Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 113

Search results for: characterisation

113 Uneven Habitat Characterisation by Using Geo-Gebra Software in the Lacewings (Insecta: Neuroptera), Knowing When to Calculate the Habitat: Creating More Informative Ecological Experiments

Authors: Hakan Bozdoğan

Abstract:

A wide variety of traditional methodologies has been enhanced for characterising smooth habitats in order to find out different environmental objectives. The habitats were characterised based on size and shape by using Geo-Gebra Software. In this study, an innovative approach to researching habitat characterisation in the lacewing species, GeoGebra software is utilised. This approach is demonstrated using the example of ‘surface area’ as an analytical concept, wherein the goal was to increase clearness for researchers, and to improve the quality of researching in survey area. In conclusion, habitat characterisation using the mathematical programme provides a unique potential to collect more comprehensible and analytical information about in shapeless areas beyond the range of direct observations methods. This research contributes a new perspective for assessing the structure of habitat, providing a novel mathematical tool for the research and management of such habitats and environments. Further surveys should be undertaken at additional sites within the Amanos Mountains for a comprehensive assessment of lacewings habitat characterisation in an analytical plane. This paper is supported by Ahi Evran University Scientific Research Projects Coordination Unit, Projects No:TBY.E2.17.001 and TBY.A4.16.001.

Keywords: uneven habitat shape, habitat assessment, lacewings, Geo-Gebra Software

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112 Synthesis Using Sintering and Characterisation of FeCrCoNiZn Alloy Using SEM and Nanoindentation

Authors: Steadyman Chikumba, Vasudeva Vereedhi Rao

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This paper reports on the synthesis of FeCrCoNiZn and its characterisation using SEM and nanoindentation. The high entropy alloy FeCrCoNiZn was fabricated using spark plasma sintering at a temperature of 1100ᵒC from powders mixed for 9 hours. The powders mixture was equimolar, and the resultant microstructure had a single crystalline structure when studied under SEM. Several nano Vickers hardness measurements were taken on a polished surface etched by Nital solution. The hardness ranged from 711 Vickers to a maximum of 1773.2. The alloy FeCrCoNiZn showed a nano hardness of 1070 Vickers and a modulus of elasticity of 460.4 MPa. The process managed to fabricate a very hard material that can find applications where wear resistance is desired.

Keywords: high entropy alloy, FeCrVNiZn, nanohardness, SEM

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111 Preparation and Properties of NR Based Ebonite Rubber Suitable for Use as Engineering Material

Authors: Dosu Malomo, O. E. Edeh, P. O. Okolo, F. C. Ibeh

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The preparation of various samples of ebonite vulcanizates and their physico-mechanical properties have been investigated using standard methods. This work explores the production of ebonite dust, production of ebonite vulcanizates and investigation of the characterisation of the ebonite. Five different ebonite materials – labelled A, B, C, D, and E with sulphur content in parts per hundred grams of rubber (Phr) of 32, 34, 36, 38 and 40 respectively were produced. The physico-mechanical properties carried out were tensile strength, hardness and abrasion resistance. The tensile strength (MPa) for sample A, B, C, D and E were 5.6, 3.5, 4.7, 1.7 and 2.0 respectively while the abrasion(%mass loss) were 8.49, 4.24, 2.59, 1.08 and 1.05 respectively and the hardness (IRHD) being 63, 64, 65, 70 and 82. The results show that the preparation of ebonite from natural rubber as a base polymer is feasible considering the results of characterisation obtained.

Keywords: compounding, ebonite dust, natural rubber, vulcanization

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110 MONDO Neutron Tracker Characterisation by Means of Proton Therapeutical Beams and MonteCarlo Simulation Studies

Authors: G. Traini, V. Giacometti, R. Mirabelli, V. Patera, D. Pinci, A. Sarti, A. Sciubba, M. Marafini

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The MONDO (MOnitor for Neutron Dose in hadrOntherapy) project aims a precise characterisation of the secondary fast and ultrafast neutrons produced in particle therapy treatments. The detector is composed of a matrix of scintillating fibres (250 um) readout by CMOS Digital-SPAD based sensors. Recoil protons from n-p elastic scattering are detected and used to track neutrons. A prototype was tested with proton beams (Trento Proton Therapy Centre): efficiency, light yield, and track-reconstruction capability were studied. The results of a MonteCarlo FLUKA simulation used to evaluated double scattering efficiency and expected backgrounds will be presented.

Keywords: secondary neutrons, particle therapy, tracking, elastic scattering

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109 Advanced Particle Characterisation of Suspended Sediment in the Danube River Using Automated Imaging and Laser Diffraction

Authors: Flóra Pomázi, Sándor Baranya, Zoltán Szalai

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A harmonized monitoring of the suspended sediment transport along such a large river as the world’s most international river, the Danube River, is a rather challenging task. The traditional monitoring method in Hungary is obsolete but using indirect measurement devices and techniques like optical backscatter sensors (OBS), laser diffraction or acoustic backscatter sensors (ABS) could provide a fast and efficient alternative option of direct methods. However, these methods are strongly sensitive to the particle characteristics (i.e. particle shape, particle size and mineral composition). The current method does not provide sufficient information about particle size distribution, mineral analysis is rarely done, and the shape of the suspended sediment particles have not been examined yet. The aims of the study are (1) to determine the particle characterisation of suspended sediment in the Danube River using advanced particle characterisation methods as laser diffraction and automated imaging, and (2) to perform a sensitivity analysis of the indirect methods in order to determine the impact of suspended particle characteristics. The particle size distribution is determined by laser diffraction. The particle shape and mineral composition analysis is done by the Morphologi G3ID image analyser. The investigated indirect measurement devices are the LISST-Portable|XR, the LISST-ABS (Sequoia Inc.) and the Rio Grande 1200 kHz ADCP (Teledyne Marine). The major findings of this study are (1) the statistical shape of the suspended sediment particle - this is the first research in this context, (2) the actualised particle size distribution – that can be compared to historical information, so that the morphological changes can be tracked, (3) the actual mineral composition of the suspended sediment in the Danube River, and (4) the reliability of the tested indirect methods has been increased – based on the results of the sensitivity analysis and the previous findings.

