Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 223

Search results for: Torsional buckling

223 Torsional Rigidities of Reinforced Concrete Beams Subjected to Elastic Lateral Torsional Buckling

Authors: Ilker Kalkan, Saruhan Kartal


Reinforced concrete (RC) beams rarely undergo lateral-torsional buckling (LTB), since these beams possess large lateral bending and torsional rigidities owing to their stocky cross-sections, unlike steel beams. However, the problem of LTB is becoming more and more pronounced in the last decades as the span lengths of concrete beams increase and the cross-sections become more slender with the use of pre-stressed concrete. The buckling moment of a beam mainly depends on its lateral bending rigidity and torsional rigidity. The nonhomogeneous and elastic-inelastic nature of RC complicates estimation of the buckling moments of concrete beams. Furthermore, the lateral bending and torsional rigidities of RC beams and the buckling moments are affected from different forms of concrete cracking, including flexural, torsional and restrained shrinkage cracking. The present study pertains to the effects of concrete cracking on the torsional rigidities of RC beams prone to elastic LTB. A series of tests on rather slender RC beams indicated that torsional cracking does not initiate until buckling in elastic LTB, while flexural cracking associated with lateral bending takes place even at the initial stages of loading. Hence, the present study clearly indicated that the un-cracked torsional rigidity needs to be used for estimating the buckling moments of RC beams liable to elastic LTB.

Keywords: lateral stability, post-cracking torsional rigidity, uncracked torsional rigidity, critical moment

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
222 On the Evaluation of Critical Lateral-Torsional Buckling Loads of Monosymmetric Beam-Columns

Authors: T. Yilmaz, N. Kirac


Beam-column elements are defined as structural members subjected to a combination of axial and bending forces. Lateral torsional buckling is one of the major failure modes in which beam-columns that are bent about its strong axis may buckle out of the plane by deflecting laterally and twisting. This study presents a compact closed-form equation that it can be used for calculating critical lateral torsional-buckling load of beam-columns with monosymmetric sections in the presence of a known axial load. Lateral-torsional buckling behavior of beam-columns subjected to constant axial force and various transverse load cases are investigated by using Ritz method in order to establish proposed equation. Lateral-torsional buckling loads calculated by presented formula are compared to finite element model results. ABAQUS software is utilized to generate finite element models of beam-columns. It is found out that lateral-torsional buckling load of beam-columns with monosymmetric sections can be determined by proposed equation and can be safely used in design.

Keywords: lateral-torsional buckling, stability, beam-column, monosymmetric section

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
221 An Approximate Lateral-Torsional Buckling Mode Function for Cantilever I-Beams

Authors: H. Ozbasaran


Lateral torsional buckling is a global stability loss which should be considered in the design of slender structural members under flexure about their strong axis. It is possible to compute the load which causes lateral torsional buckling of a beam by finite element analysis, however, closed form equations are needed in engineering practice. Such equations can be obtained by using energy method. Unfortunately, this method has a vital drawback. In lateral torsional buckling applications of energy method, a proper function for the critical lateral torsional buckling mode should be chosen which can be thought as the variation of twisting angle along the buckled beam. The accuracy of the results depends on how close is the chosen function to the exact mode. Since critical lateral torsional buckling mode of the cantilever I-beams varies due to material properties, section properties, and loading case, the hardest step is to determine a proper mode function. This paper presents an approximate function for critical lateral torsional buckling mode of doubly symmetric cantilever I-beams. Coefficient matrices are calculated for the concentrated load at the free end, uniformly distributed load and constant moment along the beam cases. Critical lateral torsional buckling modes obtained by presented function and exact solutions are compared. It is found that the modes obtained by presented function coincide with differential equation solutions for considered loading cases.

Keywords: buckling mode, cantilever, lateral-torsional buckling, I-beam

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
220 A Parametric Study on Lateral Torsional Buckling of European IPN and IPE Cantilevers

Authors: H. Ozbasaran


IPN and IPE sections, which are commonly used European I shapes, are widely used in steel structures as cantilever beams to support overhangs. A considerable number of studies exist on calculating lateral torsional buckling load of I sections. However, most of them provide series solutions or complex closed-form equations. In this paper, a simple equation is presented to calculate lateral torsional buckling load of IPN and IPE section cantilever beams. First, differential equation of lateral torsional buckling is solved numerically for various loading cases. Then a parametric study is conducted on results to present an equation for lateral torsional buckling load of European IPN and IPE beams. Finally, results obtained by presented equation are compared to differential equation solutions and finite element model results. ABAQUS software is utilized to generate finite element models of beams. It is seen that the results obtained from presented equation coincide with differential equation solutions and ABAQUS software results. It can be suggested that presented formula can be safely used to calculate critical lateral torsional buckling load of European IPN and IPE section cantilevers.

