Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 200

Search results for: frictional oscillations

200 Dry Friction Fluctuations in Plain Journal Bearings

Authors: James Moran, Anusarn Permsuwan

Abstract:

This paper compares oscillations in the dry friction coefficient in different journal bearings. Measurements are made of the average and standard deviation in the coefficient of friction as a function of sliding velocity. The standard deviation of the friction coefficient changed dramatically with sliding velocity. The magnitude and frequency of the oscillations were a function of the velocity. A numerical model was developed for the frictional oscillations. There was good agreement between the model and results. Five different materials were used as the sliding surfaces in the experiments, Aluminum, Bronze, Mild Steel, Stainless Steel, and Nylon.

Keywords: Coulomb friction, dynamic friction, non-lubricated bearings, frictional oscillations

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
199 Mathematical Modelling of the Effect of Glucose on Pancreatic Alpha-Cell Activity

Authors: Karen K. Perez-Ramirez, Genevieve Dupont, Virginia Gonzalez-Velez

Abstract:

Pancreatic alpha-cells participate on glucose regulation together with beta cells. They release glucagon hormone when glucose level is low to stimulate gluconeogenesis from the liver. As other excitable cells, alpha cells generate Ca2+ and metabolic oscillations when they are stimulated. It is known that the glucose level can trigger or silence this activity although it is not clear how this occurs in normal and diabetic people. In this work, we propose an electric-metabolic mathematical model implemented in Matlab to study the effect of different glucose levels on the electrical response and Ca2+ oscillations of an alpha cell. Our results show that Ca2+ oscillations appear in opposite phase with metabolic oscillations in a window of glucose values. The model also predicts a direct relationship between the level of glucose and the intracellular adenine nucleotides showing a self-regulating pathway for the alpha cell.

Keywords: Ca2+ oscillations, mathematical model, metabolic oscillations, pancreatic alpha cell

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
198 Supplemental VisCo-friction Damping for Dynamical Structural Systems

Authors: Sharad Singh, Ajay Kumar Sinha

Abstract:

Coupled dampers like viscoelastic-frictional dampers for supplemental damping are a newer technique. In this paper, innovative Visco-frictional damping models have been presented and investigated. This paper attempts to couple frictional and fluid viscous dampers into a single unit of supplemental dampers. Visco-frictional damping model is developed by series and parallel coupling of frictional and fluid viscous dampers using Maxwell and Kelvin-Voigat models. The time analysis has been performed using numerical simulation on an SDOF system with varying fundamental periods, subject to a set of 12 ground motions. The simulation was performed using the direct time integration method. MATLAB programming tool was used to carry out the numerical simulation. The response behavior has been analyzed for the varying time period and added damping. This paper compares the response reduction behavior of the two modes of coupling. This paper highlights the performance efficiency of the suggested damping models. It also presents a mathematical modeling approach to visco-frictional dampers and simultaneously suggests the suitable mode of coupling between the two sub-units.

Keywords: hysteretic damping, Kelvin model, Maxwell model, parallel coupling, series coupling, viscous damping

Procedia PDF Downloads 20
197 Improvement of Frictional Coefficient of Modified Shoe Soles onto Icy and Snowy Road by Tilting of Added Glass Fibers into Rubber

Authors: Wakayama Shunya, Okubo Kazuya, Fujii Toru, Sakata Daisuke, Kado Noriyuki, Furutachi Hiroshi

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to propose an effective method to improve frictional coefficient of modified shoe rubber soles with added glass fibers onto the icy and snowy road surfaces in order to prevent slip-and-fall accidents by the users. Added fibers in the rubber were uniformly tilted to the perpendicular direction of the frictional surface, where tilting angle was -60, -30, +30, +60, 90 degrees and 0 for usual specimen, respectively. It was found that horizontal arraignment was effective to improve the frictional coefficient when glass fibers were embedded in the shoe rubber, while the standing in normal direction of the embedded glass fibers on the shoe surface was also effective to do that once after they were exposed from the shoe rubber with its abrasion. These improvements were explained by the increase of stiffness against the shear deformation of the rubber at the critical frictional state and the enlargement of resistance force for extracting exposed fibers from the ice and snow, respectively. Current study suggested that effective arraignments in the tilting angle of the added fibers should be applied in designing rubber shoe soles to keep the safeties for uses in regions of cold climates.

Keywords: frictional coefficient, shoe soles, icy and snowy road, glass fibers, tilting angle

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
196 The Experimental Investigation of Temperature Influence on the Oscillations of Particles on Liquid Surfaces

Authors: Sathish K. Gurupatham, Farhad Sayedzada, Naji Dauk, Valmiki Sooklal, Laura Ruhala

Abstract:

It was shown recently that small particles and powders spontaneously disperse on liquid surfaces when they come into contact with the interface for the first time. This happens due to the combined effect of the capillary force, buoyant weight of the particle and the viscous drag that the particle experiences in the liquid. The particle undergoes oscillations normal to the interface before it comes to rest on the interface. These oscillations, in turn, induce a flow on the interface which disperses the particles radially outward. This phenomenon has a significant role in the pollination of sea plants such as Ruppia in which the formation of ‘pollen rafts’ is the first step. This paper investigates, experimentally, the influence of the temperature of the liquid on which this dispersion occurs. It was observed that the frequency of oscillations of the particles decreased with the increase in the temperature of the liquid. It is because the magnitude of capillary force also decreased when the temperature of the liquid increased.

