Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 168

Search results for: shaft-tunnel junction

168 Numerical Solution of 1-D Shallow Water Equations at Junction for Sub-Critical and Super-Critical Flow

Authors: Mohamed Elshobaki, Alessandro Valiani, Valerio Caleffi

Abstract:

In this paper, we solve 1-D shallow water equation for sub-critical and super-critical water flow at junction. The water flow at junction has been studied for the last 50 years from the physical-hydraulic point of views and for numerical computations need more attention. For numerical simulation, we need to establish an inner boundary condition at the junction to avoid an oscillation which rise from the waves interactions at the junction. Indeed, we introduce a new boundary condition at the junction based on the mass conservation, total head, and the admissible wave relations between the flow parameters in the three branches to predict the water depths and discharges at the junction. These boundary conditions are valid for sub-critical flow and super-critical flow.

Keywords: numerical simulation, junction flow, sub-critical flow, super-critical flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
167 Highly Concentrated Photo Voltaic using Multi-Junction Concentrator Cell

Authors: Oriahi Love Ndidi

Abstract:

High concentration photovoltaic promises a more efficient, higher power output than traditional photovoltaic modules. One of the driving forces of this high system efficiency has been the continuous improvement of III-V multi-junction solar cell efficiencies. Multi-junction solar cells built from III-V semiconductors are being evaluated globally in concentrated photovoltaic systems designed to supplement electricity generation for utility companies. The high efficiency of this III-V multi-junction concentrator cells, with demonstrated efficiency over 40 percent since 2006, strongly reduces the cost of concentrated photovoltaic systems, and makes III-V multi-junction cells the technology of choice for most concentrator systems today.

Keywords: cost of multi-junction solar cell, efficiency, photovoltaic systems, reliability

Procedia PDF Downloads 640
166 Study of Deflection at Junction in the Precast on Cyclic Loading

Authors: Jongho Park, Ui-Cheol Shin, Jinwoong Choi, Sungnam Hong, Sun-Kyu Park

Abstract:

While the numerous structures built the industrialization are aging, the effort for the maintenance is concentrated in many countries. However, the traffic jam, environmental damage, and enormous maintenance cost, and etc become a problem. So, in order to solve this, the modular bridge has been studied. This bridge is the structure which utilizes and assembles the standard precast member. Through this, the substitution of the existing bridge and advantage of the easy maintenance will be achieved. However, the reliability in the long-term behavior is insufficient due to the junction part between modular precast members. Therefore, in this research, the cyclic load loading experiment was performed on the junction and deflection was analyzed by long-term service in modular slab connection. The deflection of modular slab with junction was mostly generated when initial and final test.

Keywords: modular bridge, deflection, cyclic loading, junction

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
165 Comparison of Different Methods of Evaluating Nozzle Junction Stresses under External Loads

Authors: Vinod Kumar, Arun Kumar, Surjit Angra

Abstract:

This paper addresses the junction stress analysis of orthogonally intersecting thin walled cylindrical shell and thin walled cylindrical nozzle subjected to external loading on nozzle. Junction stresses have been calculated theoretically by welding research council (WRC) bulletins 107 and 297 for different nozzle loads. WRC bulletins 107 and 297 have been used by design engineers for calculating nozzle-vessel junction stresses since their publication. They give simple empirical relations and easy in application. Also 3D FEA in which material is elastic has been done in ANSYS software with 8 node solid element model and results of FEA have been compared with WRC results. Stress intensities obtained by WRC 297 are generally slightly higher than obtained by WRC 107. Membrane stresses obtained by FEA are much higher than WRC and membrane plus bending stresses obtained by FEA are lower than WRC.

Keywords: FEA, junction stress, solid element, WRC 107, WRC 297

Procedia PDF Downloads 454
164 Comparison between the Efficiency of Heterojunction Thin Film InGaP\GaAs\Ge and InGaP\GaAs Solar Cell

Authors: F. Djaafar, B. Hadri, G. Bachir

Abstract:

This paper presents the design parameters for a thin film 3J InGaP/GaAs/Ge solar cell with a simulated maximum efficiency of 32.11% using Tcad Silvaco. Design parameters include the doping concentration, molar fraction, layers’ thickness and tunnel junction characteristics. An initial dual junction InGaP/GaAs model of a previous published heterojunction cell was simulated in Tcad Silvaco to accurately predict solar cell performance. To improve the solar cell’s performance, we have fixed meshing, material properties, models and numerical methods. However, thickness and layer doping concentration were taken as variables. We, first simulate the InGaP\GaAs dual junction cell by changing the doping concentrations and thicknesses which showed an increase in efficiency. Next, a triple junction InGaP/GaAs/Ge cell was modeled by adding a Ge layer to the previous dual junction InGaP/GaAs model with an InGaP /GaAs tunnel junction.