Keywords: advanced particle characterisation, automated imaging, indirect methods, laser diffraction, mineral composition, suspended sediment

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108 Phenotypic Characterisation of Bapedi Sheep Breed

Authors: Fhulufhelo Ramukhithi, Kgothatso Masethe, Tlou Chokoe, Ayanda Maqhashu, Julius Sebei, Tshililo Raphulu, Joseph Mugwabana

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Phenotypic characterisation ensures that the physical appearance of an animal is well documented. The information provided by this phenotypic characterisation study is important for planning management and the use of animal genetic resources. The aim of this study was to characterise the phenotypic characteristics of Bapedi sheep. Bapedi sheep are at risk of extinction like most of the indigenous breeds. As a result, a total of 196 Bapedi ewes and 35 rams were used. Phenotypic-qualitative characteristics were evaluated through visual appraisal. Phenotypic-quantitative characteristics such as body parts measurements were obtained using a flexible tape (cm), while body weight were obtained by using a weighing scale (kg). Bapedi rams (97 %) had higher satisfactory body condition when compared to ewes (75 %). A higher proportion of Bapedi sheep that did not have ticks observed (ewes = 87 % and rams = 91 %). Brown and white colour combination (head x body) was dominating in Bapedi sheep (80 % ewes and 91 % rams). Bapedi ewes did not have any horns; however, 3 % of rams had them. Bapedi sheep had a higher proportion of brown eyes, moderate neck, stiff sideways ears and normal front legs. Bapedi rams had a higher proportion of well-balanced and good attached testicles. Bapedi ewes had average (45 %), small (40 %) and big udders (15 %). Bapedi rams had a significantly higher body weight, height, depth, hearth girth circumference, rump width, hind leg width and length compared to ewes. However, both Bapedi rams and ewes had similar age, body condition score, tail length, length below hock and knee. In conclusion, Bapedi sheep had a higher satisfactory body condition and brown and white colour combination. Some of Bapedi rams’ quantitative characteristics were higher compared to ewes.

Keywords: extinction, indigenous, phenotypic, smallstock

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107 Preparation, Characterisation and Electrical Properties of Metal/polymer-DNA Nanohybrids

Authors: Mahdi Almaky

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Conducting polymer of N-(3-pyrrol-1-yl-propyl)-2,2`-bipyridinium hexafluoro-phosphate (PPBH) was prepared via chemical and electrochemical polymerization methods. The bulk polymer showed conductivity in the order of 10-12 S cm-1. DNA-templated polymer nano wires of PPBH (PolyPPBH-DNA) have been chemically prepared then used as templates to direct the formation of metal nanowires (Cu) in order to enhance the electrical properties of the polymer/DNA wires. The chemical structures, morphology and the electrical characterisation of the as obtained structures have been characterized through spectroscopic (FTIR, UV-vis and XPS), single-crystal X-ray diffraction and microscopic (AFM, EFM and c-AFM) techniques. The morphology of the nanomaterials has been observed by AFM; showing the nanowires are uniform and continuous. The polymer conductivity was slightly improved after metallization. The conductivity of Cu-PolyPPBH-DNA nanowires was estimated to be 7.1x10-2 S cm-1. This conductivity is slightly higher than the conductivity of PolyPPBH-DNA nano wires (2.0 x 10-2 S cm-1), but it is lower than the measurements for PPy/DNA nano wires (2.1 x 10-1 S cm-1) prepared and measured by using c-AFM probe. These results reflect the large effect of the chemical structure (N-substitution) on the electrical properties of these polymers by reducing the extended conjugation.

Keywords: DNA, template, nano wires, N-Alkylatedpyrrole, copper

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106 Development and Characterisation of a Microbioreactor 'Cassette' for Cell Culture Applications

Authors: Nelson Barrientos, Matthew J. Davies, Marco C. Marques, Darren N. Nesbeth, Gary J. Lye, Nicolas Szita

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Microbioreactor technology is making important advances towards its application in cell culture and bioprocess development. In particular, the technology promises flexible and controllable devices capable to perform parallelised experimentation at low cost. Currently, state of the art methods (e.g. optical sensors) allow the accurate monitoring of the microbioreactor operation. In addition, the laminar flow regime encountered in these devices allows more predictive fluid dynamics modelling, improving the control over the soluble, physical and mechanical environment of the cells. This work describes the development and characterisation of a novel microbioreactor cassette system (microbioreactor volume is 150 μL. The volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (KLa) and mixing time have been characterised to be between 25 to 113 h-1 and 0.5 and 0.1 s, respectively. In addition, the Residence time distribution (RTD) analysis confirms that the reactor operates at well mixed conditions. Finally, Staphylococcus carnosus TM300 growth is demonstrated via batch culture experiments. Future work consists in expanding the optics of the microbioreactor design to include the monitoring of variables such as fluorescent protein expression, among others.