Keywords: particle dispersion, capillary force, viscous drag, oscillations

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
195 Moderation in Temperature Dependence on Counter Frictional Coefficient and Prevention of Wear of C/C Composites by Synthesizing SiC around Surface and Internal Vacancies

Authors: Noboru Wakamoto, Kiyotaka Obunai, Kazuya Okubo, Toru Fujii

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to moderate the dependence of counter frictional coefficient on temperature between counter surfaces and to reduce the wear of C/C composites at low temperature. To modify the C/C composites, Silica (SiO2) powders were added into phenolic resin for carbon precursor. The preform plate of the precursor of C/C composites was prepared by conventional filament winding method. The C/C composites plates were obtained by carbonizing preform plate at 2200 °C under an argon atmosphere. At that time, the silicon carbides (SiC) were synthesized around the surfaces and the internal vacancies of the C/C composites. The frictional coefficient on the counter surfaces and specific wear volumes of the C/C composites were measured by our developed frictional test machine like pin-on disk type. The XRD indicated that SiC was synthesized in the body of C/C composite fabricated by current method. The results of friction test showed that coefficient of friction of unmodified C/C composites have temperature dependence when the test condition was changed. In contrast, frictional coefficient of the C/C composite modified with SiO2 powders was almost constant at about 0.27 when the temperature condition was changed from Room Temperature (RT) to 300 °C. The specific wear rate decreased from 25×10-6 mm2/N to 0.1×10-6 mm2/N. The observations of the surfaces after friction tests showed that the frictional surface of the modified C/C composites was covered with a film produced by the friction. This study found that synthesizing SiC around surface and internal vacancies of C/C composites was effective to moderate the dependence on the frictional coefficient and reduce to the abrasion of C/C composites.

Keywords: C/C composites, friction coefficient, wear, SiC

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
194 Simulations of Laminar Liquid Flows through Superhydrophobic Micro-Pipes

Authors: Mohamed E. Eleshaky

Abstract:

This paper investigates the dynamic behavior of laminar water flows inside superhydrophobic micro-pipes patterned with square micro-posts features under different operating conditions. It also investigates the effects of air fraction and Reynolds number on the frictional performance of these pipes. Rather than modeling the air-water interfaces of superhydrophobic as a flat inflexible surface, a transient, incompressible, three-dimensional, volume-of-fluid (VOF) methodology has been employed to continuously track the air–water interface shape inside micro-pipes. Also, the entrance effects on the flow field have been taken into consideration. The results revealed the strong dependency of the frictional performance on the air fractions and Reynolds number. The frictional resistance reduction becomes increasingly more significant at large air fractions and low Reynolds numbers. Increasing Reynolds number has an adverse effect on the frictional resistance reduction.

Keywords: drag reduction, laminar flow in micropipes, numerical simulation, superhyrophobic surfaces, microposts

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
193 One Period Loops of Memristive Circuits with Mixed-Mode Oscillations

Authors: Wieslaw Marszalek, Zdzislaw Trzaska

Abstract:

Interesting properties of various one-period loops of singularly perturbed memristive circuits with mixed-mode oscillations (MMOs) are analyzed in this paper. The analysis is mixed, both analytical and numerical and focused on the properties of pinched hysteresis of the memristive element and other one-period loops formed by pairs of time-series solutions for various circuits' variables. The memristive element is the only nonlinear element in the two circuits. A theorem on periods of mixed-mode oscillations of the circuits is formulated and proved. Replacements of memristors by parallel G-C or series R-L circuits for a MMO response with equivalent RMS values is also discussed.

Keywords: mixed-mode oscillations, memristive circuits, pinched hysteresis, one-period loops, singularly perturbed circuits

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
192 Research of Amplitude-Frequency Characteristics of Nonlinear Oscillations of the Interface of Two-Layered Liquid

Authors: Win Ko Ko, A. N. Temnov

Abstract:

The problem of nonlinear oscillations of a two-layer liquid completely filling a limited volume is considered. Using two basic asymmetric harmonics excited in two mutually perpendicular planes, ordinary differential equations of nonlinear oscillations of the interface of a two-layer liquid are investigated. In this paper, hydrodynamic coefficients of linear and nonlinear problems in integral relations were determined. As a result, the instability regions of forced oscillations of a two-layered liquid in a cylindrical tank occurring in the plane of action of the disturbing force are constructed, as well as the dynamic instability regions of the parametric resonance for different ratios of densities of the upper and lower liquids depending on the amplitudes of liquids from the excitations frequencies. Steady-state regimes of fluid motion were found in the regions of dynamic instability of the initial oscillation form. The Bubnov-Galerkin method is used to construct instability regions for approximate solution of nonlinear differential equations.

