Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2446

Search results for: Composite drive shaft

2446 Design and Analysis of a Laminated Composite Automotive Drive Shaft

Authors: Hossein Kh. Bisheh, Nan Wu

Abstract:

Advanced composite materials have a great importance in engineering structures due to their high specific modulus and strength and low weight. These materials can be used in design and fabrication of automotive drive shafts to reduce the weight of the structure. Hence, an optimum design of a composite drive shaft satisfying the design criteria, can be an appropriate substitution of metallic drive shafts. The aim of this study is to design and analyze a composite automotive drive shaft with high specific strength and low weight satisfying the design criteria. Tsai-Wu criterion is chosen as the failure criterion. Various designs with different lay-ups and materials are investigated based on the design requirements and finally, an optimum design satisfying the design criteria is chosen based on the weight and cost considerations. The results of this study indicate that if the weight is the main concern, a shaft made of Carbon/Epoxy can be a good option, and if the cost is a more important parameter, a hybrid shaft made of aluminum and Carbon/Epoxy can be considered.

Keywords: Bending natural frequency, Composite drive shaft, Peak torque, Torsional buckling

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
2445 An Investigation on Hybrid Composite Drive Shaft for Automotive Industry

Authors: Gizem Arslan Özgen, Kutay Yücetürk, Metin Tanoğlu, Engin Aktaş

Abstract:

Power transmitted from the engine to the final drive where useful work is applied through a system consisting of a gearbox, clutch, drive shaft and a differential in the rear-wheel-drive automobiles. It is well-known that the steel drive shaft is usually manufactured in two pieces to increase the fundamental bending natural frequency to ensure safe operation conditions. In this work, hybrid one-piece propeller shafts composed of carbon/epoxy and glass/epoxy composites have been designed for a rear wheel drive automobile satisfying three design specifications, such as static torque transmission capability, torsional buckling and the fundamental natural bending frequency. Hybridization of carbon and glass fibers is being studied to optimize the cost/performance requirements. Composites shaft materials with various fiber orientation angles and stacking sequences are being fabricated and analyzed using finite element analysis (FEA).

Keywords: composite propeller shaft, hybridization, epoxy matrix, static torque transmission capability, torsional buckling strength, fundamental natural bending frequency.

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
2444 Fatigue Life Estimation Using N-Code for Drive Shaft of Passenger Vehicle

Authors: Tae An Kim, Hyo Lim Kang, Hye Won Han, Seung Ho Han

Abstract:

The drive shaft of passenger vehicle has its own function such as transmitting the engine torque from the gearbox and differential gears to the wheels. It must also compensate for all variations in angle or length resulting from manoeuvring and deflection for perfect synchronization between joints. Torsional fatigue failures occur frequently at the connection parts of the spline joints in the end of the drive shaft. In this study, the fatigue life of a drive shaft of passenger vehicle was estimated by using the finite element analysis. A commercial software of n-Code was applied under twisting load conditions, i.e. 0~134kgf•m and 0~188kgf•m, in which the shear strain range-fatigue life relationship considering Signed Shear method, Smith-Watson-Topper equation, Neuber-Hoffman Seeger method, size sensitivity factor and surface roughness effect was taken into account. The estimated fatigue life was verified by a twisting load test of the real drive shaft in a test rig. (Human Resource Training Project for Industry Matched R & D, KIAT, N036200004).

Keywords: drive shaft, fatigue life estimation, passenger vehicle, shear strain range-fatigue life relationship, torsional fatigue failure

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
2443 Design and Fabrication of Electricity Generating Speed Breaker

Authors: Haider Aamir, Muhammad Ali Khalid

Abstract:

Electricity harvesting speed bump (EHSB) is speed breaker of conventional shape, but the difference is that it is not fixed, rather it moves up and down, and electricity can be generated from its vibrating motion. This speed bump consists of an upper cover which will move up and down, a shaft mechanism which will be used to drive the generator and a rack and pinion mechanism which will connect the cover and shaft. There is a spring mechanism to return the cover to its initial state when a vehicle has passed over the bump. Produced energy in the past was up to 80 Watts. For this purpose, a clutch mechanism is used so that both the up-down movements of the cover can be used to drive the generator. Mechanical Motion Rectifier (MMR) mechanism ensures the conversion of both the linear motions into rotational motion which is used to drive the generator.

