Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 137

Search results for: oscillations

137 Mathematical Modelling of the Effect of Glucose on Pancreatic Alpha-Cell Activity

Authors: Karen K. Perez-Ramirez, Genevieve Dupont, Virginia Gonzalez-Velez

Abstract:

Pancreatic alpha-cells participate on glucose regulation together with beta cells. They release glucagon hormone when glucose level is low to stimulate gluconeogenesis from the liver. As other excitable cells, alpha cells generate Ca2+ and metabolic oscillations when they are stimulated. It is known that the glucose level can trigger or silence this activity although it is not clear how this occurs in normal and diabetic people. In this work, we propose an electric-metabolic mathematical model implemented in Matlab to study the effect of different glucose levels on the electrical response and Ca2+ oscillations of an alpha cell. Our results show that Ca2+ oscillations appear in opposite phase with metabolic oscillations in a window of glucose values. The model also predicts a direct relationship between the level of glucose and the intracellular adenine nucleotides showing a self-regulating pathway for the alpha cell.

Keywords: Ca2+ oscillations, mathematical model, metabolic oscillations, pancreatic alpha cell

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136 Dry Friction Fluctuations in Plain Journal Bearings

Authors: James Moran, Anusarn Permsuwan

Abstract:

This paper compares oscillations in the dry friction coefficient in different journal bearings. Measurements are made of the average and standard deviation in the coefficient of friction as a function of sliding velocity. The standard deviation of the friction coefficient changed dramatically with sliding velocity. The magnitude and frequency of the oscillations were a function of the velocity. A numerical model was developed for the frictional oscillations. There was good agreement between the model and results. Five different materials were used as the sliding surfaces in the experiments, Aluminum, Bronze, Mild Steel, Stainless Steel, and Nylon.

Keywords: Coulomb friction, dynamic friction, non-lubricated bearings, frictional oscillations

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
135 The Experimental Investigation of Temperature Influence on the Oscillations of Particles on Liquid Surfaces

Authors: Sathish K. Gurupatham, Farhad Sayedzada, Naji Dauk, Valmiki Sooklal, Laura Ruhala

Abstract:

It was shown recently that small particles and powders spontaneously disperse on liquid surfaces when they come into contact with the interface for the first time. This happens due to the combined effect of the capillary force, buoyant weight of the particle and the viscous drag that the particle experiences in the liquid. The particle undergoes oscillations normal to the interface before it comes to rest on the interface. These oscillations, in turn, induce a flow on the interface which disperses the particles radially outward. This phenomenon has a significant role in the pollination of sea plants such as Ruppia in which the formation of ‘pollen rafts’ is the first step. This paper investigates, experimentally, the influence of the temperature of the liquid on which this dispersion occurs. It was observed that the frequency of oscillations of the particles decreased with the increase in the temperature of the liquid. It is because the magnitude of capillary force also decreased when the temperature of the liquid increased.

Keywords: particle dispersion, capillary force, viscous drag, oscillations

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134 One Period Loops of Memristive Circuits with Mixed-Mode Oscillations

Authors: Wieslaw Marszalek, Zdzislaw Trzaska

Abstract:

Interesting properties of various one-period loops of singularly perturbed memristive circuits with mixed-mode oscillations (MMOs) are analyzed in this paper. The analysis is mixed, both analytical and numerical and focused on the properties of pinched hysteresis of the memristive element and other one-period loops formed by pairs of time-series solutions for various circuits' variables. The memristive element is the only nonlinear element in the two circuits. A theorem on periods of mixed-mode oscillations of the circuits is formulated and proved. Replacements of memristors by parallel G-C or series R-L circuits for a MMO response with equivalent RMS values is also discussed.

Keywords: mixed-mode oscillations, memristive circuits, pinched hysteresis, one-period loops, singularly perturbed circuits

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133 Research of Amplitude-Frequency Characteristics of Nonlinear Oscillations of the Interface of Two-Layered Liquid

Authors: Win Ko Ko, A. N. Temnov

Abstract:

The problem of nonlinear oscillations of a two-layer liquid completely filling a limited volume is considered. Using two basic asymmetric harmonics excited in two mutually perpendicular planes, ordinary differential equations of nonlinear oscillations of the interface of a two-layer liquid are investigated. In this paper, hydrodynamic coefficients of linear and nonlinear problems in integral relations were determined. As a result, the instability regions of forced oscillations of a two-layered liquid in a cylindrical tank occurring in the plane of action of the disturbing force are constructed, as well as the dynamic instability regions of the parametric resonance for different ratios of densities of the upper and lower liquids depending on the amplitudes of liquids from the excitations frequencies. Steady-state regimes of fluid motion were found in the regions of dynamic instability of the initial oscillation form. The Bubnov-Galerkin method is used to construct instability regions for approximate solution of nonlinear differential equations.