Keywords: nonlinear oscillations, two-layered liquid, instability region, hydrodynamic coefficients, resonance frequency

Procedia PDF Downloads 29
191 An Experimental Study on the Effects of Aspect Ratio of a Rectangular Microchannel on the Two-Phase Frictional Pressure Drop

Authors: J. A. Louw Coetzee, Josua P. Meyer

Abstract:

The thermodynamic properties of different refrigerants in combination with the variation in geometrical properties (hydraulic diameter, aspect ratio, and inclination angle) of a rectangular microchannel determine the two-phase frictional pressure gradient. The effect of aspect ratio on frictional pressure drop had not been investigated enough during adiabatic two-phase flow and condensation in rectangular microchannels. This experimental study was concerned with measurement of the frictional pressure gradient in a rectangular microchannel, with hydraulic diameter of 900 μm. The aspect ratio of this microchannel was varied over a range that stretched from 0.3 to 3 in order to capture the effect of aspect ratio variation. A commonly used refrigerant, R134a, was used in the tests that spanned over a mass flux range of 100 to 1000 kg m-2 s-1 as well as the whole vapour quality range. This study formed part of a refrigerant condensation experiment and was therefore conducted at a saturation temperature of 40 °C. The study found that there was little influence of the aspect ratio on the frictional pressure drop at the test conditions. The data was compared to some of the well known micro- and macro-channel two-phase pressure drop correlations. Most of the separated flow correlations predicted the pressure drop data well at mass fluxes larger than 400 kg m-2 s-1 and vapour qualities above 0.2.

Keywords: aspect ratio, microchannel, two-phase, pressure gradient

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
190 A Spiral Dynamic Optimised Hybrid Fuzzy Logic Controller for a Unicycle Mobile Robot on Irregular Terrains

Authors: Abdullah M. Almeshal, Mohammad R. Alenezi, Talal H. Alzanki

Abstract:

This paper presents a hybrid fuzzy logic control strategy for a unicycle trajectory following robot on irregular terrains. In literature, researchers have presented the design of path tracking controllers of mobile robots on non-frictional surface. In this work, the robot is simulated to drive on irregular terrains with contrasting frictional profiles of peat and rough gravel. A hybrid fuzzy logic controller is utilised to stabilise and drive the robot precisely with the predefined trajectory and overcome the frictional impact. The controller gains and scaling factors were optimised using spiral dynamics optimisation algorithm to minimise the mean square error of the linear and angular velocities of the unicycle robot. The robot was simulated on various frictional surfaces and terrains and the controller was able to stabilise the robot with a superior performance that is shown via simulation results.

Keywords: fuzzy logic control, mobile robot, trajectory tracking, spiral dynamic algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
189 Design of Chaos Algorithm Based Optimal PID Controller for SVC

Authors: Saeid Jalilzadeh

Abstract:

SVC is one of the most significant devices in FACTS technology which is used in parallel compensation, enhancing the transient stability, limiting the low frequency oscillations and etc. designing a proper controller is effective in operation of svc. In this paper the equations that describe the proposed system have been linearized and then the optimum PID controller has been designed for svc which its optimal coefficients have been earned by chaos algorithm. Quick damping of oscillations of generator is the aim of designing of optimum PID controller for svc whether the input power of generator has been changed suddenly. The system with proposed controller has been simulated for a special disturbance and the dynamic responses of generator have been presented. The simulation results showed that a system composed with proposed controller has suitable operation in fast damping of oscillations of generator.

Keywords: chaos, PID controller, SVC, frequency oscillation

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
188 Pilot Induced Oscillations Adaptive Suppression in Fly-By-Wire Systems

Authors: Herlandson C. Moura, Jorge H. Bidinotto, Eduardo M. Belo

Abstract:

The present work proposes the development of an adaptive control system which enables the suppression of Pilot Induced Oscillations (PIO) in Digital Fly-By-Wire (DFBW) aircrafts. The proposed system consists of a Modified Model Reference Adaptive Control (M-MRAC) integrated with the Gain Scheduling technique. The PIO oscillations are detected using a Real Time Oscillation Verifier (ROVER) algorithm, which then enables the system to switch between two reference models; one in PIO condition, with low proneness to the phenomenon and another one in normal condition, with high (or medium) proneness. The reference models are defined in a closed loop condition using the Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) control methodology for Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems. The implemented algorithms are simulated in software implementations with state space models and commercial flight simulators as the controlled elements and with pilot dynamics models. A sequence of pitch angles is considered as the reference signal, named as Synthetic Task (Syntask), which must be tracked by the pilot models. The initial outcomes show that the proposed system can detect and suppress (or mitigate) the PIO oscillations in real time before it reaches high amplitudes.

