Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20217

Search results for: physical model tests

20217 Optimization of Element Type for FE Model and Verification of Analyses with Physical Tests

Authors: Mustafa Tufekci, Caner Guven


In Automotive Industry, sliding door systems that are also used as body closures, are safety members. Extreme product tests are realized to prevent failures in a design process, but these tests realized experimentally result in high costs. Finite element analysis is an effective tool used for the design process. These analyses are used before production of a prototype for validation of design according to customer requirement. In result of this, the substantial amount of time and cost is saved. Finite element model is created for geometries that are designed in 3D CAD programs. Different element types as bar, shell and solid, can be used for creating mesh model. The cheaper model can be created by the selection of element type, but combination of element type that was used in model, number and geometry of element and degrees of freedom affects the analysis result. Sliding door system is a good example which used these methods for this study. Structural analysis was realized for sliding door mechanism by using FE models. As well, physical tests that have same boundary conditions with FE models were realized. Comparison study for these element types, were done regarding test and analyses results then the optimum combination was achieved.

Keywords: finite element analysis, sliding door mechanism, element type, structural analysis

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20216 Termite Mound Floors: Ready-to-Use Ecological Materials

Authors: Yanné Etienne


The current climatic conditions necessarily impose the development and use of construction materials with low or no carbon footprint. The Far North Region of Cameroon has huge deposits of termite mounds. Various tests in this work have been carried out on these soils with the aim of using them as construction materials. They are mainly geotechnical tests, physical and mechanical tests. The different tests gave the following values: uniformity coefficient (4.95), curvature coefficient (1.80), plasticity index (12.85%), optimum moisture content (6.70%), maximum dry density (2.05³), friction angles (14.07°), and cohesion of 100.29 kN.m2. The results obtained show that termite mound soils, which are ecological materials, are plastic and water-stable can be used for the production of load-bearing elements in construction.

Keywords: termite mound soil, ecological materials, building materials, geotechnical tests, physical and mechanical tests

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20215 Determination of the Bearing Capacity of Granular Pumice Soils by Laboratory Tests

Authors: Mustafa Yildiz, Ali Sinan Soganci


Pumice soils are countered in many projects such as transportation roads, channels and residential units throughout the World. The pumice deposits are characterized by the vesicular nature of their particles. When the pumice soils are evaluated considering the geotechnical viewpoint, they differ from silica sands in terms of physical and engineering characteristics. These differences are low grain strength, high friction angle, void ratio and compressibility. At stresses greater than a few hundred kPa, the stress-strain-strength behaviour of these soils is determined by particle crushing. Particle crushing leads to changes in the density and reduction in the components of shear stress due to expansion. In this study, the bearing capacity and behaviour of granular pumice soils compared to sand-gravels were investigated by laboratory model tests. Firstly the geotechnical properties of granular pumice soils were determined; then, the behaviour of pumice soils with an equivalent diameter of sand and gravel soils were investigated by model rectangular and circular foundation types and were compared with each other. For this purpose, basic types of model footing (15*15 cm, 20*20 cm, Φ=15 cm and Φ=20 cm) have been selected. When the experimental results of model bearing capacity are analyzed, the values of sand and gravel bearing capacity tests were found to be 1.0-1.5 times higher than the bearing capacity of pumice the same size. This fact has shown that sand and gravel have a higher bearing capacity than pumice of the similar particle sizes.

Keywords: pumice soils, laboratory model tests, bearing capacity, laboratory model tests, Nevşehir

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20214 The Use of Psychological Tests in Polish Organizations - Empirical Evidence

Authors: Milena Gojny-Zbierowska


In the last decades psychological tests have been gaining in popularity as a method used for evaluating personnel, and they bring consulting companies solid profits rising by up to 10% each year. The market is offering a growing range of tools for the assessment of personality. Tests are used in organizations mainly in the recruitment and selection of staff. This paper is an attempt to initially diagnose the state of the use of psychological tests in Polish companies on the basis of empirical research.

Keywords: psychological tests, personality, content analysis, NEO FFI, big five personality model

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
20213 Experimental Investigation and Constitutive Modeling of Volume Strain under Uniaxial Strain Rate Jump Test in HDPE

Authors: Rida B. Arieby, Hameed N. Hameed


In this work, tensile tests on high density polyethylene have been carried out under various constant strain rate and strain rate jump tests. The dependency of the true stress and specially the variation of volume strain have been investigated, the volume strain due to the phenomena of damage was determined in real time during the tests by an optical extensometer called Videotraction. A modified constitutive equations, including strain rate and damage effects, are proposed, such a model is based on a non-equilibrium thermodynamic approach called (DNLR). The ability of the model to predict the complex nonlinear response of this polymer is examined by comparing the model simulation with the available experimental data, which demonstrate that this model can represent the deformation behavior of the polymer reasonably well.