Keywords: heterojunction, modeling, simulation, thin film, Tcad Silvaco

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
163 Effects of Substrate Roughness on E-Cadherin Junction of Oral Keratinocytes

Authors: Sungpyo Kim, Changseok Oh, Ga-Young Lee, Hyun-Man Kim

Abstract:

Intercellular junction of keratinocytes is crucial for epithelia to build an epithelial barrier. Junctional epithelium (JE) seals the interfaces between tooth and gingival tissue. Keratinocytes of JE attach to surfaces roughened by abrasion or erosion with aging. Thus behavior of oral keratinocytes on the rough substrates may help understand the epithelial seal of JE of which major intercellular junction is E-cadherin junction (ECJ). The present study investigated the influence of various substrate roughnesses on the development of ECJ between normal human gingival epithelial keratinocytes, HOK-16B cells. HOK-16B cells were slow in the development of ECJ on the rough substrates compared to on the smooth substrates. Furthermore, oral keratinocytes on the substrates of higher roughnesses were delayed in the development of E-cadherin junction than on the substrates of lower roughnesses. Delayed development of E-cadherin junction on the rough substrates was ascribed to the impaired spreading of cells and its higher JNK activity. Cells on the smooth substrates rapidly spread wide cytoplasmic extensions around cells. However, cells on the rough substrates slowly extended narrow cytoplasmic extensions of which number was limited due to the substrate irregularity. As these cytoplasmic extensions formed ECJ when met with the extensions of neighboring cells, thus, the present study demonstrated that a limited chance of contacts between cytoplasmic extensions due to the limited number of cytoplasmic extensions and slow development of cytoplasmic extensions brought about a delayed development of ECJ in oral keratinocytes on the rougher substrates. Sealing between cells was not complete because only part of cell membrane contributes to the formation of intercellular junction between cells on the substrates of higher roughnesses. Interestingly, inhibition of JNK activity promoted the development of ECJ on the rough substrates, of which mechanism remains to be studied further.

Keywords: substrate roughness, E-cadherin junction, oral keratinocyte, cell spreading, JNK

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
162 Uniform Porous Multilayer-Junction Thin Film for Enhanced Gas-Sensing Performance

Authors: Ping-Ping Zhang, Hui-Zhang, Xu-Hui Sun

Abstract:

Highly-uniform In2O3/CuO bilayer and multilayer porous thin films were successfully fabricated using self-assembled soft template and simple sputtering deposition technique. The sensor based on the In2O3/CuO bilayer porous thin film shows obviously improved sensing performance to ethanol at the lower working temperature, compared to single layer counterpart sensors. The response of In2O3/CuO bilayer sensors exhibits nearly 3 and 5 times higher than those of the single layer In2O3 and CuO porous film sensors over the same ethanol concentration, respectively. The sensing mechanism based on p-n hetero-junction, which contributed to the enhanced sensing performance was also experimentally confirmed by a control experiment which the SiO2 insulation layer was inserted between the In2O3 and CuO layers to break the p-n junction. In addition, the sensing performance can be further enhanced by increasing the number of In2O3/CuO junction layers. The facile process can be easily extended to the fabrication of other semiconductor oxide gas sensors for practical sensing applications.

Keywords: gas sensor, multilayer porous thin films, In2O3/CuO, p-n junction

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
161 Electrical Performance Analysis of Single Junction Amorphous Silicon Solar (a-Si:H) Modules Using IV Tracer (PVPM)

Authors: Gilbert Omorodion Osayemwenre, Edson Meyer, R. T. Taziwa

Abstract:

The electrical analysis of single junction amorphous silicon solar modules is carried out using outdoor monitoring technique. Like crystalline silicon PV modules, the electrical characterisation and performance of single junction amorphous silicon modules are best described by its current-voltage (IV) characteristic. However, IV curve has a direct dependence on the type of PV technology and material properties used. The analysis reveals discrepancies in the modules performance parameter even though they are of similar technology. The aim of this work is to compare the electrical performance output of each module, using electrical parameters with the aid of PVPM 100040C IV tracer. These results demonstrated the relevance of standardising the performance parameter for effective degradation analysis of a-Si:H.