Keywords: adaptive control, digital Fly-By-Wire, oscillations suppression, PIO

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
187 Application of Method of Symmetries at a Calculation and Planning of Circular Plate with Variable Thickness

Authors: Kirill Trapezon, Alexandr Trapezon

Abstract:

A problem is formulated for the natural oscillations of a circular plate of linearly variable thickness on the basis of the symmetry method. The equations of natural frequencies and forms for a plate are obtained, providing that it is rigidly fixed along the inner contour. The first three eigenfrequencies are calculated, and the eigenmodes of the oscillations of the acoustic element are constructed. An algorithm for applying the symmetry method and the factorization method for solving problems in the theory of oscillations for plates of variable thickness is shown. The effectiveness of the approach is demonstrated on the basis of comparison of known results and those obtained in the article. It is shown that the results are more accurate and reliable.

Keywords: vibrations, plate, method of symmetries, differential equation, factorization, approximation

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
186 FE Analysis of Blade-Disc Dovetail Joints Using Mortar Base Frictional Contact Formulation

Authors: Abbas Moradi, Mohsen Safajoy, Reza Yazdanparast

Abstract:

Analysis of blade-disc dovetail joints is one of the biggest challenges facing designers of aero-engines. To avoid comparatively expensive experimental full-scale tests, numerical methods can be used to simulate loaded disc-blades assembly. Mortar method provides a powerful and flexible tool for solving frictional contact problems. In this study, 2D frictional contact in dovetail has been analysed based on the mortar algorithm. In order to model the friction, the classical law of coulomb and moving friction cone algorithm is applied. The solution is then obtained by solving the resulting set of non-linear equations using an efficient numerical algorithm based on Newton–Raphson Method. The numerical results show that this approach has better convergence rate and accuracy than other proposed numerical methods.

Keywords: computational contact mechanics, dovetail joints, nonlinear FEM, mortar approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
185 Experiment-Based Teaching Method for the Varying Frictional Coefficient

Authors: Mihaly Homostrei, Tamas Simon, Dorottya Schnider

Abstract:

The topic of oscillation in physics is one of the key ideas which is usually taught based on the concept of harmonic oscillation. It can be an interesting activity to deal with a frictional oscillator in advanced high school classes or in university courses. Its mechanics are investigated in this research, which shows that the motion of the frictional oscillator is more complicated than a simple harmonic oscillator. The physics of the applied model in this study seems to be interesting and useful for undergraduate students. The study presents a well-known physical system, which is mostly discussed theoretically in high school and at the university. The ideal frictional oscillator is normally used as an example of harmonic oscillatory motion, as its theory relies on the constant coefficient of sliding friction. The structure of the system is simple: a rod with a homogeneous mass distribution is placed on two rotating identical cylinders placed at the same height so that they are horizontally aligned, and they rotate at the same angular velocity, however in opposite directions. Based on this setup, one could easily show that the equation of motion describes a harmonic oscillation considering the magnitudes of the normal forces in the system as the function of the position and the frictional forces with a constant coefficient of frictions are related to them. Therefore, the whole description of the model relies on simple Newtonian mechanics, which is available for students even in high school. On the other hand, the phenomenon of the described frictional oscillator does not seem to be so straightforward after all; experiments show that the simple harmonic oscillation cannot be observed in all cases, and the system performs a much more complex movement, whereby the rod adjusts itself to a non-harmonic oscillation with a nonzero stable amplitude after an unconventional damping effect. The stable amplitude, in this case, means that the position function of the rod converges to a harmonic oscillation with a constant amplitude. This leads to the idea of a more complex model which can describe the motion of the rod in a more accurate way. The main difference to the original equation of motion is the concept that the frictional coefficient varies with the relative velocity. This dependence on the velocity was investigated in many different research articles as well; however, this specific problem could demonstrate the key concept of the varying friction coefficient and its importance in an interesting and demonstrative way. The position function of the rod is described by a more complicated and non-trivial, yet more precise equation than the usual harmonic oscillation description of the movement. The study discusses the structure of the measurements related to the frictional oscillator, the qualitative and quantitative derivation of the theory, and the comparison of the final theoretical function as well as the measured position-function in time. The project provides useful materials and knowledge for undergraduate students and a new perspective in university physics education.

Keywords: friction, frictional coefficient, non-harmonic oscillator, physics education

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
184 Influence of Confined Acoustic Phonons on the Shubnikov – de Haas Magnetoresistance Oscillations in a Doped Semiconductor Superlattice

Authors: Pham Ngoc Thang, Le Thai Hung, Nguyen Quang Bau

Abstract:

The influence of confined acoustic phonons on the Shubnikov – de Haas magnetoresistance oscillations in a doped semiconductor superlattice (DSSL), subjected in a magnetic field, DC electric field, and a laser radiation, has been theoretically studied based on quantum kinetic equation method. The analytical expression for the magnetoresistance in a DSSL has been obtained as a function of external fields, DSSL parameters, and especially the quantum number m characterizing the effect of confined acoustic phonons. When m goes to zero, the results for bulk phonons in a DSSL could be achieved. Numerical calculations are also achieved for the GaAs:Si/GaAs:Be DSSL and compared with other studies. Results show that the Shubnikov – de Haas magnetoresistance oscillations amplitude decrease as the increasing of phonon confinement effect.