Keywords: cantilever, IPN, IPE, lateral torsional buckling

Procedia PDF Downloads 467
219 Lateral Torsional Buckling of Steel Thin-Walled Beams with Lateral Restraints

Authors: Ivan Balázs, Jindřich Melcher


Metal thin-walled members have been widely used in building industry. Usually they are utilized as purlins, girts or ceiling beams. Due to slenderness of thin-walled cross-sections these structural members are prone to stability problems (e.g. flexural buckling, lateral torsional buckling). If buckling is not constructionally prevented their resistance is limited by buckling strength. In practice planar members of roof or wall cladding can be attached to thin-walled members. These elements reduce displacement of thin-walled members and therefore increase their buckling strength. If this effect is taken into static assessment more economical sections of thin-walled members might be utilized and certain savings of material might be achieved. This paper focuses on problem of determination of critical load of steel thin-walled beams with lateral continuous restraint which is crucial for lateral torsional buckling assessment.

Keywords: beam, buckling, numerical analysis, stability, steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
218 Lateral Torsional Buckling of an Eccentrically Loaded Channel Section Beam

Authors: L. Dahmani, S. Drizi, M. Djemai, A. Boudjemia, M. O. Mechiche


Channel sections are widely used in practice as beams. However, design rules for eccentrically loaded (not through shear center) beams with channel cross- sections are not available in Eurocode 3. This paper compares the ultimate loads based on the adjusted design rules for lateral torsional buckling of eccentrically loaded channel beams in bending to the ultimate loads obtained with Finite Element (FE) simulations on the basis of a parameter study. Based on the proposed design rule, this study has led to a new design rule which conforms to Eurocode 3.

Keywords: ANSYS, Eurocode 3, finite element method, lateral torsional buckling, steel channel beam

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
217 Buckling Analysis of Composite Shells under Compression and Torsional Loads: Numerical and Analytical Study

Authors: Güneş Aydın, Razi Kalantari Osgouei, Murat Emre Öztürk, Ahmad Partovi Meran, Ekrem Tüfekçi


Advanced lightweight laminated composite shells are increasingly being used in all types of modern structures, for enhancing their structural efficiency and performance. Such thin-walled structures are susceptible to buckling when subjected to various loading. This paper focuses on the buckling of cylindrical shells under axial compression and torsional loads. Effects of fiber orientation on the maximum buckling load of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) shells are optimized. Optimum fiber angles have been calculated analytically by using MATLAB program. Numerical models have been carried out by using Finite Element Method program ABAQUS. Results from analytical and numerical analyses are also compared.

Keywords: buckling, composite, cylindrical shell, finite element, compression, torsion, MATLAB, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 486
216 Lateral-Torsional Buckling of Steel Girder Systems Braced by Solid Web Crossbeams

Authors: Ruoyang Tang, Jianguo Nie


Lateral-torsional bracing members are critical to the stability of girder systems during the construction phase of steel-concrete composite bridges, and the interaction effect of multiple girders plays an essential role in the determination of buckling load. In this paper, an investigation is conducted on the lateral-torsional buckling behavior of the steel girder system which is composed of three or four I-shaped girders and braced by solid web crossbeams. The buckling load for such girder system is comprehensively analyzed and an analytical solution is developed for uniform pressure loading conditions. Furthermore, post-buckling analysis including initial geometric imperfections is performed and parametric studies in terms of bracing density, stiffness ratio as well as the number and spacing of girders are presented in order to find the optimal bracing plans for an arbitrary girder layout. The theoretical solution of critical load on account of local buckling mode shows good agreement with the numerical results in eigenvalue analysis. In addition, parametric analysis results show that both bracing density and stiffness ratio have a significant impact on the initial stiffness, global stability and failure mode of such girder system. Taking into consideration the effect of initial geometric imperfections, an increase in bracing density between adjacent girders can effectively improve the bearing capacity of the structure, and higher beam-girder stiffness ratio can result in a more ductile failure mode.

