementation of solutions for these domains should be follow a highly integrated and balanced approach, a silo approach should be avoided. To develop a sustainable urban transport system (for people and goods), including inter-hubs and intra-hubs, a holistic view is needed. To achieve a sustainable transport system for people and goods (in terms of cost-effectiveness, efficiency, environment-friendliness and fulfillment of the mobility, transport and logistics needs of the society), a proper network and information infrastructure, advanced transport systems and operations, as well as ad hoc and seamless services are required. In addition, a road map for an enhanced urban transport system until 2050 will be presented. This road map aims to address the challenges of urban transport, and to provide best practices in inter-city and intra-city environments from various perspectives, including policy, traveler behaviour, economy, liability, business models, and technology.

Keywords: synchromodality, multimodal transport, logistics, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS)

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4 Addressing Food Grain Losses in India: Energy Trade-Offs and Nutrition Synergies

Authors: Matthew F. Gibson, Narasimha D. Rao, Raphael B. Slade, Joana Portugal Pereira, Joeri Rogelj


Globally, India’s population is among the most severely impacted by nutrient deficiency, yet millions of tonnes of food are lost before reaching consumers. Across food groups, grains represent the largest share of daily calories and overall losses by mass in India. If current losses remain unresolved and follow projected population rates, we estimate, by 2030, losses from grains for human consumption could increase by 1.3-1.8 million tonnes (Mt) per year against current levels of ~10 Mt per year. This study quantifies energy input to minimise storage losses across India, responsible for a quarter of grain supply chain losses. In doing so, we identify and explore a Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) triplet between SDG₂, SDG₇, and SDG₁₂ and provide insight for development of joined up agriculture and health policy in the country. Analyzing rice, wheat, maize, bajra, and sorghum, we quantify one route to reduce losses in supply chains, by modelling the energy input to maintain favorable climatic conditions in modern silo storage. We quantify key nutrients (calories, protein, zinc, iron, vitamin A) contained within these losses and calculate roughly how much deficiency in these dietary components could be reduced if grain losses were eliminated. Our modelling indicates, with appropriate uncertainty, maize has the highest energy input intensity for storage, at 110 kWh per tonne of grain (kWh/t), and wheat the lowest (72 kWh/t). This energy trade-off represents 8%-16% of the energy input required in grain production. We estimate if grain losses across the supply chain were saved and targeted to India’s nutritionally deficient population, average protein deficiency could reduce by 46%, calorie by 27%, zinc by 26%, and iron by 11%. This study offers insight for development of Indian agriculture, food, and health policy by first quantifying and then presenting benefits and trade-offs of tackling food grain losses.

Keywords: energy, food loss, grain storage, hunger, India, sustainable development goal, SDG

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3 Lessons Learnt from Industry: Achieving Net Gain Outcomes for Biodiversity

Authors: Julia Baker


Development plays a major role in stopping biodiversity loss. But the ‘silo species’ protection of legislation (where certain species are protected while many are not) means that development can be ‘legally compliant’ and result in biodiversity loss. ‘Net Gain’ (NG) policies can help overcome this by making it an absolute requirement that development causes no overall loss of biodiversity and brings a benefit. However, offsetting biodiversity losses in one location with gains elsewhere is controversial because people suspect ‘offsetting’ to be an easy way for developers to buy their way out of conservation requirements. Yet the good practice principles (GPP) of offsetting provide several advantages over existing legislation for protecting biodiversity from development. This presentation describes the learning from implementing NG approaches based on GPP. It regards major upgrades of the UK’s transport networks, which involved removing vegetation in order to construct and safely operate new infrastructure. While low-lying habitats were retained, trees and other habitats disrupting the running or safety of transport networks could not. Consequently, achieving NG within the transport corridor was not possible and offsetting was required. The first ‘lessons learnt’ were on obtaining a commitment from business leaders to go beyond legislative requirements and deliver NG, and on the institutional change necessary to embed GPP within daily operations. These issues can only be addressed when the challenges that biodiversity poses for business are overcome. These challenges included: biodiversity cannot be measured easily unlike other sustainability factors like carbon and water that have metrics for target-setting and measuring progress; and, the mindset that biodiversity costs money and does not generate cash in return, which is the opposite of carbon or waste for example, where people can see how ‘sustainability’ actions save money. The challenges were overcome by presenting the GPP of NG as a cost-efficient solution to specific, critical risks facing the business that also boost industry recognition, and by using government-issued NG metrics to develop business-specific toolkits charting their NG progress whilst ensuring that NG decision-making was based on rich ecological data. An institutional change was best achieved by supporting, mentoring and training sustainability/environmental managers for these ‘frontline’ staff to embed GPP within the business. The second learning was from implementing the GPP where business partnered with local governments, wildlife groups and land owners to support their priorities for nature conservation, and where these partners had a say in decisions about where and how best to achieve NG. From this inclusive approach, offsetting contributed towards conservation priorities when all collaborated to manage trade-offs between: -Delivering ecologically equivalent offsets or compensating for losses of one type of biodiversity by providing another. -Achieving NG locally to the development whilst contributing towards national conservation priorities through landscape-level planning. -Not just protecting the extent and condition of existing biodiversity but ‘doing more’. -The multi-sector collaborations identified practical, workable solutions to ‘in perpetuity’. But key was strengthening linkages between biodiversity measures implemented for development and conservation work undertaken by local organizations so that developers support NG initiatives that really count.