Keywords: nonlinear oscillations, two-layered liquid, instability region, hydrodynamic coefficients, resonance frequency

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132 Design of Chaos Algorithm Based Optimal PID Controller for SVC

Authors: Saeid Jalilzadeh

Abstract:

SVC is one of the most significant devices in FACTS technology which is used in parallel compensation, enhancing the transient stability, limiting the low frequency oscillations and etc. designing a proper controller is effective in operation of svc. In this paper the equations that describe the proposed system have been linearized and then the optimum PID controller has been designed for svc which its optimal coefficients have been earned by chaos algorithm. Quick damping of oscillations of generator is the aim of designing of optimum PID controller for svc whether the input power of generator has been changed suddenly. The system with proposed controller has been simulated for a special disturbance and the dynamic responses of generator have been presented. The simulation results showed that a system composed with proposed controller has suitable operation in fast damping of oscillations of generator.

Keywords: chaos, PID controller, SVC, frequency oscillation

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131 Pilot Induced Oscillations Adaptive Suppression in Fly-By-Wire Systems

Authors: Herlandson C. Moura, Jorge H. Bidinotto, Eduardo M. Belo

Abstract:

The present work proposes the development of an adaptive control system which enables the suppression of Pilot Induced Oscillations (PIO) in Digital Fly-By-Wire (DFBW) aircrafts. The proposed system consists of a Modified Model Reference Adaptive Control (M-MRAC) integrated with the Gain Scheduling technique. The PIO oscillations are detected using a Real Time Oscillation Verifier (ROVER) algorithm, which then enables the system to switch between two reference models; one in PIO condition, with low proneness to the phenomenon and another one in normal condition, with high (or medium) proneness. The reference models are defined in a closed loop condition using the Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) control methodology for Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems. The implemented algorithms are simulated in software implementations with state space models and commercial flight simulators as the controlled elements and with pilot dynamics models. A sequence of pitch angles is considered as the reference signal, named as Synthetic Task (Syntask), which must be tracked by the pilot models. The initial outcomes show that the proposed system can detect and suppress (or mitigate) the PIO oscillations in real time before it reaches high amplitudes.

Keywords: adaptive control, digital Fly-By-Wire, oscillations suppression, PIO

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130 Application of Method of Symmetries at a Calculation and Planning of Circular Plate with Variable Thickness

Authors: Kirill Trapezon, Alexandr Trapezon

Abstract:

A problem is formulated for the natural oscillations of a circular plate of linearly variable thickness on the basis of the symmetry method. The equations of natural frequencies and forms for a plate are obtained, providing that it is rigidly fixed along the inner contour. The first three eigenfrequencies are calculated, and the eigenmodes of the oscillations of the acoustic element are constructed. An algorithm for applying the symmetry method and the factorization method for solving problems in the theory of oscillations for plates of variable thickness is shown. The effectiveness of the approach is demonstrated on the basis of comparison of known results and those obtained in the article. It is shown that the results are more accurate and reliable.

Keywords: vibrations, plate, method of symmetries, differential equation, factorization, approximation

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129 Influence of Confined Acoustic Phonons on the Shubnikov – de Haas Magnetoresistance Oscillations in a Doped Semiconductor Superlattice

Authors: Pham Ngoc Thang, Le Thai Hung, Nguyen Quang Bau

Abstract:

The influence of confined acoustic phonons on the Shubnikov – de Haas magnetoresistance oscillations in a doped semiconductor superlattice (DSSL), subjected in a magnetic field, DC electric field, and a laser radiation, has been theoretically studied based on quantum kinetic equation method. The analytical expression for the magnetoresistance in a DSSL has been obtained as a function of external fields, DSSL parameters, and especially the quantum number m characterizing the effect of confined acoustic phonons. When m goes to zero, the results for bulk phonons in a DSSL could be achieved. Numerical calculations are also achieved for the GaAs:Si/GaAs:Be DSSL and compared with other studies. Results show that the Shubnikov – de Haas magnetoresistance oscillations amplitude decrease as the increasing of phonon confinement effect.

Keywords: Shubnikov–de Haas magnetoresistance oscillations, quantum kinetic equation, confined acoustic phonons, laser radiation, doped semiconductor superlattices

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
128 Theoretical Approach to Kinetic of Heat Transfer under Irradiation

Authors: Pavlo Selyshchev

Abstract:

A theoretical approach to describe kinetic of heat transfer between an irradiated sample and environment is developed via formalism of the Complex systems and kinetic equations. The irradiated material is a metastable system with non-linear feedbacks, which can give rise to different regimes of buildup and annealing of radiation-induced defects, heating and heat transfer with environment. Irradiation with energetic particles heats the sample and produces defects of the crystal lattice of the sample. The crystal with defects accumulates extra (non-thermal) energy, which is transformed into heat during the defect annealing. Any increase of temperature leads to acceleration of defect annealing, to additional transformation of non-thermal energy into heat and to further growth of the temperature. Thus a non-linear feedback is formed. It is shown that at certain conditions of irradiation this non-linear feedback leads to self-oscillations of the defect density, the temperature of the irradiated sample and the heat transfer between the sample and environment. Simulation and analysis of these phenomena is performed. The frequency of the self-oscillations is obtained. It is determined that the period of the self-oscillations is varied from minutes to several hours depending on conditions of irradiation and properties of the sample. Obtaining results are compared with experimental ones.

