Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1460

Search results for: artificial saliva

1460 The Comparison of Chromium Ions Release Stainless Steel 18-8 between Artificial Saliva and Black Tea Leaves Extracts

Authors: Nety Trisnawaty, Mirna Febriani

Abstract:

The use of stainless steel wires in the field of dentistry is widely used, especially for orthodontic and prosthodontic treatment using stainless steel wire. The oral cavity is the ideal environment for corrosion, which can be caused by saliva. Prevention of corrosion on stainless steel wires can be done by using an organic or non-organic corrosion inhibitor. One of the organic inhibitors that can be used to prevent corrosion is black tea leaves extracts. To explain the comparison of chromium ions release for stainlees steel between artificial saliva and black tea leaves extracts. In this research we used artificial saliva, black tea leaves extracts, stainless steel wire and using Atomic Absorption Spectrophometric testing machine. The samples were soaked for 1, 3, 7 and 14 days in the artificial saliva and black tea leaves extracts. The results showed the difference of chromium ion release soaked in artificial saliva and black tea leaves extracts on days 1, 3, 7 and 14. Statistically, calculation with independent T-test with p < 0,05 showed a significant difference. The longer the duration of days, the more ion chromium were released. The conclusion of this study shows that black tea leaves extracts can inhibit the corrosion rate of stainless steel wires.

Keywords: chromium ion, stainless steel, artificial saliva, black tea leaves extracts

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1459 The Comparison of Chromium Ions Release for Stainless Steel between Artificial Saliva and Breadfruit Leaf Extracts

Authors: Mirna Febriani

Abstract:

The use of stainless steel wires in the field of dentistry is widely used, especially for orthodontic and prosthodontic treatment using stainless steel wire. The oral cavity is the ideal environment for corrosion, which can be caused by saliva. Prevention of corrosion on stainless steel wires can be done by using an organic or non-organic corrosion inhibitor. One of the organic inhibitors that can be used to prevent corrosion is the leaves of breadfruit. The method used for this research using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric test. The results showed that the difference of chromium ion releases on soaking in saliva and breadfruit leaf extracts on days 1, 3, 7 and 14. Statically calculation with independent T-test with p < 0,05 showed the significant difference. The conclusion of this study shows that breadfruit leaf extract can inhibit the corrosion rate of stainless steel wires.

Keywords: chromium ion, stainless steel, artificial saliva, breadfruit leaf

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1458 Rheological Evaluation of a Mucoadhesive Precursor of Based-Poloxamer 407 or Polyethylenimine Liquid Crystal System for Buccal Administration

Authors: Jéssica Bernegossi, Lívia Nordi Dovigo, Marlus Chorilli

Abstract:

Mucoadhesive liquid crystalline systems are emerging how delivery systems for oral cavity. These systems are interesting since they facilitate the targeting of medicines and change the release enabling a reduction in the number of applications made by the patient. The buccal mucosa is permeable besides present a great blood supply and absence of first pass metabolism, it is a good route of administration. It was developed two systems liquid crystals utilizing as surfactant the ethyl alcohol ethoxylated and propoxylated (30%) as oil phase the oleic acid (60%), and the aqueous phase (10%) dispersion of polymer polyethylenimine (0.5%) or dispersion of polymer poloxamer 407 (16%), with the intention of applying the buccal mucosa. Initially, was performed for characterization of systems the conference by polarized light microscopy and rheological analysis. For the preparation of the systems the components described was added above in glass vials and shaken. Then, 30 and 100% artificial saliva were added to each prepared formulation so as to simulate the environment of the oral cavity. For the verification of the system structure, aliquots of the formulations were observed in glass slide and covered with a coverslip, examined in polarized light microscope (PLM) Axioskop - Zeizz® in 40x magnifier. The formulations were also evaluated for their rheological profile Rheometer TA Instruments®, which were obtained rheograms the selected systems employing fluency mode (flow) in temperature of 37ºC (98.6ºF). In PLM, it was observed that in formulations containing polyethylenimine and poloxamer 407 without the addition of artificial saliva was observed dark-field being indicative of microemulsion, this was also observed with the formulation that was increased with 30% of the artificial saliva. In the formulation that was increased with 100% simulated saliva was shown to be a system structure since it presented anisotropy with the presence of striae being indicative of hexagonal liquid crystalline mesophase system. Upon observation of rheograms, both systems without the addition of artificial saliva showed a Newtonian profile, after addition of 30% artificial saliva have been given a non-Newtonian behavior of the pseudoplastic-thixotropic type and after adding 100% of the saliva artificial proved plastic-thixotropic. Furthermore, it is clearly seen that the formulations containing poloxamer 407 have significantly larger (15-800 Pa) shear stress compared to those containing polyethyleneimine (5-50 Pa), indicating a greater plasticity of these. Thus, it is possible to observe that the addition of saliva was of interest to the system structure, starting from a microemulsion for a liquid crystal system, thereby also changing thereby its rheological behavior. The systems have promising characteristics as controlled release systems to the oral cavity, as it features good fluidity during its possible application and greater structuring of the system when it comes into contact with environmental saliva.

Keywords: liquid crystal system, poloxamer 407, polyethylenimine, rheology

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1457 Evaluation of Salivary Nickel Level During Orthodontic Treatment

Authors: Mudafara S. Bengleil, Juma M. Orfi, Iman Abdelgader

Abstract:

Since nickel is a known toxic and carcinogenic metal, the present study was designed to evaluate the level of nickel released into the saliva of orthodontic patients. Non-stimulated saliva was collected from 18 patients attending The Orthodontic Clinic of Dental Faculty of Benghazi University. Patients were divided into two groups and level of nickel was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Nickel concentration values (mg/L) in first group prior to starting treatment was 0.097± 0.071. An increase in level of nickel was followed by decrease 4 and 8 weeks after applying the arch wire (0.208± 0.112) and (0.077±0.056 mg/L) respectively. Nickel levels in saliva of the second group were showed minimal variation and ranged from 0.061± 0.044mg/L to 0.083±0.054 throughout period of study. It may be concluded that there could be a release of nickel from the appliance used in first group but it doesn't reach toxic level in saliva.