Keywords: bracing member, construction stage, lateral-torsional buckling, steel girder system

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
215 Stability Design by Geometrical Nonlinear Analysis Using Equivalent Geometric Imperfections

Authors: S. Fominow, C. Dobert


The present article describes the research that deals with the development of equivalent geometric imperfections for the stability design of steel members considering lateral-torsional buckling. The application of these equivalent imperfections takes into account the stiffness-reducing effects due to inelasticity and residual stresses, which lead to a reduction of the load carrying capacity of slender members and structures. This allows the application of a simplified design method, that is performed in three steps. Application of equivalent geometric imperfections, determination of internal forces using geometrical non-linear analysis (GNIA) and verification of the cross-section resistance at the most unfavourable location. All three verification steps are closely related and influence the results. The derivation of the equivalent imperfections was carried out in several steps. First, reference lateral-torsional buckling resistances for various rolled I-sections, slenderness grades, load shapes and steel grades were determined. This was done either with geometric and material non-linear analysis with geometrical imperfections and residual stresses (GMNIA) or for standard cases based on the equivalent member method. With the aim of obtaining identical lateral-torsional buckling resistances as the reference resistances from the application of the design method, the required sizes for equivalent imperfections were derived. For this purpose, a program based on the FEM method has been developed. Based on these results, several proposals for the specification of equivalent geometric imperfections have been developed. These differ in the shape of the applied equivalent geometric imperfection, the model of the cross-sectional resistance and the steel grade. The proposed design methods allow a wide range of applications and a reliable calculation of the lateral-torsional buckling resistances, as comparisons between the calculated resistances and the reference resistances have shown.

Keywords: equivalent geometric imperfections, GMNIA, lateral-torsional buckling, non-linear finite element analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
214 Modified Side Plate Design to Suppress Lateral Torsional Buckling of H-Beam for Seismic Application

Authors: Erwin, Cheng-Cheng Chen, Charles J. Salim


One of the method to solve the lateral torsional buckling (LTB) problem is by using side plates to increased the buckling resistance of the beam. Some modifications in designing the side plates are made in this study to simplify the construction in the field and reduce the cost. At certain region, side plates are not added: (1) At the beam end to preserve some spaces for bolt installation, but the beam is strengthened by adding cover plate at both flanges and (2) at the middle span of the beam where the moment is smaller. Three small scale full span beam specimens are tested under cyclic loading to investigate the LTB resistant and the ductility of the proposed design method. Test results show that the LTB deformation can be effectively suppressed and very high ductility level can be achieved. Following the test, a finite element analysis (FEA) model is established and is verified using the test results. An intensive parametric study is conducted using the established FEA model. The analysis reveals that the length of side plates is the most important parameter determining the performance of the beam and the required side plates length is determined by some parameters which are (1) beam depth to flange width ratio, (2) beam slenderness ratio (3) strength and thickness of the side plates, (4) compactness of beam web and flange, and (5) beam yield strength. At the end of the paper, a design formula to calculate the required side plate length is suggested.

Keywords: cover plate, earthquake resistant design, lateral torsional buckling, side plate, steel structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
213 Investigation for the Mechanism of Lateral-Torsional Coupled Vibration of the Propulsion Shaft in a Ship

Authors: Hyungsuk Han, Soohong Jeon, Chungwon Lee, YongHoon Kim


When a rubber mount and flexible coupling are installed on the main engine, high torsional vibration can occur. The root cause of this high torsional vibration can be attributed to the lateral-torsional coupled vibration of the shaft system. Therefore, the lateral-torsional coupled vibration is investigated numerically after approximating the shaft system to a three-degrees-of-freedom Jeffcott rotor. To verify that the high torsional vibration is caused by the lateral-torsional coupled vibration, a test unit that can simulate this lateral-torsional coupled vibration occurring in the propulsion shaft is developed. Performing a vibration test with the test unit, it can be experimentally verified that the high torsional vibration occurring in the propulsion shaft of the particular ship was caused by the lateral-torsional coupled vibration.