Keywords: irradiation, heat transfer, non-linear feed-back, self-oscillations

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127 Nonlinear Optics of Dirac Fermion Systems

Authors: Vipin Kumar, Girish S. Setlur

Abstract:

Graphene has been recognized as a promising 2D material with many new properties. However, pristine graphene is gapless which hinders its direct application towards graphene-based semiconducting devices. Graphene is a zero-gapp and linearly dispersing semiconductor. Massless charge carriers (quasi-particles) in graphene obey the relativistic Dirac equation. These Dirac fermions show very unusual physical properties such as electronic, optical and transport. Graphene is analogous to two-level atomic systems and conventional semiconductors. We may expect that graphene-based systems will also exhibit phenomena that are well-known in two-level atomic systems and in conventional semiconductors. Rabi oscillation is a nonlinear optical phenomenon well-known in the context of two-level atomic systems and also in conventional semiconductors. It is the periodic exchange of energy between the system of interest and the electromagnetic field. The present work describes the phenomenon of Rabi oscillations in graphene based systems. Rabi oscillations have already been described theoretically and experimentally in the extensive literature available on this topic. To describe Rabi oscillations they use an approximation known as rotating wave approximation (RWA) well-known in studies of two-level systems. RWA is valid only near conventional resonance (small detuning)- when the frequency of the external field is nearly equal to the particle-hole excitation frequency. The Rabi frequency goes through a minimum close to conventional resonance as a function of detuning. Far from conventional resonance, the RWA becomes rather less useful and we need some other technique to describe the phenomenon of Rabi oscillation. In conventional systems, there is no second minimum - the only minimum is at conventional resonance. But in graphene we find anomalous Rabi oscillations far from conventional resonance where the Rabi frequency goes through a minimum that is much smaller than the conventional Rabi frequency. This is known as anomalous Rabi frequency and is unique to graphene systems. We have shown that this is attributable to the pseudo-spin degree of freedom in graphene systems. A new technique, which is an alternative to RWA called asymptotic RWA (ARWA), has been invoked by our group to discuss the phenomenon of Rabi oscillation. Experimentally accessible current density shows different types of threshold behaviour in frequency domain close to the anomalous Rabi frequency depending on the system chosen. For single layer graphene, the exponent at threshold is equal to 1/2 while in case of bilayer graphene, it is computed to be equal to 1. Bilayer graphene shows harmonic (anomalous) resonances absent in single layer graphene. The effect of asymmetry and trigonal warping (a weak direct inter-layer hopping in bilayer graphene) on these oscillations is also studied in graphene systems. Asymmetry has a remarkable effect only on anomalous Rabi oscillations whereas the Rabi frequency near conventional resonance is not significantly affected by the asymmetry parameter. In presence of asymmetry, these graphene systems show Rabi-like oscillations (offset oscillations) even for vanishingly small applied field strengths (less than the gap parameter). The frequency of offset oscillations may be identified with the asymmetry parameter.

Keywords: graphene, Bilayer graphene, Rabi oscillations, Dirac fermion systems

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126 Hidden Oscillations in the Mathematical Model of the Optical Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) Costas Loop

Authors: N. V. Kuznetsov, O. A. Kuznetsova, G. A. Leonov, M. V. Yuldashev, R. V. Yuldashev

Abstract:

Nonlinear analysis of the phase locked loop (PLL)-based circuits is a challenging task. Thus, the simulation is widely used for their study. In this work, we consider a mathematical model of the optical Costas loop and demonstrate the limitations of simulation approach related to the existence of so-called hidden oscillations in the phase space of the model.