Keywords: atomic absorption spectrophotometry, nickel, orthodontic treatment, saliva, toxicity

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1456 Enhancing the Sensitivity of Antigen Based Sandwich ELISA for COVID-19 Diagnosis in Saliva Using Gold Conjugated Nanobodies

Authors: Manal Kamel, Sara Maher

Abstract:

Development of sensitive non-invasive tests for detection of SARS-CoV-2 antigens is imperative to manage the extent of infection throughout the population, yet, it is still challenging. Here, we designed and optimized a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for SARS-CoV-2 S1 antigen detection in saliva. Both saliva samples and nasopharyngeal swapswere collected from 170 PCR-confirmed positive and negative cases. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were conjugated with S1protein receptor binding domain (RBD) nanobodies. Recombinant S1 monoclonal antibodies (S1mAb) as primery antibody and gold conjugated nanobodies as secondary antibody were employed in sandwich ELISA. Our developed system were optimized to achieve 87.5 % sensitivity and 100% specificity for saliva samples compared to 89 % and 100% for nasopharyngeal swaps, respectively. This means that saliva could be a suitable replacement for nasopharyngeal swaps No cross reaction was detected with other corona virus antigens. These results revealed that our developed ELISAcould be establishedas a new, reliable, sensitive, and non-invasive test for diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection, using the easily collected saliva samples.

Keywords: COVID 19, diagnosis, ELISA, nanobodies

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
1455 Detection of Alzheimer's Protein on Nano Designed Polymer Surfaces in Water and Artificial Saliva

Authors: Sevde Altuntas, Fatih Buyukserin

Abstract:

Alzheimer’s disease is responsible for irreversible neural damage of brain parts. One of the disease markers is Amyloid-β 1-42 protein that accumulates in the brain in the form plaques. The basic problem for detection of the protein is the low amount of protein that cannot be detected properly in body liquids such as blood, saliva or urine. To solve this problem, tests like ELISA or PCR are proposed which are expensive, require specialized personnel and can contain complex protocols. Therefore, Surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) a good candidate for detection of Amyloid-β 1-42 protein. Because the spectroscopic technique can potentially allow even single molecule detection from liquid and solid surfaces. Besides SERS signal can be improved by using nanopattern surface and also is specific to molecules. In this context, our study proposes to fabricate diagnostic test models that utilize Au-coated nanopatterned polycarbonate (PC) surfaces modified with Thioflavin - T to detect low concentrations of Amyloid-β 1-42 protein in water and artificial saliva medium by the enhancement of protein SERS signal. The nanopatterned PC surface that was used to enhance SERS signal was fabricated by using Anodic Alumina Membranes (AAM) as a template. It is possible to produce AAMs with different column structures and varying thicknesses depending on voltage and anodization time. After fabrication process, the pore diameter of AAMs can be arranged with dilute acid solution treatment. In this study, two different columns structures were prepared. After a surface modification to decrease their surface energy, AAMs were treated with PC solution. Following the solvent evaporation, nanopatterned PC films with tunable pillared structures were peeled off from the membrane surface. The PC film was then modified with Au and Thioflavin-T for the detection of Amyloid-β 1-42 protein. The protein detection studies were conducted first in water via this biosensor platform. Same measurements were conducted in artificial saliva to detect the presence of Amyloid Amyloid-β 1-42 protein. SEM, SERS and contact angle measurements were carried out for the characterization of different surfaces and further demonstration of the protein attachment. SERS enhancement factor calculations were also completed via experimental results. As a result, our research group fabricated diagnostic test models that utilize Au-coated nanopatterned polycarbonate (PC) surfaces modified with Thioflavin-T to detect low concentrations of Alzheimer’s Amiloid – β protein in water and artificial saliva medium. This work was supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) Grant No: 214Z167.

Keywords: alzheimer, anodic aluminum oxide, nanotopography, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy

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1454 The Comparison of pH Saliva before and after Brushing Teeth Using Tooth Paste Containing Betel Leaf Extracts

Authors: Ika Anisyah, Nety Trisnawaty

Abstract:

Mechanical brushing can help control plaque and is the first step to control dental caries. The type of toothpaste used is one of the contributing factors in it since the benefits of toothpaste are to reduce plaque formation and strengthen the teeth against dental caries, clean and polish tooth surfaces, eliminate or reduce bad breath, give a fresh taste to the mouth and maintain gingival health. Betel leaf toothpaste has the ability to inhibit the Streptococcus mutans bacteria that can cause the increase of pH saliva. Betel leaf extracts can increase the pH saliva because betel leaf has an anti bacterial characteristic against Streptococcus mutans so that pH saliva increases. This study aims to see the difference between pH saliva before and after brushing teeth with toothpaste containing betel leaf extracts. This type of research is pre-experimental using One Group Pretest-Posttest Design. This study was conducted on 32 subjects taken randomly from the representatives of students aged 11-12 years old in SD Pesanggrahan 03. The result of statistic test using non parametric test showed a value of 0.000. The resulted value being smaller than 0.05 (p < 0.05) means there is a significant salivary pH difference before and after teeth brushing using toothpaste containing betel leaf. The conclusion of this study showed an increase in salivary pH after teeth brushing with toothpaste containing betel leaves extracts in children aged 11-12 years old.

Keywords: pH saliva, brushing teeth, tooth paste, betel leaves extracts

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1453 Investigation of Suspected Viral Hepatitis Outbreaks in North India

Authors: Mini P. Singh, Manasi Majumdar, Kapil Goyal, Pvm Lakshmi, Deepak Bhatia, Radha Kanta Ratho

Abstract:

India is endemic for Hepatitis E virus and frequent water borne outbreaks are reported. The conventional diagnosis rests on the detection of serum anti-HEV IgM antibodies which may take 7-10 days to develop. Early diagnosis in such a situation is desirable for the initiation of prompt control measures. The present study compared three diagnostic methods in 60 samples collected during two suspected HEV outbreaks in the vicinity of Chandigarh, India. The anti-HEV IgM, HEV antigen and HEV-RNA could be detected in serum samples of 52 (86.66%), 16 (26.66%) and 18 (30%) patients respectively. The suitability of saliva samples for antibody detection was also evaluated in 21 paired serum- saliva samples. A total of 15 serum samples showed the presence of anti HEV IgM antibodies, out of which 10 (10/15; 66.6%) were also positive for these antibodies in saliva samples (χ2 = 7.636, p < 0.0057), thus showing a concordance of 76.91%. The positivity of reverse transcriptase PCR and HEV antigen detection was 100% within one week of illness which declined to 5-10% thereafter. The outbreak was attributed to HEV Genotype 1, Subtype 1a and the clinical and environmental strains clustered together. HEV antigen and RNA were found to be an early diagnostic marker with 96.66% concordance. The results indicate that the saliva samples can be used as an alternative to serum samples in an outbreak situation.