Keywords: Jeffcott rotor, lateral-torsional coupled vibration, propulsion shaft, stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
212 Lateral Torsional Buckling Investigation on Welded Q460GJ Structural Steel Unrestrained Beams under a Point Load

Authors: Yue Zhang, Bo Yang, Gang Xiong, Mohamed Elchalakanic, Shidong Nie


This study aims to investigate the lateral torsional buckling of I-shaped cross-section beams fabricated from Q460GJ structural steel plates. Both experimental and numerical simulation results are presented in this paper. A total of eight specimens were tested under a three-point bending, and the corresponding numerical models were established to conduct parametric studies. The effects of some key parameters such as the non-dimensional member slenderness and the height-to-width ratio, were investigated based on the verified numerical models. Also, the results obtained from the parametric studies were compared with the predictions calculated by different design codes including the Chinese design code (GB50017-2003, 2003), the new draft version of Chinese design code (GB50017-201X, 2012), Eurocode 3 (EC3, 2005) and the North America design code (ANSI/AISC360-10, 2010). These comparisons indicated that the sectional height-to-width ratio does not play an important role to influence the overall stability load-carrying capacity of Q460GJ structural steel beams with welded I-shaped cross-sections. It was also found that the design methods in GB50017-2003 and ANSI/AISC360-10 overestimate the overall stability and load-carrying capacity of Q460GJ welded I-shaped cross-section beams.

Keywords: experimental study, finite element analysis, global stability, lateral torsional buckling, Q460GJ structural steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
211 Lateral Torsional Buckling Resistance of Trapezoidally Corrugated Web Girders

Authors: Annamária Käferné Rácz, Bence Jáger, Balázs Kövesdi, László Dunai


Due to the numerous advantages of steel corrugated web girders, its application field is growing for bridges as well as for buildings. The global stability behavior of such girders is significantly larger than those of conventional I-girders with flat web, thus the application of the structural steel material can be significantly reduced. Design codes and specifications do not provide clear and complete rules or recommendations for the determination of the lateral torsional buckling (LTB) resistance of corrugated web girders. Therefore, the authors made a thorough investigation regarding the LTB resistance of the corrugated web girders. Finite element (FE) simulations have been performed to develop new design formulas for the determination of the LTB resistance of trapezoidally corrugated web girders. FE model is developed considering geometrical and material nonlinear analysis using equivalent geometric imperfections (GMNI analysis). The equivalent geometric imperfections involve the initial geometric imperfections and residual stresses coming from rolling, welding and flame cutting. Imperfection sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the necessary magnitudes regarding only the first eigenmodes shape imperfections. By the help of the validated FE model, an extended parametric study is carried out to investigate the LTB resistance for different trapezoidal corrugation profiles. First, the critical moment of a specific girder was calculated by FE model. The critical moments from the FE calculations are compared to the previous analytical calculation proposals. Then, nonlinear analysis was carried out to determine the ultimate resistance. Due to the numerical investigations, new proposals are developed for the determination of the LTB resistance of trapezoidally corrugated web girders through a modification factor on the design method related to the conventional flat web girders.

Keywords: corrugated web, lateral torsional buckling, critical moment, FE modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
210 An Investigation on Hybrid Composite Drive Shaft for Automotive Industry

Authors: Gizem Arslan Özgen, Kutay Yücetürk, Metin Tanoğlu, Engin Aktaş


Power transmitted from the engine to the final drive where useful work is applied through a system consisting of a gearbox, clutch, drive shaft and a differential in the rear-wheel-drive automobiles. It is well-known that the steel drive shaft is usually manufactured in two pieces to increase the fundamental bending natural frequency to ensure safe operation conditions. In this work, hybrid one-piece propeller shafts composed of carbon/epoxy and glass/epoxy composites have been designed for a rear wheel drive automobile satisfying three design specifications, such as static torque transmission capability, torsional buckling and the fundamental natural bending frequency. Hybridization of carbon and glass fibers is being studied to optimize the cost/performance requirements. Composites shaft materials with various fiber orientation angles and stacking sequences are being fabricated and analyzed using finite element analysis (FEA).

Keywords: composite propeller shaft, hybridization, epoxy matrix, static torque transmission capability, torsional buckling strength, fundamental natural bending frequency.