Keywords: Shubnikov–de Haas magnetoresistance oscillations, quantum kinetic equation, confined acoustic phonons, laser radiation, doped semiconductor superlattices

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
183 The Effect of Adhesion on the Frictional Hysteresis Loops at a Rough Interface

Authors: M. Bazrafshan, M. B. de Rooij, D. J. Schipper

Abstract:

Frictional hysteresis is the phenomenon in which mechanical contacts are subject to small (compared to contact area) oscillating tangential displacements. In the presence of adhesion at the interface, the contact repulsive force increases leading to a higher static friction force and pre-sliding displacement. This paper proposes a boundary element model (BEM) for the adhesive frictional hysteresis contact at the interface of two contacting bodies of arbitrary geometries. In this model, adhesion is represented by means of a Dugdale approximation of the total work of adhesion at local areas with a very small gap between the two bodies. The frictional contact is divided into sticking and slipping regions in order to take into account the transition from stick to slip (pre-sliding regime). In the pre-sliding regime, the stick and slip regions are defined based on the local values of shear stress and normal pressure. In the studied cases, a fixed normal force is applied to the interface and the friction force varies in such a way to start gross sliding in one direction reciprocally. For the first case, the problem is solved at the smooth interface between a ball and a flat for different values of work of adhesion. It is shown that as the work of adhesion increases, both static friction and pre-sliding distance increase due to the increase in the contact repulsive force. For the second case, the rough interface between a glass ball against a silicon wafer and a DLC (Diamond-Like Carbon) coating is considered. The work of adhesion is assumed to be identical for both interfaces. As adhesion depends on the interface roughness, the corresponding contact repulsive force is different for these interfaces. For the smoother interface, a larger contact repulsive force and consequently, a larger static friction force and pre-sliding distance are observed.

Keywords: boundary element model, frictional hysteresis, adhesion, roughness, pre-sliding

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
182 Theoretical Approach to Kinetic of Heat Transfer under Irradiation

Authors: Pavlo Selyshchev

Abstract:

A theoretical approach to describe kinetic of heat transfer between an irradiated sample and environment is developed via formalism of the Complex systems and kinetic equations. The irradiated material is a metastable system with non-linear feedbacks, which can give rise to different regimes of buildup and annealing of radiation-induced defects, heating and heat transfer with environment. Irradiation with energetic particles heats the sample and produces defects of the crystal lattice of the sample. The crystal with defects accumulates extra (non-thermal) energy, which is transformed into heat during the defect annealing. Any increase of temperature leads to acceleration of defect annealing, to additional transformation of non-thermal energy into heat and to further growth of the temperature. Thus a non-linear feedback is formed. It is shown that at certain conditions of irradiation this non-linear feedback leads to self-oscillations of the defect density, the temperature of the irradiated sample and the heat transfer between the sample and environment. Simulation and analysis of these phenomena is performed. The frequency of the self-oscillations is obtained. It is determined that the period of the self-oscillations is varied from minutes to several hours depending on conditions of irradiation and properties of the sample. Obtaining results are compared with experimental ones.

Keywords: irradiation, heat transfer, non-linear feed-back, self-oscillations

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
181 Iterative Solver for Solving Large-Scale Frictional Contact Problems

Authors: Thierno Diop, Michel Fortin, Jean Deteix

Abstract:

Since the precise formulation of the elastic part is irrelevant for the description of the algorithm, we shall consider a generic case. In practice, however, we will have to deal with a non linear material (for instance a Mooney-Rivlin model). We are interested in solving a finite element approximation of the problem, leading to large-scale non linear discrete problems and, after linearization, to large linear systems and ultimately to calculations needing iterative methods. This also implies that penalty method, and therefore augmented Lagrangian method, are to be banned because of their negative effect on the condition number of the underlying discrete systems and thus on the convergence of iterative methods. This is in rupture to the mainstream of methods for contact in which augmented Lagrangian is the principal tool. We shall first present the problem and its discretization; this will lead us to describe a general solution algorithm relying on a preconditioner for saddle-point problems which we shall describe in some detail as it is not entirely standard. We will propose an iterative approach for solving three-dimensional frictional contact problems between elastic bodies, including contact with a rigid body, contact between two or more bodies and also self-contact.