Keywords: electricity harvesting, generator, rack and pinion, stainless steel shaft

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
2442 Development of a Single Drive for the Accessories Components in IC Engine

Authors: R. Rishi Jain, S. V. Viswanath, R. Naveen Vasanthan

Abstract:

Generally all the IC engines, alternators, air conditioner compressors, oil pumps and coolant pumps are driven by a crankshaft utilizing V-belt drivers. An increase in the number of idle pulleys results in the increase of frictional power. Further, components like idler and belt tensioner are also needed to run the belt drive which adds to the frictional power. The aspiration of this paper is to minimize the friction power by introducing a new system that could combine all the accessories in one shaft within a single casing. This is conceptualized to minimize the friction power, service and maintenance cost, space and also time. The validation of this work can be executed through a simpler drive transmitting power from the crank shaft.

Keywords: single drive, idler pulley, belt tensioner, friction power, casing, space and cost

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
2441 Dependence of Shaft Stiffness on the Crack Location

Authors: H. M. Mobarak, Helen Wu, Chunhui Yang

Abstract:

In this study, an analytical model is developed to study crack breathing behavior under the effect of crack location and unbalance force. Crack breathing behavior is determined using effectual bending angle by studying the transient change in closed area of the crack. The status of the crack of a balanced shaft is symmetrical about shaft rotational angle and the duration of each crack status remains unchanged. The global stiffness of the balanced shaft is independent of crack location. Different crack breathing behavior for the unbalanced shaft has been observed. The influence of crack location on the unbalanced shaft stiffness can be divided into three regions. When the crack is located between 0.3L and 0.8335L, where L is the total length of the shaft, the unbalanced shaft is less stiff and when located outside this region it is stiffer than the balanced shaft. It was also found that unbalanced shaft stiffness has a maximum value with a crack at 0.1946L, a minimum value at 0.8053L and same value as balanced shaft at 0.3L and 0.8335L.

Keywords: cracked shaft, crack location, shaft stiffness, unbalanced force

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
2440 Design and Performance of a Large Diameter Shaft in Old Alluvium

Authors: Tamilmani Thiruvengadam, Ramasthanan Arulampalam

Abstract:

This project comprises laying approximately 1.8km of 400mm, 1200mm and 2400mm diameter sewer pipes using pipe jacking machines along Mugliston Park, Buangkok Drive, and Buangkok Link. The works include an estimated 14 circular shafts with depth ranging from 10.0 meters to 29.0 meters. Cast in-situ circular shaft will be used for the temporary shaft excavation. The geology is predominantly Backfill and old alluvium with weak material encountered in between. Where there is a very soft clay, F1 material or weak soil is expected, ground improvement will be carried out outside of the shaft followed by cast in-situ concrete ring wall within the improved soil zone. This paper presents the design methodology, analysis and results of temporary shafts for micro TBM launching and constructing permanent manholes. There is also a comparison of instrumentation readings with the analysis predicted values.

Keywords: circular shaft, ground improvement, old alluvium, temporary shaft

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
2439 A Mathematical Model for 3-DOF Rotary Accuracy Measurement Method Based on a Ball Lens

Authors: Hau-Wei Lee, Yu-Chi Liu, Chien-Hung Liu

Abstract:

A mathematical model is presented for a system that measures rotational errors in a shaft using a ball lens. The geometric optical characteristics of the ball lens mounted on the shaft allows the measurement of rotation axis errors in both the radial and axial directions. The equipment used includes two quadrant detectors (QD), two laser diodes and a ball lens that is mounted on the rotating shaft to be evaluated. Rotational errors in the shaft cause changes in the optical geometry of the ball lens. The resulting deflection of the laser beams is detected by the QDs and their output signals are used to determine rotational errors. The radial and the axial rotational errors can be calculated as explained by the mathematical model. Results from system calibration show that the measurement error is within ±1 m and resolution is about 20 nm. Using a direct drive motor (DD motor) as an example, experimental results show a rotational error of less than 20 m. The most important features of this system are that it does not require the use of expensive optical components, it is small, very easy to set up, and measurements are highly accurate.

Keywords: ball lens, quadrant detector, axial error, radial error

Procedia PDF Downloads 389
2438 Influence of Angular Position of Unbalanced Force on Crack Breathing Mechanism

Authors: Roselyn Zaman, Mobarak Hossain

Abstract:

A new mathematical model is developed to study crack breathing behavior considering effect of angular position of unbalanced force at different crack locations. Crack breathing behavior has been determined using effectual bending angle by studying the transient change of the crack area. Different crack breathing behavior of the unbalanced shaft has been observed for different combination of angular position of unbalanced force with crack location except crack locations 0.3L and 0.8335L, where L is the total length of the shaft, where unbalanced shaft behave completely like the balanced shaft. Based on different combination of angular position of unbalanced force with crack location, the stiffness of unbalanced shaft can be divided into three regions. An unbalanced shaft is overall stiffer than a balanced shaft when angular position of unbalance force is between 90° to 270° and crack located between 0.3L and 0.8335L, and it is overall flexible when the crack located in outside this crack region. On the other hand, it is overall flexible when angular position of unbalanced force is between 0° to 90° or 270° to 360° and crack located in middle region and it is overall stiffer for outside this crack region.

