Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

Search results for: M. Soltan Rezaee

20 Robust Control of a Parallel 3-RRR Robotic Manipulator via μ-Synthesis Method

Authors: A. Abbasi Moshaii, M. Soltan Rezaee, M. Mohammadi Moghaddam


Control of some mechanisms is hard because of their complex dynamic equations. If part of the complexity is resulting from uncertainties, an efficient way for solving that is robust control. By this way, the control procedure could be simple and fast and finally, a simple controller can be designed. One kind of these mechanisms is 3-RRR which is a parallel mechanism and has three revolute joints. This paper aims to robust control a 3-RRR planner mechanism and it presents that this could be used for other mechanisms. So, a significant problem in mechanisms control could be solved. The relevant diagrams are drawn and they show the correctness of control process.

Keywords: 3-RRR, dynamic equations, mechanisms control, structural uncertainty

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19 Stability of a Self-Excited Machine Due to the Mechanical Coupling

Authors: M. Soltan Rezaee, M. R. Ghazavi, A. Najafi, W.-H. Liao


Generally, different rods in shaft systems can be misaligned based on the mechanical system usages. These rods can be linked together via U-coupling easily. The system is self-stimulated and may cause instabilities due to the inherent behavior of the coupling. In this study, each rod includes an elastic shaft with an angular stiffness and structural damping. Moreover, the mass of shafts is considered via attached solid disks. The impact of the system architecture and shaft mass on the instability of such mechanism are studied. Stability charts are plotted via a method based on Floquet theory. Eventually, the unstable points have been found and analyzed in detail. The results show that stabilizing the driveline is feasible by changing the system characteristics which include shaft mass and architecture.

Keywords: coupling, mechanical systems, oscillations, rotating shafts

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18 Fractional Order Sallen-Key Filters

Authors: Ahmed Soltan, Ahmed G. Radwan, Ahmed M. Soliman


This work aims to generalize the integer order Sallen-Key filters into the fractional-order domain. The analysis in the case of two different fractional-order elements introduced where the general transfer function becomes four terms which are unusual in the conventional case. In addition, the effect of the transfer function parameters on the filter poles and hence the stability is introduced and closed forms for the filter critical frequencies are driven. Finally, different examples of the fractional order Sallen-Key filter design are presented with circuit simulations using ADS where a great matching between the numerical and simulation results is obtained.

Keywords: Sallen-Key, fractance, stability, low-pass filter, analog filter

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17 Some Tips for Increasing Online Services Safety

Authors: Mohsen Rezaee


Although robust security softwares, including anti-viruses, anti-spywares, anti-spam and firewalls are amalgamated with new technologies such as safe zone, hybrid cloud, sand box and etc., and although it can be said that they have managed to prepare highest level of security against viruses, spywares and other malwares in 2012, in fact, hacker attacks to websites are increasingly becoming more and more complicated. Because of security matters developments it can be said it was expected to happen so. Here in this work we try to point out some functional and vital notes to enhance security on the web, enabling the user to browse safely in unlimited web world and to use virtual space securely.

Keywords: firewalls, security, web services, computer science

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16 Technical Feasibility Analysis of PV Water Pumping System in Khuzestan Province-Iran

Authors: M.Goodarzi, M.Mohammadi, M. Rezaee


The technical analysis of using solar energy and electricity for water pumping in the Khuzestan province in Iran is investigated. For this purpose, the ecological conditions such as the weather data, air clearness and sunshine hours are analyzed. The nature of groundwater in the region was examined in terms of depth, static and dynamic head, water pumping rate.Three configurations for solar water pumping system were studied in this thesis; AC solar water pumping with storage battery, AC solar water pumping with storage tank and DC direct solar water pumping.