Keywords: PVPM 100040C IV tracer, SolarWatt part, single junction amorphous silicon module (a-Si:H), Staebler-Wronski (S-W) degradation effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
160 Numerical Simulation of Multijunction GaAs/CIGS Solar Cell by AMPS-1D

Authors: Hassane Ben Slimane, Benmoussa Dennai, Abderrahman Hemmani, Abderrachid Helmaoui

Abstract:

During the past few years a great variety of multi-junction solar cells has been developed with the aim of a further increase in efficiency beyond the limits of single junction devices. This paper analyzes the GaAs/CIGS based tandem solar cell performance by AMPS-1D numerical modeling. Various factors which affect the solar cell’s performance are investigated, carefully referring to practical cells, to obtain the optimum parameters for the GaAs and CIGS top and bottom solar cells. Among the factors studied are thickness and band gap energy of dual junction cells.

Keywords: multijunction solar cell, GaAs, CIGS, AMPS-1D

Procedia PDF Downloads 386
159 Modeling and Validation of Microspheres Generation in the Modified T-Junction Device

Authors: Lei Lei, Hongbo Zhang, Donald J. Bergstrom, Bing Zhang, K. Y. Song, W. J. Zhang

Abstract:

This paper presents a model for a modified T-junction device for microspheres generation. The numerical model is developed using a commercial software package: COMSOL Multiphysics. In order to test the accuracy of the numerical model, multiple variables, such as the flow rate of cross-flow, fluid properties, structure, and geometry of the microdevice are applied. The results from the model are compared with the experimental results in the diameter of the microsphere generated. The comparison shows a good agreement. Therefore the model is useful in further optimization of the device and feedback control of microsphere generation if any.

Keywords: CFD modeling, validation, microsphere generation, modified T-junction

Procedia PDF Downloads 498
158 Monitorization of Junction Temperature Using a Thermal-Test-Device

Authors: B. Arzhanov, A. Correia, P. Delgado, J. Meireles

Abstract:

Due to the higher power loss levels in electronic components, the thermal design of PCBs (Printed Circuit Boards) of an assembled device becomes one of the most important quality factors in electronics. Nonetheless, some of leading causes of the microelectronic component failures are due to higher temperatures, the leakages or thermal-mechanical stress, which is a concern, is the reliability of microelectronic packages. This article presents an experimental approach to measure the junction temperature of exposed pad packages. The implemented solution is in a prototype phase, using a temperature-sensitive parameter (TSP) to measure temperature directly on the die, validating the numeric results provided by the Mechanical APDL (Ansys Parametric Design Language) under same conditions. The physical device-under-test is composed by a Thermal Test Chip (TTC-1002) and assembly in a QFN cavity, soldered to a test-board according to JEDEC Standards. Monitoring the voltage drop across a forward-biased diode, is an indirectly method but accurate to obtain the junction temperature of QFN component with an applied power range between 0,3W to 1.5W. The temperature distributions on the PCB test-board and QFN cavity surface were monitored by an infra-red thermal camera (Goby-384) controlled and images processed by the Xeneth software. The article provides a set-up to monitorize in real-time the junction temperature of ICs, namely devices with the exposed pad package (i.e. QFN). Presenting the PCB layout parameters that the designer should use to improve thermal performance, and evaluate the impact of voids in solder interface in the device junction temperature.

Keywords: quad flat no-Lead packages, exposed pads, junction temperature, thermal management and measurements

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
157 RhoA Regulates E-Cadherin Intercellular Junctions in Oral Squamous Carcinoma Cells

Authors: Ga-Young Lee, Hyun-Man Kim

Abstract:

The modulation of the cell-cell junction is critical in epithelial-mesenchymal transition during tumorigenesis. As RhoA activity is known to be up-regulated to dissociate cell-cell junction by contracting acto-myosin complex in various cancer cells, the present study investigated if RhoA activity was also associated with the disruption of the cell-cell junction of oral cancer cells. We studied SCC-25 cells which are established from oral squamous cell carcinoma if their E-cadherin junction (ECJ) was under control of RhoA. Interestingly, development of ECJ of SCC-25 cells depended on the amount of fibronectin (FN) coated on the culture dishes. Seeded cells promptly aggregated to develop ECJ on the substrates coated with a low amount of FN, whereas they were retarded in the development of ECJ on the substrates coated with a high amount of FN. However, it was an unexpected finding that total RhoA activity was lower in the dissociated cells on the substrates of high FN than in the aggregated cells on the substrates of low FN. Treating the dissociated cells on the substrates of high FN with LPA, a RhoA activator, promoted the development to ECJ. In contrast, treating the aggregated cells on the substrates of low FN with Clostridium botulinum C3, a toxin decreasing RhoA activity, dissociated cells concomitant with the disruption of ECJ. Genetical knockdown of RhoA expression by transfecting RhoA siRNA also down-regulated the development of ECJ in SCC-25 cells. Furthermore, PMA, an activator of protein kinase C (PKC), down-regulated the development of ECJ junction of SCC-25 cells on the substrates coated with low FN. In contrast, GO6976, a PKC inhibitor, up-regulated the development of ECJ of SCC-25 cells with the activation of RhoA on the substrates coated with high FN. In conclusion, in the present study, we demonstrated unexpected results that the activation of RhoA promotes the development of ECJ, whereas the inhibition of RhoA retards the development of ECJ in SCC-25 cells.