Keywords: optical Costas loop, mathematical model, simulation, hidden oscillation

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125 Mathematical Properties of the Resonance of the Inner Waves in Rotating Stratified Three-Dimensional Fluids

Authors: A. Giniatoulline

Abstract:

We consider the internal oscillations of the ocean which are caused by the gravity force and the Coriolis force, for different models with changeable density, heat transfer, and salinity. Traditionally, the mathematical description of the resonance effect is related to the growing amplitude as a result of input vibrations. We offer a different approach: the study of the relation between the spectrum of the internal oscillations and the properties of the limiting amplitude of the solution for the harmonic input vibrations of the external forces. Using the results of the spectral theory of self-adjoint operators in Hilbert functional spaces, we prove that there exists an explicit relation between the localization of the frequency of the external input vibrations with respect to the essential spectrum of proper inner oscillations and the non-uniqueness of the limiting amplitude. The results may find their application in various problems concerning mathematical modeling of turbulent flows in the ocean.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, essential spectrum, limiting amplitude, rotating fluid, spectral theory, stratified fluid, the uniqueness of solutions of PDE equations

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124 Investigating the Energy Harvesting Potential of a Pitch-Plunge Airfoil Subjected to Fluctuating Wind

Authors: Magu Raam Prasaad R., Venkatramani Jagadish

Abstract:

Recent studies in the literature have shown that randomly fluctuating wind flows can give rise to a distinct regime of pre-flutter oscillations called intermittency. Intermittency is characterized by the presence of sporadic bursts of high amplitude oscillations interspersed amidst low-amplitude aperiodic fluctuations. The focus of this study is on investigating the energy harvesting potential of these intermittent oscillations. Available literature has by and large devoted its attention on extracting energy from flutter oscillations. The possibility of harvesting energy from pre-flutter regimes have remained largely unexplored. However, extracting energy from violent flutter oscillations can be severely detrimental to the structural integrity of airfoil structures. Consequently, investigating the relatively stable pre-flutter responses for energy extraction applications is of practical importance. The present study is devoted towards addressing these concerns. A pitch-plunge airfoil with cubic hardening nonlinearity in the plunge and pitch degree of freedom is considered. The input flow fluctuations are modelled using a sinusoidal term with randomly perturbed frequencies. An electromagnetic coupling is provided to the pitch-plunge equations, such that, energy from the wind induced vibrations of the structural response are extracted. With the mean flow speed as the bifurcation parameter, a fourth order Runge-Kutta based time marching algorithm is used to solve the governing aeroelastic equations with electro-magnetic coupling. The harnessed energy from the intermittency regime is presented and the results are discussed in comparison to that obtained from the flutter regime. The insights from this study could be useful in health monitoring of aeroelastic structures.

Keywords: aeroelasticity, energy harvesting, intermittency, randomly fluctuating flows

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123 Approximate Solution of Some Mixed Boundary Value Problems of the Generalized Theory of Couple-Stress Thermo-Elasticity

Authors: Manana Chumburidze, David Lekveishvili

Abstract:

We have considered the harmonic oscillations and general dynamic (pseudo oscillations) systems of theory generalized Green-Lindsay of couple-stress thermo-elasticity for isotropic, homogeneous elastic media. Approximate solution of some mixed boundary value problems for finite domain, bounded by the some closed surface are constructed.

Keywords: the couple-stress thermoelasticity, boundary value problems, dynamic problems, approximate solution

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122 Phase Synchronization of Skin Blood Flow Oscillations under Deep Controlled Breathing in Human

Authors: Arina V. Tankanag, Gennady V. Krasnikov, Nikolai K. Chemeris

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The development of respiration-dependent oscillations in the peripheral blood flow may occur by at least two mechanisms. The first mechanism is related to the change of venous pressure due to mechanical activity of lungs. This phenomenon is known as ‘respiratory pump’ and is one of the mechanisms of venous return of blood from the peripheral vessels to the heart. The second mechanism is related to the vasomotor reflexes controlled by the respiratory modulation of the activity of centers of the vegetative nervous system. Early high phase synchronization of respiration-dependent blood flow oscillations of left and right forearm skin in healthy volunteers at rest was shown. The aim of the work was to study the effect of deep controlled breathing on the phase synchronization of skin blood flow oscillations. 29 normotensive non-smoking young women (18-25 years old) of the normal constitution without diagnosed pathologies of skin, cardiovascular and respiratory systems participated in the study. For each of the participants six recording sessions were carried out: first, at the spontaneous breathing rate; and the next five, in the regimes of controlled breathing with fixed breathing depth and different rates of enforced breathing regime. The following rates of controlled breathing regime were used: 0.25, 0.16, 0.10, 0.07 and 0.05 Hz. The breathing depth amounted to 40% of the maximal chest excursion. Blood perfusion was registered by laser flowmeter LAKK-02 (LAZMA, Russia) with two identical channels (wavelength 0.63 µm; emission power, 0.5 mW). The first probe was fastened to the palmar surface of the distal phalanx of left forefinger; the second probe was attached to the external surface of the left forearm near the wrist joint. These skin zones were chosen as zones with different dominant mechanisms of vascular tonus regulation. The degree of phase synchronization of the registered signals was estimated from the value of the wavelet phase coherence. The duration of all recording was 5 min. The sampling frequency of the signals was 16 Hz. The increasing of synchronization of the respiratory-dependent skin blood flow oscillations for all controlled breathing regimes was obtained. Since the formation of respiration-dependent oscillations in the peripheral blood flow is mainly caused by the respiratory modulation of system blood pressure, the observed effects are most likely dependent on the breathing depth. It should be noted that with spontaneous breathing depth does not exceed 15% of the maximal chest excursion, while in the present study the breathing depth was 40%. Therefore it has been suggested that the observed significant increase of the phase synchronization of blood flow oscillations in our conditions is primarily due to an increase of breathing depth. This is due to the enhancement of both potential mechanisms of respiratory oscillation generation: venous pressure and sympathetic modulation of vascular tone.