Keywords: technical feasibility, solar energy, photovoltaic systems, photovoltaic water pumping system

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15 Cardenolides from the Egyptian Cultivar: Acokanthera spectabilis Leaves Inducing Apoptosis through Arresting Hepatocellular Carcinoma Growth at G2/M

Authors: Maha Soltan, Amal Z. Hassan, Howaida I. Abd-Alla, Atef G. Hanna


Two naturally known cardenolides; acovenoside A and acobioside A were isolated from the Egyptian cultivar; Acokanthera spectabilis leaves. It is an ornamental and poisonous plant that has been traditionally claimed for their medicinal properties against infectious microbes, killing worms and curing some inflammations at little amounts. We examined the growth inhibition effects of both cardenolides against four types of human cancer cell lines using Sulphorhodamine B assay. In addition, the clonogenic assay was also performed for testing the growth inhibiting power of the isolated compounds. An in vitro mechanistic investigation was further accomplished against hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line. Microscopic examination, colorimetric ELISA and flow cytometry techniques were our tools of proving at least part of the anticancer pathway of the tested compounds. Both compounds were able to inhibit the growth of 4 human cancer cell lines at less than 100 nM. In addition, they were able to activate the executioner Caspase-3 and apoptosis was then induced as a consequence of cell growth arrest at G2/M. An attention must be payed to those bioactive agents particularly when giving their activity against cancer cells at considerable small values while presenting safe therapeutic margins as indicated by literature.

Keywords: anticancer, cardenolides, Caspase-3, apoptosis

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14 Human Resource Management Practices, Person-Environment Fit and Financial Performance in Brazilian Publicly Traded Companies

Authors: Bruno Henrique Rocha Fernandes, Amir Rezaee, Jucelia Appio


The relation between Human Resource Management (HRM) practices and organizational performance remains the subject of substantial literature. Though many studies demonstrated positive relationship, still major influencing variables are not yet clear. This study considers the Person-Environment Fit (PE Fit) and its components, Person-Supervisor (PS), Person-Group (PG), Person-Organization (PO) and Person-Job (PJ) Fit, as possible explanatory variables. We analyzed PE Fit as a moderator between HRM practices and financial performance in the “best companies to work” in Brazil. Data from HRM practices were classified through the High Performance Working Systems (HPWS) construct and data on PE-Fit were obtained through surveys among employees. Financial data, consisting of return on invested capital (ROIC) and price earnings ratio (PER) were collected for publicly traded best companies to work. Findings show that PO Fit and PJ Fit play a significant moderator role for PER but not for ROIC.

Keywords: financial performance, human resource management, high performance working systems, person-environment fit

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13 An Audit of the Care in Recovery in Women after an Obstetrics Procedure

Authors: A. Haddick, A. Soltan


Background: During the period of recovery from an operative obstetric procedure, a woman is not only at risk of the life-threatening complications accompanying labour but also those associated with surgery and anaesthesia. It is speculated that women in the recovery area may receive a lower standard of care over a night shift. Thus obstetric recovery room care should be evaluated regularly to ensure all women receive an equally high standard of care 24/7. Aim: The aim of this audit was to undertake an audit in the Liverpool Women’s Hospital on the care in recovery, and to ascertain the extent to which the standards were met. This audit included the full audit cycle. Method: Standards were taken from the AAGBI, RCOA, NICE and CNST guidelines. There were 12 standards including appropriate documentation of vital signs and appropriate length of stay after surgery. Notes from 100 patients were analysed from March 2011-March 2012. There were 52 day notes and 48 night notes; these were accessed to gain the relevant data. In the re audit 35 notes were accessed from March 14-September 14. Results: The Liverpool Women’s Hospital met in total 10 of these standards. 10 were met during the day shift (83%) and 0 met during the night shift. In the re audit, there was a significant improvement in the standards met at night. 9 of the standards were met during the day and 7 of the standards were met at night. Clearly there are still improvements to be made. Conclusions: In the original audit, an audit action plan was formulated. This was following discussion of the results of this audit in an MDT meeting and presentation with a consultant Obstetrician, the head of Midwifery, the head of Obstetrics theatres and a recovery nurse. This audit will be further discussed in the Liverpool Woman's Hospital in July 2015 for further implementation for improvement.

Keywords: care, recovery, room, women

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12 Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Powder Injection Molded Alumina Nano-Powder

Authors: Mostafa Rezaee Saraji, Ali Keshavarz Panahi


In this work, the processing steps for producing alumina parts using powder injection molding (PIM) technique and nano-powder were investigated and the thermal conductivity and flexural strength of samples were determined as a function of sintering temperature and holding time. In the first step, the feedstock with 58 vol. % of alumina nano-powder with average particle size of 100nm was prepared using Extrumixing method to obtain appropriate homogeneity. This feedstock was injection molded into the two cavity mold with rectangular shape. After injection molding step, thermal and solvent debinding methods were used for debinding of molded samples and then these debinded samples were sintered in different sintering temperatures and holding times. From the results, it was found that the flexural strength and thermal conductivity of samples increased by increasing sintering temperature and holding time; in sintering temperature of 1600ºC and holding time of 5h, the flexural strength and thermal conductivity of sintered samples reached to maximum values of 488MPa and 40.8 W/mK, respectively.

