Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1857

Search results for: steel alloys

1857 Effect of Demineralized Water Purity on the Corrosion Behavior of Steel Alloys

Authors: A. M. El-Aziz, M. Elsehamy, H. Hussein


Steel or stainless steel have reasonable corrosion behavior in water, their corrosion resistance is significantly dependent on the water purity. It was not expected that demineralized water has an aggressive effect on steel alloys, in this study, the effect of water with different purity on steel X52 and stainless steel 316L was investigated. Weight loss and electrochemical measurements were employed to measure the corrosion behavior. Samples were microscopically investigated after test. It was observed that the higher the water purity the more reactive it is. Comparative analysis of the potentiodynamic curves for different water purity showed the aggressiveness of the demineralised water (conductivity of 0.05 microSiemens per cm) over the distilled water. Whereas, the corrosion rates of stainless steel 858 and 623 nm/y for demi and distilled water respectively. On the other hand, the corrosion rates of carbon steel x52 were estimated about 4.8 and 3.6 µm/y for demi and distilled water, respectively. Open circuit potential (OCP) recorded more positive potentials in case of stainless steel than carbon steel in different water purities. Generally, stainless steel illustrated high pitting resistance than carbon steel alloy, the surface film was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). This behavior was explained based on that demi and distilled water might be considered as ‘hungry water’ in which it wants to be in equilibrium and will pull ions out of the surrounding metals trying to satisfy its ‘hunger’.

Keywords: corrosion, demineralized water, distilled water, steel alloys

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1856 Study the Impact of Welding Poles Type on the Tensile Strength Steel of Low Alloys and High Resistance

Authors: Abdulmagid A. Khattabi, Abdul Fatah M. Emhamed


The steel alloy Introduced after becoming carbon-steel does not meet the requirements of engineering industry; and it cannot be obtained tensile strength from carbon-steel higher than (700MPa), the low alloy steel enters in a lot of heavy engineering equipment parts, molds, agricultural equipment and other industry. In addition, that may be exposed to in-service failure, which may require returned to work, to do the repairs or maintenance by one of the welding methods available. The ability of steel weld determined through palpation of the cracks, which can reduce by many ways. These ways are often expensive and difficult to implement, perhaps the control to choose the type of electrode welding user is one of the easiest and least expensive applications. It has been welding the steel low alloys high resistance by manual metal arc (MMA), and by using a set of welding electrodes which varying in chemical composition and in their prices as well and test their effect on tensile strength. Results showed that using the poles of welding, which have a high proportion of iron powder and low hydrogen. The Tensile resistance is (484MPa) and the weld joint efficiency was (56.9%), but when (OK 47.04) electrode was used the tensile strength increased to (720MPa) and the weld joint efficiency to (84.7%). Using the cheapest electrode (OK 45.00) the weld joint efficiency did not exceed (24.2%), but when using the most expensive electrode (OK 91.28) the weld joint efficiency is (38.1%).

Keywords: steel low alloys high resistance, electrodes welding, tensile test

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1855 Steel Industry Waste as Recyclable Raw Material for the Development of Ferrous-Aluminum Alloys

Authors: Arnold S. Freitas Neto, Rodrigo E. Coelho, Erick S. Mendonça


The study aims to assess if high-purity iron powder in iron-aluminum alloys can be replaced by SAE 1020 steel chips with an atomicity proportion of 50% for each element. Chips of SAE 1020 are rejected in industrial processes. Thus, the use of SAE 1020 as a replaceable composite for iron increase the sustainability of ferrous alloys by recycling industrial waste. The alloys were processed by high energy milling, of which the main advantage is the minimal loss of raw material. The raw material for three of the six samples were high purity iron powder and recyclable aluminum cans. For the other three samples, the high purity iron powder has been replaced with chips of SAE 1020 steel. The process started with the separate milling of chips of aluminum and SAE 1020 steel to obtain the powder. Subsequently, the raw material was mixed in the pre-defined proportions, milled together for five hours and then underwent a closed-die hot compaction at the temperature of 500 °C. Thereafter, the compacted samples underwent heat treatments known as sintering and solubilization. All samples were sintered one hour, and 4 samples were solubilized for either 4 or 10 hours under well-controlled atmosphere conditions. Lastly, the composition and the mechanical properties of their hardness were analyzed. The samples were analyzed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and hardness testing. The results of the analysis showed a similar chemical composition and interesting hardness levels with low standard deviations. This verified that the use of SAE 1020 steel chips can be a low-cost alternative for high-purity iron powder and could possibly replace high-purity Iron in industrial applications.