Keywords: frictional contact, three-dimensional, large-scale, iterative method

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
180 Nonlinear Optics of Dirac Fermion Systems

Authors: Vipin Kumar, Girish S. Setlur

Abstract:

Graphene has been recognized as a promising 2D material with many new properties. However, pristine graphene is gapless which hinders its direct application towards graphene-based semiconducting devices. Graphene is a zero-gapp and linearly dispersing semiconductor. Massless charge carriers (quasi-particles) in graphene obey the relativistic Dirac equation. These Dirac fermions show very unusual physical properties such as electronic, optical and transport. Graphene is analogous to two-level atomic systems and conventional semiconductors. We may expect that graphene-based systems will also exhibit phenomena that are well-known in two-level atomic systems and in conventional semiconductors. Rabi oscillation is a nonlinear optical phenomenon well-known in the context of two-level atomic systems and also in conventional semiconductors. It is the periodic exchange of energy between the system of interest and the electromagnetic field. The present work describes the phenomenon of Rabi oscillations in graphene based systems. Rabi oscillations have already been described theoretically and experimentally in the extensive literature available on this topic. To describe Rabi oscillations they use an approximation known as rotating wave approximation (RWA) well-known in studies of two-level systems. RWA is valid only near conventional resonance (small detuning)- when the frequency of the external field is nearly equal to the particle-hole excitation frequency. The Rabi frequency goes through a minimum close to conventional resonance as a function of detuning. Far from conventional resonance, the RWA becomes rather less useful and we need some other technique to describe the phenomenon of Rabi oscillation. In conventional systems, there is no second minimum - the only minimum is at conventional resonance. But in graphene we find anomalous Rabi oscillations far from conventional resonance where the Rabi frequency goes through a minimum that is much smaller than the conventional Rabi frequency. This is known as anomalous Rabi frequency and is unique to graphene systems. We have shown that this is attributable to the pseudo-spin degree of freedom in graphene systems. A new technique, which is an alternative to RWA called asymptotic RWA (ARWA), has been invoked by our group to discuss the phenomenon of Rabi oscillation. Experimentally accessible current density shows different types of threshold behaviour in frequency domain close to the anomalous Rabi frequency depending on the system chosen. For single layer graphene, the exponent at threshold is equal to 1/2 while in case of bilayer graphene, it is computed to be equal to 1. Bilayer graphene shows harmonic (anomalous) resonances absent in single layer graphene. The effect of asymmetry and trigonal warping (a weak direct inter-layer hopping in bilayer graphene) on these oscillations is also studied in graphene systems. Asymmetry has a remarkable effect only on anomalous Rabi oscillations whereas the Rabi frequency near conventional resonance is not significantly affected by the asymmetry parameter. In presence of asymmetry, these graphene systems show Rabi-like oscillations (offset oscillations) even for vanishingly small applied field strengths (less than the gap parameter). The frequency of offset oscillations may be identified with the asymmetry parameter.

Keywords: graphene, Bilayer graphene, Rabi oscillations, Dirac fermion systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
179 Hidden Oscillations in the Mathematical Model of the Optical Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) Costas Loop

Authors: N. V. Kuznetsov, O. A. Kuznetsova, G. A. Leonov, M. V. Yuldashev, R. V. Yuldashev

Abstract:

Nonlinear analysis of the phase locked loop (PLL)-based circuits is a challenging task. Thus, the simulation is widely used for their study. In this work, we consider a mathematical model of the optical Costas loop and demonstrate the limitations of simulation approach related to the existence of so-called hidden oscillations in the phase space of the model.

Keywords: optical Costas loop, mathematical model, simulation, hidden oscillation

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
178 Mathematical Properties of the Resonance of the Inner Waves in Rotating Stratified Three-Dimensional Fluids

Authors: A. Giniatoulline

Abstract:

We consider the internal oscillations of the ocean which are caused by the gravity force and the Coriolis force, for different models with changeable density, heat transfer, and salinity. Traditionally, the mathematical description of the resonance effect is related to the growing amplitude as a result of input vibrations. We offer a different approach: the study of the relation between the spectrum of the internal oscillations and the properties of the limiting amplitude of the solution for the harmonic input vibrations of the external forces. Using the results of the spectral theory of self-adjoint operators in Hilbert functional spaces, we prove that there exists an explicit relation between the localization of the frequency of the external input vibrations with respect to the essential spectrum of proper inner oscillations and the non-uniqueness of the limiting amplitude. The results may find their application in various problems concerning mathematical modeling of turbulent flows in the ocean.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, essential spectrum, limiting amplitude, rotating fluid, spectral theory, stratified fluid, the uniqueness of solutions of PDE equations

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
177 Investigating the Energy Harvesting Potential of a Pitch-Plunge Airfoil Subjected to Fluctuating Wind

Authors: Magu Raam Prasaad R., Venkatramani Jagadish

Abstract:

Recent studies in the literature have shown that randomly fluctuating wind flows can give rise to a distinct regime of pre-flutter oscillations called intermittency. Intermittency is characterized by the presence of sporadic bursts of high amplitude oscillations interspersed amidst low-amplitude aperiodic fluctuations. The focus of this study is on investigating the energy harvesting potential of these intermittent oscillations. Available literature has by and large devoted its attention on extracting energy from flutter oscillations. The possibility of harvesting energy from pre-flutter regimes have remained largely unexplored. However, extracting energy from violent flutter oscillations can be severely detrimental to the structural integrity of airfoil structures. Consequently, investigating the relatively stable pre-flutter responses for energy extraction applications is of practical importance. The present study is devoted towards addressing these concerns. A pitch-plunge airfoil with cubic hardening nonlinearity in the plunge and pitch degree of freedom is considered. The input flow fluctuations are modelled using a sinusoidal term with randomly perturbed frequencies. An electromagnetic coupling is provided to the pitch-plunge equations, such that, energy from the wind induced vibrations of the structural response are extracted. With the mean flow speed as the bifurcation parameter, a fourth order Runge-Kutta based time marching algorithm is used to solve the governing aeroelastic equations with electro-magnetic coupling. The harnessed energy from the intermittency regime is presented and the results are discussed in comparison to that obtained from the flutter regime. The insights from this study could be useful in health monitoring of aeroelastic structures.

Keywords: aeroelasticity, energy harvesting, intermittency, randomly fluctuating flows

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
176 Approximate Solution of Some Mixed Boundary Value Problems of the Generalized Theory of Couple-Stress Thermo-Elasticity

Authors: Manana Chumburidze, David Lekveishvili

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We have considered the harmonic oscillations and general dynamic (pseudo oscillations) systems of theory generalized Green-Lindsay of couple-stress thermo-elasticity for isotropic, homogeneous elastic media. Approximate solution of some mixed boundary value problems for finite domain, bounded by the some closed surface are constructed.

Keywords: the couple-stress thermoelasticity, boundary value problems, dynamic problems, approximate solution

Procedia PDF Downloads 373
175 Development of a Single Drive for the Accessories Components in IC Engine

Authors: R. Rishi Jain, S. V. Viswanath, R. Naveen Vasanthan

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Generally all the IC engines, alternators, air conditioner compressors, oil pumps and coolant pumps are driven by a crankshaft utilizing V-belt drivers. An increase in the number of idle pulleys results in the increase of frictional power. Further, components like idler and belt tensioner are also needed to run the belt drive which adds to the frictional power. The aspiration of this paper is to minimize the friction power by introducing a new system that could combine all the accessories in one shaft within a single casing. This is conceptualized to minimize the friction power, service and maintenance cost, space and also time. The validation of this work can be executed through a simpler drive transmitting power from the crank shaft.

Keywords: single drive, idler pulley, belt tensioner, friction power, casing, space and cost

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
174 Effect of Damper Combinations in Series or Parallel on Structural Response

Authors: Ajay Kumar Sinha, Sharad Singh, Anukriti Sinha

Abstract:

Passive energy dissipation method for earthquake protection of structures is undergoing developments for improved performance. Combined use of different types of damping mechanisms has shown positive results in the near past. Different supplemental damping methods like viscous damping, frictional damping and metallic damping are being combined together for optimum performance. The conventional method of connecting passive dampers to structures is a parallel connection between the damper unit and structural member. Researchers are investigating coupling effect of different types of dampers. The most popular choice among the research community is coupling of viscous dampers and frictional dampers. The series and parallel coupling of these damping units are being studied for relative performance of the coupled system on response control of structures against earthquake. In this paper an attempt has been made to couple Fluid Viscous Dampers and Frictional Dampers in series and parallel to form a single unit of damping system. The relative performance of the coupled units has been studied on three dimensional reinforced concrete framed structure. The current theories of structural dynamics in practice for viscous damping and frictional damping have been incorporated in this study. The time history analysis of the structural system with coupled damper units, uncoupled damper units as well as of structural system without any supplemental damping has been performed in this study. The investigations reported in this study show significant improved performance of coupled system. A higher natural frequency of the system outside the forcing frequency has been obtained for structural systems with coupled damper units as against the other cases. The structural response of the structure in terms of storey displacement and storey drift show significant improvement for the case with coupled damper units as against the cases with uncoupled units or without any supplemental damping. The results are promising in terms of improved response of the structure with coupled damper units. Further investigations in this regard for a comparative performance of the series and parallel coupled systems will be carried out to study the optimum behavior of these coupled systems for enhanced response control of structural systems.

Keywords: frictional damping, parallel coupling, response control, series coupling, supplemental damping, viscous damping

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173 Frictional Behavior of Glass Epoxy and Aluminium Particulate Glass Epoxy Composites Sliding against Smooth Stainless Steel Counterface

Authors: Pujan Sarkar

Abstract:

Frictional behavior of glass epoxy and Al particulate glass-epoxy composites sliding against mild steel are investigated experimentally at normal atmospheric condition. Glass epoxy (0 wt% Al) and 5, 10 and 15 wt% Al particulate filled glass-epoxy composites are fabricated in conventional hand lay-up technique followed by light compression moulding process. A pin on disc type friction apparatus is used under dry sliding conditions. Experiments are carried out at a normal load of 5-50 N, and sliding speeds of 0.5-5.0 m/s for a fixed duration. Variations of friction coefficient with sliding time at different loads and speeds for all the samples are considered. Results show that the friction coefficient is influenced by sliding time, normal loads, sliding speeds, and wt% of Al content. In general, with respect to time, friction coefficient increases initially with a lot of fluctuations for a certain duration. After that, it becomes stable for the rest of the experimental time. With the increase of normal load, friction coefficient decreases at all speed levels and for all the samples whereas, friction coefficient increases with the increase of sliding speed at all normal loads for glass epoxy and 5 wt% Al content glass-epoxy composites. But for 10 and 15 wt%, Al content composites at all loads, reverse trend of friction coefficient has been recorded. Under different tribological conditions, the suitability of composites in respect of wt% of Al content is noted, and 5 wt% Al content glass-epoxy composite reports as the lowest frictional material at all loads compared to other samples.