Keywords: alumina nano-powder, thermal conductivity, flexural strength, powder injection molding

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11 Comparative Study of Dose Calculation Accuracy in Bone Marrow Using Monte Carlo Method

Authors: Marzieh Jafarzadeh, Fatemeh Rezaee


Introduction: The effect of ionizing radiation on human health can be effective for genomic integrity and cell viability. It also increases the risk of cancer and malignancy. Therefore, X-ray behavior and absorption dose calculation are considered. One of the applicable tools for calculating and evaluating the absorption dose in human tissues is Monte Carlo simulation. Monte Carlo offers a straightforward way to simulate and integrate, and because it is simple and straightforward, Monte Carlo is easy to use. The Monte Carlo BEAMnrc code is one of the most common diagnostic X-ray simulation codes used in this study. Method: In one of the understudy hospitals, a certain number of CT scan images of patients who had previously been imaged were extracted from the hospital database. BEAMnrc software was used for simulation. The simulation of the head of the device with the energy of 0.09 MeV with 500 million particles was performed, and the output data obtained from the simulation was applied for phantom construction using CT CREATE software. The percentage of depth dose (PDD) was calculated using STATE DOSE was then compared with international standard values. Results and Discussion: The ratio of surface dose to depth dose (D/Ds) in the measured energy was estimated to be about 4% to 8% for bone and 3% to 7% for bone marrow. Conclusion: MC simulation is an efficient and accurate method for simulating bone marrow and calculating the absorbed dose.

Keywords: Monte Carlo, absorption dose, BEAMnrc, bone marrow

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10 Multi-Stage Multi-Period Production Planning in Wire and Cable Industry

Authors: Mahnaz Hosseinzadeh, Shaghayegh Rezaee Amiri


This paper presents a methodology for serial production planning problem in wire and cable manufacturing process that addresses the problem of input-output imbalance in different consecutive stations, hoping to minimize the halt of machines in each stage. To this end, a linear Goal Programming (GP) model is developed, in which four main categories of constraints as per the number of runs per machine, machines’ sequences, acceptable inventories of machines at the end of each period, and the necessity of fulfillment of the customers’ orders are considered. The model is formulated based upon on the real data obtained from IKO TAK Company, an important supplier of wire and cable for oil and gas and automotive industries in Iran. By solving the model in GAMS software the optimal number of runs, end-of-period inventories, and the possible minimum idle time for each machine are calculated. The application of the numerical results in the target company has shown the efficiency of the proposed model and the solution in decreasing the lead time of the end product delivery to the customers by 20%. Accordingly, the developed model could be easily applied in wire and cable companies for the aim of optimal production planning to reduce the halt of machines in manufacturing stages.

Keywords: goal programming approach, GP, production planning, serial manufacturing process, wire and cable industry

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9 Cytotoxic, Antimicrobial and Antiviral Activities of Acovenoside A: A Cardenolide Isolated from an Egyptian Cultivar of Acokanthera spectabilis Leaves

Authors: Howaida I. Abd-Alla, Amal Z. Hassan, Maha Soltan, Atef G. Hanna, Mounir M. El-Safty


Acokanthera oblongifolia (Apocynaceae) is used for treatment of several infection diseases and is a well-known cardiac glycoside-containing plant. The infusion of their leaves is gargled to treat tonsillitis and is used medicinally to treat snakebites. The total cardiac glycosides content in the leaves was determined by referring to gitoxigenin as a reference compound. Two triterpenes, lup-20(29)-en-3β-ol (1) and oleanolic acid (2); two cardenolides, acovenoside A (3) and acobioside A (4) were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectral analysis. Major constituents isolated from this species were evaluated for cytotoxicity against normal lung cell line (Wi38) and antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive (two strains) and Gram-negative bacteria (four strains), yeast-like fungi (two strains) and fungi (five strains). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the compounds was determined using broth microdilution method. Their viral inhibitory effects against avian influenza virus type A (AI-H5N1) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in specific pathogen free (SPF) embryonated chicken eggs (ECE), chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) and Vero cells were evaluated. The cardenolide (3) showed viral inhibitory effects against AI-H5N1 and NDV in SPF ECE. The two cardenolides isolated have shown potent cytotoxicity against Vero cells. Compound (3) showed potent anti-Gram-negative bacteria activity. These results suggested that acovenoside A might be promising for future antiviral and antimicrobial drug design.