Keywords: strain rate jump tests, volume strain, high density polyethylene, large strain, thermodynamics approach

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20212 Physical Education Teacher's Interpretation toward Teaching Games for Understanding Model

Authors: Soni Nopembri


The objective of this research is to evaluate the implementation of teaching games for Understanding model by conducting action to physical education teacher who have got long teaching experience. The research applied Participatory Action Research. The subjects of this research were 19 physical education teachers who had got training of Teaching Games for Understanding. Data collection was conducted intensively through a questionnaire, in-depth interview, Focus Group Discussion (FGD), observation, and documentation. The collected data was analysis zed qualitatively and quantitatively. The result showed that physical education teachers had got an appropriate interpretation on TGfU model. Some indicators that were the focus of this research indicated this points; they are: (1) physical education teachers had good understanding toward TGfU model, (2) PE teachers’ competence in applying TGfU model on Physical Education at school were adequate, though some improvement were needed, (3) the influence factors in the implementation of TGfU model, in sequence, were teacher, facilities, environment, and students factors, (4) PE teachers’ perspective toward TGfU model were positively good, although some teachers were less optimistic toward the development of TGfU model in the future.

Keywords: TGfU, physical education teacher, teaching games, FGD

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20211 Study of the Behavior of Geogrid Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls Under Cyclic Loading

Authors: Yongzhe Zhao, Ying Liu, Zhiyong Liu, Hui You


The soil behind retaining wall is normally subjected to cyclic loading, for example traffic loading. Geotextile has been widely used to reinforce the soil for the purpose of reducing the settlement of the soil. A series of physical model tests were performed to investigate the settlement of footing under cyclic loading. The settlement of the footing, ground deformation and the vertical earth pressure in subsoil were presented and discussed under different types of geotextiles. The results indicate that including geotextiles significantly decreases the footing settlement and the stiffer the geotextile, the less the settlement. Under cyclic loading, the soil below the footing shows dilation within certain depths and beyond that it experiences contraction. The location of footing relative to the retaining wall has important effects on the deformation behavior of the soil in the ground, and the closer the footing to the retaining wall, the greater the contraction soil shows. This is because the retaining wall experienced greater lateral displacement.

Keywords: physical model tests, reinforced retaining wall, cyclic loading, footing

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20210 Conduction Model Compatible for Multi-Physical Domain Dynamic Investigations: Bond Graph Approach

Authors: A. Zanj, F. He


In the current paper, a domain independent conduction model compatible for multi-physical system dynamic investigations is suggested. By means of a port-based approach, a classical nonlinear conduction model containing physical states is first represented. A compatible discrete configuration of the thermal domain in line with the elastic domain is then generated through the enhancement of the configuration of the conventional thermal element. The presented simulation results of a sample structure indicate that the suggested conductive model can cover a wide range of dynamic behavior of the thermal domain.

Keywords: multi-physical domain, conduction model, port based modeling, dynamic interaction, physical modeling

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20209 The Effect of Physical Biorhythm Cycle on Health-Related Fitness Factors

Authors: Leyli Khavari, Javad Yousefian


The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of physical biorhythm cycle on health-related fitness factors. For this purpose, 120 athlete and non-athlete male and female students were selected randomly and based on the level of physical activity divided into athletic and non-athletic groups. The exact date of birth and also when the subjects were in the positive, negative and critical physical biorhythm cycle was determined by calculation software biorhythm. The physical fitness factors tests, including Queens College Step Test, AAHPERD sit-ups; Wells stretch test and hand dynamometer. Students in three stages in positive, negative and critical physical cycle were tested. Data processing using SPSS software and statistical tests ANOVA with repeated measures and student t test was used for dependent. The results of this study showed that changes in physical fitness and physical biorhythm were not affected by changes in the 23-day physical cycle.