Keywords: deep controlled breathing, peripheral blood flow oscillations, phase synchronization, wavelet phase coherence

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121 Optimization of Pyrogallol Based Manganese / Ferroin Catalyzed Nonlinear Chemical Systems and Interaction with Monomeric and Polymeric Entities

Authors: Ghulam Mustafa Peerzada, Shagufta Rashid, Nadeem Bashir

Abstract:

These the influence of initial reagent concentrations on the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) system with Mn2+/Mn3+ as redox catalyst, inorganic bromate as oxidant and pyrogallol as organic substrate was studied. The reactions were monitored by potentiometery in oxidation reduction potential (ORP) mode. The aforesaid reagents were mixed with varying concentrations to evolve the optimal concentrations at which the reaction system exhibited better oscillations. The various oscillatory parameters such as induction period (tin), time period (tp), frequency (v), amplitude (A) and number of oscillations (n) were derived and the dependence of concentration of the reacting species on these oscillatory parameters was interpreted on the basis of the Field-Koros-Noyes mechanism. Ferroin based BZ system with pyrogallol as organic substrate was optimized under CSTR condition at temperature of 30±0.1oC Effect of molecules like monomer and polymer as additives to the system was checked and their interaction with the system was also studied. It has been observed that the monomer affects the time period, while the polymer has its effect on the amplitude of oscillations because of monomer’s interaction with the bromine and polymer’s with that of the Ferroin.

Keywords: Belousov Zhabotinsky reaction, oscillatory parameters, polymer, pyrogallol

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120 Numerical Simulation of Sloshing Control Using Input Shaping

Authors: Dongjoo Kim

Abstract:

Effective control of sloshing in a liquid container is an important issue to be resolved in many applications. In this study, numerical simulations are performed to design the velocity profile of rectangular container and investigate the effectiveness of input shaping for sloshing control. Trapezoidal profiles of container velocity are chosen to be reference commands and they are convolved with a series of impulses to generate shaped ones that induce minimal residual oscillations. The performances of several input shapers are compared from the viewpoint of transient peak and residual oscillations of sloshing. Results show that sloshing can be effectively controlled by input shaping (Supported by the NRF programs, NRF-2015R1D1A1A01059675, of Korean government).

Keywords: input shaping, rectangular container, sloshing, trapezoidal profile

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119 Stimulus-Dependent Polyrhythms of Central Pattern Generator Hardware

Authors: Le Zhao, Alain Nogaret

Abstract:

We have built universal Central Pattern Generator (CPG) hardware by interconnecting Hodgkin-Huxley neurons with reciprocally inhibitory synapses. We investigate the dynamics of neuron oscillations as a function of the time delay between current steps applied to individual neurons. We demonstrate stimulus dependent switching between spiking polyrhythms and map the phase portraits of the neuron oscillations to reveal the basins of attraction of the system. We experimentally study the dependence of the attraction basins on the network parameters: the neuron response time and the strength of inhibitory connections.

Keywords: central pattern generator, winnerless competition principle, artificial neural networks, synapses

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118 Investigation of Free Vibrations of Opened Shells from Alloy D19: Assistance of the Associated Mass System

Authors: Oleg Ye Sysoyev, Artem Yu Dobryshkin, Nyein Sitt Naing

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Cylindrical shells are widely used in the construction of buildings and structures, as well as in the air structure. Thin-walled casings made of aluminum alloys are an effective substitute for reinforced concrete and steel structures in construction. The correspondence of theoretical calculations and the actual behavior of aluminum alloy structures is to ensure their trouble-free operation. In the laboratory of our university, "Building Constructions" conducted an experimental study to determine the effect of the system of attached masses on the natural oscillations of shallow cylindrical shells of aluminum alloys, the results of which were compared with theoretical calculations. The purpose of the experiment is to measure the free oscillations of an open, sloping cylindrical shell for various variations of the attached masses. Oscillations of an open, slender, thin-walled cylindrical shell, rectangular in plan, were measured using induction accelerometers. The theoretical calculation of the shell was carried out on the basis of the equations of motion of the theory of shallow shells, using the Bubnov-Galerkin method. A significant splitting of the flexural frequency spectrum is found, influenced not only by the systems of attached маsses but also by the values of the wave formation parameters, which depend on the relative geometric dimensions of the shell. The correspondence of analytical and experimental data is found, using the example of an open shell of alloy D19, which allows us to speak about the high quality of the study. A qualitative new analytical solution of the problem of determining the value of the oscillation frequency of the shell, carrying a system of attached masses is shown.