Keywords: HEV-antigen, outbreak, phylogenetic analysis, saliva

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1452 Forensic Medical Capacities of Research of Saliva Stains on Physical Evidence after Washing

Authors: Saule Mussabekova

Abstract:

Recent advances in genetics have allowed increasing acutely the capacities of the formation of reliable evidence in conducting forensic examinations. Thus, traces of biological origin are important sources of information about a crime. Currently, around the world, sexual offenses have increased, and among them are those in which the criminals use various detergents to remove traces of their crime. A feature of modern synthetic detergents is the presence of biological additives - enzymes. Enzymes purposefully destroy stains of biological origin. To study the nature and extent of the impact of modern washing powders on saliva stains on the physical evidence, specially prepared test specimens of different types of tissues to which saliva was applied have been examined. Materials and Methods: Washing machines of famous manufacturers of household appliances have been used with different production characteristics and advertised brands of washing powder for test washing. Over 3,500 experimental samples were tested. After washing, the traces of saliva were identified using modern research methods of forensic medicine. Results: The influence was tested and the dependence of the use of different washing programs, types of washing machines and washing powders in the process of establishing saliva trace and identify of the stains on the physical evidence while washing was revealed. The results of experimental and practical expert studies have shown that in most cases it is not possible to draw the conclusions in the identification of saliva traces on physical evidence after washing. This is a consequence of the effect of biological additives and other additional factors on traces of saliva during washing. Conclusions: On the basis of the results of the study, the feasibility of saliva traces of the stains on physical evidence after washing is established. The use of modern molecular genetic methods makes it possible to partially solve the problems arising in the study of unlaundered evidence. Additional study of physical evidence after washing facilitates detection and investigation of sexual offenses against women and children.

Keywords: saliva research, modern synthetic detergents, laundry detergents, forensic medicine

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1451 Smokeless Tobacco Oral Manifestation and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Saliva

Authors: Sintija Miļuna, Ričards Melderis, Loreta Briuka, Dagnija Rostoka, Ingus Skadiņš, Juta Kroiča

Abstract:

Objectives: Smokeless tobacco products in Latvia have become more available and favorable to young adults, especially students and athletes like hockey and floorball players. The aim of the research was to detect visual mucosal changes in the oral cavity in smokeless tobacco users and to evaluate pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-6, IL-1, IL-8, TNF Alpha) levels in saliva from smokeless tobacco users. Methods: A smokeless tobacco group (n=10) and a control group (non-tobacco users) (n=10) were intraorally examined for oral lesions and 5 ml of saliva were collected. Saliva was analyzed for Il-6, IL-1, Il-8, TNF Alpha using ELISA Sigma-Aldrich. Results IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, TNF Alpha levels were higher in the smokeless tobacco group (IL-1 115,61 pg/ml vs. 13.33 pg/ml; IL-6 389.09 pg/ml vs. 0 pg/ml; IL-8 1171.1 pg/ml vs. 224.3 pg/ml; TNF Alpha 941.87 pg/ml vs. 53.03 pg/ml). Conclusions White localized lesions were detected in places where smokeless tobacco users placed sachets. IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, TNF Alpha levels were significantly higher in the smokeless tobacco group than in the control group. This research was approved by the Ethics Committee of Rīga Stradiņš University No.22/28.01.2016.

Keywords: smokeless tobacco, Snus, inflammatory biomarkers, oral lesions, oral pathology

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1450 Interpersonal Variation of Salivary Microbiota Using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis

Authors: Manjula Weerasekera, Chris Sissons, Lisa Wong, Sally Anderson, Ann Holmes, Richard Cannon

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to characterize bacterial population and yeasts in saliva by Polymerase chain reaction followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and measure yeast levels by culture. PCR-DGGE was performed to identify oral bacteria and yeasts in 24 saliva samples. DNA was extracted and used to generate DNA amplicons of the V2–V3 hypervariable region of the bacterial 16S rDNA gene using PCR. Further universal primers targeting the large subunit rDNA gene (25S-28S) of fungi were used to amplify yeasts present in human saliva. Resulting PCR products were subjected to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis using Universal mutation detection system. DGGE bands were extracted and sequenced using Sanger method. A potential relationship was evaluated between groups of bacteria identified by cluster analysis of DGGE fingerprints with the yeast levels and with their diversity. Significant interpersonal variation of salivary microbiome was observed. Cluster and principal component analysis of the bacterial DGGE patterns yielded three significant major clusters, and outliers. Seventeen of the 24 (71%) saliva samples were yeast positive going up to 10³ cfu/mL. Predominately, C. albicans, and six other species of yeast were detected. The presence, amount and species of yeast showed no clear relationship to the bacterial clusters. Microbial community in saliva showed a significant variation between individuals. A lack of association between yeasts and the bacterial fingerprints in saliva suggests the significant ecological person-specific independence in highly complex oral biofilm systems under normal oral conditions.

Keywords: bacteria, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, oral biofilm, yeasts

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1449 Evaluation of the Relation between Serum and Saliva Levels of Sodium and Glucose in Healthy Referred Patients to Tabriz Faculty of Dentistry

Authors: Samaneh Nazemi, Ayla Bahramian, Marzieh Aghazadeh

Abstract:

Saliva is a clear liquid composed of water, electrolytes, glucose, amylase, glycoproteins, and antimicrobial enzymes. The presence of a wide range of molecules and proteins in saliva has made this fluid valuable in screening for some diseases as well as epidemiological studies. Saliva is easier than serum to collect in large populations. Due to the importance of sodium and glucose levels in many biological processes, this study investigates the relationship between sodium and glucose levels in salivary and serum samples of healthy individuals referring to Tabriz Dental School. This descriptive-analytical study was performed on 40 healthy individuals referred to the Oral Diseases Department of Tabriz Dental School. Serum and saliva samples were taken from these patients according to standard protocols. Data were presented as mean (standard deviation) and frequency (percentage) for quantitative and qualitative variables. Pearson test, paired-samples T-test and SPSS 24 software were used to determine the correlation between serum and salivary levels of these biomarkers. In this study, P less than 0.05% is considered significant. Out of 40 participants in this study, 14 (35%) were male, and 26 (65%) were female. According to the results of this study, the mean salivary sodium (127.53 ml/dl) was lower than the mean serum sodium (141.2725 ml/dl). In contrast, the mean salivary glucose (4.55 ml/dl) was lower than the mean serum glucose (89.7575 ml/dl). The result of paired samples T-test (p-value<0.05) showed that there is a statistically significant difference between the mean of serum sodium and salivary sodium, as well as between the serum glucose and salivary glucose. Pearson correlation test results showed that there is no significant correlation between serum sodium and salivary sodium (p-value >0.05), but here is a positive correlation between serum glucose and salivary glucose (p-value<0.001). Both serum sodium and glucose were higher than salivary sodium and glucose.In conclusion, this study found that there was not a statistical relationship between salivary glucose and serum glucose and also salivary sodium and serum sodium of healthy individuals. Perhaps salivary samples can’t be used to measure glucose and sodium in these individuals.