Keywords: Acokanthera, AI-H5N1, Cardenolides, NDV, SPF-ECE, VERO, Wi38 , Microbe

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8 Measurement of Intermediate Slip Rate of Sabzpushan Fault Zone in Southwestern Iran, Using Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) Dating

Authors: Iman Nezamzadeh, Ali Faghih, Behnam Oveisi


In order to reduce earthquake hazards in urban areas, it is necessary to perform comprehensive studies to understand the dynamics of the active faults and identify potentially high risk areas. The fault slip-rates in Late Quaternary sediment are critical indicators of seismic hazard and also provide valuable data to recognize young crustal deformations. To measure slip-rates accurately, is needed to displacement of geomorphic markers and ages of quaternary sediment samples of alluvial deposit that deformed by movements on fault. In this study we produced information about Intermediate term slip rate of Sabzpushan Fault Zone (SPF) within the central part of the Zagros Mountains of Iran using OSL dating technique to make better analysis of seismic hazard and seismic risk reduction for Shiraz city. For this purpose identifiable geomorphic fluvial surfaces help us to provide a reference frame to determine differential or absolute horizontal and vertical deformation. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) is an alternative and independent method of determining the burial age of mineral grains in Quaternary sediments. Field observation and satellite imagery show geomorphic markers that deformed horizontally along the Sabzpoushan Fault. Here, drag folds is forming because of evaporites material of Miocen Formation. We estimate 2.8±0.5 mm/yr (mm/y) horizontal slip rate along the Sabzpushan fault zone, where ongoing deformation is involve with drug folding. The Soltan synclinal structure, close to the Sabzpushan fault, shows slight uplift rate due to active core-extrousion.

Keywords: slip rate, active tectonics, OSL, geomorphic markers, Sabzpushan Fault Zone, Zagros, Iran

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7 Adaptive Responses of Carum copticum to in vitro Salt Stress

Authors: R. Razavizadeh, F. Adabavazeh, M. Rezaee Chermahini


Salinity is one of the most widespread agricultural problems in arid and semi-arid areas that limits the plant growth and crop productivity. In this study, the salt stress effects on protein, reducing sugar, proline contents and antioxidant enzymes activities of Carum copticum L. under in vitro conditions were studied. Seeds of C. copticum were cultured in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 0, 25, 50, 100 and 150 mM NaCl and calli were cultured in MS medium containing 1 μM 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 4 μM benzyl amino purine and different levels of NaCl (0, 25, 50, 100 and 150 mM). After NaCl treatment for 28 days, the proline and reducing sugar contents of shoots, roots and calli increased significantly in relation to the severity of the salt stress. The highest amount of proline and carbohydrate were observed at 150 and 100 mM NaCl, respectively. The reducing sugar accumulation in shoots was the highest as compared to roots, whereas, proline contents did not show any significant difference in roots and shoots under salt stress. The results showed significant reduction of protein contents in seedlings and calli. Based on these results, proteins extracted from the shoots, roots and calli of C. copticum treated with 150 mM NaCl showed the lowest contents. The positive relationships were observed between activity of antioxidant enzymes and the increase in stress levels. Catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity increased significantly under salt concentrations in comparison to the control. These results suggest that the accumulation of proline and sugars, and activation of antioxidant enzymes play adaptive roles in the adaptation of seedlings and callus of C. copticum to saline conditions.