Keywords: cracked shaft, crack location, shaft stiffness, unbalanced force, and unbalanced force orientation

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
2437 Finite Element Analysis of the Drive Shaft and Jacking Frame Interaction in Micro-Tunneling Method: Case Study of Tehran Sewerage

Authors: B. Mohammadi, A. Riazati, P. Soltan Sanjari, S. Azimbeik

Abstract:

The ever-increasing development of civic demands on one hand; and the urban constrains for newly establish of infrastructures, on the other hand, perforce the engineering committees to apply non-conflicting methods in order to optimize the results. One of these optimized procedures to establish the main sewerage networks is the pipe jacking and micro-tunneling method. The raw information and researches are based on the experiments of the slurry micro-tunneling project of the Tehran main sewerage network that it has executed by the KAYSON co. The 4985 meters route of the mentioned project that is located nearby the Azadi square and the most vital arteries of Tehran is faced to 45% physical progress nowadays. The boring machine is made by the Herrenknecht and the diameter of the using concrete-polymer pipes are 1600 and 1800 millimeters. Placing and excavating several shafts on the ground and direct Tunnel boring between the axes of issued shafts is one of the requirements of the micro-tunneling. Considering the stream of the ground located shafts should care the hydraulic circumstances, civic conditions, site geography, traffic cautions and etc. The profile length has to convert to many shortened segment lines so the generated angle between the segments will be based in the manhole centers. Each segment line between two continues drive and receive the shaft, displays the jack location, driving angle and the path straight, thus, the diversity of issued angle causes the variety of jack positioning in the shaft. The jacking frame fixing conditions and it's associated dynamic load direction produces various patterns of Stress and Strain distribution and creating fatigues in the shaft wall and the soil surrounded the shaft. This pattern diversification makes the shaft wall transformed, unbalanced subsidence and alteration in the pipe jacking Stress Contour. This research is based on experiments of the Tehran's west sewerage plan and the numerical analysis the interaction of the soil around the shaft, shaft walls and the Jacking frame direction and finally, the suitable or unsuitable location of the pipe jacking shaft will be determined.

Keywords: underground structure, micro-tunneling, fatigue analysis, dynamic-soil–structure interaction, underground water, finite element analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
2436 An Acoustical Diagnosis of a Shaft-Wood Phyto-Pathogenic Damage of Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl.) Buccholz

Authors: Yuri V. Plugatar, Vladimir P. Koba, Vladimir V. Papelbu, Vladimir N. Gerasimchuk, Tatjana M. Sakhno

Abstract:

Using a supersonic shaft–wood tomography, the evaluation of a shaft-wood phyto-pathogenic damage level of Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl.) Buccholz was prosecuted. The digital bivariate reflections of the shaft tissue damage were obtained, the characteristics of comparative parameters of the wood-decay degree were given. The investigation results allowed to show up the role of some edaphic factors in their affection on a vital condition and the level of destructive processes while shaft tissue damaging of S.giganteum. It was pinned up that soil consolidation, and hydro-morphication equally make for a phyto-pathogenic damage of plants. While soil consolidation negative acting the shaft-wood damage is located in an underneath of a shaft. In the conditions of an enlarged hydro-morphication a tissue degradation runs less intensively, the destructive processes more active spread in a vertical section of a shaft. The use of a supersonic tomography method gives wide possibilities to diagnose a shaft-wood phyto-pathogenic damage.

Keywords: Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl.) Buccholz, supersonic tomography, diagnosis, phyto-pathogenic damage, a vital condition

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
2435 Investigation for the Mechanism of Lateral-Torsional Coupled Vibration of the Propulsion Shaft in a Ship

Authors: Hyungsuk Han, Soohong Jeon, Chungwon Lee, YongHoon Kim

Abstract:

When a rubber mount and flexible coupling are installed on the main engine, high torsional vibration can occur. The root cause of this high torsional vibration can be attributed to the lateral-torsional coupled vibration of the shaft system. Therefore, the lateral-torsional coupled vibration is investigated numerically after approximating the shaft system to a three-degrees-of-freedom Jeffcott rotor. To verify that the high torsional vibration is caused by the lateral-torsional coupled vibration, a test unit that can simulate this lateral-torsional coupled vibration occurring in the propulsion shaft is developed. Performing a vibration test with the test unit, it can be experimentally verified that the high torsional vibration occurring in the propulsion shaft of the particular ship was caused by the lateral-torsional coupled vibration.