Keywords: Fe-Al alloys, high energy milling, iron-aluminum alloys, metallography characterization, powder metallurgy, recycling ferrous alloy, SAE 1020 steel recycling

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1854 Development of Ferrous-Aluminum Alloys from Recyclable Material by High Energy Milling

Authors: Arnold S. Freitas Neto, Rodrigo E. Coelho, Erick S. Mendonça


This study aimed to obtain an alloy of Iron and Aluminum in the proportion of 50% of atomicity for each constituent. Alloys were obtained by processing recycled aluminum and chips of 1200 series carbon steel in a high-energy mill. For the experiment, raw materials were processed thorough high energy milling before mixing the substances. Subsequently, the mixture of 1200 series carbon steel and Aluminum powder was carried out a milling process. Thereafter, hot compression was performed in a closed die in order to obtain the samples. The pieces underwent heat treatments, sintering and aging. Lastly, the composition and the mechanical properties of their hardness were analyzed. In this paper, results are compared with previous studies, which used iron powder of high purity instead of Carbon steel in the composition.

Keywords: Fe-Al alloys, high energy milling, metallography characterization, powder metallurgy

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1853 High Temperature Oxidation of Cr-Steel Interconnects in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Authors: Saeed Ghali, Azza Ahmed, Taha Mattar


Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is a promising solution for the energy resources leakage. Ferritic stainless steel becomes a suitable candidate for the SOFCs interconnects due to the recent advancements. Different steel alloys were designed to satisfy the needed characteristics in SOFCs interconnect as conductivity, thermal expansion and corrosion resistance. Refractory elements were used as alloying elements to satisfy the needed properties. The oxidation behaviour of the developed alloys was studied where the samples were heated for long time period at the maximum operating temperature to simulate the real working conditions. The formed scale and oxidized surface were investigated by SEM. Microstructure examination was carried out for some selected steel grades. The effect of alloying elements on the behaviour of the proposed interconnects material and the performance during the working conditions of the cells are explored and discussed. Refractory metals alloying of chromium steel seems to satisfy the needed characteristics in metallic interconnects.

Keywords: SOFCs, Cr-steel, interconnects, oxidation

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1852 Effect of Carbon Additions on FeCrNiMnTi High Entropy Alloy

Authors: C. D. Gomez-Esparza, Z. V. Hernandez-Castro, C. A. Rodriguez-Gonzalez, R. Martinez-Sanchez, A. Duarte-Moller


Recently, the high entropy alloys (HEA) are the focus of attention in metallurgical and materials science due to their desirable and superior properties in comparison to conventional alloys. The HEA field has promoted the exploration of several compositions including the addition of non-metallic elements like carbon, which in traditional metallurgy is mainly used in the steel industry. The aim of this work was the synthesis of equiatomic FeCrNiMnTi high entropy alloys, with minor carbon content, by mechanical alloying and sintering. The effect of the addition of carbon nanotubes and graphite were evaluated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and microhardness test. The structural and microstructural characteristics of the equiatomic alloys, as well as their hardness were compared with those of an austenitic AISI 321 stainless steel processed under the same conditions. The results showed that porosity in bulk samples decreases with carbon nanotubes addition, while the equiatomic composition favors the formation of titanium carbide and increased the AISI 321 hardness more than three times.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, graphite, high entropy alloys, mechanical alloying

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1851 Phase Segregating and Complex Forming Pb Based (=X-Pb) Liquid Alloys

Authors: Indra Bahadur Bhandari, Narayan Panthi, Ishwar Koirala, Devendra Adhikari


We have used a theoretical model based on the assumption of compound formation in binary alloys to study the thermodynamic, microscopic, and surface properties of Bi-Pb and In-Pb liquid alloys. A review of the phase diagrams for these alloys shows that one of the stable complexes for Bi-Pb liquid alloy is BiPb3; also, that InPb is a stable phase in liquid In-Pb alloys. Using the same interaction parameters that are fitted for the free energy of mixing, we have been able to compute the bulk and thermodynamic properties of the alloys. From our observations, we are able to show that the Bi-Pb liquid alloy exhibits compound formation over the whole concentration range and the In-Pb alloys undergo phase separation. With regards to surface properties, Pb segregates more to the surface in In-Pb alloys than in Bi-Pb alloys. The viscosity isotherms have a positive deviation from ideality for both Bi-Pb and In-Pb alloys.