Keywords: antioxidant enzymes, Carum copticum, organic solutes, salt stress

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6 Plasma Pretreatment for Improving the Durability of Antibacterial Activity of Cotton Using ZnO Nanoparticles

Authors: Sheila Shahidi, Hootan Rezaee, Abosaeed Rashidi, Mahmood Ghoranneviss


Plasma treatment has an explosive increase in interest and use in industrial applications as for example in medical, biomedical, automobile, electronics, semiconductor and textile industry. A lot of intensive basic research has been performed in the last decade in the field of textiles along with technical textiles. Textile manufacturers and end-users alike have been searching for ways to improve the surface properties of natural and man-made fibers. Specifically, there is a need to improve adhesion and wettability. Functional groups may be introduced onto the fiber surface by using gas plasma treatments, improving fiber surface properties without affecting the fiber’s bulk properties. In this research work, ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) were insitue synthesized by sonochemical method at room temperature on both untreated and plasma pretreated cotton woven fabric. Oxygen and nitrogen plasmas were used for pre-functionalization of cotton fabric. And the effect of oxygen and nitrogen pre-functionalization on adhesion properties between ZnO nanoparticles and cotton surface were studied. The results show that nanoparticles with average sizes of 20-100 nm with different morphologies have been created on the surface of samples. Synthesis of ZnO-NPs was varied in the morphological transformation by changes in zinc acetate dehydrate concentration. Characterizations were carried out using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Inductive coupled plasma (ICP) and Spectrophotometery. The antibacterial activities of the fabrics were assessed semi-quantitatively by the colonies count method. The results show that the finished fabric demonstrated significant antibacterial activity against S. aureus in antibacterial test. The wash fastness of both untreated and plasma pretreated samples after 30 times of washing was investigated. The results showed that the parameters of plasma reactor plays very important role for improving the antibacterial durability.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, cotton, fabric, nanoparticles, plasma

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5 Spatial Planning and Tourism Development with Sustainability Model of the Territorial Tourist with Land Use Approach

Authors: Mehrangiz Rezaee, Zabih Charrahi


In the last decade, with increasing tourism destinations and tourism growth, we are witnessing the widespread impacts of tourism on the economy, environment and society. Tourism and its related economy are now undergoing a transformation and as one of the key pillars of business economics, it plays a vital role in the world economy. Activities related to tourism and providing services appropriate to it in an area, like many economic sectors, require the necessary context on its origin. Given the importance of tourism industry and tourism potentials of Yazd province in Iran, it is necessary to use a proper procedure for prioritizing different areas for proper and efficient planning. One of the most important goals of planning is foresight and creating balanced development in different geographical areas. This process requires an accurate study of the areas and potential and actual talents, as well as evaluation and understanding of the relationship between the indicators affecting the development of the region. At the global and regional level, the development of tourist resorts and the proper distribution of tourism destinations are needed to counter environmental impacts and risks. The main objective of this study is the sustainable development of suitable tourism areas. Given that tourism activities in different territorial areas require operational zoning, this study deals with the evaluation of territorial tourism using concepts such as land use, fitness and sustainable development. It is essential to understand the structure of tourism development and the spatial development of tourism using land use patterns, spatial planning and sustainable development. Tourism spatial planning implements different approaches. However, the development of tourism as well as the spatial development of tourism is complex, since tourist activities can be carried out in different areas with different purposes. Multipurpose areas have great important for tourism because it determines the flow of tourism. Therefore, in this paper, by studying the development and determination of tourism suitability that is related to spatial development, it is possible to plan tourism spatial development by developing a model that describes the characteristics of tourism. The results of this research determine the suitability of multi-functional territorial tourism development in line with spatial planning of tourism.

Keywords: land use change, spatial planning, sustainability, territorial tourist, Yazd

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4 Finite Element Analysis of the Drive Shaft and Jacking Frame Interaction in Micro-Tunneling Method: Case Study of Tehran Sewerage