Keywords: glucose, saliva, serum, sodium

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1448 The Environmental Effects of Amalgam Tooth Fillings

Authors: Abdulsalam I. Rafida, Abdulhmid M. Alkout, Abdultif M. Alroba

Abstract:

This study investigates the heavy metal content in the saliva of persons with amalgam tooth fillings. For this purpose, samples of saliva have been collected based on two factors i.e. the number of amalgam fillings in the mouth (one, two or three fillings), and the time factor i.e. the time since the fillings have been in place (less than a year and more than a year). Samples of saliva have also been collected from persons with no amalgam tooth fillings for control. The samples that have been collected so far, have been examined for the basic heavy metal content featuring amalgam, which include mercury (Hg) and silver (Ag). However, all the above mentioned elements have been detected in the samples of saliva of the persons with amalgam tooth fillings, though with varying amounts depending on the number of fillings. Thus, for persons with only one filling the average quantities were found to be 0.00061 ppm and 0.033 ppm for Hg and Ag respectively. On the other hand for persons with two fillings the average quantities were found to be 0.0012 ppm and 0.029 ppm for each of the two elements respectively. However, in order to understand the chemical reactions associated with amalgam tooth fillings in the mouth, the material have been treated outside the mouth using some nutrient media. Those media included drinking water, fizzy drinks and hot tea. All three media have been found to contain the three elements after amalgam treatment. Yet, the fizzy drink medium was found to contain the highest levels of those elements.

Keywords: amalgam, mercury, silver, fizzy drinks, media

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1447 Xerostomia and Caries Incidence in Relation to Metabolic Control in Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes

Authors: Eftychia Pappa, Heleni Vastardis, Christos Rahiotis, Andriani Vazaiou

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of dry-mouth symptoms (xerostomia) and compare it with alterations in salivary characteristics of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (DM1), as measured with the use of chair-side saliva tests. This study also investigated the possible association between salivary dysfunction and incidence of caries, in relation to the level of metabolic control. A cross-sectional study was performed on young patients (6-18 years old) allocated among 3 groups: 40 patients poorly-controlled (DM1-A, HbA1c>8%), 40 well-controlled (DM1-B, HbA1c≤8%) and 40 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of University of Athens and the parents signed written informed consent. All subjects were examined for dental caries, oral hygiene and salivary factors. Assessments of salivary function included self-reported xerostomia, quantification of resting and stimulated whole saliva flow rates, pH values, buffering capacity and saliva’s viscosity. Salivary characteristics were evaluated with the use of GC Saliva Check Buffer (3Μ ESPE). Data were analysed by chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Subjects with diabetes reported xerostomia more frequently than healthy controls (p<0.05). Unstimulated salivary flow rate and pH values remained significantly lower in DM1-A compared to DM1-B and controls. Low values of resting salivary flow rate were associated with a higher prevalence of dental caries in children and adolescents with poorly-controlled DM1 (p<0.05). The results suggested that diabetes-induced alterations in salivary characteristics are indicative of higher caries susceptibility of diabetics and chair-side saliva tests are a useful tool for the evaluation of caries risk assessment.

Keywords: caries risk assessment, saliva diagnostic tests, type 1 diabetes, xerostomia

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1446 Comparison of Surface Hardness of Filling Material Glass Ionomer Cement Which Soaked in Alcohol Containing Mouthwash and Alcohol-Free Mouthwash

Authors: Farid Yuristiawan, Aulina R. Rahmi, Detty Iryani, Gunawan

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Glass ionomer cement is one of the filling material that often used in the field of dentistry because it is relatively less expensive and mostly available. Surface hardness is one of the most important properties of restoration material; it is the ability of material to stand against indentation, which is directly connected to the material compressive strength and its ability to withstand abrasion. The higher surface hardness of a material means it is better to withstand abrasion. The existence of glass ionomer cement in the mouth makes it susceptible to any substance that comes into mouth, one of them is mouthwash which is a solution that used for many purposes such as antiseptic, astringent, to prevent caries, and bad breath. The presence of alcohol in mouthwash could affect the properties of glass ionomer cement, surface hardness. Objective: To determine the comparison of surface hardness of glass ionomer cement which soaked in alcohol containing mouthwash and alcohol-free mouthwash. Methods: This research is a laboratory experimental type study. There were 30 samples made from GC FUJI IX GP EXTRA and then soaked in artificial saliva for the first 24 hours inside incubator which temperature and humidity were controlled. Samples then divided into three groups. The first group will be soaked in alcohol-containing mouthwash; second group will be soaked alcohol-free mouthwash and control group will be soaked in artificial saliva for 6 hours inside incubator. Listerine is the mouthwash that was used on this research and surface hardness was examined using Vickers Hardness Tester. The result of this research shows mean value for surface hardness of the first group is 16.36 VHN, 24.04 VHN for second group, and 43.60 VHN for control group. The result one way ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni comparing test show significant results p = 0.00. Conclusions: The data showed there were statistically significant differences of surface hardness between each group, which surface hardness of the first group is lower than the second group, and both surface hardness of the first (alcohol mouthwash) and second group (alcohol-free mouthwash) are lowered than control group (p = 0.00).