Keywords: asymmetry, Bi-Pb, deviation, In-Pb, interaction parameters

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1850 Determination of Steel Cleanliness of Non-Grain Oriented Electrical Steels

Authors: Emre Alan, Zafer Cetin


Electrical steels are widely used as a magnetic core materials in many electrical applications such as transformers, electric motors, and generators. Core loss property of these magnetic materials refers to dissipation of electrical energy during magnetization in service conditions. Therefore, in order to minimize the magnetic core loss, certain precautions are taken from steel producers; “Steel Cleanliness” is one of the major points among them. For obtaining lower core loss values, increasing proper elements in chemical composition such as silicon is a must. Therefore, impurities of these alloys are a key value for producing a cleaner steel. In this study, effects of impurity levels of different FeSi alloying materials to the steel cleanliness will be investigated. One of the important element content in FeSi alloy materials is Calcium. A SEM investigation will be done in order to present if Ca content in FeSi alloy is enough for proper inclusion modification or an additional Ca-treatment is required.

Keywords: electrical steels, FeSi alloy, impurities, steel cleanliness

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1849 Using Shape Memory Alloys for Structural Engineering Applications

Authors: Donatello Cardone


Shape memory alloys (SMAs) have great potential for use in the field of civil engineering. The author of this manuscript has been involved, since 1996, in several experimental and theoretical studies on the application of SMAs in structural engineering, within national and international research projects. This paper provides an overview of the main results achieved, including the conceptual design, implementation, and testing of different SMA-based devices, namely: (i) energy-dissipating braces for RC buildings, (ii) seismic isolation devices for buildings and bridges, (iii) smart tie-rods for arches and vaults and (iv) seismic restrainers for bridges. The main advantages of using SMA-based devices in the seismic protection of structures derive from the double-flag shape of their hysteresis loops, which implies three favourable features, i.e., self-centering capability, good energy dissipation capability, and high stiffness for small displacements. The main advantages of SMA-based units for steel tie-rods are associated with the thermal behaviour of superelastic SMAs, which is antagonistic compared to that of steel. This implies a strong reduction of force changes due to air temperature variations. Finally, SMA-based seismic restrainers proved to be effective in preventing bridge deck unseating and pounding.

Keywords: seismic protection of structures, shape memory alloys, structural engineering, steel tie-rods, seismic restrainers for bridges

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1848 Studies of the Corrosion Kinetics of Metal Alloys in Stagnant Simulated Seawater Environment

Authors: G. Kabir, A. M. Mohammed, M. A. Bawa


The paper presents corrosion behaviors of Naval Brass, aluminum alloy and carbon steel in simulated seawater under stagnant conditions. The behaviors were characterized on the variation of chloride ions concentration in the range of 3.0wt% and 3.5wt% and exposure time. The weight loss coupon-method immersion technique was employed. The weight loss for the various alloys was measured. Based on the obtained results, the corrosion rate was determined. It was found that the corrosion rates of the various alloys are related to the chloride ions concentrations, exposure time and kinetics of passive film formation of the various alloys. Carbon steel, suffers corrosion many folds more than Naval Brass. This indicated that the alloy exhibited relatively strong resistance to corrosion in the exposure environment of the seawater. Whereas, the aluminum alloy exhibited an excellent and beneficial resistance to corrosion more than the Naval Brass studied. Despite the prohibitive cost, Naval Brass and aluminum alloy, indicated to have beneficial corrosion behavior that can offer wide range of application in seashore operations. The corrosion kinetics parameters indicated that the corrosion reaction is limited by diffusion mass transfer of the corrosion reaction elements and not by reaction controlled.