Keywords: E-cadherin junction, oral squamous cell carcinoma, PKC, RhoA, SCC-25

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
156 Electronic Spectral Function of Double Quantum Dots–Superconductors Nanoscopic Junction

Authors: Rajendra Kumar

Abstract:

We study the Electronic spectral density of a double coupled quantum dots sandwich between superconducting leads, where one of the superconducting leads (QD1) are connected with left superconductor lead and (QD1) also connected right superconductor lead. (QD1) and (QD2) are coupling to each other. The electronic spectral density through a quantum dots between superconducting leads having s-wave symmetry of the superconducting order parameter. Such junction is called superconducting –quantum dot (S-QD-S) junction. For this purpose, we have considered a renormalized Anderson model that includes the double coupled of the superconducting leads with the quantum dots level and an attractive BCS-type effective interaction in superconducting leads. We employed the Green’s function technique to obtain superconducting order parameter with the BCS framework and Ambegaoker-Baratoff formalism to analyze the electronic spectral density through such (S-QD-S) junction. It has been pointed out that electronic spectral density through such a junction is dominated by the attractive the paring interaction in the leads, energy of the level on the dot with respect to Fermi energy and also on the coupling parameter of the two in an essential way. On the basis of numerical analysis we have compared the theoretical results of electronic spectral density with the recent transport existing theoretical analysis. QDs is the charging energy that may give rise to effects based on the interplay of Coulomb repulsion and superconducting correlations. It is, therefore, an interesting question to ask how the discrete level spectrum and the charging energy affect the DC and AC Josephson transport between two superconductors coupled via a QD. In the absence of a bias voltage, a finite DC current can be sustained in such an S-QD-S by the DC Josephson effect.

Keywords: quantum dots, S-QD-S junction, BCS superconductors, Anderson model

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
155 Sunlight-Activated Graphene Heterostructure Transparent Cathodes for High-Performance Graphene/Si Schottky Junction Photovoltaics

Authors: Po-Sun Ho, Chun-Wei Chen

Abstract:

This work demonstrated a “sunlight-activated” graphene-heterostructure transparent electrode in which photogenerated charges from a light-absorbing material are transferred to graphene, resulting in the modulation of electrical properties of the graphene transparent electrode caused by a strong light–matter interaction at graphene-heterostructure interfaces. A photoactive graphene/TiOx-heterostructure transparent cathode was used to fabricate an n-graphene/p-Si Schottky junction solar cell, achieving a record-high power conversion efficiency (>10%). The photoactive graphene-heterostructure transparent electrode, which exhibits excellent tunable electrical properties under sunlight illumination, has great potential for use in the future development of graphene-based photovoltaics and optoelectronics.

Keywords: graphene, transparent electrode, graphene/Si Schottky junction, solar cells

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
154 The Impact of Diesel Exhaust Particles on Tight Junction Proteins on Nose and Lung in a Mouse Model

Authors: Kim Byeong-Gon, Lee Pureun-Haneul, Hong Jisu, Jang An-Soo

Abstract:

Background: Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) lead to trigger airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and airway dysfunction or inflammation in respiratory systems. Whether tight junction protein changes can contribute to development or exacerbations of airway diseases remain to be clarified. Objective: The aim of this study was to observe the effect of DEP on tight junction proteins in one airway both nose and lung in a mouse model. Methods: Mice were treated with saline (Sham) and exposed to 100 μg/m³ DEPs 1 hour a day for 5 days a week for 4 weeks and 8 weeks in a closed-system chamber attached to a ultrasonic nebulizer. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) was measured and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, nasal lavage (NAL) fluid, lung and nasal tissue was collected. The effects of DEP on tight junction proteins were estimated using western blot, immunohistochemical in lung and nasal tissue. Results: Airway hyperresponsiveness and number of inflammatory cells were higher in DEP exposure group than in control group, and were higher in 4 and 8 weeks model than in control group. The expression of tight junction proteins CLND4, -5, and -17 in both lung and nasal tissue were significantly increased in DEP exposure group than in the control group. Conclusion: These results suggesting that CLDN4, -5 and -17 may be involved in the airway both nose and lung, suggesting that air pollutants cause to disruption of epithelial and endothelial cell barriers. Acknowledgment: This research was supported by Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) as 'The Environmental Health Action Program' (2016001360009) and Soonchunhyang University Research Fund.

Keywords: diesel exhaust particles, air pollutant, tight junction, Claudin, Airway inflammation

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
153 Graphical Modeling of High Dimension Processes with an Environmental Application

Authors: Ali S. Gargoum

Abstract:

Graphical modeling plays an important role in providing efficient probability calculations in high dimensional problems (computational efficiency). In this paper, we address one of such problems where we discuss fragmenting puff models and some distributional assumptions concerning models for the instantaneous, emission readings and for the fragmenting process. A graphical representation in terms of a junction tree of the conditional probability breakdown of puffs and puff fragments is proposed.

Keywords: graphical models, influence diagrams, junction trees, Bayesian nets

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
152 Determination of the Pull-Out/ Holding Strength at the Taper-Trunnion Junction of Hip Implants

Authors: Obinna K. Ihesiulor, Krishna Shankar, Paul Smith, Alan Fien

Abstract:

Excessive fretting wear at the taper-trunnion junction (trunnionosis) apparently contributes to the high failure rates of hip implants. Implant wear and corrosion lead to the release of metal particulate debris and subsequent release of metal ions at the taper-trunnion surface. This results in a type of metal poisoning referred to as metallosis. The consequences of metal poisoning include; osteolysis (bone loss), osteoarthritis (pain), aseptic loosening of the prosthesis and revision surgery. Follow up after revision surgery, metal debris particles are commonly found in numerous locations. Background: A stable connection between the femoral ball head (taper) and stem (trunnion) is necessary to prevent relative motions and corrosion at the taper junction. Hence, the importance of component assembly cannot be over-emphasized. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the influence of head-stem junction assembly by press fitting and the subsequent disengagement/disassembly on the connection strength between the taper ball head and stem. Methods: CoCr femoral heads were assembled with High stainless hydrogen steel stem (trunnion) by Push-in i.e. press fit; and disengaged by Pull-out test. The strength and stability of the two connections were evaluated by measuring the head pull-out forces according to ISO 7206-10 standards. Findings: The head-stem junction strength linearly increases with assembly forces.

Keywords: wear, modular hip prosthesis, taper head-stem, force assembly and disassembly

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
151 Optimization of Heterojunction Solar Cell Using AMPS-1D

Authors: Benmoussa Dennai, H. Benslimane, A. Helmaoui

Abstract:

Photo voltaic conversion is the direct conversion of electromagnetic energy into electrical energy continuously. This electromagnetic energy is the most solar radiation. In this work we performed a computer modelling using AMPS 1D optimization of hetero-junction solar cells GaInP/GaAs configuration for p/ n. We studied the influence of the thickness the base layer in the cell offers on the open circuit voltage, the short circuit current and efficiency.

Keywords: optimization, photovoltaic cell, GaInP / GaAs AMPS-1D, hetetro-junction

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
150 Optimization of Heterojunction Solar Cell Using AMPS-1D

Authors: Benmoussa Dennai, H. Benslimane, A. Helmaoui

Abstract:

Photovoltaic conversion is the direct conversion of electromagnetic energy into electrical energy continuously. This electromagnetic energy is the most solar radiation. In this work we performed a computer modelling using AMPS 1D optimization of hetero-junction solar cells GaInP / GaAs configuration for p / n. We studied the influence of the thickness the base layer in the cell offers on the open circuit voltage, the short circuit current and efficiency.