Keywords: glass ionomer cement, mouthwash, surface hardness, Vickers hardness tester

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1445 Evaluation of Differential Interaction between Flavanols and Saliva Proteins by Diffusion and Precipitation Assays on Cellulose Membranes

Authors: E. Obreque-Slier, V. Contreras-Cortez, R. López-Solís

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Astringency is a drying, roughing, and sometimes puckering sensation that is experienced on the various oral surfaces during or immediately after tasting foods. This sensation has been closely related to the interaction and precipitation between salivary proteins and polyphenols, specifically flavanols or proanthocyanidins. In addition, the type and concentration of proanthocyanidin influences significantly the intensity of the astringency and consequently the protein/proanthocyanidin interaction. However, most of the studies are based on the interaction between saliva and highly complex polyphenols, without considering the effect of monomeric proanthoancyanidins present in different foods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different monomeric proanthocyanidins on the diffusion and precipitation of salivary proteins. Thus, solutions of catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin and gallocatechin (0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10 mg/mL) were mixed with human saliva (1: 1 v/v). After incubation for 5 min at room temperature, 15 µL aliquots of each mix were dotted on a cellulose membrane and allowed to dry spontaneously at room temperature. The membrane was fixed, rinsed and stained for proteins with Coomassie blue. After exhaustive washing in 7% acetic acid, the membrane was rinsed once in distilled water and dried under a heat lamp. Both diffusion area and stain intensity of the protein spots were semiqualitative estimates for protein-tannin interaction (diffusion test). The rest of the whole saliva-phenol solution mixtures of the diffusion assay were centrifuged, and 15-μL aliquots from each of the supernatants were dotted on a cellulose membrane. The membrane was processed for protein staining as indicated above. The blue-stained area of protein distribution corresponding to each of the extract dilution-saliva mixtures was quantified by Image J 1.45 software. Each of the assays was performed at least three times. Initially, salivary proteins display a biphasic distribution on cellulose membranes, that is, when aliquots of saliva are placed on absorbing cellulose membranes, and free diffusion of saliva is allowed to occur, a non-diffusible protein fraction becomes surrounded by highly diffusible salivary proteins. In effect, once diffusion has ended, a protein-binding dye shows an intense blue-stained roughly circular area close to the spotting site (non-diffusible fraction) (NDF) which becomes surrounded by a weaker blue-stained outer band (diffusible fraction) (DF). Likewise, the diffusion test showed that epicatechin caused the complete disappearance of DF from saliva with 2 mg/mL. Also, epigallocatechin and gallocatechin caused a similar effect with 4 mg/mL, while catechin generated the same effect at 8 mg/mL. In the precipitation test, the use of epicatechin and gallocatechin generated evident precipitates at the bottom of the Eppendorf tubes. In summary, the flavanol type differentially affects the diffusion and precipitation of saliva, which would affect the sensation of astringency perceived by consumers.

Keywords: astringency, polyphenols, tannins, tannin-protein interaction

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1444 Methylation Profiling and Validation of Candidate Tissue-Specific Differentially Methylated Regions for Identification of Human Blood, Saliva, Semen and Vaginal Fluid and Its Application in Forensics

Authors: Meenu Joshi, Natalie Naidoo, Farzeen Kader

Abstract:

Identification of body fluids is an essential step in forensic investigation to aid in crime reconstruction. Tissue-specific differentially methylated regions (tDMRs) of the human genome can be targeted to be used as biomarkers to differentiate between body fluids. The present study was undertaken to establish the methylation status of potential tDMRs in blood, semen, saliva, and vaginal fluid by using methylation-specific PCR (MSP) and bisulfite sequencing (BS). The methylation statuses of 3 potential tDMRS in genes ZNF282, PTPRS, and HPCAL1 were analysed in 10 samples of each body fluid. With MSP analysis, the ZNF282, and PTPRS1 tDMR displayed semen-specific hypomethylation while HPCAL1 tDMR showed saliva-specific hypomethylation. With quantitative analysis by BS, the ZNF282 tDMR showed statistically significant difference in overall methylation between semen and all other body fluids as well as at individual CpG sites (p < 0.05). To evaluate the effect of environmental conditions on the stability of methylation profiles of the ZNF282 tDMR, five samples of each body fluid were subjected to five different forensic simulated conditions (dry at room temperature, wet in an exsiccator, outside on the ground, sprayed with alcohol, and sprayed with bleach) for 50 days. Vaginal fluid showed highest DNA recovery under all conditions while semen had least DNA quantity. Under outside on the ground condition, all body fluids except semen showed a decrease in methylation level; however, a significant decrease in methylation level was observed for saliva. A statistical significant difference was observed for saliva and semen (p < 0.05) for outside on the ground condition. No differences in methylation level were observed for the ZNF282 tDMR under all conditions for vaginal fluid samples. Thus, in the present study ZNF282 tDMR has been identified as a novel and stable semen-specific hypomethylation marker.

Keywords: body fluids, bisulphite sequencing, forensics, tDMRs, MSP

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1443 Artificial Intelligence Created Inventions

Authors: John Goodhue, Xiaonan Wei

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Current legal decisions and policies regarding the naming as artificial intelligence as inventor are reviewed with emphasis on the recent decisions by the European Patent Office regarding the DABUS inventions holding that an artificial intelligence machine cannot be an inventor. Next, a set of hypotheticals is introduced and examined to better understand how artificial intelligence might be used to create or assist in creating new inventions and how application of existing or proposed changes in the law would affect the ability to protect these inventions including due to restrictions on artificial intelligence for being named as inventors, ownership of inventions made by artificial intelligence, and the effects on legal standards for inventiveness or obviousness.

Keywords: Artificial intelligence, innovation, invention, patent

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1442 The Short-Term Stress Indicators in Home and Experimental Dogs

Authors: Madara Nikolajenko, Jevgenija Kondratjeva

Abstract:

Stress is a response of the body to physical or psychological environmental stressors. Cortisol level in blood serum is determined as the main indicator of stress, but the blood collection, the animal preparation and other activities can cause unpleasant conditions and induce increase of these hormones. Therefore, less invasive methods are searched to determine stress hormone levels, for example, by measuring the cortisol level saliva. The aim of the study is to find out the changes of stress hormones in blood and saliva in home and experimental dogs in simulated short-term stress conditions. The study included clinically healthy experimental beagle dogs (n=6) and clinically healthy home American Staffordshire terriers (n=6). The animals were let into a fenced area to adapt. Loud drum sounds (in cooperation with 'Andžeja Grauda drum school') were used as a stressor. Blood serum samples were taken for sodium, potassium, glucose and cortisol level determination and saliva samples for cortisol determination only. Control parameters were taken immediately before the start of the stressor, and next samples were taken immediately after the stress. The last measurements were taken two hours after the stress. Electrolyte levels in blood serum were determined using direction selective electrode method (ILab Aries analyzer) and cortisol in blood serum and saliva using electrochemical luminescence method (Roche Diagnostics). Blood glucose level was measured with glucometer (ACCU-CHECK Active test strips). Cortisol level in the blood increased immediately after the stress in all home dogs (P < 0,05), but only in 33% (P < 0,05) of the experimental dogs. After two hours the measurement decreased in 83% (P < 0,05) of home dogs (in 50% returning to the control point) and in 83% (P < 0,05) of the experimental dogs. Cortisol in saliva immediately after the stress increased in 50% (P > 0,05) of home dogs and in 33% (P > 0,05) of the experimental dogs. After two hours in 83% (P > 0,05) of the home animals, the measurements decreased, only in 17% of the experimental dogs it decreased as well, while in 49% measurement was undetectable due to the lack of material. Blood sodium, potassium, and glucose measurements did not show any significant changes. The combination of short-term stress indicators, when, after the stressor, all indicators should immediately increase and decrease after two hours, confirmed in none of the animals. Therefore the authors can conclude that each animal responds to a stressful situation with different physiological mechanisms and hormonal activity. Cortisol level in saliva and blood is released with the different speed and is not an objective indicator of acute stress.

Keywords: animal behaivor, cortisol, short-term stress, stress indicators

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1441 Assessing Acute Toxicity and Endocrine Disruption Potential of Selected Packages Internal Layers Extracts

Authors: N. Szczepanska, B. Kudlak, G. Yotova, S. Tsakovski, J. Namiesnik

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In the scientific literature related to the widely understood issue of packaging materials designed to have contact with food (food contact materials), there is much information on raw materials used for their production, as well as their physiochemical properties, types, and parameters. However, not much attention is given to the issues concerning migration of toxic substances from packaging and its actual influence on the health of the final consumer, even though health protection and food safety are the priority tasks. The goal of this study was to estimate the impact of particular foodstuff packaging type, food production, and storage conditions on the degree of leaching of potentially toxic compounds and endocrine disruptors to foodstuffs using the acute toxicity test Microtox and XenoScreen YES YAS assay. The selected foodstuff packaging materials were metal cans used for fish storage and tetrapak. Five stimulants respectful to specific kinds of food were chosen in order to assess global migration: distilled water for aqueous foods with a pH above 4.5; acetic acid at 3% in distilled water for acidic aqueous food with pH below 4.5; ethanol at 5% for any food that may contain alcohol; dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and artificial saliva were used in regard to the possibility of using it as an simulation medium. For each packaging three independent variables (temperature and contact time) factorial design simulant was performed. Xenobiotics migration from epoxy resins was studied at three different temperatures (25°C, 65°C, and 121°C) and extraction time of 12h, 48h and 2 weeks. Such experimental design leads to 9 experiments for each food simulant as conditions for each experiment are obtained by combination of temperature and contact time levels. Each experiment was run in triplicate for acute toxicity and in duplicate for estrogen disruption potential determination. Multi-factor analysis of variation (MANOVA) was used to evaluate the effects of the three main factors solvent, temperature (temperature regime for cup), contact time and their interactions on the respected dependent variable (acute toxicity or estrogen disruption potential). From all stimulants studied the most toxic were can and tetrapak lining acetic acid extracts that are indication for significant migration of toxic compounds. This migration increased with increase of contact time and temperature and justified the hypothesis that food products with low pH values cause significant damage internal resin filling. Can lining extracts of all simulation medias excluding distilled water and artificial saliva proved to contain androgen agonists even at 25°C and extraction time of 12h. For tetrapak extracts significant endocrine potential for acetic acid, DMSO and saliva were detected.

Keywords: food packaging, extraction, migration, toxicity, biotest

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1440 A Set of Microsatellite Markers for Population Genetics of Copper-Winged Bat (Myotis rufoniger) Using Saliva DNA

Authors: Junghwa An, Sungkyoung Choi, Eun Ye, San Hoon Han, Young-Gun Choi, Chul Oun Jung

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The copper-winged bat (Myotis rufoniger) is the widely distributed medium body-sized bat in Asia, including Korea. This bat population has been decreasing because of habitat loss. This study reported the isolation and characterization of ten polymorphic microsatellite loci in endangered M. rufoniger. To do genetic studies, we use saliva DNA of bats during winter sleep period. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 9, and the observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.063 to 0.750 and from 0.063 to 0.865, respectively. The average polymorphic information content (PIC) value of these markers was 0.37. Two loci of M. rufoniger showed departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium(HWE). This demonstrated that the ten microsatellite loci can be used as genetic markers for further investigation of the copper-winged bat.

Keywords: copper-winged bat, microsatellite, population genetics, South Korea

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1439 Children Asthma; The Role of Molecular Pathways and Novel Saliva Biomarkers Assay

Authors: Seyedahmad Hosseini, Mohammadjavad Sotoudeheian

Abstract:

Introduction: Allergic asthma is a heterogeneous immuno-inflammatory disease based on Th-2-mediated inflammation. Histopathologic abnormalities of the airways characteristic of asthma include epithelial damage and subepithelial collagen deposition. Objectives: Human bronchial epithelial cell genome expression of TNF‑α, IL‑6, ICAM‑1, VCAM‑1, nuclear factor (NF)‑κB signaling pathways up-regulate during inflammatory cascades. Moreover, immunofluorescence assays confirmed the nuclear translocation of NF‑κB p65 during inflammatory responses. An absolute LDH leakage assays suggestedLPS-inducedcells injury, and the associated mechanisms are co-incident events. LPS-induced phosphorylation of ERKand JNK causes inflammation in epithelial cells through inhibition of ERK and JNK activation and NF-κB signaling pathway. Furthermore, the inhibition of NF-κB mRNA expression and the nuclear translocation of NF-κB lead to anti-inflammatory events. Likewise, activation of SUMF2 which inhibits IL-13 and reduces Th2-cytokines, NF-κB, and IgE levels to ameliorate asthma. On the other hand, TNFα-induced mucus production reduced NF-κB activation through inhibition of the activation status of Rac1 and IκBα phosphorylation. In addition, bradykinin B2 receptor (B2R), which mediates airway remodeling, regulates through NF-κB. Bronchial B2R expression is constitutively elevated in allergic asthma. In addition, certain NF-κB -dependent chemokines function to recruit eosinophils in the airway. Besides, bromodomain containing 4 (BRD4) plays a significant role in mediating innate immune response in human small airway epithelial cells as well as transglutaminase 2 (TG2), which is detectable in saliva. So, the guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein α-subunit, Gα16, expresses a κB-driven luciferase reporter. This response was accompanied by phosphorylation of IκBα. Furthermore, expression of Gα16 in saliva markedly enhanced TNF-α-induced κB reporter activity. Methods: The applied method to form NF-κB activation is the electromobility shift assay (EMSA). Also, B2R-BRD4-TG2 complex detection by immunoassay method within saliva with EMSA of NF-κB activation may be a novel biomarker for asthma diagnosis and follow up. Conclusion: This concept introduces NF-κB signaling pathway as potential asthma biomarkers and promising targets for the development of new therapeutic strategies against asthma.