Keywords: alloys, chloride ions concentration, corrosion kinetics, corrosion rate, diffusion mass transfer, exposure time, seawater, weight loss

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1847 Characterization of Titanium -Niobium Alloys by Powder Metallurgy as İmplant

Authors: Eyyüp Murat Karakurt, Yan Huang, Mehmet Kaya, Hüseyin Demirtaş, Alper İncesu


In this study, Ti-(x) Nb (at. %) master alloys (x:10, 20, and 30) were fabricated following a standard powder metallurgy route and were sintered at 1200 ˚C for 6h, under 300 MPa by powder metallurgy method. The effect of the Nb concentration in Ti matrix and porosity level was examined experimentally. For metallographic examination, the alloys were analysed by optical microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometry analysis. In addition, X-ray diffraction was performed on the alloys to determine which compound formed in the microstructure. The compression test was applied to the alloys to understand the mechanical behaviors of the alloys. According to Nb concentration in Ti matrix, the β phase increased. Also, porosity level played a crucial role on the mechanical performance of the alloys.

Keywords: Nb concentration, porosity level, powder metallurgy, The β phase

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1846 Mechanism and Kinetic of Layers Growth: Application to Nitriding of 32CrMoV13 Steel

Authors: Torchane Lazhar


In this work, our task consists in optimizing the nitriding treatment at low-temperature of the steel 32CrMoV13 by the way of the mixtures of ammonia gas, nitrogen and hydrogen to improve the mechanical properties of the surface (good wear resistance, friction and corrosion), and of the diffusion layer of the nitrogen (good resistance to fatigue and good tenacity with heart). By limiting our work to the pure iron and to the alloys iron-chromium and iron-chrome-carbon, we have studied the various parameters which manage the nitriding: flow rate and composition of the gaseous phase, the interaction chromium-nitrogen and chromium-carbon by the help of experiments of nitriding realized in the laboratory by thermogravimetry. The acquired knowledge have been applied by the mastery of the growth of the combination layer on the diffusion layer in the case of the industrial steel 32CrMoV13.

Keywords: diffusion of nitrogen, gaseous nitriding, layer growth kinetic, steel

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1845 Hybrid Stainless Steel Girder for Bridge Construction

Authors: Tetsuya Yabuki, Yasunori Arizumi, Tetsuhiro Shimozato, Samy Guezouli, Hiroaki Matsusita, Masayuki Tai


The main object of this paper is to present the research results of the development of a hybrid stainless steel girder system for bridge construction undertaken at University of Ryukyu. In order to prevent the corrosion damage and reduce the fabrication costs, a hybrid stainless steel girder in bridge construction is developed, the stainless steel girder of which is stiffened and braced by structural carbon steel materials. It is verified analytically and experimentally that the ultimate strength of the hybrid stainless steel girder is equal to or greater than that of conventional carbon steel girder. The benefit of the life-cycle cost of the hybrid stainless steel girder is also shown.

Keywords: smart structure, hybrid stainless steel members, ultimate strength, steel bridge, corrosion prevention

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1844 A Range of Steel Production in Japan towards 2050

Authors: Reina Kawase


Japan set the goal of 80% reduction in GHG emissions by 2050. To consider countermeasures for reducing GHG emission, the production estimation of energy intensive materials, such as steel, is essential. About 50% of steel production is exported in Japan, so it is necessary to consider steel production including export. Steel productions from 2005-2050 in Japan were estimated under various global assumptions based on combination of scenarios such as goods trade scenarios and steel making process selection scenarios. Process selection scenarios decide volume of steel production by process (basic oxygen furnace and electric arc furnace) with considering steel consumption projection, supply-demand balance of steel, and scrap surplus. The range of steel production by process was analyzed. Maximum steel production was estimated under the scenario which consumes scrap in domestic steel production at maximum level. In 2035, steel production reaches 149 million ton because of increase in electric arc furnace steel. However, it decreases towards 2050 and amounts to 120 million ton, which is almost same as a current level. Minimum steel production is under the scenario which assumes technology progress in steel making and supply-demand balance consideration in each region. Steel production decreases from base year and is 44 million ton in 2050.