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
209 Lateral Torsional Buckling: Tests on Glued Laminated Timber Beams

Authors: Vera Wilden, Benno Hoffmeister, Markus Feldmann


Glued laminated timber (glulam) is a preferred choice for long span girders, e.g., for gyms or storage halls. While the material provides sufficient strength to resist the bending moments, large spans lead to increased slenderness of such members and to a higher susceptibility to stability issues, in particular to lateral torsional buckling (LTB). Rules for the determination of the ultimate LTB resistance are provided by Eurocode 5. The verifications of the resistance may be performed using the so called equivalent member method or by means of theory 2nd order calculations (direct method), considering equivalent imperfections. Both methods have significant limitations concerning their applicability; the equivalent member method is limited to rather simple cases; the direct method is missing detailed provisions regarding imperfections and requirements for numerical modeling. In this paper, the results of a test series on slender glulam beams in three- and four-point bending are presented. The tests were performed in an innovative, newly developed testing rig, allowing for a very precise definition of loading and boundary conditions. The load was introduced by a hydraulic jack, which follows the lateral deformation of the beam by means of a servo-controller, coupled with the tested member and keeping the load direction vertically. The deformation-controlled tests allowed for the identification of the ultimate limit state (governed by elastic stability) and the corresponding deformations. Prior to the tests, the structural and geometrical imperfections were determined and used later in the numerical models. After the stability tests, the nearly undamaged members were tested again in pure bending until reaching the ultimate moment resistance of the cross-section. These results, accompanied by numerical studies, were compared to resistance values obtained using both methods according to Eurocode 5.

Keywords: experimental tests, glued laminated timber, lateral torsional buckling, numerical simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 112
208 Structural Behavior of Non-Prismatic Mono-Symmetric Beam

Authors: Nandini B. Nagaraju, Punya D. Gowda, S. Aishwarya, Benjamin Rohit


This paper attempts to understand the structural behavior of non-prismatic channel beams subjected to bending through finite element (FE) analysis. The present study aims at shedding some light on how tapered channel beams behave by studying the effect of taper ratio on structural behavior. As a weight reduction is always desired in aerospace structures beams are tapered in order to obtain highest structural efficiency. FE analysis has been performed to study the effect of taper ratio on linear deflection, lateral torsional buckling, non-linear parameters, stresses and dynamic parameters. Taper ratio tends to affect the mechanics of tapered beams innocuously and adversely. Consequently, it becomes important to understand and document the mechanics of channel tapered beams. Channel beams generally have low torsional rigidity due to the off-shear loading. The effect of loading type and location of applied load have been studied for flange taper, web taper and symmetric taper for different conditions. Among these, as the taper ratio is increased, the torsional angular deflection increases but begins to decrease when the beam is web tapered and symmetrically tapered for a mid web loaded beam. But when loaded through the shear center, an increase in the torsional angular deflection can be observed with increase in taper ratio. It should be considered which parameter is tapered to obtain the highest efficiency.

Keywords: channel beams, tapered beams, lateral torsional bucking, shear centre

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
207 Research on the Torsional Vibration of a Power-Split Hybrid Powertrain Equipped with a Dual Mass Flywheel

Authors: Xiaolin Tang, Wei Yang, Xiaoan Chen


The research described in this paper was aimed at exploring the torsional vibration characteristics of a power-split hybrid powertrain equipped with a dual mass flywheel. The dynamic equations of governing torsional vibration for this hybrid driveline are presented, and the multi-body dynamic model for the powertrain is established with the software of ADAMS. Accordingly, different parameters of dual mass flywheel are investigated by forced vibration to reduce the torsional vibration of hybrid drive train. The analysis shows that the implementation of a dual mass flywheel is an effective way to decrease the torsional vibration of the hybrid powertrain. At last, the optimal combination of parameters yielding the lowest vibration is provided.

Keywords: dual mass flywheel, hybrid electric vehicle, torsional vibration, powertrain, dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
206 Compressive and Torsional Strength of Self-Compacting Concrete

Authors: Moosa Mazloom, Morteza Mehrvand


The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of silica fume and super plasticizer dosages on compressive and torsional properties of SCC. This work concentrated on concrete mixes having water/binder ratios of 0.45 and 0.35, which contained constant total binder contents of 400 kg/m3 and 500 kg/m3, respectively. The percentages of silica fume that replaced cement were 0 % and 10 %. The super plasticizer dosages utilized in the mixtures were 0.4%, 0.8%, 1.2 % and 1.6 % of the weight of cement. Prism dimensions used in this test were 10 × 10 × 40 cm3. The results of this research indicated that torsional strength of SCC prisms can be calculated using the equations presented in Canadian and American concrete building codes.