Keywords: NF-κB, asthma, saliva, T-helper

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1438 Saliva Cortisol and Yawning as a Predictor of Neurological Disease

Authors: Simon B. N. Thompson

Abstract:

Cortisol is important to our immune system, regulates our stress response, and is a factor in maintaining brain temperature. Saliva cortisol is a practical and useful non-invasive measurement that signifies the presence of the important hormone. Electrical activity in the jaw muscles typically rises when the muscles are moved during yawning and the electrical level is found to be correlated with the cortisol level. In two studies using identical paradigms, a total of 108 healthy subjects were exposed to yawning-provoking stimuli so that their cortisol levels and electrical nerve impulses from their jaw muscles was recorded. Electrical activity is highly correlated with cortisol levels in healthy people. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Yawning Susceptibility Scale, General Health Questionnaire, demographic, health details were collected and exclusion criteria applied for voluntary recruitment: chronic fatigue, diabetes, fibromyalgia, heart condition, high blood pressure, hormone replacement therapy, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. Significant differences were found between the saliva cortisol samples for the yawners as compared with the non-yawners between rest and post-stimuli. Significant evidence supports the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis that suggests rises in cortisol levels are associated with yawning. Ethics approval granted and professional code of conduct, confidentiality, and safety issues are approved therein.

Keywords: cortisol, diagnosis, neurological disease, thompson cortisol hypothesis, yawning

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1437 Description of the Non-Iterative Learning Algorithm of Artificial Neuron

Authors: B. S. Akhmetov, S. T. Akhmetova, A. I. Ivanov, T. S. Kartbayev, A. Y. Malygin

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The problem of training of a network of artificial neurons in biometric appendices is that this process has to be completely automatic, i.e. the person operator should not participate in it. Therefore, this article discusses the issues of training the network of artificial neurons and the description of the non-iterative learning algorithm of artificial neuron.

Keywords: artificial neuron, biometrics, biometrical applications, learning of neuron, non-iterative algorithm

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1436 Application of Natural Dyes on Polyester and Polyester-Cellulosic Blended Fabrics

Authors: Deepali Rastogi, Akanksha Rastogi

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Comfort and safety are two essential factors in a newborn’s clothing. Natural dyes are considered safe for infant clothes because they are non-toxic and have medicinal properties. Natural dyes are sensitive to pH and may show changes in hue under different pH conditions. Infant garments face treatments different than adult clothing, for instance, exposure to infant’s saliva, milk, and urine. The present study was designed to study the suitability of natural dyes for infant clothes. Cotton fabric was dyed using fifteen natural dyes and two mordants, alum, and ferrous sulphate. The dyed samples were assessed for colour fastness to washing, rubbing, perspiration and light. In addition, fastness to milk, saliva, and urine was also tested. Simulated solutions of saliva and urine were prepared for the study. For milk, one of the commercial formulations for infants was taken and used as per the directions. A wide gamut of colours was obtained after dyeing the cotton with different natural dyes and mordants. The colour strength of all the dyed samples was determined in terms of K/S values. Most of the ferrous sulphate mordanted dyes gave higher K/S values than alum mordanted samples. The wash fastness of dyed cotton fabrics ranged from 3/4 -5. Perspiration fastness test for the samples was done in both acidic and alkaline mediums. The ratings ranged from 3-5, with most of the dyes falling in the range of 4-5. The rubbing fastness of the dyed samples was tested in dry and wet conditions. The results showed excellent rub fastness ranging between 4-5. Light fastness was found to be good to moderate. The main food for infants is milk, and this becomes one of the main agents to spot infants' garments. All dyes showed excellent fastness properties against milk with a grey scale rating of 4-5. Fastness against saliva is recommended by various eco-labels, standards, and organizations for fabrics of infants or babies. The fastness of most of the dyes was found to be satisfactory against saliva. Infant garments get frequently soiled with urine. Most of the natural dyes on cotton fabric had good to excellent fastness to simulated urine. The grey scale ratings ranged from 3/4 – 5. Thus, it can be concluded that most of the natural dyes can be successfully used for infant wear and accessories and are fast to various liquids to which infant wear are exposed. Therefore, we can surround little ones with beautiful hues from nature's garden and clothe them in natural fibres dyed with natural dyes.

Keywords: fastness properties, infant wear, mordants, natural dyes

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1435 Novel Point of Care Test for Rapid Diagnosis of COVID-19 Using Recombinant Nanobodies against SARS-CoV-2 Spike1 (S1) Protein

Authors: Manal Kamel, Sara Maher, Hanan El Baz, Faten Salah, Omar Sayyouh, Zeinab Demerdash

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In the recent COVID 19 pandemic, experts of public health have emphasized testing, tracking infected people, and tracing their contacts as an effective strategy to reduce the spread of the virus. Development of rapid and sensitive diagnostic assays to replace reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is mandatory..Our innovative test strip relying on the application of nanoparticles conjugated to recombinant nanobodies for SARS-COV-2 spike protein (S1) & angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (that is responsible for the virus entry into host cells) for rapid detection of SARS-COV-2 spike protein (S1) in saliva or sputum specimens. Comparative tests with RT-PCR will be held to estimate the significant effect of using COVID 19 nanobodies for the first time in the development of lateral flow test strip. The SARS-CoV-2 S1 (3 ng of recombinant proteins) was detected by our developed LFIA in saliva specimen of COVID-19 Patients No cross-reaction was detected with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) or SARS- CoV antigens..Our developed system revealed 96 % sensitivity and 100% specificity for saliva samples compared to 89 % and 100% sensitivity and specificity for nasopharyngeal swabs. providing a reliable alternative for the painful and uncomfortable nasopharyngeal swab process and the complexes, time consuming PCR test. An increase in testing compliances to be expected.