Keywords: goods trade scenario, steel making process selection scenario, steel production, global warming

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1843 Structural Performance of Concrete Beams Reinforced with Steel Plates: Experimental Study

Authors: Mazin Mohammed S. Sarhan


This study presents the performance of concrete beams reinforced with steel plates as a technique of reinforcement. Three reinforced concrete beams with the dimensions of 200 mm x 300 mm x 4000 mm (width x height x length, respectively) were experimentally investigated under flexural loading. The deformed steel bars were used as the main reinforcement for the first beam. A steel plate placed horizontally was used as the main reinforcement for the second beam. The bond between the steel plate and the surrounding concrete was enhanced by using steel bolts (with a diameter of 20 mm and length of 100 mm) welded to the steel plate at a regular distance of 200 mm. A pair of steel plates placed vertically was used as the main reinforcement for the third beam. The bond between the pair steel plates and the surrounding concrete was enhanced by using 4 equal steel angles (with the dimensions of 75 mm x 75 mm and the thickness of 8 mm) for each vertical steel plate. Two steel angles were welded at each end of the steel plate. The outcomes revealed that the bending stiffness of the beams reinforced with steel plates was higher than that reinforced with deformed steel bars. Also, the flexural ductile behavior of the second beam was much higher than the rest beams.

Keywords: concrete beam, deflection, ductility, plate

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1842 Melting and Making Zn-Based Alloys and Examine Their Biodegradable and Biocompatible Properties

Authors: Abdulrahman Sumayli


Natural Zinc has many significant biological functions, including developments and sustainable of bones and wound healing. Metallic zinc has recently been explored as potential biomaterials that have preferable biodegradable, biocompatible, and mechanical properties. Pure metal zinc has a preferable physical and mechanical properties for biodegradable and biocompatible applications such as density and modulus of elasticity. The aim of the research is to make different Zn-based metallic alloys and test them effectively to be used as biocompatible and biodegradable materials in the field biomedical application. Microstructure study of the as-cast alloys will be examined using SEM (scanning electron microscope) followed by X-ray diffraction investigated so as to evaluate phase constitution of the designed alloys. After that, immersion test and electrochemical test will be applied to the designed alloys so as to study bio corrosion behaviour of the proposed alloys. Finally, in vitro cytocompatibility well conducted to study biocompatibility of the made alloys.

Keywords: Zn-based alloys, biodegradable and biocompatible materials, cytotoxicity test, neutron synchrotron imaging

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1841 Ultimate Stress of the Steel Tube in Circular Concrete-Filled Steel Tube Stub Columns Subjected to Axial Compression

Authors: Siqi Lin, Yangang Zhao


Concrete-filled steel tube column achieves the excellent performance of high strength, stiffness, and ductility due to the confinement from the steel tube. Well understanding the stress of the steel tube is important to make clear the confinement effect. In this paper, the ultimate stress of the steel tube in circular concrete-filled steel tube columns subjected to axial compression was studied. Experimental tests were conducted to investigate the effects of the parameters, including concrete strength, steel strength, and D/t ratio, on the ultimate stress of the steel tube. The stress of the steel tube was determined by employing the Prandtl-Reuss flow rule associated with isotropic strain hardening. Results indicate that the stress of steel tube was influenced by the parameters. Specimen with higher strength ratio fy/fc and smaller D/t ratio generally leads to a higher utilization efficiency of the steel tube.

Keywords: concrete-filled steel tube, axial compression, ultimate stress, utilization efficiency

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1840 Hot Cracking Susceptibility Evaluation of the Advanced UNS S31035 Austenitic Stainless Steel by Varestraint Weldability Testing