Keywords: self-compacting concrete, rectangular prism, torsional strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 444
205 Critical Buckling Load of Carbon Nanotube with Non-Local Timoshenko Beam Using the Differential Transform Method

Authors: Tayeb Bensattalah, Mohamed Zidour, Mohamed Ait Amar Meziane, Tahar Hassaine Daouadji, Abdelouahed Tounsi


In this paper, the Differential Transform Method (DTM) is employed to predict and to analysis the non-local critical buckling loads of carbon nanotubes with various end conditions and the non-local Timoshenko beam described by single differential equation. The equation differential of buckling of the nanobeams is derived via a non-local theory and the solution for non-local critical buckling loads is finding by the DTM. The DTM is introduced briefly. It can easily be applied to linear or nonlinear problems and it reduces the size of computational work. Influence of boundary conditions, the chirality of carbon nanotube and aspect ratio on non-local critical buckling loads are studied and discussed. Effects of nonlocal parameter, ratios L/d, the chirality of single-walled carbon nanotube, as well as the boundary conditions on buckling of CNT are investigated.

Keywords: boundary conditions, buckling, non-local, differential transform method

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
204 Prediction of the Torsional Vibration Characteristics of a Rotor-Shaft System Using Its Scale Model and Scaling Laws

Authors: Jia-Jang Wu


This paper presents the scaling laws that provide the criteria of geometry and dynamic similitude between the full-size rotor-shaft system and its scale model, and can be used to predict the torsional vibration characteristics of the full-size rotor-shaft system by manipulating the corresponding data of its scale model. The scaling factors, which play fundamental roles in predicting the geometry and dynamic relationships between the full-size rotor-shaft system and its scale model, for torsional free vibration problems between scale and full-size rotor-shaft systems are firstly obtained from the equation of motion of torsional free vibration. Then, the scaling factor of external force (i.e., torque) required for the torsional forced vibration problems is determined based on the Newton’s second law. Numerical results show that the torsional free and forced vibration characteristics of a full-size rotor-shaft system can be accurately predicted from those of its scale models by using the foregoing scaling factors. For this reason, it is believed that the presented approach will be significant for investigating the relevant phenomenon in the scale model tests.

Keywords: torsional vibration, full-size model, scale model, scaling laws

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
203 Effect of Corrosion on the Shear Buckling Strength

Authors: Myoung-Jin Lee, Sung-Jin Lee, Young-Kon Park, Jin-Wook Kim, Bo-Kyoung Kim, Song-Hun Chong, Sun-Ii Kim


The ability to resist the shear strength arises mainly from the web panel of steel girders and as such, the shear buckling strength of these girders has been extensively investigated. For example, Blaser’s reported that when buckling occurs, the tension field has an effect after the buckling strength of the steel is reached. The findings of these studies have been applied by AASHTO, AISC, and to the European Code that provides guidelines for designs aimed at preventing shear buckling. Steel girders are susceptible to corrosion resulting from exposure to natural elements such as rainfall, humidity, and temperature. This corrosion leads to a reduction in the size of the web panel section, thereby resulting in a decrease in the shear strength. The decrease in the panel section has a significant effect on the maintenance section of the bridge. However, in most conventional designs, the influence of corrosion is overlooked during the calculation of the shear buckling strength and hence over-design is common. Therefore, in this study, a steel girder with an A/D of 1:1, as well as a 6-mm-, 16-mm-, and 12-mm-thick web panel, flange, and intermediate reinforcing material, respectively, were used. The total length was set to that (3200 mm) of the default model. The effect of corrosion shear buckling was investigated by determining the volume amount of corrosion, shape of the erosion patterns, and the angular change in the tensile field of the shear buckling strength. This study provides the basic data that will enable designs that incorporate values closer (than those used in most conventional designs) to the actual shear buckling strength.

Keywords: corrosion, shear buckling strength, steel girder, shear strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
202 Lateral Buckling of Nanoparticle Additive Composite Beams

Authors: Gürkan Şakar, Akgün Alsaran, Emrah E. Özbaldan


In this study, lateral buckling analysis of composite beams with particle additive was carried out experimentally and numerically. The effects of particle type, particle addition ratio on buckling loads of composite beams were determined. The numerical studies were performed with ANSYS package. In the analyses, clamped-free boundary condition was assumed. The load carrying capabilities of composite beams were influenced by different particle types and particle addition ratios.