Keywords: open hollow shell, nonlinear oscillations, associated mass, frequency

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117 Model Reference Adaptive Approach for Power System Stabilizer for Damping of Power Oscillations

Authors: Jožef Ritonja, Bojan Grčar, Boštjan Polajžer

Abstract:

In recent years, electricity trade between neighboring countries has become increasingly intense. Increasing power transmission over long distances has resulted in an increase in the oscillations of the transmitted power. The damping of the oscillations can be carried out with the reconfiguration of the network or the replacement of generators, but such solution is not economically reasonable. The only cost-effective solution to improve the damping of power oscillations is to use power system stabilizers. Power system stabilizer represents a part of synchronous generator control system. It utilizes semiconductor’s excitation system connected to the rotor field excitation winding to increase the damping of the power system. The majority of the synchronous generators are equipped with the conventional power system stabilizers with fixed parameters. The control structure of the conventional power system stabilizers and the tuning procedure are based on the linear control theory. Conventional power system stabilizers are simple to realize, but they show non-sufficient damping improvement in the entire operating conditions. This is the reason that advanced control theories are used for development of better power system stabilizers. In this paper, the adaptive control theory for power system stabilizers design and synthesis is studied. The presented work is focused on the use of model reference adaptive control approach. Control signal, which assures that the controlled plant output will follow the reference model output, is generated by the adaptive algorithm. Adaptive gains are obtained as a combination of the "proportional" term and with the σ-term extended "integral" term. The σ-term is introduced to avoid divergence of the integral gains. The necessary condition for asymptotic tracking is derived by means of hyperstability theory. The benefits of the proposed model reference adaptive power system stabilizer were evaluated as objectively as possible by means of a theoretical analysis, numerical simulations and laboratory realizations. Damping of the synchronous generator oscillations in the entire operating range was investigated. Obtained results show the improved damping in the entire operating area and the increase of the power system stability. The results of the presented work will help by the development of the model reference power system stabilizer which should be able to replace the conventional stabilizers in power systems.

Keywords: power system, stability, oscillations, power system stabilizer, model reference adaptive control

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116 Necessary Condition to Utilize Adaptive Control in Wind Turbine Systems to Improve Power System Stability

Authors: Javad Taherahmadi, Mohammad Jafarian, Mohammad Naser Asefi

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The global capacity of wind power has dramatically increased in recent years. Therefore, improving the technology of wind turbines to take different advantages of this enormous potential in the power grid, could be interesting subject for scientists. The doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) wind turbine is a popular system due to its many advantages such as the improved power quality, high energy efficiency and controllability, etc. With an increase in wind power penetration in the network and with regard to the flexible control of wind turbines, the use of wind turbine systems to improve the dynamic stability of power systems has been of significance importance for researchers. Subsynchronous oscillations are one of the important issues in the stability of power systems. Damping subsynchronous oscillations by using wind turbines has been studied in various research efforts, mainly by adding an auxiliary control loop to the control structure of the wind turbine. In most of the studies, this control loop is composed of linear blocks. In this paper, simple adaptive control is used for this purpose. In order to use an adaptive controller, the convergence of the controller should be verified. Since adaptive control parameters tend to optimum values in order to obtain optimum control performance, using this controller will help the wind turbines to have positive contribution in damping the network subsynchronous oscillations at different wind speeds and system operating points. In this paper, the application of simple adaptive control in DFIG wind turbine systems to improve the dynamic stability of power systems is studied and the essential condition for using this controller is considered. It is also shown that this controller has an insignificant effect on the dynamic stability of the wind turbine, itself.

Keywords: almost strictly positive real (ASPR), doubly-fed induction generator (DIFG), simple adaptive control (SAC), subsynchronous oscillations, wind turbine

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115 Stable Tending Control of Complex Power Systems: An Example of Localized Design of Power System Stabilizers

Authors: Wenjuan Du

Abstract:

The phase compensation method was proposed based on the concept of the damping torque analysis (DTA). It is a method for the design of a PSS (power system stabilizer) to suppress local-mode power oscillations in a single-machine infinite-bus power system. This paper presents the application of the phase compensation method for the design of a PSS in a multi-machine power system. The application is achieved by examining the direct damping contribution of the stabilizer to the power oscillations. By using linearized equal area criterion, a theoretical proof to the application for the PSS design is presented. Hence PSS design in the paper is an example of stable tending control by localized method.