Keywords: microbioreactor, cell-culture, fermentation, microfluidics

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105 On the Possibility of Real Time Characterisation of Ambient Toxicity Using Multi-Wavelength Photoacoustic Instrument

Authors: Tibor Ajtai, Máté Pintér, Noémi Utry, Gergely Kiss-Albert, Andrea Palágyi, László Manczinger, Csaba Vágvölgyi, Gábor Szabó, Zoltán Bozóki

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According to the best knowledge of the authors, here we experimentally demonstrate first, a quantified correlation between the real-time measured optical feature of the ambient and the off-line measured toxicity data. Finally, using these correlations we are presenting a novel methodology for real time characterisation of ambient toxicity based on the multi wavelength aerosol phase photoacoustic measurement. Ambient carbonaceous particulate matter is one of the most intensively studied atmospheric constituent in climate science nowadays. Beyond their climatic impact, atmospheric soot also plays an important role as an air pollutant that harms human health. Moreover, according to the latest scientific assessments ambient soot is the second most important anthropogenic emission source, while in health aspect its being one of the most harmful atmospheric constituents as well. Despite of its importance, generally accepted standard methodology for the quantitative determination of ambient toxicology is not available yet. Dominantly, ambient toxicology measurement is based on the posterior analysis of filter accumulated aerosol with limited time resolution. Most of the toxicological studies are based on operational definitions using different measurement protocols therefore the comprehensive analysis of the existing data set is really limited in many cases. The situation is further complicated by the fact that even during its relatively short residence time the physicochemical features of the aerosol can be masked significantly by the actual ambient factors. Therefore, decreasing the time resolution of the existing methodology and developing real-time methodology for air quality monitoring are really actual issues in the air pollution research. During the last decades many experimental studies have verified that there is a relation between the chemical composition and the absorption feature quantified by Absorption Angström Exponent (AAE) of the carbonaceous particulate matter. Although the scientific community are in the common platform that the PhotoAcoustic Spectroscopy (PAS) is the only methodology that can measure the light absorption by aerosol with accurate and reliable way so far, the multi-wavelength PAS which are able to selectively characterise the wavelength dependency of absorption has become only available in the last decade. In this study, the first results of the intensive measurement campaign focusing the physicochemical and toxicological characterisation of ambient particulate matter are presented. Here we demonstrate the complete microphysical characterisation of winter time urban ambient including optical absorption and scattering as well as size distribution using our recently developed state of the art multi-wavelength photoacoustic instrument (4λ-PAS), integrating nephelometer (Aurora 3000) as well as single mobility particle sizer and optical particle counter (SMPS+C). Beyond this on-line characterisation of the ambient, we also demonstrate the results of the eco-, cyto- and genotoxicity measurements of ambient aerosol based on the posterior analysis of filter accumulated aerosol with 6h time resolution. We demonstrate a diurnal variation of toxicities and AAE data deduced directly from the multi-wavelength absorption measurement results.

Keywords: photoacoustic spectroscopy, absorption Angström exponent, toxicity, Ames-test

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104 Characterisation of the H-ZSM-5 Zeolite Samples Synthesized in Wide Range of Si/Al Ratios and with H₂SO₄ and CH₃COOH Acids Used for Transformation to H-Form

Authors: Mladen Jankovic, Biljana Djuric, Djurdja Oljaca, Vladimir Damjanovic, Radislav Filipovic, Zoran Obrenovic

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One of the key characteristics of zeolites with ZSM-5 crystalline form is the possibility of synthesis in a wide range of molar ratios, from the relatively low ratio of about 20 to highly silicate forms with a Si/Al ratio over 1000. For industrial production and commercial use of this type of zeolite, it is very important to know the influence of the molar Si/Al ratio on the characteristics of zeolite powders. In this paper, the influence of the Si/Al ratio on the characteristics of H-ZSM-5 zeolites synthesized in the presence of tetrapropylammonium bromide is questioned, including the possibility of conversion to the H-form using different acids. The quality of the samples is characterized in terms of crystallinity, chemical composition, morphology, granulometry, specific surface area (BET), pore size and acidity. XRD, FT-IR, EDX, ICP, SEM and TPD instrumental techniques were used to characterize the samples. In most of the performed syntheses, zeolite has been obtained with very good properties. It was shown that the examined conditions have a significant influence on the characteristics of the synthesized powders. The different chemical composition of the starting mixture, ie. the Si/Al ratio, has a very significant influence on the crystal structure of the synthesized powders, and thus on the other tested characteristics. It has been observed that optimal ion exchange results for powders of different Si/Al ratios are achieved by using different acids. Also, the dependence of the specific surface on the concentration of H+ or Na+ ions was confirmed.