Keywords: COVID 19, diagnosis, LFIA, nanobodies, ACE2

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1434 Effect of Phenolic Acids on Human Saliva: Evaluation by Diffusion and Precipitation Assays on Cellulose Membranes

Authors: E. Obreque-Slier, F. Orellana-Rodríguez, R. López-Solís

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Phenolic compounds are secondary metabolites present in some foods, such as wine. Polyphenols comprise two main groups: flavonoids (anthocyanins, flavanols, and flavonols) and non-flavonoids (stilbenes and phenolic acids). Phenolic acids are low molecular weight non flavonoid compounds that are usually grouped into benzoic (gallic, vanillinic and protocatechuic acids) and cinnamic acids (ferulic, p-coumaric and caffeic acids). Likewise, tannic acid is an important polyphenol constituted mainly by gallic acid. Phenolic compounds are responsible for important properties in foods and drinks, such as color, aroma, bitterness, and astringency. Astringency is a drying, roughing, and sometimes puckering sensation that is experienced on the various oral surfaces during or immediately after tasting foods. Astringency perception has been associated with interactions between flavanols present in some foods and salivary proteins. Despite the quantitative relevance of phenolic acids in food and beverages, there is no information about its effect on salivary proteins and consequently on the sensation of astringency. The objective of this study was assessed the interaction of several phenolic acids (gallic, vanillinic, protocatechuic, ferulic, p-coumaric and caffeic acids) with saliva. Tannic acid was used as control. Thus, solutions of each phenolic acids (5 mg/mL) were mixed with human saliva (1:1 v/v). After incubation for 5 min at room temperature, 15-μL aliquots of the mixtures were dotted on a cellulose membrane and allowed to diffuse. The dry membrane was fixed in 50 g/L trichloroacetic acid, rinsed in 800 mL/L ethanol and stained for protein with Coomassie blue for 20 min, destained with several rinses of 73 g/L acetic acid and dried under a heat lamp. Both diffusion area and stain intensity of the protein spots were semiqualitative estimates for protein-tannin interaction (diffusion test). The rest of the whole saliva-phenol solution mixtures of the diffusion assay were centrifuged and fifteen-μL aliquots of each supernatant were dotted on a cellulose membrane, allowed to diffuse and processed for protein staining, as indicated above. In this latter assay, reduced protein staining was taken as indicative of protein precipitation (precipitation test). The diffusion of the salivary protein was restricted by the presence of each phenolic acids (anti-diffusive effect), while tannic acid did not alter diffusion of the salivary protein. By contrast, phenolic acids did not provoke precipitation of the salivary protein, while tannic acid produced precipitation of salivary proteins. In addition, binary mixtures (mixtures of two components) of various phenolic acids with gallic acid provoked a restriction of saliva. Similar effect was observed by the corresponding individual phenolic acids. Contrary, binary mixtures of phenolic acid with tannic acid, as well tannic acid alone, did not affect the diffusion of the saliva but they provoked an evident precipitation. In summary, phenolic acids showed a relevant interaction with the salivary proteins, thus suggesting that these wine compounds can also contribute to the sensation of astringency.

Keywords: astringency, polyphenols, tannins, tannin-protein interaction

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1433 Artificial Intelligence and Personhood : An African Perspective

Authors: Meshandren Naidoo, Amy Gooden

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The concept of personhood extending from the moral status of an artificial intelligence system has been explored – but predominantly from a Western conception of personhood. African personhood, however, is distinctly different from Western personhood in that communitarianism is central rather than individualism. Given the decolonization projects happening in Africa, it’s paramount to consider these views. This research demonstrates that the African notion of personhood may extend for an artificial intelligent system where the pre-conditions are met.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, ethics, law, personhood, policy

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1432 Artificial Intelligence and Police

Authors: Mehrnoosh Abouzari

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Artificial intelligence has covered all areas of human life and has helped or replaced many jobs. One of the areas of application of artificial intelligence in the police is to detect crime, identify the accused or victim and prove the crime. It will play an effective role in implementing preventive justice and creating security in the community, and improving judicial decisions. This will help improve the performance of the police, increase the accuracy of criminal investigations, and play an effective role in preventing crime and high-risk behaviors in society. This article presents and analyzes the capabilities and capacities of artificial intelligence in police and similar examples used worldwide to prove the necessity of using artificial intelligence in the police. The main topics discussed include the performance of artificial intelligence in crime detection and prediction, the risk capacity of criminals and the ability to apply arbitray institutions, and the introduction of artificial intelligence programs implemented worldwide in the field of criminal investigation for police.

Keywords: police, artificial intelligence, forecasting, prevention, software

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1431 Cytotoxic Effect of Neem Seed Extract (Azadirachta indica) in Comparison with Artificial Insecticide Novastar on Haemocytes (THC and DHC) of Musca domestica

Authors: Muhammad Zaheer Awan, Adnan Qadir, Zeeshan Anjum

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Housefly, Musca domestica Linnaeus is ubiquitous and hazardous for Homo sapiens and livestock in sundry venerations. Musca domestica cart 100 different pathogens, such as typhoid, salmonella, bacillary dysentery, tuberculosis, anthrax and parasitic worms. The flies in rural areas usually carry more pathogens. Houseflies feed on liquid or semi-liquid substances besides solid materials which are softened by saliva. Neem botanically known as Azadirachta indica belongs to the family Meliaceae and is an indigenous tree to Pakistan. The neem tree is also one such tree which has been revered by the Pakistanis and Kashmiris for its medicinal properties. Present study showed neem seed extract has potentially toxic ability that affect Total Haemocyte Count (THC) and Differential Haemocytes Count (DHC) in insect’s blood cells, of the housefly. A significant variation in haemolymph density was observed just after application, 30 minutes and 60 minutes post treatment in term of THC and DHC in comparison with novastar. The study strappingly acclaim use of neem seed extract as insecticide as compare to artificial insecticides.

Keywords: neem, Azadirachta indica, Musca domestica, differential haemocyte count (DHC), total haemocytes count (DHC), novastar

Procedia PDF Downloads 137