Authors: Mikael M. Johansson, Peter Stenvall, Leif Karlsson, Joel Andersson


Sandvik Sanicro 25, UNS S31035, is an advanced high temperature austenitic stainless steel that potentially can be used in super-heaters and reheaters in the next generation of advanced ultra-super critical power plants. The material possesses both high creep strength and good corrosion resistance at temperatures up to 700°C. Its high temperature properties are positioned between other commercially available high temperature austenitic stainless steels and nickel-based alloys. It is, however, well known that an austenitic solidification mode combined with a fully austenitic microstructure exacerbate susceptibility towards hot cracking. The problem increases even more for thick walled material in multipass welding and could compromise the integrity of the welded component. Varestraint weldability testing is commonly used to evaluate susceptibility towards hot cracking of materials. In this paper, Varestraint test results are evaluated for base material of both UNS S31035 steel and are compared to those of the well-known and well-characterized UNS S31008 grade. The more creep resistant alloy, UNS S31035, is metallurgically more complicated than the UNS S31008 grade and has additions of several alloying elements to improve its high temperature properties. It benefits from both solid solution hardening as well as precipitation hardening. This investigation therefore attempts, based on the Varestraint weldability test, to understand if there are any differences in cracking mechanisms between these two grades due to the additional alloying elements used in UNS S31035. Results from Varestraint testing and crack type investigations will be presented and discussed in some detail. It is shown that hot cracking susceptibility of the UNS S31035 steel is only slightly higher than that of UNS S31008 despite the more complicated metallurgy. Weldability of the two alloys is therefore judged to be comparable making the newer alloy well suited also for critical applications.

Keywords: austenitic stainless steel, hot cracking susceptibility, UNS S31035, UNS S31008, varestraint weldability testing

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1839 High-Temperature Corrosion of Aluminized and Chromized Fe-25.8%Cr-19.5%Ni Alloys in N2/H2S/H2O-mixed Gases

Authors: Min Jung Kim, Dong Bok Lee


Alloys of Fe-25.8%Cr-19.5%Ni (SUS310 stainless steel) were either chromized or aluminized via pack cementation, and corroded at 800 oC for 100 h in 1 atm of (0.9448 atm of N2+0.031 atm of H2O+0.0242 atm of H2S)-mixed gases. The chromized layer consisted primarily of Cr1.36Fe0.52 and some Cr23C6. Its corrosion resulted in the formation of Cr2S3 and some FeS and Fe5Ni4S8. The aluminized coating consisted primarily of FeAl. Its corrosion resulted in the formation of α-Al2O3, Al2S3, and Cr2S3. Aluminizing was more effective than chromizing in increasing the corrosion resistance of the substrate, due mainly to the formation of α-Al2O3.

Keywords: aluminizing, chromizing, corrosion, H2S gas

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1838 Architectural Strategies for Designing Durable Steel Structural Systems

Authors: Alireza Taghdiri, Sara Ghanbarzade Ghomi


Nowadays, steel structures are used for not only common buildings but also high-rise construction and wide span covering. The advanced methods of construction as well as the advanced structural connections have a great effect on architecture. However a better use of steel structural systems will be achieved with the deep understanding of steel structures specifications and their substantial advantages. On the other hand, the steel structures face to the different environmental factors such as air flow which cause erosion and corrosion. With the time passing, the amount of these steel mass damages and also the imposed stress will be increased. In other words, the position of erosion in steel structures related to existing stresses indicates that effective environmental conditions will gradually decrease the structural resistance of steel components and result in decreasing the durability of steel components. In this paper, the durability of different steel structural components is evaluated and on the basis of these stress, architectural strategies for designing the system and the components of steel structures is recognized in order to achieve an optimum life cycle.

Keywords: durability, bending stress, erosion in steel structure, life cycle

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1837 Comparative Study on the Precipitation Behavior in Two Al-Mg Alloys (Al-12 wt. % Mg and Al-8 wt. % Mg)

Authors: C. Amrane, D. Haman


Aluminum-magnesium alloys are widely used in industry thanks to their mechanical properties and corrosion resistivity. These properties are related to the magnesium content and to the applied heat treatments. Although they are already well studied, questions concerning the microstructural stability and the effect of different heat treatments are still being asked. In this work we have presented a comparative study on the behavior of the precipitation reactions during different heat treatment in two different Al-Mg alloys (Al–8 wt. % Mg and Al–12 wt. % Mg). For this purpose, we have used various experimental techniques as dilatometry, calorimetry, optical microscopy, and microhardness measurements. The obtained results shown that, the precipitation kinetics and the mechanical responses to the applied heat treatments, of the two studied alloys, are different.