Keywords: Jeffcott rotor, lateral-torsional coupled vibration, propulsion shaft, stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
2434 Productivity Improvement in the Propeller Shaft Manufacturing Process

Authors: Won Jung

Abstract:

In automotive, propeller shaft is the device for transferring power from engine to axle via transmission, and the slip yoke is one of the main parts in the component. Since the propeller shafts are subject to torsion and shear stress, they need to be strong enough to bear the stress. The purpose of this research is to improve the productivity of slip yoke for automotive propeller shaft. We present how to redesign the component that currently manufactured as a forged single body type. The research was focused on not only reducing processing time but insuring durability of the component simultaneously.

Keywords: automotive, propeller shaft, productivity, durability, slip yoke

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
2433 Effect of Size and Soil Characteristic on Contribution of Side and Tip Resistance of the Drilled Shafts Axial Load Carrying Capacity

Authors: Mehrak Zargaryaeghoubi, Masood Hajali

Abstract:

Drilled shafts are the most popular of deep foundations, because they have the capability that one single shaft can easily carry the entire load of a large column from a bridge or tall building. Drilled shaft may be an economical alternative to pile foundations because a pile cap is not needed, which not only reduces that expense, but also provides a rough surface in the border of soil and concrete to carry a more axial load. Due to the larger construction sizes of drilled shafts, they have an excellent axial load carrying capacity. Part of the axial load carrying capacity of the drilled shaft is resisted by the soil below the tip of the shaft which is tip resistance and the other part is resisted by the friction developed around the drilled shaft which is side resistance. The condition at the bottom of the excavation can affect the end bearing capacity of the drilled shaft. Also, type of the soil and size of the drilled shaft can affect the frictional resistance. The main loads applied on the drilled shafts are axial compressive loads. It is important to know how many percent of the maximum applied load will be shed inside friction and how much will be transferred to the base. The axial capacity of the drilled shaft foundation is influenced by the size of the drilled shaft, and soil characteristics. In this study, the effect of the size and soil characteristic will be investigated on the contribution of side resistance and end-bearing capacity. Also, the study presents a three-dimensional finite element modeling of a drilled shaft subjected to axial load using ANSYS. The top displacement and settlement of the drilled shaft are verified with analytical results. The soil profile is considered as Table 1 and for a drilled shaft with 7 ft diameter and 95 ft length the stresses in z-direction are calculated through the length of the shaft. From the stresses in z-direction through the length of the shaft the side resistance can be calculated and with the z-direction stress at the tip, the tip resistance can be calculated. The result of the side and tip resistance for this drilled shaft are compared with the analytical results.

Keywords: Drilled Shaft Foundation, size and soil characteristic, axial load capacity, Finite Element

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
2432 Analytical Method for Seismic Analysis of Shaft-Tunnel Junction under Longitudinal Excitations

Authors: Jinghua Zhang

Abstract:

Shaft-tunnel junction is a typical case of the structural nonuniformity in underground structures. The shaft and the tunnel possess greatly different structural features. Even under uniform excitations, they tend to behave discrepantly. Studies on shaft-tunnel junctions are mainly performed numerically. Shaking table tests are also conducted. Although many numerical and experimental data are obtained, an analytical solution still has great merits of gaining more insights into the shaft-tunnel problem. This paper will try to remedy the situation. Since the seismic responses of shaft-tunnel junctions are very related to directions of the excitations, they are studied in two scenarios: the longitudinal-excitation scenario and the transverse-excitation scenario. The former scenario will be addressed in this paper. Given that responses of the tunnel are highly dependent on the shaft, the analytical solutions would be developed firstly for the vertical shaft. Then, the seismic responses of the tunnel would be discussed. Since vertical shafts bear a resemblance to rigid caissons, the solution proposed in this paper is derived by introducing terms of shaft-tunnel and soil-tunnel interactions into equations originally developed for rigid caissons. The validity of the solution is examined by a validation model computed by finite element method. The mutual influence between the shaft and the tunnel is introduced. The soil-structure interactions are discussed parametrically based on the proposed equations. The shaft-tunnel relative displacement and the soil-tunnel relative stiffness are found to be the most important parameters affecting the magnitudes and distributions of the internal forces of the tunnel. A hinge-joint at the shaft-tunnel junction could significantly reduce the degree of stress concentration compared with a rigid joint.

Keywords: analytical solution, longitudinal excitation, numerical validation , shaft-tunnel junction

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
2431 Numerical Analysis of Effect of Crack Location on the Crack Breathing Behavior

Authors: H. M. Mobarak, Helen Wu, Keqin Xiao

Abstract:

In this work, a three-dimensional finite element model was developed to investigate the crack breathing behavior at different crack locations considering the effect of unbalance force. A two-disk rotor with a crack is simulated using ABAQUS. The duration of each crack status (open, closed and partially open/closed) during a full shaft rotation was examined to analyse the crack breathing behavior. Unbalanced shaft crack breathing behavior was found to be different at different crack locations. The breathing behavior of crack along the shaft length is divided into different regions depending on the unbalance force and crack location. The simulated results in this work can be further utilised to obtain the time-varying stiffness matrix of the cracked shaft element under the influence of unbalance force.