Keywords: optimization, photovoltaic cell, GaInP / GaAs AMPS-1D, hetetro-junction

Procedia PDF Downloads 440
149 Geometrical Based Unequal Droplet Splitting Using Microfluidic Y-Junction

Authors: Bahram Talebjedi, Amirmohammad Sattari, Ahmed Zoher Sihorwala, Mina Hoorfar

Abstract:

Among different droplet manipulations, controlled droplet-splitting is of great significance due to its ability to increase throughput and operational capability. Furthermore, unequal droplet-splitting can provide greater flexibility and a wider range of dilution factors. In this study, we developed two-dimensional, time-dependent complex fluid dynamics simulations to model droplet formation in a flow focusing device, followed by splitting in a Y-shaped junction with sub-channels of unequal widths. From the results obtained from the numerical study, we correlated the diameters of the droplets in the sub-channels to the Weber number, thereby demarcating the droplet splitting and non-splitting regimes.

Keywords: microfluidics, unequal droplet splitting, two phase flow, flow focusing device

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
148 A Finite Element Study of Laminitis in Horses

Authors: Naeim Akbari Shahkhosravi, Reza Kakavand, Helen M. S. Davies, Amin Komeili

Abstract:

Equine locomotion and performance are significantly affected by hoof health. One of the most critical diseases of the hoof is laminitis, which can lead to horse lameness in a severe condition. This disease exhibits the mechanical properties degradation of the laminar junction tissue within the hoof. Therefore, it is essential to investigate the biomechanics of the hoof, focusing specifically on excessive and cumulatively accumulated stresses within the laminar junction tissue. For this aim, the current study generated a novel equine hoof Finite Element (FE) model under dynamic physiological loading conditions and employing a hyperelastic material model. Associated tissues of the equine hoof were segmented from computed tomography scans of an equine forelimb, including the navicular bone, third phalanx, sole, frog, laminar junction, digital cushion, and medial- dorsal- lateral wall areas. The inner tissues were connected based on the hoof anatomy, and the hoof was under a dynamic loading over cyclic strides at the trot. The strain distribution on the hoof wall of the model was compared with the published in vivo strain measurements to validate the model. Then the validated model was used to study the development of laminitis. The ultimate stress tolerated by the laminar junction before rupture was considered as a stress threshold. The tissue damage was simulated through iterative reduction of the tissue’s mechanical properties in the presence of excessive maximum principal stresses. The findings of this investigation revealed how damage initiates from the medial and lateral sides of the tissue and propagates through the hoof dorsal area.

Keywords: horse hoof, laminitis, finite element model, continuous damage

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
147 Study of a Fabry-Perot Resonator

Authors: F. Hadjaj, A. Belghachi, A. Halmaoui, M. Belhadj, H. Mazouz

Abstract:

A laser is essentially an optical oscillator consisting of a resonant cavity, an amplifying medium and a pumping source. In semiconductor diode lasers, the cavity is created by the boundary between the cleaved face of the semiconductor crystal and air and also has reflective properties as a result of the differing refractive indices of the two media. For a GaAs-air interface a reflectance of 0.3 is typical and therefore the length of the semiconductor junction forms the resonant cavity. To prevent light, being emitted in unwanted directions from the junction and Sides perpendicular to the required direction are roughened. The objective of this work is to simulate the optical resonator Fabry-Perot and explore its main characteristics, such as FSR, Finesse, Linewidth, Transmission and so on that describe the performance of resonator.

Keywords: Fabry-Perot Resonator, laser diod, reflectance, semiconductor

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
146 Analytical Method for Seismic Analysis of Shaft-Tunnel Junction under Longitudinal Excitations

Authors: Jinghua Zhang

Abstract:

Shaft-tunnel junction is a typical case of the structural nonuniformity in underground structures. The shaft and the tunnel possess greatly different structural features. Even under uniform excitations, they tend to behave discrepantly. Studies on shaft-tunnel junctions are mainly performed numerically. Shaking table tests are also conducted. Although many numerical and experimental data are obtained, an analytical solution still has great merits of gaining more insights into the shaft-tunnel problem. This paper will try to remedy the situation. Since the seismic responses of shaft-tunnel junctions are very related to directions of the excitations, they are studied in two scenarios: the longitudinal-excitation scenario and the transverse-excitation scenario. The former scenario will be addressed in this paper. Given that responses of the tunnel are highly dependent on the shaft, the analytical solutions would be developed firstly for the vertical shaft. Then, the seismic responses of the tunnel would be discussed. Since vertical shafts bear a resemblance to rigid caissons, the solution proposed in this paper is derived by introducing terms of shaft-tunnel and soil-tunnel interactions into equations originally developed for rigid caissons. The validity of the solution is examined by a validation model computed by finite element method. The mutual influence between the shaft and the tunnel is introduced. The soil-structure interactions are discussed parametrically based on the proposed equations. The shaft-tunnel relative displacement and the soil-tunnel relative stiffness are found to be the most important parameters affecting the magnitudes and distributions of the internal forces of the tunnel. A hinge-joint at the shaft-tunnel junction could significantly reduce the degree of stress concentration compared with a rigid joint.