Authors: B. Mohammadi, A. Riazati, P. Soltan Sanjari, S. Azimbeik


The ever-increasing development of civic demands on one hand; and the urban constrains for newly establish of infrastructures, on the other hand, perforce the engineering committees to apply non-conflicting methods in order to optimize the results. One of these optimized procedures to establish the main sewerage networks is the pipe jacking and micro-tunneling method. The raw information and researches are based on the experiments of the slurry micro-tunneling project of the Tehran main sewerage network that it has executed by the KAYSON co. The 4985 meters route of the mentioned project that is located nearby the Azadi square and the most vital arteries of Tehran is faced to 45% physical progress nowadays. The boring machine is made by the Herrenknecht and the diameter of the using concrete-polymer pipes are 1600 and 1800 millimeters. Placing and excavating several shafts on the ground and direct Tunnel boring between the axes of issued shafts is one of the requirements of the micro-tunneling. Considering the stream of the ground located shafts should care the hydraulic circumstances, civic conditions, site geography, traffic cautions and etc. The profile length has to convert to many shortened segment lines so the generated angle between the segments will be based in the manhole centers. Each segment line between two continues drive and receive the shaft, displays the jack location, driving angle and the path straight, thus, the diversity of issued angle causes the variety of jack positioning in the shaft. The jacking frame fixing conditions and it's associated dynamic load direction produces various patterns of Stress and Strain distribution and creating fatigues in the shaft wall and the soil surrounded the shaft. This pattern diversification makes the shaft wall transformed, unbalanced subsidence and alteration in the pipe jacking Stress Contour. This research is based on experiments of the Tehran's west sewerage plan and the numerical analysis the interaction of the soil around the shaft, shaft walls and the Jacking frame direction and finally, the suitable or unsuitable location of the pipe jacking shaft will be determined.

Keywords: underground structure, micro-tunneling, fatigue analysis, dynamic-soil–structure interaction, underground water, finite element analysis

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3 A Close Study on the Nitrate Fertilizer Use and Environmental Pollution for Human Health in Iran

Authors: Saeed Rezaeian, M. Rezaee Boroon


Nitrogen accumulates in soils during the process of fertilizer addition to promote the plant growth. When the organic matter decomposes, the form of available nitrogen produced is in the form of nitrate, which is highly mobile. The most significant health effect of nitrate ingestion is methemoglobinemia in infants under six months of age (blue baby syndrome). The mobile nutrients, like nitrate nitrogen, are not stored in the soil as the available forms for the long periods and in large amounts. It depends on the needs for the crops such as vegetables. On the other hand, the vegetables will compete actively for nitrate nitrogen as a mobile nutrient and water. The mobile nutrients must be shared. The fewer the plants, the larger this share is for each plant. Also, this nitrate nitrogen is poisonous for the people who use these vegetables. Nitrate is converted to nitrite by the existing bacteria in the stomach and the Gastro-Intestinal (GI) tract. When nitrite is entered into the blood cells, it converts the hemoglobin to methemoglobin, which causes the anoxemia and cyanosis. The increasing use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers, especially the fertilizers with nitrates compounds, which have been common for the increased production of agricultural crops, has caused the nitrate pollution in the (soil, water, and environment). They have caused a lot of damage to humans and animals. In this research, the nitrate accumulation in different kind of vegetables such as; green pepper, tomatoes, egg plants, watermelon, cucumber, and red pepper were observed in the suburbs of Mashhad, Neisabour, and Sabzevar cities. In some of these cities, the information forms of agronomical practices collected were such as; different vegetable crops fertilizer recommendations, varieties, pesticides, irrigation schedules, etc., which were filled out by some of our colleagues in the research areas mentioned above. Analysis of the samples was sent to the soil and water laboratory in our department in Mashhad. The final results from the chemical analysis of samples showed that the mean levels of nitrates from the samples of the fruit crops in the mentioned cities above were all lower than the critical levels. These fruit crop samples were in the order of: 35.91, 8.47, 24.81, 6.03, 46.43, 2.06 mg/kg dry matter, for the following crops such as; tomato, cucumber, eggplant, watermelon, green pepper, and red pepper. Even though, this study was conducted with limited samples and by considering the mean levels, the use of these crops from the nutritional point of view will not cause the poisoning of humans.

Keywords: environmental pollution, human health, nitrate accumulations, nitrate fertilizers

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2 Transdermal Delivery of Sodium Diclofenac from Palm Kernel Oil Esteres Nanoemulsions

Authors: Malahat Rezaee, Mahiran Basri, Abu Bakar Salleh, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abdul Rahman