Keywords: crack breathing, crack location, slant crack, unbalance force, rotating shaft

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
2430 Analysis of Cyclic Elastic-Plastic Loading of Shaft Based on Kinematic Hardening Model

Authors: Isa Ahmadi, Ramin Khamedi

Abstract:

In this paper, the elasto-plastic and cyclic torsion of a shaft is studied using a finite element method. The Prager kinematic hardening theory of plasticity with the Ramberg and Osgood stress-strain equation is used to evaluate the cyclic loading behavior of the shaft under the torsional loading. The material of shaft is assumed to follow the non-linear strain hardening property based on the Prager model. The finite element method with C1 continuity is developed and used for solution of the governing equations of the problem. The successive substitution iterative method is used to calculate the distribution of stresses and plastic strains in the shaft due to cyclic loads. The shear stress, effective stress, residual stress and elastic and plastic shear strain distribution are presented in the numerical results.

Keywords: cyclic loading, finite element analysis, Prager kinematic hardening model, torsion of shaft

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
2429 Diagnosis of Intermittent High Vibration Peaks in Industrial Gas Turbine Using Advanced Vibrations Analysis

Authors: Abubakar Rashid, Muhammad Saad, Faheem Ahmed

Abstract:

This paper provides a comprehensive study pertaining to diagnosis of intermittent high vibrations on an industrial gas turbine using detailed vibrations analysis, followed by its rectification. Engro Polymer & Chemicals Limited, a Chlor-Vinyl complex located in Pakistan has a captive combined cycle power plant having two 28 MW gas turbines (make Hitachi) & one 15 MW steam turbine. In 2018, the organization faced an issue of high vibrations on one of the gas turbines. These high vibration peaks appeared intermittently on both compressor’s drive end (DE) & turbine’s non-drive end (NDE) bearing. The amplitude of high vibration peaks was between 150-170% on the DE bearing & 200-300% on the NDE bearing from baseline values. In one of these episodes, the gas turbine got tripped on “High Vibrations Trip” logic actuated at 155µm. Limited instrumentation is available on the machine, which is monitored with GE Bently Nevada 3300 system having two proximity probes installed at Turbine NDE, Compressor DE &at Generator DE & NDE bearings. Machine’s transient ramp-up & steady state data was collected using ADRE SXP & DSPI 408. Since only 01 key phasor is installed at Turbine high speed shaft, a derived drive key phasor was configured in ADRE to obtain low speed shaft rpm required for data analysis. By analyzing the Bode plots, Shaft center line plot, Polar plot & orbit plots; rubbing was evident on Turbine’s NDE along with increased bearing clearance of Turbine’s NDE radial bearing. The subject bearing was then inspected & heavy deposition of carbonized coke was found on the labyrinth seals of bearing housing with clear rubbing marks on shaft & housing covering at 20-25 degrees on the inner radius of labyrinth seals. The collected coke sample was tested in laboratory & found to be the residue of lube oil in the bearing housing. After detailed inspection & cleaning of shaft journal area & bearing housing, new radial bearing was installed. Before assembling the bearing housing, cleaning of bearing cooling & sealing air lines was also carried out as inadequate flow of cooling & sealing air can accelerate coke formation in bearing housing. The machine was then taken back online & data was collected again using ADRE SXP & DSPI 408 for health analysis. The vibrations were found in acceptable zone as per ISO standard 7919-3 while all other parameters were also within vendor defined range. As a learning from subject case, revised operating & maintenance regime has also been proposed to enhance machine’s reliability.

Keywords: ADRE, bearing, gas turbine, GE Bently Nevada, Hitachi, vibration

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
2428 Failure Analysis of Recoiler Mandrel Shaft Used for Coiling of Rolled Steel Sheet

Authors: Sachin Pawar, Suman Patra, Goutam Mukhopadhyay

Abstract:

The primary function of a shaft is to transfer power. The shaft can be cast or forged and then machined to the final shape. Manufacturing of ~5 m length and 0.6 m diameter shaft is very critical. More difficult is to maintain its straightness during heat treatment and machining operations, which involve thermal and mechanical loads, respectively. During the machining operation of a such forged mandrel shaft, a deflection of 3-4mm was observed. To remove this deflection shaft was pressed at both ends which led to the development of cracks in it. To investigate the root cause of the deflection and cracking, the sample was cut from the failed shaft. Possible causes were identified with the help of a cause and effect diagram. Chemical composition analysis, microstructural analysis, and hardness measurement were done to confirm whether the shaft meets the required specifications or not. Chemical composition analysis confirmed that the material grade was 42CrMo4. Microstructural analysis revealed the presence of untempered martensite, indicating improper heat treatment. Due to this, ductility and impact toughness values were considerably lower than the specification of the mentioned grade. Residual stress measurement of one more bent shaft manufactured by a similar route was done by portable X-ray diffraction(XRD) technique. For better understanding, measurements were done at twelve different locations along the length of the shaft. The occurrence of a high amount of undesirable tensile residual stresses close to the Ultimate Tensile Strength(UTS) of the material was observed. Untempered martensitic structure, lower ductility, lower impact strength, and presence of a high amount of residual stresses all confirmed the improper tempering heat treatment of the shaft. Tempering relieves the residual stresses. Based on the findings of this study, stress-relieving heat treatment was done to remove the residual stresses and deflection in the shaft successfully.

Keywords: residual stress, mandrel shaft, untempered martensite, portable XRD

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
2427 Failure Analysis and Fatigue Life Estimation of a Shaft of a Rotary Draw Bending Machine

Authors: B. Engel, Sara Salman Hassan Al-Maeeni

Abstract:

Human consumption of the Earth's resources increases the need for a sustainable development as an important ecological, social, and economic theme. Re-engineering of machine tools, in terms of design and failure analysis, is defined as steps performed on an obsolete machine to return it to a new machine with the warranty that matches the customer requirement. To understand the future fatigue behavior of the used machine components, it is important to investigate the possible causes of machine parts failure through design, surface, and material inspections. In this study, the failure modes of the shaft of the rotary draw bending machine are inspected. Furthermore, stress and deflection analysis of the shaft subjected to combined torsion and bending loads are carried out by an analytical method and compared with a finite element analysis method. The theoretical fatigue strength, correction factors, and fatigue life sustained by the shaft before damaged are estimated by creating a stress-cycle (S-N) diagram. In conclusion, it is seen that the shaft can work in the second life, but it needs some surface treatments to increase the reliability and fatigue life.

Keywords: failure analysis, fatigue life, FEM analysis, shaft, stress analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
2426 Shaft Friction of Bored Pile Socketed in Weathered Limestone in Qatar

Authors: Thanawat Chuleekiat

Abstract:

Socketing of bored piles in rock is always seen as a matter of debate on construction sites between consultants and contractors. The socketing depth normally depends on the type of rock, depth at which the rock is available below the pile cap and load carrying capacity of the pile. In this paper, the review of field load test data of drilled shaft socketed in weathered limestone conducted using conventional static pile load test and dynamic pile load test was made to evaluate a unit shaft friction for the bored piles socketed in weathered limestone (weak rock). The borehole drilling data were also reviewed in conjunction with the pile test result. In addition, the back-calculated unit shaft friction was reviewed against various empirical methods for bored piles socketed in weak rock. The paper concludes with an estimated ultimate unit shaft friction from the case study in Qatar for preliminary design.

Keywords: piled foundation, weathered limestone, shaft friction, rock socket, pile load test

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
2425 Stability of a Self-Excited Machine Due to the Mechanical Coupling

Authors: M. Soltan Rezaee, M. R. Ghazavi, A. Najafi, W.-H. Liao

Abstract:

Generally, different rods in shaft systems can be misaligned based on the mechanical system usages. These rods can be linked together via U-coupling easily. The system is self-stimulated and may cause instabilities due to the inherent behavior of the coupling. In this study, each rod includes an elastic shaft with an angular stiffness and structural damping. Moreover, the mass of shafts is considered via attached solid disks. The impact of the system architecture and shaft mass on the instability of such mechanism are studied. Stability charts are plotted via a method based on Floquet theory. Eventually, the unstable points have been found and analyzed in detail. The results show that stabilizing the driveline is feasible by changing the system characteristics which include shaft mass and architecture.

Keywords: coupling, mechanical systems, oscillations, rotating shafts

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
2424 Natural Frequency Analysis of a Porous Functionally Graded Shaft System

Authors: Natural Frequency Analysis of a Porous Functionally Graded Shaft System

Abstract:

The vibration characteristics of a functionally graded (FG) rotor model having porosities and micro-voids is investigated using three-dimensional finite element analysis. The FG shaft is mounted with a steel disc located at the midspan. The shaft ends are supported on isotropic bearings. The FG material is composed of a metallic (stainless-steel) and ceramic phase (zirconium oxide) as its constituent phases. The layer wise material property variation is governed by power law. Material property equations are developed for the porosity modelling. Python code is developed to assign the material properties to each layer including the effect of porosities. ANSYS commercial software is used to extract the natural frequencies and whirl frequencies for the FG shaft system. The obtained results show the influence of porosity volume fraction and power-law index, on the vibration characteristics of the ceramic-based FG shaft system.