Keywords: analytical solution, longitudinal excitation, numerical validation , shaft-tunnel junction

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
145 Practical Evaluation of High-Efficiency Si-based Tandem Solar Cells

Authors: Sue-Yi Chen, Wei-Chun Hsu, Jon-Yiew Gan

Abstract:

Si-based double-junction tandem solar cells have become a popular research topic because of the advantages of low manufacturing cost and high energy conversion efficiency. However, there is no set of calculations to select the appropriate top cell materials. Therefore, this paper will propose a simple but practical selection method. First of all, we calculate the S-Q limit and explain the reasons for developing tandem solar cells. Secondly, we calculate the theoretical energy conversion efficiency of the double-junction tandem solar cells while combining the commercial monocrystalline Si and materials' practical efficiency to consider the actual situation. Finally, we conservatively conclude that if considering 75% performance of the theoretical energy conversion efficiency of the top cell, the suitable bandgap energy range will fall between 1.38eV to 2.5eV. Besides, we also briefly describe some improvements of several proper materials, CZTS, CdSe, Cu2O, ZnTe, and CdS, hoping that future research can select and manufacture high-efficiency Si-based tandem solar cells based on this paper successfully. Most importantly, our calculation method is not limited to silicon solely. If other materials’ performances match or surpass silicon's ability in the future, researchers can also apply this set of deduction processes.

Keywords: high-efficiency solar cells, material selection, Si-based double-junction solar cells, Tandem solar cells, photovoltaics.

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
144 A Study on the Korean Connected Industrial Parks Smart Logistics It Financial Enterprise Architecture

Authors: Ilgoun Kim, Jongpil Jeong

Abstract:

Recently, a connected industrial parks (CIPs) architecture using new technologies such as RFID, cloud computing, CPS, Big Data, 5G 5G, IIOT, VR-AR, and ventral AI algorithms based on IoT has been proposed. This researcher noted the vehicle junction problem (VJP) as a more specific detail of the CIPs architectural models. The VJP noted by this researcher includes 'efficient AI physical connection challenges for vehicles' through ventilation, 'financial and financial issues with complex vehicle physical connections,' and 'welfare and working conditions of the performing personnel involved in complex vehicle physical connections.' In this paper, we propose a public solution architecture for the 'electronic financial problem of complex vehicle physical connections' as a detailed task during the vehicle junction problem (VJP). The researcher sought solutions to businesses, consumers, and Korean social problems through technological advancement. We studied how the beneficiaries of technological development can benefit from technological development with many consumers in Korean society and many small and small Korean company managers, not some specific companies. In order to more specifically implement the connected industrial parks (CIPs) architecture using the new technology, we noted the vehicle junction problem (VJP) within the smart factory industrial complex and noted the process of achieving the vehicle junction problem performance among several electronic processes. This researcher proposes a more detailed, integrated public finance enterprise architecture among the overall CIPs architectures. The main details of the public integrated financial enterprise architecture were largely organized into four main categories: 'business', 'data', 'technique', and 'finance'.

Keywords: enterprise architecture, IT Finance, smart logistics, CIPs

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
143 Behavior of Droplets in Microfluidic System with T-Junction

Authors: A. Guellati, F-M Lounis, N. Guemras, K. Daoud

Abstract:

Micro droplet formation is considered as a growing emerging area of research due to its wide-range application in chemistry as well as biology. The mechanism of micro droplet formation using two immiscible liquids running through a T-junction has been widely studied. We believe that the flow of these two immiscible phases can be of greater important factor that could have an impact on out-flow hydrodynamic behavior, the droplets generated and the size of the droplets. In this study, the type of the capillary tubes used also represents another important factor that can have an impact on the generation of micro droplets. The tygon capillary tubing with hydrophilic inner surface doesn't allow regular out-flows due to the fact that the continuous phase doesn't adhere to the wall of the capillary inner surface. Teflon capillary tubing, presents better wettability than tygon tubing, and allows to obtain steady and regular regimes of out-flow, and the micro droplets are homogeneoussize. The size of the droplets is directly dependent on the flows of the continuous and dispersed phases. Thus, as increasing the flow of the continuous phase, to flow of the dispersed phase stationary, the size of the drops decreases. Inversely, while increasing the flow of the dispersed phase, to flow of the continuous phase stationary, the size of the droplet increases.