Keywords: biodiversity offsetting, development, nature conservation planning, net gain

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2 Integrating Data Mining within a Strategic Knowledge Management Framework: A Platform for Sustainable Competitive Advantage within the Australian Minerals and Metals Mining Sector

Authors: Sanaz Moayer, Fang Huang, Scott Gardner


In the highly leveraged business world of today, an organisation’s success depends on how it can manage and organize its traditional and intangible assets. In the knowledge-based economy, knowledge as a valuable asset gives enduring capability to firms competing in rapidly shifting global markets. It can be argued that ability to create unique knowledge assets by configuring ICT and human capabilities, will be a defining factor for international competitive advantage in the mid-21st century. The concept of KM is recognized in the strategy literature, and increasingly by senior decision-makers (particularly in large firms which can achieve scalable benefits), as an important vehicle for stimulating innovation and organisational performance in the knowledge economy. This thinking has been evident in professional services and other knowledge intensive industries for over a decade. It highlights the importance of social capital and the value of the intellectual capital embedded in social and professional networks, complementing the traditional focus on creation of intellectual property assets. Despite the growing interest in KM within professional services there has been limited discussion in relation to multinational resource based industries such as mining and petroleum where the focus has been principally on global portfolio optimization with economies of scale, process efficiencies and cost reduction. The Australian minerals and metals mining industry, although traditionally viewed as capital intensive, employs a significant number of knowledge workers notably- engineers, geologists, highly skilled technicians, legal, finance, accounting, ICT and contracts specialists working in projects or functions, representing potential knowledge silos within the organisation. This silo effect arguably inhibits knowledge sharing and retention by disaggregating corporate memory, with increased operational and project continuity risk. It also may limit the potential for process, product, and service innovation. In this paper the strategic application of knowledge management incorporating contemporary ICT platforms and data mining practices is explored as an important enabler for knowledge discovery, reduction of risk, and retention of corporate knowledge in resource based industries. With reference to the relevant strategy, management, and information systems literature, this paper highlights possible connections (currently undergoing empirical testing), between an Strategic Knowledge Management (SKM) framework incorporating supportive Data Mining (DM) practices and competitive advantage for multinational firms operating within the Australian resource sector. We also propose based on a review of the relevant literature that more effective management of soft and hard systems knowledge is crucial for major Australian firms in all sectors seeking to improve organisational performance through the human and technological capability captured in organisational networks.

Keywords: competitive advantage, data mining, mining organisation, strategic knowledge management

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1 Engineering Design of a Chemical Launcher: An Interdisciplinary Design Activity

Authors: Mei Xuan Tan, Gim-Yang Maggie Pee, Mei Chee Tan


Academic performance, in the form of scoring high grades in enrolled subjects, is not the only significant trait in achieving success. Engineering graduates with experience in working on hands-on projects in a team setting are highly sought after in industry upon graduation. Such projects are typically real world problems that require the integration and application of knowledge and skills from several disciplines. In a traditional university setting, subjects are taught in a silo manner with no cross participation from other departments or disciplines. This may lead to knowledge compartmentalization and students are unable to understand and connect the relevance and applicability of the subject. University instructors thus see this integration across disciplines as a challenging task as they aim to better prepare students in understanding and solving problems for work or future studies. To improve students’ academic performance and to cultivate various skills such as critical thinking, there has been a gradual uptake in the use of an active learning approach in introductory science and engineering courses, where lecturing is traditionally the main mode of instruction. This study aims to discuss the implementation and experience of a hands-on, interdisciplinary project that involves all the four core subjects taught during the term at the Singapore University of Technology Design (SUTD). At SUTD, an interdisciplinary design activity, named 2D, is integrated into the curriculum to help students reinforce the concepts learnt. A student enrolled in SUTD experiences his or her first 2D in Term 1. This activity. which spans over one week in Week 10 of Term 1, highlights the application of chemistry, physics, mathematics, humanities, arts and social sciences (HASS) in designing an engineering product solution. The activity theme for Term 1 2D revolved around “work and play”. Students, in teams of 4 or 5, used a scaled-down model of a chemical launcher to launch a projectile across the room. It involved the use of a small chemical combustion reaction between ethanol (a highly volatile fuel) and oxygen. This reaction generated a sudden and large increase in gas pressure built up in a closed chamber, resulting in rapid gas expansion and ejection of the projectile out of the launcher. Students discussed and explored the meaning of play in their lives in HASS class while the engineering aspects of a combustion system to launch an object using underlying principles of energy conversion and projectile motion were revisited during the chemistry and physics classes, respectively. Numerical solutions on the distance travelled by the projectile launched by the chemical launcher, taking into account drag forces, was developed during the mathematics classes. At the end of the activity, students developed skills in report writing, data collection and analysis. Specific to this 2D activity, students gained an understanding and appreciation on the application and interdisciplinary nature of science, engineering and HASS. More importantly, students were exposed to design and problem solving, where human interaction and discussion are important yet challenging in a team setting.

Keywords: active learning, collaborative learning, first year undergraduate, interdisciplinary, STEAM

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