Sodium diclofenac is one of the most commonly used drugs of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). It is especially effective in the controlling the severe conditions of inflammation and pain, musculoskeletal disorders, arthritis, and dysmenorrhea. Formulation as nanoemulsions is one of the nanoscience approaches that has been progressively considered in pharmaceutical science for transdermal delivery of the drug. Nanoemulsions are a type of emulsion with particle sizes ranging from 20 nm to 200 nm. An emulsion is formed by the dispersion of one liquid, usually the oil phase in another immiscible liquid, water phase that is stabilized using the surfactant. Palm kernel oil esters (PKOEs), in comparison to other oils, contain higher amounts of shorter chain esters, which suitable to be applied in micro and nanoemulsion systems as a carrier for actives, with excellent wetting behavior without the oily feeling. This research aimed to study the effect of terpene type and concentration on sodium diclofenac permeation from palm kernel oil esters nanoemulsions and physicochemical properties of the nanoemulsions systems. The effect of various terpenes of geraniol, menthone, menthol, cineol and nerolidol at different concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0% on permeation of sodium diclofenac were evaluated using Franz diffusion cells and rat skin as permeation membrane. The results of this part demonstrated that all terpenes showed promoting effect on sodium diclofenac penetration. However, menthol and menthone at all concentrations showed significant effects (<0.05) on drug permeation. The most outstanding terpene was menthol with the most significant effect for skin permeability of sodium diclofenac. The effect of terpenes on physicochemical properties of nanoemulsion systems was investigated on the parameters of particle size, zeta potential, pH, viscosity and electrical conductivity. The result showed that all terpenes had the significant effect on particle size and non-significant effects on the zeta potential of the nanoemulsion systems. The effect of terpenes was significant on pH, excluding the menthone at concentrations of 0.5 and 1.0%, and cineol and nerolidol at the concentration of 2.0%. Terpenes also had significant effect on viscosity of nanoemulsions exception of menthone and cineol at the concentration of 0.5%. The result of conductivity measurements showed that all terpenes at all concentration except cineol at the concentration of 0.5% represented significant effect on electrical conductivity.

Keywords: nanoemulsions, palm kernel oil esters, sodium diclofenac, terpenes, skin permeation

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1 Stability and Rheology of Sodium Diclofenac-Loaded and Unloaded Palm Kernel Oil Esters Nanoemulsion Systems

Authors: Malahat Rezaee, Mahiran Basri, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abdul Rahman, Abu Bakar Salleh


Sodium diclofenac is one of the most commonly used drugs of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). It is especially effective in the controlling the severe conditions of inflammation and pain, musculoskeletal disorders, arthritis, and dysmenorrhea. Formulation as nanoemulsions is one of the nanoscience approaches that have been progressively considered in pharmaceutical science for transdermal delivery of drug. Nanoemulsions are a type of emulsion with particle sizes ranging from 20 nm to 200 nm. An emulsion is formed by the dispersion of one liquid, usually the oil phase in another immiscible liquid, water phase that is stabilized using surfactant. Palm kernel oil esters (PKOEs), in comparison to other oils; contain higher amounts of shorter chain esters, which suitable to be applied in micro and nanoemulsion systems as a carrier for actives, with excellent wetting behavior without the oily feeling. This research was aimed to study the effect of O/S ratio on stability and rheological behavior of sodium diclofenac loaded and unloaded palm kernel oil esters nanoemulsion systems. The effect of different O/S ratio of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00 and 1.25 on stability of the drug-loaded and unloaded nanoemulsion formulations was evaluated by centrifugation, freeze-thaw cycle and storage stability tests. Lecithin and cremophor EL were used as surfactant. The stability of the prepared nanoemulsion formulations was assessed based on the change in zeta potential and droplet size as a function of time. Instability mechanisms including coalescence and Ostwald ripening for the nanoemulsion system were discussed. In comparison between drug-loaded and unloaded nanoemulsion formulations, drug-loaded formulations represented smaller particle size and higher stability. In addition, the O/S ratio of 0.5 was found to be the best ratio of oil and surfactant for production of a nanoemulsion with the highest stability. The effect of O/S ratio on rheological properties of drug-loaded and unloaded nanoemulsion systems was studied by plotting the flow curves of shear stress (τ) and viscosity (η) as a function of shear rate (γ). The data were fitted to the Power Law model. The results showed that all nanoemulsion formulations exhibited non-Newtonian flow behaviour by displaying shear thinning behaviour. Viscosity and yield stress were also evaluated. The nanoemulsion formulation with the O/S ratio of 0.5 represented higher viscosity and K values. In addition, the sodium diclofenac loaded formulations had more viscosity and higher yield stress than drug-unloaded formulations.

Keywords: nanoemulsions, palm kernel oil esters, sodium diclofenac, rheoligy, stability

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