Keywords: Characterisation, H-ZSM-5, molar ratio, synthesis, tetrapropylammonium bromide

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103 Production, Characterisation and Assessment of Biomixture Fuels for Compression Ignition Engine Application

Authors: K. Masera, A. K. Hossain

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Hardly any neat biodiesel satisfies the European EN14214 standard for compression ignition engine application. To satisfy the EN14214 standard, various additives are doped into biodiesel; however, biodiesel additives might cause other problems such as increase in the particular emission and increased specific fuel consumption. In addition, the additives could be expensive. Considering the increasing level of greenhouse gas GHG emissions and fossil fuel depletion, it is forecasted that the use of biodiesel will be higher in the near future. Hence, the negative aspects of the biodiesel additives will likely to gain much more importance and need to be replaced with better solutions. This study aims to satisfy the European standard EN14214 by blending the biodiesels derived from sustainable feedstocks. Waste Cooking Oil (WCO) and Animal Fat Oil (AFO) are two sustainable feedstocks in the EU (including the UK) for producing biodiesels. In the first stage of the study, these oils were transesterified separately and neat biodiesels (W100 & A100) were produced. Secondly, the biodiesels were blended together in various ratios: 80% WCO biodiesel and 20% AFO biodiesel (W80A20), 60% WCO biodiesel and 40% AFO biodiesel (W60A40), 50% WCO biodiesel and 50% AFO biodiesel (W50A50), 30% WCO biodiesel and 70% AFO biodiesel (W30A70), 10% WCO biodiesel and 90% AFO biodiesel (W10A90). The prepared samples were analysed using Thermo Scientific Trace 1300 Gas Chromatograph and ISQ LT Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS). The GS-MS analysis gave Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) breakdowns of the fuel samples. It was found that total saturation degree of the samples was linearly increasing (from 15% for W100 to 54% for A100) as the percentage of the AFO biodiesel was increased. Furthermore, it was found that WCO biodiesel was mainly (82%) composed of polyunsaturated FAMEs. Cetane numbers, iodine numbers, calorific values, lower heating values and the densities (at 15 oC) of the samples were estimated by using the mass percentages data of the FAMEs. Besides, kinematic viscosities (at 40 °C and 20 °C), densities (at 15 °C), heating values and flash point temperatures of the biomixture samples were measured in the lab. It was found that estimated and measured characterisation results were comparable. The current study concluded that biomixture fuel samples W60A40 and W50A50 were perfectly satisfying the European EN 14214 norms without any need of additives. Investigation on engine performance, exhaust emission and combustion characteristics will be conducted to assess the full feasibility of the proposed biomixture fuels.

Keywords: biodiesel, blending, characterisation, CI engine

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102 Isolation, Purification and Characterisation of Non-Digestible Oligosaccharides Derived from Extracellular Polysaccharide of Antarctic Fungus Thelebolus Sp. IITKGP-BT12

Authors: Abinaya Balasubramanian, Satyabrata Ghosh, Satyahari Dey

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Non-Digestible Oligosaccharides(NDOs) are low molecular weight carbohydrates with degree of polymerization (DP) 3-20, that are delivered intact to the large intestine. NDOs are gaining attention as effective prebiotic molecules that facilitate prevention and treatment of several chronic diseases. Recently, NDOs are being obtained by cleaving complex polysaccharides as it results in high yield and also as the former tend to display greater bioactivity. Thelebolus sp. IITKGP BT-12, a recently identified psychrophilic, Ascomycetes fungus has been reported to produce a bioactive extracellular polysaccharide(EPS). The EPS has been proved to possess strong prebiotic activity and anti- proliferative effects. The current study is an attempt to identify and optimise the most suitable method for hydrolysis of the above mentioned novel EPS into NDOs, and further purify and characterise the same. Among physical, chemical and enzymatic methods, enzymatic hydrolysis was identified as the best method and the optimum hydrolysis conditions obtained using response surface methodology were: reaction time of 24h, β-(1,3) endo-glucanase concentration of 0.53U and substrate concentration of 10 mg/ml. The NDOs were purified using gel filtration chromatography and their molecular weights were determined using MALDI-TOF. The major fraction was found to have a DP of 7,8. The monomeric units of the NDOs were confirmed to be glucose using TLC and GCMS-MS analysis. The obtained oligosaccharides proved to be non-digestible when subjected to gastric acidity, salivary and pancreatic amylases and hence could serve as efficient prebiotics.

Keywords: characterisation, enzymatic hydrolysis, non-digestible oligosaccharides, response surface methodology

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101 Structural Characterization of TIR Domains Interaction

Authors: Sara Przetocka, Krzysztof Żak, Grzegorz Dubin, Tadeusz Holak

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Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play central role in the innate immune response and inflammation by recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). A fundamental basis of TLR signalling is dependent upon the recruitment and association of adaptor molecules that contain the structurally conserved Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain. MyD88 (myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88) is the universal adaptor for TLRs and cooperates with Mal (MyD88 adapter-like protein, also known as TIRAP) in TLR4 response which is predominantly used in inflammation, host defence and carcinogenesis. Up to date two possible models of MyD88, Mal and TLR4 interactions have been proposed. The aim of our studies is to confirm or abolish presented models and accomplish the full structural characterisation of TIR domains interaction. Using molecular cloning methods we obtained several construct of MyD88 and Mal TIR domain with GST or 6xHis tag. Gel filtration method as well as pull-down analysis confirmed that recombinant TIR domains from MyD88 and Mal are binding in complexes. To examine whether obtained complexes are homo- or heterodimers we carried out cross-linking reaction of TIR domains with BS3 compound combined with mass spectrometry. To investigate which amino acid residues are involved in this interaction the NMR titration experiments were performed. 15N MyD88-TIR solution was complemented with non-labelled Mal-TIR. The results undoubtedly indicate that MyD88-TIR interact with Mal-TIR. Moreover 2D spectra demonstrated that simultaneously Mal-TIR self-dimerization occurs which is necessary to create proper scaffold for Mal-TIR and MyD88-TIR interaction. Final step of this study will be crystallization of MyD88 and Mal TIR domains complex. This crystal structure and characterisation of its interface will have an impact in understanding the TLR signalling pathway and possibly will be used in development of new anti-cancer treatment.