Keywords: phase compensation method, power system small-signal stability, power system stabilizer

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114 Improvement of the Robust Proportional–Integral–Derivative (PID) Controller Parameters for Controlling the Frequency in the Intelligent Multi-Zone System at the Present of Wind Generation Using the Seeker Optimization Algorithm

Authors: Roya Ahmadi Ahangar, Hamid Madadyari

Abstract:

The seeker optimization algorithm (SOA) is increasingly gaining popularity among the researchers society due to its effectiveness in solving some real-world optimization problems. This paper provides the load-frequency control method based on the SOA for removing oscillations in the power system. A three-zone power system includes a thermal zone, a hydraulic zone and a wind zone equipped with robust proportional-integral-differential (PID) controllers. The result of simulation indicates that load-frequency changes in the wind zone for the multi-zone system are damped in a short period of time. Meanwhile, in the oscillation period, the oscillations amplitude is not significant. The result of simulation emphasizes that the PID controller designed using the seeker optimization algorithm has a robust function and a better performance for oscillations damping compared to the traditional PID controller. The proposed controller’s performance has been compared to the performance of PID controller regulated with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and. Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithms in order to show the superior capability of the proposed SOA in regulating the PID controller. The simulation results emphasize the better performance of the optimized PID controller based on SOA compared to the PID controller optimized with PSO, GA and ABC algorithms.

Keywords: load-frequency control, multi zone, robust PID controller, wind generation

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113 Effect of Hydraulic Diameter on Flow Boiling Instability in a Single Microtube with Vertical Upward Flow

Authors: Qian You, Ibrahim Hassan, Lyes Kadem

Abstract:

An experiment is conducted to fundamentally investigate flow oscillation characteristics in different sizes of single microtubes in vertical upward flow direction. Three microtubes have 0.889 mm, 0.533 mm, and 0.305 mm hydraulic diameters with 100 mm identical heated length. The mass flux of the working fluid FC-72 varies from 700 kg/m2•s to 1400 kg/m2•s, and the heat flux is uniformly applied on the tube surface up to 9.4 W/cm2. The subcooled inlet temperature is maintained around 24°C during the experiment. The effect of hydraulic diameter and mass flux are studied. The results showed that they have interactions on the flow oscillations occurrence and behaviors. The onset of flow instability (OFI), which is a threshold of unstable flow, usually appears in large microtube with diversified and sustained flow oscillations, while the transient point, which is the point when the flow turns from one stable state to another suddenly, is more observed in small microtube without characterized flow oscillations due to the bubble confinement. The OFI/transient point occurs early as hydraulic diameter reduces at a given mass flux. The increased mass flux can delay the OFI/transient point occurrence in large hydraulic diameter, but no significant effect in small size. Although the only transient point is observed in the smallest tube, it appears at small heat flux and is not sensitive to mass flux; hence, the smallest microtube is not recommended since increasing heat flux may cause local dryout.

Keywords: flow boiling instability, hydraulic diameter effect, a single microtube, vertical upward flow

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112 Sliding Mode Power System Stabilizer for Synchronous Generator Stability Improvement

Authors: J. Ritonja, R. Brezovnik, M. Petrun, B. Polajžer

Abstract:

Many modern synchronous generators in power systems are extremely weakly damped. The reasons are cost optimization of the machine building and introduction of the additional control equipment into power systems. Oscillations of the synchronous generators and related stability problems of the power systems are harmful and can lead to failures in operation and to damages. The only useful solution to increase damping of the unwanted oscillations represents the implementation of the power system stabilizers. Power system stabilizers generate the additional control signal which changes synchronous generator field excitation voltage. Modern power system stabilizers are integrated into static excitation systems of the synchronous generators. Available commercial power system stabilizers are based on linear control theory. Due to the nonlinear dynamics of the synchronous generator, current stabilizers do not assure optimal damping of the synchronous generator’s oscillations in the entire operating range. For that reason the use of the robust power system stabilizers which are convenient for the entire operating range is reasonable. There are numerous robust techniques applicable for the power system stabilizers. In this paper the use of sliding mode control for synchronous generator stability improvement is studied. On the basis of the sliding mode theory, the robust power system stabilizer was developed. The main advantages of the sliding mode controller are simple realization of the control algorithm, robustness to parameter variations and elimination of disturbances. The advantage of the proposed sliding mode controller against conventional linear controller was tested for damping of the synchronous generator oscillations in the entire operating range. Obtained results show the improved damping in the entire operating range of the synchronous generator and the increase of the power system stability. The proposed study contributes to the progress in the development of the advanced stabilizer, which will replace conventional linear stabilizers and improve damping of the synchronous generators.