Keywords: Al-Mg alloys, precipitation, hardness, heat treatments

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1836 Mechanical and Microstructural Properties of SA 210 Gr. C Pipes Welded by Tungsten Inert Gas

Authors: H. Demirtaş, İ. H. Kara, H. Ahlatcı


Welding failures of steel pipes in power plants usually occur in weld zones. This is similar for the economizer, water walls and superheaters in the power plants where SA 210 Gr. C steel pipes are used. Although these steel pipes have very good welding properties, the welding parameters are also important for the welding life. Welding processes of this pipes are carried out by TIG and SMA techniques. In this study SA 210 Gr. C steel pipes were welded by TIG method and investigated how PWHT affected the welding properties. The results show that this steel does not require post weld heat treatment.

Keywords: SA 210 Gr. C steel pipes, TIG welding, HAZ region, Widmanstatten ferrite

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1835 Behaviour of Beam Reinforced with Longitudinal Steel-CFRP Composite Reinforcement under Static Load

Authors: Faris A. Uriayer, Mehtab Alam


The concept of using a hybrid composite by combining two or more different materials to produce bilinear stress–strain behaviour has become a subject of interest. Having studied the mechanical properties of steel-CFRP specimens (CFRP Laminate Sandwiched between Mild Steel Strips), full size steel-CFRP composite reinforcement were fabricated and used as a new reinforcing material inside beams in lieu of traditional steel bars. Four beams, three beams reinforced with steel-CFRP composite reinforcement and one beam reinforced with traditional steel bars were cast, cured and tested under quasi-static loading. The flexural test results of the beams reinforced with this composite reinforcement showed that the beams with steel-CFRP composite reinforcement had comparable flexural strength and flexural ductility with beams reinforced with traditional steel bars.

Keywords: CFRP laminate, steel strip, flexural behaviour, modified model, concrete beam

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1834 Investigation of the Corroded Steel Beam

Authors: Hesamaddin Khoshnoodi, Ahmad Rahbar Ranji


Corrosion in steel structures is one of the most important issues that should be considered in designing and constructing. Corrosion reduces the cross section and load capacity of element and leads to costly damage of structures. In this paper, the corrosion has been modeled for moment stresses. Moreover, the steel beam has been modeled using ABAQUS advanced finite element software. The conclusions of this study demonstrated that the displacement of the analyzed composite steel girder bridge might increase.

Keywords: Abaqus, Corrosion, deformation, Steel Beam

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1833 Corrosion of Fe-(9~37) Wt%Cr Alloys at 700-800 °C in N₂-H₂O-H₂S Mixed Gas

Authors: Min Jung Kim


Fe-(9, 19, 28, 37) wt%Cr alloys were corroded at 700 and 800 °C for 70 h under 1 atm of N₂, 1 atm of N₂/3.2%H₂O-mixed gas, and 1 atm of N₂/3.1%H₂O/2.42%H₂S-mixed gas. The corrosion rate of Fe-9Cr alloy increased with the addition of H₂O and increased further with the addition of H₂S in N₂/H₂O gas. Fe-9Cr alloy was non-protective in all gas types. In contrast, Fe-(19, 28, 37) wt%Cr alloys were protective in N₂ and N₂/H₂O-mixed gas because of the formation of the Cr₂O₃ layer. They were, however, non-protective in N₂/H₂O/H₂S-mixed gas because sulfidation dominated, forming the outer FeS layer and the inner Cr₂S₃ layer containing some FeCr₂S₄.

Keywords: Fe-(9, 19, 28, 37) wt%Cr alloys, corrosion, sulfidation, FeS

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1832 Using Recyclable Steel Material in Tall Buildings

Authors: O. Eren, L. Zakar


Recycling steel building components is key to the sustainability of a structure’s end-of-life, as it is the most economical solution. In this paper the effects of usage of recycled steel material in tall buildings aspects are investigated.

Keywords: building, recycled material, steel, structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
1831 Bond Strength of Concrete Beams Reinforced with Steel Plates: Experimental Study

Authors: Mazin Mohammed Sarhan Sarhan


This paper presents an experimental study of the bond behaviour of confined concrete beams reinforced with a chequer steel plate or a deformed steel bar by using the beam-bending pullout test. A total of three beams of 225 mm width, 300 mm height, and 600 mm length were cast and tested. All the beams had the same details of compression reinforcement and stirrups; two plain steel bars of 10 mm diameter (R10) were used for the compression reinforcement, and plain steel bars (R10) at a distance of 80 mm centre to centre were used for the stirrups. The first beam was reinforced with a deformed steel bar while the remaining beams were reinforced with horizontal or vertical chequer steel plates. The results showed no significant difference in the bond force between the beams reinforced with a deformed steel bar or a horizontal steel plate. The beam reinforced with a vertical steel plate considerably presented a bond force higher than the beam reinforced with a horizontal steel plate.