Keywords: cancer, MyD88, TIR domains, Toll-like receptors

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100 Safety Testing of Commercial Lithium-Ion Batteries and Failure Modes Analysis

Authors: Romeo Malik, Yashraj Tripathy, Anup Barai

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Transportation safety is a major concern for vehicle electrification on a large-scale. The failure cost of lithium-ion batteries is substantial and is significantly impacted by higher liability and replacement cost. With continuous advancement on the material front in terms of higher energy density, upgrading safety characteristics are becoming more crucial for broader integration of lithium-ion batteries. Understanding and impeding thermal runaway is the prime issue for battery safety researchers. In this study, a comprehensive comparison of thermal runaway mechanisms for two different cathode types, Li(Ni₀.₃Co₀.₃Mn₀.₃)O₂ and Li(Ni₀.₈Co₀.₁₅Al₀.₀₅)O₂ is explored. Both the chemistries were studied for different states of charge, and the various abuse scenarios that lead to thermal runaway is investigated. Abuse tests include mechanical abuse, electrical abuse, and thermal abuse. Batteries undergo thermal runaway due to a series of combustible reactions taking place internally; this is observed as multiple jets of flame reaching temperatures of the order of 1000ºC. The physicochemical characterisation was performed on cells, prior to and after abuse. Battery’s state of charge and chemistry have a significant effect on the flame temperature profiles which is otherwise quantified as heat released. Majority of the failures during transportation is due to these external short circuit. Finally, a mitigation approach is proposed to impede the thermal runaway hazard. Transporting lithium-ion batteries under low states of charge is proposed as a way forward. Batteries at low states of charge have demonstrated minimal heat release under thermal runaway reducing the risk of secondary hazards such as thermal runaway propagation.

Keywords: battery reliability, lithium-ion batteries, thermal runaway characterisation, tomography

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99 Electrochemical APEX for Genotyping MYH7 Gene: A Low Cost Strategy for Minisequencing of Disease Causing Mutations

Authors: Ahmed M. Debela, Mayreli Ortiz , Ciara K. O´Sullivan

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The completion of the human genome Project (HGP) has paved the way for mapping the diversity in the overall genome sequence which helps to understand the genetic causes of inherited diseases and susceptibility to drugs or environmental toxins. Arrayed primer extension (APEX) is a microarray based minisequencing strategy for screening disease causing mutations. It is derived from Sanger DNA sequencing and uses fluorescently dideoxynucleotides (ddNTPs) for termination of a growing DNA strand from a primer with its 3´- end designed immediately upstream of a site where single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) occurs. The use of DNA polymerase offers a very high accuracy and specificity to APEX which in turn happens to be a method of choice for multiplex SNP detection. Coupling the high specificity of this method with the high sensitivity, low cost and compatibility for miniaturization of electrochemical techniques would offer an excellent platform for detection of mutation as well as sequencing of DNA templates. We are developing an electrochemical APEX for the analysis of SNPs found in the MYH7 gene for group of cardiomyopathy patients. ddNTPs were labeled with four different redox active compounds with four distinct potentials. Thiolated oligonucleotide probes were immobilised on gold and glassy carbon substrates which are followed by hybridisation with complementary target DNA just adjacent to the base to be extended by polymerase. Electrochemical interrogation was performed after the incorporation of the redox labelled dedioxynucleotide. The work involved the synthesis and characterisation of the redox labelled ddNTPs, optimisation and characterisation of surface functionalisation strategies and the nucleotide incorporation assays.

Keywords: array based primer extension, labelled ddNTPs, electrochemical, mutations

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98 Synthesis and Characterisation of New Heteropolyanion Substitute by CO2+

Authors: Ouahiba Bechiri, Mostefa Abbessi

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In recent year, polyoxometallates are intensely being explored because of their applications as new materiels, structural aesthetics, catalysts, and biologically active compounds. heteropolyanions of general formulae [X2M18O62] n- (X= heteroatom, e.g. P, Si) and (M=W, Mo), known as Dawson-type anions, constitue a special class of polyoxometallate compounds. In this present work, cobalt substituted heteropolyanion Dawson-type [HP2W15Mo3CoO61] were synthesized and characterized by IR spectroscopy, 31 P NMR, cyclic voltammetry.

Keywords: heteropolyanions, nanomaterials, Dawson-type, characterization

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97 Pharmaceutical Science and Development in Drug Research

Authors: Adegoke Yinka Adebayo

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An understanding of the critical product attributes that impact on in vivo performance is key to the production of safe and effective medicines. Thus, a key driver for our research is the development of new basic science and technology underpinning the development of new pharmaceutical products. Research includes the structure and properties of drugs and excipients, biopharmaceutical characterisation, pharmaceutical processing and technology and formulation and analysis.

Keywords: drug discovery, drug development, drug delivery

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96 Influence of Preparation, Characterisation and Application of Carbon Nano Tube

Authors: Dhaivat S. Soni, Snehal Thakor, Afroz Bhatti

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The prepare CNTs in bulk quantity by as easiest as possible method with highly pure and small diameter. Prepared CNTs first charactered its structural parameter for the conformation of CNTs and purity. Surface morphology of CNTs stured by using various instruments finally study application of prepared CNTs in various field. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were synthesized in large scale by pyrolyzing activated carbon in sealed autoclaves.