Keywords: Finite element method, Functionally graded material, Porosity volume fraction, Power law

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
2423 Effect of Installation Method on the Ratio of Tensile to Compressive Shaft Capacity of Piles in Dense Sand

Authors: A. C. Galvis-Castro, R. D. Tovar, R. Salgado, M. Prezzi

Abstract:

It is generally accepted that the shaft capacity of piles in the sand is lower for tensile loading that for compressive loading. So far, very little attention has been paid to the role of the influence of the installation method on the tensile to compressive shaft capacity ratio. The objective of this paper is to analyze the effect of installation method on the tensile to compressive shaft capacity of piles in dense sand as observed in tests on half-circular model pile tests in a half-circular calibration chamber with digital image correlation (DIC) capability. Model piles are either monotonically jacked, jacked with multiple strokes or pre-installed into the dense sand samples. Digital images of the model pile and sand are taken during both the installation and loading stages of each test and processed using the DIC technique to obtain the soil displacement and strain fields. The study provides key insights into the mobilization of shaft resistance in tensile and compressive loading for both displacement and non-displacement piles.

Keywords: digital image correlation, piles, sand, shaft resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
2422 Prediction of the Torsional Vibration Characteristics of a Rotor-Shaft System Using Its Scale Model and Scaling Laws

Authors: Jia-Jang Wu

Abstract:

This paper presents the scaling laws that provide the criteria of geometry and dynamic similitude between the full-size rotor-shaft system and its scale model, and can be used to predict the torsional vibration characteristics of the full-size rotor-shaft system by manipulating the corresponding data of its scale model. The scaling factors, which play fundamental roles in predicting the geometry and dynamic relationships between the full-size rotor-shaft system and its scale model, for torsional free vibration problems between scale and full-size rotor-shaft systems are firstly obtained from the equation of motion of torsional free vibration. Then, the scaling factor of external force (i.e., torque) required for the torsional forced vibration problems is determined based on the Newton’s second law. Numerical results show that the torsional free and forced vibration characteristics of a full-size rotor-shaft system can be accurately predicted from those of its scale models by using the foregoing scaling factors. For this reason, it is believed that the presented approach will be significant for investigating the relevant phenomenon in the scale model tests.

Keywords: torsional vibration, full-size model, scale model, scaling laws

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
2421 Research on Control Strategy of Differential Drive Assisted Steering of Distributed Drive Electric Vehicle

Authors: J. Liu, Z. P. Yu, L. Xiong, Y. Feng, J. He

Abstract:

According to the independence, accuracy and controllability of the driving/braking torque of the distributed drive electric vehicle, a control strategy of differential drive assisted steering was designed. Firstly, the assisted curve under different speed and steering wheel torque was developed and the differential torques were distributed to the right and left front wheels. Then the steering return ability assisted control algorithm was designed. At last, the joint simulation was conducted by CarSim/Simulink. The result indicated: the differential drive assisted steering algorithm could provide enough steering drive-assisted under low speed and improve the steering portability. Along with the increase of the speed, the provided steering drive-assisted decreased. With the control algorithm, the steering stiffness of the steering system increased along with the increase of the speed, which ensures the driver’s road feeling. The control algorithm of differential drive assisted steering could avoid the understeer under low speed effectively.

Keywords: differential assisted steering, control strategy, distributed drive electric vehicle, driving/braking torque

Procedia PDF Downloads 362
2420 Effect of CSL Tube Type on the Drilled Shaft Axial Load Carrying Capacity

Authors: Ali Motevalli, Shahin Nayyeri Amiri

Abstract:

Cross-Hole Sonic Logging (CSL) is a common type of Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) method, which is currently used to check the integrity of placed drilled shafts. CSL evaluates the integrity of the concrete inside the cage and between the access tubes based on propagation of ultrasonic waves between two or more access tubes. A number of access tubes are installed inside the reinforcing cage prior to concrete placement as guides for sensors. The access tubes can be PVC or steel galvanized based on ASTM6760. The type of the CSL tubes can affect the axial strength of the drilled shaft. The objective of this study is to compare the amount of axial load capacity of drilled shafts due to using a different type of CSL tubes inside the caging. To achieve this, three (3) large-scale drilled shaft samples were built and tested using a hydraulic actuator at the Florida International University’s (FIU) Titan America Structures and Construction Testing (TASCT) laboratory. During the static load test, load-displacement curves were recorded by the data acquisition system (MegaDAC). Three drilled shaft samples were built to evaluate the effect of the type of the CSL tube on the axial load capacity in drilled shaft foundations.