Keywords: bond, pullout, reinforced concrete, steel plate

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1830 Estimation of World Steel Production by Process

Authors: Reina Kawase


World GHG emissions should be reduced 50% by 2050 compared with 1990 level. CO2 emission reduction from steel sector, an energy-intensive sector, is essential. To estimate CO2 emission from steel sector in the world, estimation of steel production is required. The world steel production by process is estimated during the period of 2005-2050. The world is divided into aggregated 35 regions. For a steel making process, two kinds of processes are considered; basic oxygen furnace (BOF) and electric arc furnace (EAF). Steel production by process in each region is decided based on a current production capacity, supply-demand balance of steel and scrap, technology innovation of steel making, steel consumption projection, and goods trade. World steel production under moderate countermeasure scenario in 2050 increases by 1.3 times compared with that in 2012. When domestic scrap recycling is promoted, steel production in developed regions increases about 1.5 times. The share in developed regions changes from 34 %(2012) to about 40%(2050). This is because developed regions are main suppliers of scrap. 48-57% of world steel production is produced by EAF. Under the scenario which thinks much of supply-demand balance of steel, steel production in developing regions increases is 1.4 times and is larger than that in developed regions. The share in developing regions, however, is not so different from current level. The increase in steel production by EAF is the largest under the scenario in which supply-demand balance of steel is an important factor. The share reaches 65%.

Keywords: global steel production, production distribution scenario, steel making process, supply-demand balance

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1829 Experimental Study on Thermomechanical Properties of New-Generation ODS Alloys

Authors: O. Khalaj, B. Mašek, H. Jirková, J. Svoboda


By using a combination of new technologies together with an unconventional use of different types of materials, specific mechanical properties and structures of the material can be achieved. Some possibilities are enabled by a combination of powder metallurgy in the preparation of a metal matrix with dispersed stable particles achieved by mechanical alloying and hot consolidation. This paper explains the thermomechanical properties of new generation of Oxide Dispersion Strengthened alloys (ODS) within three ranges of temperature with specified deformation profiles. The results show that the mechanical properties of new ODS alloys are significantly affected by the thermomechanical treatment.

Keywords: hot forming, ODS, alloys, thermomechanical, Fe-Al, Al2O3

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1828 Biodegradable Magnesium Alloys with Addition of Rare Earth Elements for Biomedical Applications

Authors: Yuncang Li, Cuie Wen


Biodegradable metallic materials such as magnesium (Mg)-based alloys have attracted extensive interest for use as bone implant materials. However, the high biodegradation rate of existing Mg alloys in the physiological environment of human body leads to losing mechanical integrity before adequate bone healing and producing a large volume of hydrogen gas. Therefore, slowing down the biodegradation rate of Mg alloys is a critical task in developing new biodegradable Mg alloy implant materials. One of the most effective approaches to achieve this is to strategically design new Mg alloys with low biodegradation rate, excellent biocompatibility, and enhanced mechanical properties. Our research selected biocompatible and biofunctional alloying elements such as zirconium (Zr), strontium (Sr), and rare earth elements (REEs) to alloy Mg and has developed a new series of Mg-Zr-Sr-REEs alloys for biodegradable implant applications. Research results indicated that Sr and Zr additions could refine the grain size, decrease the biodegradation rate, and enhance the biological behaviors of the Mg alloys. The REE addition, such as holmium (Ho) and dysprosium (Dy) to Mg-Zr-Sr alloys resulted in enhanced mechanical strength and decreased biodegradation rate. In addition, Ho and Dy additions (≤ 5 wt.%) to Mg-Zr-Sr alloys led to enhancement of cell adhesion and proliferation of osteoblast cells on the Mg-Zr-Sr-Ho/Dy alloys.

Keywords: biocompatibility, magnesium, mechanical and biodegrade properties, rare earth elements

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