Keywords: nanostructures, nanotubes, carbon, pyrolysis

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95 Experimental Characterisation of Composite Panels for Railway Flooring

Authors: F. Pedro, S. Dias, A. Tadeu, J. António, Ó. López, A. Coelho

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Railway transportation is considered the most economical and sustainable way to travel. However, future mobility brings important challenges to railway operators. The main target is to develop solutions that stimulate sustainable mobility. The research and innovation goals for this domain are efficient solutions, ensuring an increased level of safety and reliability, improved resource efficiency, high availability of the means (train), and satisfied passengers with the travel comfort level. These requirements are in line with the European Strategic Agenda for the 2020 rail sector, promoted by the European Rail Research Advisory Council (ERRAC). All these aspects involve redesigning current equipment and, in particular, the interior of the carriages. Recent studies have shown that two of the most important requirements for passengers are reasonable ticket prices and comfortable interiors. Passengers tend to use their travel time to rest or to work, so train interiors and their systems need to incorporate features that meet these requirements. Among the various systems that integrate train interiors, the flooring system is one of the systems with the greatest impact on passenger safety and comfort. It is also one of the systems that takes more time to install on the train, and which contributes seriously to the weight (mass) of all interior systems. Additionally, it presents a strong impact on manufacturing costs. The design of railway floor, in the development phase, is usually made relying on a design software that allows to draw and calculate several solutions in a short period of time. After obtaining the best solution, considering the goals previously defined, experimental data is always necessary and required. This experimental phase has such great significance, that its outcome can provoke the revision of the designed solution. This paper presents the methodology and some of the results of an experimental characterisation of composite panels for railway application. The mechanical tests were made for unaged specimens and for specimens that suffered some type of aging, i.e. heat, cold and humidity cycles or freezing/thawing cycles. These conditionings aim to simulate not only the time effect, but also the impact of severe environmental conditions. Both full solutions and separated components/materials were tested. For the full solution, (panel) these were: four-point bending tests, tensile shear strength, tensile strength perpendicular to the plane, determination of the spreading of water, and impact tests. For individual characterisation of the components, more specifically for the covering, the following tests were made: determination of the tensile stress-strain properties, determination of flexibility, determination of tear strength, peel test, tensile shear strength test, adhesion resistance test and dimensional stability. The main conclusions were that experimental characterisation brings a huge contribution to understand the behaviour of the materials both individually and assembled. This knowledge contributes to the increase the quality and improvements of premium solutions. This research work was framed within the POCI-01-0247-FEDER-003474 (coMMUTe) Project funded by Portugal 2020 through the COMPETE 2020.

Keywords: durability, experimental characterization, mechanical tests, railway flooring system

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94 Rank of Semigroup: Generating Sets and Cases Revealing Limitations of the Concept of Independence

Authors: Zsolt Lipcsey, Sampson Marshal Imeh

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We investigate a certain characterisation for rank of a semigroup by Howie and Ribeiro (1999), to ascertain the relevance of the concept of independence. There are cases where the concept of independence fails to be useful for this purpose. One would expect the basic element to be the maximal independent subset of a given semigroup. However, we construct examples for semigroups where finite basis exist and the basis is larger than the number of independent elements.

Keywords: generating sets, independent set, rank, cyclic semigroup, basis, commutative

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93 Characterisation of Extracellular Polymeric Substances from Bacteria Isolated from Acid Mine Decant in Gauteng, South Africa

Authors: Nonhlanhla Nkosi, Kulsum Kondiah

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The toxicological manifestation of heavy metals motivates interest towards the development of a reliable, eco-friendly biosorption process. With that being said, the aim of the current study was to characterise the EPS from heavy-metal resistant bacteria isolated from acid mine decant on the West Rand, Gauteng, South Africa. To achieve this, six exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing, metal resistant strains (Pb101, Pb102, Pb103, Pb204, Co101, and Ni101) were identified as Bacillus safensis strain NBRC 100820, Bacillus proteolyticus, Micrococcus luteus, Enterobacter sp. Pb204, Bacillus wiedmannii and Bacillus zhangzhouensis, respectively with 16S rRNA sequencing. Thereafter, EPS was extracted using chemical (formaldehyde/NaOH) and physical (ultrasonification) methods followed by physicochemical characterisation of carbohydrate, DNA, and protein contents using chemical assays and spectroscopy (FTIR- Fourier transformed infrared and 3DEEM- three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy). EPS treated with formaldehyde/NaOH showed better recovery of macromolecules than ultrasonification. The results of the present study showed that carbohydrates were more abundant than proteins, with carbohydrate and protein concentrations of 8.00 mg/ml and 0.22 mg/ml using chemical method in contrast to 5.00 mg/ml and 0.77 mg/ml using physical method, respectively. The FTIR spectroscopy results revealed that the extracted EPS contained hydroxyl, amide, acyl, and carboxyl groups that corresponded to the aforementioned chemical analysis results, thus asserting the presence of carbohydrates, DNA, polysaccharides, and proteins in the EPS. These findings suggest that identified functional groups of EPS form surface charges, which serve as the binding sites for suspended particles, thus possibly mediating adsorption of divalent cations and heavy metals. Using the extracted EPS in the development of a cost-effective biosorption solution for industrial wastewater treatment is attainable.