Keywords: control theory, power system stabilizer, robust control, sliding mode control, stability, synchronous generator

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111 Simulation of Ammonia-Water Two Phase Flow in Bubble Pump

Authors: Jemai Rabeb, Benhmidene Ali, Hidouri Khaoula, Chaouachi Bechir

Abstract:

The diffusion-absorption refrigeration cycle consists of a generator bubble pump, an absorber, an evaporator and a condenser, and usually operates with ammonia/water/ hydrogen or helium as the working fluid. The aim of this paper is to study the stability problem a bubble pump. In fact instability can caused a reduction of bubble pump efficiency. To achieve this goal, we have simulated the behaviour of two-phase flow in a bubble pump by using a drift flow model. Equations of a drift flow model are formulated in the transitional regime, non-adiabatic condition and thermodynamic equilibrium between the liquid and vapour phases. Equations resolution allowed to define void fraction, and liquid and vapour velocities, as well as pressure and mixing enthalpy. Ammonia-water mixing is used as working fluid, where ammonia mass fraction in the inlet is 0.6. Present simulation is conducted out for a heating flux of 2 kW/m² to 5 kW/m² and bubble pump tube length of 1 m and 2.5 mm of inner diameter. Simulation results reveal oscillations of vapour and liquid velocities along time. Oscillations decrease with time and with heat flux. For sufficient time the steady state is established, it is characterised by constant liquid velocity and void fraction values. However, vapour velocity does not have the same behaviour, it increases for steady state too. On the other hand, pressure drop oscillations are studied.

Keywords: bubble pump, drift flow model, instability, simulation

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110 Two-Photon Ionization of Silver Clusters

Authors: V. Paployan, K. Madoyan, A. Melikyan, H. Minassian

Abstract:

Resonant two-photon ionization (TPI) is a valuable technique for the study of clusters due to its ultrahigh sensitivity. The comparison of the observed TPI spectra with results of calculations allows to deduce important information on the shape, rotational and vibrational temperatures of the clusters with high accuracy. In this communication we calculate the TPI cross-section for pump-probe scheme in Ag neutral cluster. The pump photon energy is chosen to be close to the surface plasmon (SP) energy of cluster in dielectric media. Since the interband transition energy in Ag exceeds the SP resonance energy, the main contribution into the TPI comes from the latter. The calculations are performed by separating the coordinates of electrons corresponding to the collective oscillations and the individual motion that allows to take into account the resonance contribution of excited SP oscillations. It is shown that the ionization cross section increases by two orders of magnitude if the energy of the pump photon matches the surface plasmon energy in the cluster.

Keywords: resonance enhancement, silver clusters, surface plasmon, two-photon ionization

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109 Improving Load Frequency Control of Multi-Area Power System by Considering Uncertainty by Using Optimized Type 2 Fuzzy Pid Controller with the Harmony Search Algorithm

Authors: Mehrdad Mahmudizad, Roya Ahmadi Ahangar

Abstract:

This paper presents the method of designing the type 2 fuzzy PID controllers in order to solve the problem of Load Frequency Control (LFC). The Harmony Search (HS) algorithm is used to regulate the measurement factors and the effect of uncertainty of membership functions of Interval Type 2 Fuzzy Proportional Integral Differential (IT2FPID) controllers in order to reduce the frequency deviation resulted from the load oscillations. The simulation results implicitly show that the performance of the proposed IT2FPID LFC in terms of error, settling time and resistance against different load oscillations is more appropriate and preferred than PID and Type 1 Fuzzy Proportional Integral Differential (T1FPID) controllers.

Keywords: load frequency control, fuzzy-pid controller, type 2 fuzzy system, harmony search algorithm

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108 Characterization of Calcium-Signalling Mediated by Human GPR55 Expressed in HEK293 Cells

Authors: Yousuf M. Al Suleimani, Robin Hiley

Abstract:

The endogenous phospholipid lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) was recently identified as a novel ligand for the G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) and an inducer of intracellular Ca2+ [Ca2+]i release. This study attempts to characterize Ca2+ signals provoked by LPI in HEK293 cells engineered to stably express human GPR55 and to test cannabinoid ligand activity at GPR55. The study shows that treatment with LPI stimulates a sustained, oscillatory Ca2+ release. The response is characterized by an initial rapid rise, which is mediated by the Gαq-PLC-IP3 pathway, and this is followed by prolonged oscillations that require RhoA activation. Ca2+ oscillations are initiated by intracellular mechanisms and extracellular Ca2+ is only required to replenish Ca2+ lost from the cytoplasm. Analysis of cannabinoid ligand activity at GPR55 revealed no clear effect of the endocannabinoid anandamide, however, rimonabant and the CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 evoked GPR55-mediated [Ca2+]i. Thus, LPI is likely to be a key plasma membrane mediator of signaling events and changes in gene expression through GPR55 activation.

Keywords: lysophosphatidylinositol, calcium, GPR55, cannabinoid

Procedia PDF Downloads 288