Keywords: microfluidic system, micro droplets generation, t-junction, fluids engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
142 Research of Applicable Ground Reinforcement Method in Double-Deck Tunnel Junction

Authors: SKhan Park, Seok Jin Lee, Jong Sun Kim, Jun Ho Lee, Bong Chan Kim

Abstract:

Because of the large economic losses caused by traffic congestion in metropolitan areas, various studies on the underground network design and construction techniques has been performed various studies in the developed countries. In Korea, it has performed a study to develop a versatile double-deck of deep tunnel model. This paper is an introduction to develop a ground reinforcement method to enable the safe tunnel construction in the weakened pillar section like as junction of tunnel. Applicable ground reinforcement method in the weakened section is proposed and it is expected to verify the method by the field application tests.

Keywords: double-deck tunnel, ground reinforcement, tunnel construction, weakened pillar section

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
141 Epitaxial Growth of Crystalline Polyaniline on Reduced Graphene Oxide

Authors: D. Majumdar, M. Baskey, S. K. Saha

Abstract:

Graphene has already been identified as a promising material for future carbon based electronics. To develop graphene technology, the fabrication of a high quality P-N junction is a great challenge. In the present work, we have described a simple and general technique to grow single crystalline polyaniline (PANI) films on graphene sheets using in situ polymerization via the oxidation-reduction of aniline monomer and graphene oxide, respectively, to fabricate a high quality P-N junction, which shows diode-like behavior with a remarkably low turn-on voltage (60 mV) and high rectification ratio (1880:1) up to a voltage of 0.2 Volt. The origin of these superior electronic properties is the preferential growth of a highly crystalline PANI film as well as lattice matching between the d-values [~2.48 Å] of graphene and {120} planes of PANI.

Keywords: epitaxial growth, PANI, reduced graphene oxide, rectification ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
140 A Study on Evaluation for Performance Verification of Ni-63 Radioisotope Betavoltaic Battery

Authors: Youngmok Yun, Bosung Kim, Sungho Lee, Kyeongsu Jeon, Hyunwook Hwangbo, Byounggun Choi

Abstract:

A betavoltaic battery converts nuclear energy released as beta particles (β-) directly into electrical energy. Betavoltaic cells are analogous to photovoltaic cells. The beta particle’s kinetic energy enters a p-n junction and creates electron-hole pairs. Subsequently, the built-in potential of the p-n junction accelerates the electrons and ions to their respective collectors. The major challenges are electrical conversion efficiencies and exact evaluation. In this study, the performance of betavoltaic battery was evaluated. The betavoltaic cell was evaluated in the same condition as radiation from radioactive isotope using by FE-SEM(field emission scanning electron microscope). The average energy of the radiation emitted from the Ni-63 radioisotope is 17.42 keV. FE-SEM is capable of emitting an electron beam of 1-30keV. Therefore, it is possible to evaluate betavoltaic cell without radioactive isotopes. The betavoltaic battery consists of radioisotope that is physically connected on the surface of Si-based PN diode. The performance of betavoltaic battery can be estimated by the efficiency of PN diode unit cell. The current generated by scanning electron microscope with fixed accelerating voltage (17keV) was measured by using faraday cup. Electrical characterization of the p-n junction diode was performed by using Nano Probe Work Station and I-V measurement system. The output value of the betavoltaic cells developed by this research team was 0.162 μw/cm2 and the efficiency was 1.14%.

Keywords: betavoltaic, nuclear, battery, Ni-63, radio-isotope

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
139 A New Microstrip Diplexer Using Coupled Stepped Impedance Resonators

Authors: A. Chinig, J. Zbitou, A. Errkik, L. Elabdellaoui, A. Tajmouati, A. Tribak, M. Latrach

Abstract:

This paper presents a new structure of microstrip band pass filter (BPF) based on coupled stepped impedance resonators. Each filter consists of two coupled stepped impedance resonators connected to microstrip feed lines. The coupled junction is utilized to connect the two BPFs to the antenna. This two band pass filters are designed and simulated to operate for the digital communication system (DCS) and Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) bands at 1.8 GHz and 2.45 GHz respectively. The proposed circuit presents good performances with an insertion loss lower than 2.3 dB and isolation between the two channels greater than 21 dB. The prototype of the optimized diplexer have been investigated numerically by using ADS Agilent and verified with CST microwave software.

Keywords: band pass filter, coupled junction, coupled stepped impedance resonators, diplexer, insertion loss, isolation

Procedia PDF Downloads 358