Keywords: biosorbent, exopolysaccharides, heavy metals, wastewater treatment

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92 Q Slope Rock Mass Classification and Slope Stability Assessment Methodology Application in Steep Interbedded Sedimentary Rock Slopes for a Motorway Constructed North of Auckland, New Zealand

Authors: Azariah Sosa, Carlos Renedo Sanchez

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The development of a new motorway north of Auckland (New Zealand) includes steep rock cuts, from 63 up to 85 degrees, in an interbedded sandstone and siltstone rock mass of the geological unit Waitemata Group (Pakiri Formation), which shows sub-horizontal bedding planes, various sub-vertical joint sets, and a diverse weathering profile. In this kind of rock mass -that can be classified as a weak rock- the definition of the stable maximum geometry is not only governed by discontinuities and defects evident in the rock but is important to also consider the global stability of the rock slope, including (in the analysis) the rock mass characterisation, influence of the groundwater, the geological evolution, and the weathering processes. Depending on the weakness of the rock and the processes suffered, the global stability could, in fact, be a more restricting element than the potential instability of individual blocks through discontinuities. This paper discusses those elements that govern the stability of the rock slopes constructed in a rock formation with favourable bedding and distribution of discontinuities (horizontal and vertical) but with a weak behaviour in terms of global rock mass characterisation. In this context, classifications as Q-Slope and slope stability assessment methodology (SSAM) have been demonstrated as important tools which complement the assessment of the global stability together with the analytical tools related to the wedge-type failures and limit equilibrium methods. The paper focuses on the applicability of these two new empirical classifications to evaluate the slope stability in 18 already excavated rock slopes in the Pakiri formation through comparison between the predicted and observed stability issues and by reviewing the outcome of analytical methods (Rocscience slope stability software suite) compared against the expected stability determined from these rock classifications. This exercise will help validate such findings and correlations arising from the two empirical methods in order to adjust the methods to the nature of this specific kind of rock mass and provide a better understanding of the long-term stability of the slopes studied.

Keywords: Pakiri formation, Q-slope, rock slope stability, SSAM, weak rock

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91 The Characterisation of TLC NAND Flash Memory, Leading to a Definable Endurance/Retention Trade-Off

Authors: Sorcha Bennett, Joe Sullivan

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Triple-Level Cell (TLC) NAND Flash memory at, and below, 20nm (nanometer) is still largely unexplored by researchers, and with the ever more commonplace existence of Flash in consumer and enterprise applications there is a need for such gaps in knowledge to be filled. At the time of writing, there was little published data or literature on TLC, and more specifically reliability testing, with a further emphasis on both endurance and retention. This paper will give an introduction to NAND Flash memory, followed by an overview of the relevant current research on the reliability of Flash memory, along with the planned future work which will provide results to help characterise the reliability of TLC memory.

Keywords: endurance, patterns, raw flash, reliability, retention, TLC NAND flash memory, trade-off

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90 Material Response Characterisation of a PolyJet 3D Printed Human Infant Skull

Authors: G. A. Khalid, R. Prabhu, W. Whittington, M. D. Jones

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To establish a causal relationship of infant head injury consequences, this present study addresses the necessary challenges of cranial geometry and the physical response complexities of the paediatric head tissues. Herein, we describe a new approach to characterising and understanding infant head impact mechanics by developing printed head models, using high resolution clinical postmortem imaging, to provide the most complete anatomical representation currently available, and biological material response data-matched polypropylene polymers, to replicate the relative mechanical response properties of immature cranial bone, sutures and fontanelles. Additive manufacturing technology was applied to creating a physical polymeric model of a newborn infant skull, using PolyJet printed materials. Infant skull materials responses, were matched by a response characterisation study, utilising uniaxial tensile testing (1 mm min-1 loading rate), to determine: the stiffness, ultimate tensile strength and maximum strain of rigid and rubber additively manufactured acrylates. The results from the mechanical experiments confirm that the polymeric materials RGD835 Vero White Plus (White), representing the frontal and parietal bones; RGD8510- DM Rigid Light Grey25 (Grey), representing the occipital bone; and FLX9870-DM (Black) representing the suture and fontanelles, were found to show a close stiffness -correlation (E) at ambient temperatures. A 3D physical model of infant head was subsequently printed from the matched materials and subsequently validated against results obtained from a series of Post Mortem Human Surrogate (PMHS) tests. A close correlation was demonstrated between the model impact tests and the PMHS. This study, therefore, represents a key step towards applying printed physical models to understanding head injury biomechanics and is useful in the efforts to predict and mitigate head injury consequences in infants, whether accidental or by abuse.

Keywords: infant head trauma, infant skull, material response, post mortem human subjects, polyJet printing

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89 Synthesis and Characterisation of Bi-Substituted Magnetite Nanoparticles by Mechanochemical Processing (MCP)

Authors: Morteza Mohri Esfahani, Amir S. H. Rozatian, Morteza Mozaffari

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Single phase magnetite nanoparticles and Bi-substituted ones were prepared by mechanochemical processing (MCP). The effects of Bi-substitution on the structural and magnetic properties of the nanoparticles were studied by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and magnetometry techniques, respectively. The XRD results showed that all samples have spinel phase and by increasing Bi content, the main diffraction peaks were shifted to higher angles, which means the lattice parameter decreases from 0.843 to 0.838 nm and then increases to 0.841 nm. Also, the results revealed that increasing Bi content lead to a decrease in saturation magnetization (Ms) from 74.9 to 48.8 emu/g and an increase in coercivity (Hc) from 96.8 to 137.1 Oe.