Keywords: drilled shaft foundations, axial load capacity, cage, PVC, galvanized tube, CSL tube

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
2419 Parametric Optimization of High-Performance Electric Vehicle E-Gear Drive for Radiated Noise Using 1-D System Simulation

Authors: Sanjai Sureshkumar, Sathish G. Kumar, P. V. V. Sathyanarayana

Abstract:

For e-gear drivetrain, the transmission error and the resulting variation in mesh stiffness is one of the main source of excitation in High performance Electric Vehicle. These vibrations are transferred through the shaft to the bearings and then to the e-Gear drive housing eventually radiating noise. A parametrical model developed in 1-D system simulation by optimizing the micro and macro geometry along with bearing properties and oil filtration to achieve least transmission error and high contact ratio. Histogram analysis is performed to condense the actual road load data into condensed duty cycle to find the bearing forces. The structural vibration generated by these forces will be simulated in a nonlinear solver obtaining the normal surface velocity of the housing and the results will be carried forward to Acoustic software wherein a virtual environment of the surrounding (actual testing scenario) with accurate microphone position will be maintained to predict the sound pressure level of radiated noise and directivity plot of the e-Gear Drive. Order analysis will be carried out to find the root cause of the vibration and whine noise. Broadband spectrum will be checked to find the rattle noise source. Further, with the available results, the design will be optimized, and the next loop of simulation will be performed to build a best e-Gear Drive on NVH aspect. Structural analysis will be also carried out to check the robustness of the e-Gear Drive.

Keywords: 1-D system simulation, contact ratio, e-Gear, mesh stiffness, micro and macro geometry, transmission error, radiated noise, NVH

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
2418 Feasibility Study on Hybrid Multi-Stage Direct-Drive Generator for Large-Scale Wind Turbine

Authors: Jin Uk Han, Hye Won Han, Hyo Lim Kang, Tae An Kim, Seung Ho Han

Abstract:

Direct-drive generators for large-scale wind turbine, which are divided into AFPM(Axial Flux Permanent Magnet) and RFPM(Radial Flux Permanent Magnet) type machine, have attracted interest because of a higher energy density in comparison with gear train type generators. Each type of the machines provides distinguishable geometrical features such as narrow width with a large diameter for the AFPM-type machine and wide width with a certain diameter for the RFPM-type machine. When the AFPM-type machine is applied, an increase of electric power production through a multi-stage arrangement in axial direction is easily achieved. On the other hand, the RFPM-type machine can be applied by using its geometric feature of wide width. In this study, a hybrid two-stage direct-drive generator for 6.2MW class wind turbine was proposed, in which the two-stage AFPM-type machine for 5 MW was composed of two models arranged in axial direction with a hollow shape topology of the rotor with annular disc, the stator and the main shaft mounted on coupled slew bearings. In addition, the RFPM-type machine for 1.2MW was installed at the empty space of the rotor. Analytic results obtained from an electro-magnetic and structural interaction analysis showed that the structural weight of the proposed hybrid two-stage direct-drive generator can be achieved as 155tonf in a condition satisfying the requirements of structural behaviors such as allowable air-gap clearance and strength. Therefore, it was sure that the 6.2MW hybrid two-stage direct-drive generator is competitive than conventional generators. (NRF grant funded by the Korea government MEST, No. 2017R1A2B4005405).

Keywords: AFPM-type machine, direct-drive generator, electro-magnetic analysis, large-scale wind turbine, RFPM-type machine

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
2417 Design and Implementation of Power Generation Mechanism Using Speed Breaker

Authors: Roman Kalvin, Anam Nadeem, Saba Arif, Juntakan Taweekun

Abstract:

In the current scenario demand of power is increasing day by day with increasing population. It is needed to sort out this problem with a technique which will not only overcome this energy crisis but also should be environment friendly. This project emphasizes on idea which shows that power could be generated by specially designed speed breaker. This project shows clearly how power can be generated by using Cam Mechanism where basically linear motion is converted into rotatory motion that can be used to generate electricity. When vehicle passes over the speed breaker, presses the cam with the help of connecting rod which rotate main shaft attached with large pulley. A flywheel is coupled with the shaft whose purpose is to normalize the oscillation in the energy and to make the energy unvarying. So, the shafts will spin with firm rpm. These shafts are coupled from end to end with a belt drive. The results show that power generated from this mechanism is 12 watts. The generated electricity does not required any fuel consumption it only generates power which can be used for the street light as well as for the traffic signals.

Keywords: revolution per minute, RPM, cam, speed breaker, rotatory motion

Procedia PDF Downloads 132