Keywords: lateral buckling, nanoparticle, composite beam, numeric analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
201 Buckling Behavior of FGM Plates Using a Simplified Shear Deformation Theory

Authors: Mokhtar Bouazza


In this paper, the simplified theory will be used to predict the thermoelastic buckling behavior of rectangular functionally graded plates. The material properties of the functionally graded plates are assumed to vary continuously through the thickness, according to a simple power law distribution of the volume fraction of the constituents. The simplified theory is used to obtain the buckling of the plate under different types of thermal loads. The thermal loads are assumed to be uniform, linear, and non-linear distribution through the thickness. Additional numerical results are presented for FGM plates that show the effects of various parameters on thermal buckling response.

Keywords: buckling, functionally graded, plate, simplified higher-order deformation theory, thermal loading

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
200 Buckling of Plates on Foundation with Different Types of Sides Support

Authors: Ali N. Suri, Ahmad A. Al-Makhlufi


In this paper the problem of buckling of plates on foundation of finite length and with different side support is studied. The Finite Strip Method is used as tool for the analysis. This method uses finite strip elastic, foundation, and geometric matrices to build the assembly matrices for the whole structure, then after introducing boundary conditions at supports, the resulting reduced matrices is transformed into a standard Eigenvalue-Eigenvector problem. The solution of this problem will enable the determination of the buckling load, the associated buckling modes and the buckling wave length. To carry out the buckling analysis starting from the elastic, foundation, and geometric stiffness matrices for each strip a computer program FORTRAN list is developed. Since stiffness matrices are function of wave length of buckling, the computer program used an iteration procedure to find the critical buckling stress for each value of foundation modulus and for each boundary condition. The results showed the use of elastic medium to support plates subject to axial load increase a great deal the buckling load, the results found are very close with those obtained by other analytical methods and experimental work. The results also showed that foundation compensates the effect of the weakness of some types of constraint of side support and maximum benefit found for plate with one side simply supported the other free.

Keywords: buckling, finite strip, different sides support, plates on foundation

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
199 Correction Requirement to AISC Design Guide 31: Case Study of Web Post Buckling Design for Castellated Beams

Authors: Kitjapat Phuvoravan, Phattaraphong Ponsorn


In the design of Castellated beams (CB), the web post buckling acted by horizontal shear force is one of the important failure modes that have to be considered. It is also a dominant governing mode when design following the AISC 31 design guideline which is just published. However, the equation of the web post buckling given by the guideline is still questionable for most of the engineers. So the purpose of this paper is to study and provide a proposed equation for design the web post buckling with more simplified and convenient to use. The study is also including the improper of the safety factor given by the guideline. The proposed design equation is acquired by regression method based on the results of finite element analysis. An amount of Cellular beam simulated to study is modelled by using shell element, analysis with both geometric and material nonlinearity. The results of the study show that the use of the proposed equation to design the web post buckling in Castellated beams is more simple and precise for computation than the equations provided from the guideline.

Keywords: castellated beam, web opening, web post buckling, design equation

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
198 Improvement of Buckling Behavior of Cold Formed Steel Uprights with Open Cross Section Used in Storage Rack Systems

Authors: Yasar Pala, Safa Senaysoy, Emre Calis


In this paper, structural behavior and improvement of buckling behavior of cold formed steel uprights with open cross-section used storage rack system are studied. As a first step, in the case of a stiffener having an inclined part on the flange, experimental and nonlinear finite element analysis are carried out for three different upright lengths. In the uprights with long length, global buckling is observed while distortional buckling and local buckling are observed in the uprights with medium length and those with short length, respectively. After this point, the study is divided into two groups. One of these groups is the case where the stiffener on the flange is folded at 90°. For this case, four different distances of the stiffener from the web are taken into account. In the other group, the case where different depth of stiffener on the web is considered. Combining experimental and finite element results, the cross-section giving the ultimate critical buckling load is selected.