Keywords: bi-substituted magnetite nanoparticles, mechanochemical processing, X-ray diffraction, magnetism

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88 Characterisation of Human Attitudes in Software Requirements Elicitation

Authors: Mauro Callejas-Cuervo, Andrea C. Alarcon-Aldana

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It is evident that there has been progress in the development and innovation of tools, techniques and methods in the development of software. Even so, there are few methodologies that include the human factor from the point of view of motivation, emotions and impact on the work environment; aspects that, when mishandled or not taken into consideration, increase the iterations in the requirements elicitation phase. This generates a broad number of changes in the characteristics of the system during its developmental process and an overinvestment of resources to obtain a final product that, often, does not live up to the expectations and needs of the client. The human factors such as emotions or personality traits are naturally associated with the process of developing software. However, most of these jobs are oriented towards the analysis of the final users of the software and do not take into consideration the emotions and motivations of the members of the development team. Given that in the industry, the strategies to select the requirements engineers and/or the analysts do not take said factors into account, it is important to identify and describe the characteristics or personality traits in order to elicit requirements effectively. This research describes the main personality traits associated with the requirements elicitation tasks through the analysis of the existing literature on the topic and a compilation of our experiences as software development project managers in the academic and productive sectors; allowing for the characterisation of a suitable profile for this job. Moreover, a psychometric test is used as an information gathering technique, and it is applied to the personnel of some local companies in the software development sector. Such information has become an important asset in order to make a comparative analysis between the degree of effectiveness in the way their software development teams are formed and the proposed profile. The results show that of the software development companies studied: 53.58% have selected the personnel for the task of requirements elicitation adequately, 37.71% possess some of the characteristics to perform the task, and 10.71% are inadequate. From the previous information, it is possible to conclude that 46.42% of the requirements engineers selected by the companies could perform other roles more adequately; a change which could improve the performance and competitiveness of the work team and, indirectly, the quality of the product developed. Likewise, the research allowed for the validation of the pertinence and usefulness of the psychometric instrument as well as the accuracy of the characteristics for the profile of requirements engineer proposed as a reference.

Keywords: emotions, human attitudes, personality traits, psychometric tests, requirements engineering

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87 Flue Gas Characterisation for Conversion to Chemicals and Fuels

Authors: Adesola O. Orimoloye, Edward Gobina

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Flue gas is the most prevalent source of carbon dioxide off-gas from numerous processes globally. Among the lion's share of this flue gas is the ever-present electric power plant, primarily fuelled by coal, and then secondly, natural gas. The carbon dioxide found in coal fired power plant off gas is among the dirtiest forms of carbon dioxide, even with many of the improvements in the plants; still this will yield sulphur and nitrogen compounds; among other rather nasty compounds and elements; all let to the atmosphere. This presentation will focus on the characterization of carbon dioxide-rich flue gas sources with a view of eventual conversion to chemicals and fuels using novel membrane reactors.

Keywords: flue gas, carbon dioxide, membrane, catalyst, syngas

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86 On the Problems of Human Concept Learning within Terminological Systems

Authors: Farshad Badie

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The central focus of this article is on the fact that knowledge is constructed from an interaction between humans’ experiences and over their conceptions of constructed concepts. Logical characterisation of ‘human inductive learning over human’s constructed concepts’ within terminological systems and providing a logical background for theorising over the Human Concept Learning Problem (HCLP) in terminological systems are the main contributions of this research. This research connects with the topics ‘human learning’, ‘epistemology’, ‘cognitive modelling’, ‘knowledge representation’ and ‘ontological reasoning’.

Keywords: human concept learning, concept construction, knowledge construction, terminological systems

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85 Adsorption Studies of Lead from Aqueos Solutions on Cocount Shell Activated Carbon

Authors: G. E. Sharaf El-Deen, S. E. A. Sharaf El-Deen

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Activated carbon was prepared from coconut shell (ACS); a discarded agricultural waste was used to produce bioadsorbent through easy and environmental friendly processes. This activated carbon based biosorbent was evaluated for adsorptive removal of lead from water. The characterisation results showed this biosorbent had very high specific surface area and functional groups. The adsorption equilibrium data was well described by Langmuir, whilst kinetics data by pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and Intraparticle diffusion models. The adsorption process could be described by the pseudo-second order kinetic.

Keywords: coconut shell, activated carbon, adsorption isotherm and kinetics, lead removal

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84 Synthesis Characterisation and Evaluation of Co-Processed Wax Matrix Excipient for Controlled Release Tablets Formulation

Authors: M. Kalyan Raj, Vinay Umesh Rao, M. Sudhakar

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The work focuses on the development of a directly compressible controlled release co-processed excipient using melt granulation technique. Erodible wax matrix systems are fabricated in which three different types of waxes are co processed separately with Maize starch in different ratios by melt granulation. The resultant free flowing powder is characterized by FTIR, NMR, Mass spectrophotometer and gel permeation chromatography. Also, controlled release tablets of Aripiprazole were formulated and dissolution profile was compared with that of the target product profile given in Zysis patent (Patent no. 20100004262) for Aripiprazole once a week formulation.

Keywords: co-processing, hot melt extrusion, direct compression, maize starch, stearic acid, aripiprazole

Procedia PDF Downloads 317