Keywords: Al powder, composite, epoxy, friction, glass fiber

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172 Phase Synchronization of Skin Blood Flow Oscillations under Deep Controlled Breathing in Human

Authors: Arina V. Tankanag, Gennady V. Krasnikov, Nikolai K. Chemeris

Abstract:

The development of respiration-dependent oscillations in the peripheral blood flow may occur by at least two mechanisms. The first mechanism is related to the change of venous pressure due to mechanical activity of lungs. This phenomenon is known as ‘respiratory pump’ and is one of the mechanisms of venous return of blood from the peripheral vessels to the heart. The second mechanism is related to the vasomotor reflexes controlled by the respiratory modulation of the activity of centers of the vegetative nervous system. Early high phase synchronization of respiration-dependent blood flow oscillations of left and right forearm skin in healthy volunteers at rest was shown. The aim of the work was to study the effect of deep controlled breathing on the phase synchronization of skin blood flow oscillations. 29 normotensive non-smoking young women (18-25 years old) of the normal constitution without diagnosed pathologies of skin, cardiovascular and respiratory systems participated in the study. For each of the participants six recording sessions were carried out: first, at the spontaneous breathing rate; and the next five, in the regimes of controlled breathing with fixed breathing depth and different rates of enforced breathing regime. The following rates of controlled breathing regime were used: 0.25, 0.16, 0.10, 0.07 and 0.05 Hz. The breathing depth amounted to 40% of the maximal chest excursion. Blood perfusion was registered by laser flowmeter LAKK-02 (LAZMA, Russia) with two identical channels (wavelength 0.63 µm; emission power, 0.5 mW). The first probe was fastened to the palmar surface of the distal phalanx of left forefinger; the second probe was attached to the external surface of the left forearm near the wrist joint. These skin zones were chosen as zones with different dominant mechanisms of vascular tonus regulation. The degree of phase synchronization of the registered signals was estimated from the value of the wavelet phase coherence. The duration of all recording was 5 min. The sampling frequency of the signals was 16 Hz. The increasing of synchronization of the respiratory-dependent skin blood flow oscillations for all controlled breathing regimes was obtained. Since the formation of respiration-dependent oscillations in the peripheral blood flow is mainly caused by the respiratory modulation of system blood pressure, the observed effects are most likely dependent on the breathing depth. It should be noted that with spontaneous breathing depth does not exceed 15% of the maximal chest excursion, while in the present study the breathing depth was 40%. Therefore it has been suggested that the observed significant increase of the phase synchronization of blood flow oscillations in our conditions is primarily due to an increase of breathing depth. This is due to the enhancement of both potential mechanisms of respiratory oscillation generation: venous pressure and sympathetic modulation of vascular tone.

Keywords: deep controlled breathing, peripheral blood flow oscillations, phase synchronization, wavelet phase coherence

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171 Optimization of Pyrogallol Based Manganese / Ferroin Catalyzed Nonlinear Chemical Systems and Interaction with Monomeric and Polymeric Entities

Authors: Ghulam Mustafa Peerzada, Shagufta Rashid, Nadeem Bashir

Abstract:

These the influence of initial reagent concentrations on the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) system with Mn2+/Mn3+ as redox catalyst, inorganic bromate as oxidant and pyrogallol as organic substrate was studied. The reactions were monitored by potentiometery in oxidation reduction potential (ORP) mode. The aforesaid reagents were mixed with varying concentrations to evolve the optimal concentrations at which the reaction system exhibited better oscillations. The various oscillatory parameters such as induction period (tin), time period (tp), frequency (v), amplitude (A) and number of oscillations (n) were derived and the dependence of concentration of the reacting species on these oscillatory parameters was interpreted on the basis of the Field-Koros-Noyes mechanism. Ferroin based BZ system with pyrogallol as organic substrate was optimized under CSTR condition at temperature of 30±0.1oC Effect of molecules like monomer and polymer as additives to the system was checked and their interaction with the system was also studied. It has been observed that the monomer affects the time period, while the polymer has its effect on the amplitude of oscillations because of monomer’s interaction with the bromine and polymer’s with that of the Ferroin.

Keywords: Belousov Zhabotinsky reaction, oscillatory parameters, polymer, pyrogallol

Procedia PDF Downloads 192