Keywords: steel, upright, buckling, modes, nonlinear finite element analysis, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
197 Reliability Analysis of Steel Columns under Buckling Load in Second-Order Theory

Authors: Hamed Abshari, M. Reza Emami Azadi, Madjid Sadegh Azar


For studying the overall instability of members of steel structures, there are several methods in which overall buckling and geometrical imperfection effects are considered in analysis. In first section, these methods are compared and ability of software to apply these methods is studied. Buckling loads determined from theoretical methods and software is compared for 2D one bay, one and two stories steel frames. To consider actual condition, buckling loads of three steel frames that have various dimensions are calculated and compared. Also, uncertainties that exist in loading and modeling of structures such as geometrical imperfection, yield stress, and modulus of elasticity in buckling load of 2D framed steel structures have been studied. By performing these uncertainties to each reliability analysis procedures (first-order, second-order, and simulation methods of reliability), one index of reliability from each procedure is determined. These values are studied and compared.

Keywords: buckling, second-order theory, reliability index, steel columns

Procedia PDF Downloads 403
196 Numerical Study of Dynamic Buckling of Fiber Metal Laminates's Profile

Authors: Monika Kamocka, Radoslaw Mania


The design of Fiber Metal Laminates - combining thin aluminum sheets and prepreg layers, allows creating a hybrid structure with high strength to weight ratio. This feature makes FMLs very attractive for aerospace industry, where thin-walled structures are commonly used. Nevertheless, those structures are prone to buckling phenomenon. Buckling could occur also under static load as well as dynamic pulse loads. In this paper, the problem of dynamic buckling of open cross-section FML profiles under axial dynamic compression in the form of pulse load of finite duration is investigated. In the numerical model, material properties of FML constituents were assumed as nonlinear elastic-plastic aluminum and linear-elastic glass-fiber-reinforced composite. The influence of pulse shape was investigated. Sinusoidal and rectangular pulse loads of finite duration were compared in two ways, i.e. with respect to magnitude and force pulse. The dynamic critical buckling load was determined based on Budiansky-Hutchinson, Ari Gur, and Simonetta dynamic buckling criteria.

Keywords: dynamic buckling, dynamic stability, Fiber Metal Laminate, Finite Element Method

Procedia PDF Downloads 103
195 Flange/Web Distortional Buckling of Cold-Formed Steel Beams with Web Holes under Pure Bending

Authors: Nan-Ting Yu, Boksun Kim, Long-Yuan Li


The cold-formed steel beams with web holes are widely used as the load-carrying members in structural engineering. The perforations can release the space of the building and let the pipes go through. However, the perforated cold-formed steel (PCFS) beams may fail by distortional buckling more easily than beams with plain web; this is because the rotational stiffness from the web decreases. It is well known that the distortional buckling can be described as the buckling of the compressed flange-lip system. In fact, near the ultimate failure, the flange/web corner would move laterally, which indicates the bending of the web should be taken account. The purpose of this study is to give a specific solution for the critical stress of flange/web distortional buckling of PCFS beams. The new model is deduced based on classical energy method, and the deflection of the web is represented by the shape function of the plane beam element. The finite element analyses have been performed to validate the accuracy of the proposed model. The comparison of the critical stress calculated from Hancock's model, FEA, and present model, shows that the present model can provide a splendid prediction for the flange/web distortional buckling of PCFS beams.

Keywords: cold-formed steel, beams, perforations, flange-web distortional buckling, finite element analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
194 Design, Analysis and Optimization of Space Frame for BAJA SAE Chassis

Authors: Manoj Malviya, Shubham Shinde


The present study focuses on the determination of torsional stiffness of a space frame chassis and comparison of elements used in the Finite Element Analysis of frame. The study also discusses various concepts and design aspects of a space frame chassis with the emphasis on their applicability in BAJA SAE vehicles. Torsional stiffness is a very important factor that determines the chassis strength, vehicle control, and handling. Therefore, it is very important to determine the torsional stiffness of the vehicle before designing an optimum chassis so that it should not fail during extreme conditions. This study determines the torsional stiffness of frame with respect to suspension shocks, roll-stiffness and anti-roll bar rates. A spring model is developed to study the effects of suspension parameters. The engine greatly contributes to torsional stiffness, and therefore, its effects on torsional stiffness need to be considered. Deflections in the tire have not been considered in the present study. The proper element shape should be selected to analyze the effects of various loadings on chassis while implementing finite element methods. The study compares the accuracy of results and computational time for different element types. Shape functions of these elements are also discussed. Modelling methodology is discussed for the multibody analysis of chassis integrated with suspension arms and engine. Proper boundary conditions are presented so as to replicate the real life conditions.

Keywords: space frame chassis, torsional stiffness, multi-body analysis of chassis, element selection

Procedia PDF Downloads 277