Keywords: AAHPERD test, biorhythm, physical cycle, Queens College Step Test

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20208 Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Mustafa Paşa Mosque in Skopje

Authors: Ozden Saygili, Eser Cakti


The masonry building stock in Istanbul and in other cities of Turkey are exposed to significant earthquake hazard. Determination of the safety of masonry structures against earthquakes is a complex challenge. This study deals with experimental tests and non-linear dynamic analysis of masonry structures modeled through discrete element method. The 1:10 scale model of Mustafa Paşa Mosque was constructed and the data were obtained from the sensors on it during its testing on the shake table. The results were used in the calibration/validation of the numerical model created on the basis of the 1:10 scale model built for shake table testing. 3D distinct element model was developed that represents the linear and nonlinear behavior of the shake table model as closely as possible during experimental tests. Results of numerical analyses with those from the experimental program were compared and discussed.

Keywords: dynamic analysis, non-linear modeling, shake table tests, masonry

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20207 Performing Diagnosis in Building with Partially Valid Heterogeneous Tests

Authors: Houda Najeh, Mahendra Pratap Singh, Stéphane Ploix, Antoine Caucheteux, Karim Chabir, Mohamed Naceur Abdelkrim


Building system is highly vulnerable to different kinds of faults and human misbehaviors. Energy efficiency and user comfort are directly targeted due to abnormalities in building operation. The available fault diagnosis tools and methodologies particularly rely on rules or pure model-based approaches. It is assumed that model or rule-based test could be applied to any situation without taking into account actual testing contexts. Contextual tests with validity domain could reduce a lot of the design of detection tests. The main objective of this paper is to consider fault validity when validate the test model considering the non-modeled events such as occupancy, weather conditions, door and window openings and the integration of the knowledge of the expert on the state of the system. The concept of heterogeneous tests is combined with test validity to generate fault diagnoses. A combination of rules, range and model-based tests known as heterogeneous tests are proposed to reduce the modeling complexity. Calculation of logical diagnoses coming from artificial intelligence provides a global explanation consistent with the test result. An application example shows the efficiency of the proposed technique: an office setting at Grenoble Institute of Technology.

Keywords: heterogeneous tests, validity, building system, sensor grids, sensor fault, diagnosis, fault detection and isolation

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
20206 Kinetic Façade Design Using 3D Scanning to Convert Physical Models into Digital Models

Authors: Do-Jin Jang, Sung-Ah Kim


In designing a kinetic façade, it is hard for the designer to make digital models due to its complex geometry with motion. This paper aims to present a methodology of converting a point cloud of a physical model into a single digital model with a certain topology and motion. The method uses a Microsoft Kinect sensor, and color markers were defined and applied to three paper folding-inspired designs. Although the resulted digital model cannot represent the whole folding range of the physical model, the method supports the designer to conduct a performance-oriented design process with the rough physical model in the reduced folding range.

Keywords: design media, kinetic facades, tangible user interface, 3D scanning

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20205 The Comparison of Movement and Physical Fitness in Secondary Male Students in Altitude and Coastal Areas

Authors: Esmaeil Zabihi, Seyed Hossein Alavi


The purpose of this study is a comparison of movement and physical fitness in athlete's male students in altitude and sea-level. The samples consist of 450 subjects in altitude and sea-level in Iran in years of 2013 which were selected randomly from the population. We investigated the effect of high altitude on the tests activity profile of youth high altitude and sea level residents. Methods 450 Sea Level (Mahmood Abad) and 450 Altitude-resident (Shahre-Kord) athlete students tests of physical fitness near sea level (-5 m) and in Altitude (2100 m). This study is Descriptive Research (causal-comparative research). The tests of physical fitness include pull-ups test, sit-ups test, agility test(4 9), 45 sprint test, 1600 m running, long jump, and flexibility test. For determining of different between the physical fitness of altitude and sea-level students was used t-test (P ≤ 0.05). The result of this study show that there is no significant difference between the average of pull-ups test, flexibility, 45 sprints, and agility (4 9) test of students in sea-level and altitude. But there is a significant difference between the average of sit-ups, 1600 m running and long jump in altitude. The students of altitude have higher power rather than sea-level. But the students of sea-level have stronger abdominal muscles and cardio-respiratory endurance rather than altitude. High altitude reduces the distance covered by youth athlete students during tests. Neither acclimatisation nor lifelong residence at high altitude protects against detrimental effects of altitude on tests activity profile.

Keywords: physical fitness, sea level, altitude areas, AAHPERD test

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20204 Validation Study of Radial Aircraft Engine Model

Authors: Lukasz Grabowski, Tytus Tulwin, Michal Geca, P. Karpinski


This paper presents the radial aircraft engine model which has been created in AVL Boost software. This model is a one-dimensional physical model of the engine, which enables us to investigate the impact of an ignition system design on engine performance (power, torque, fuel consumption). In addition, this model allows research under variable environmental conditions to reflect varied flight conditions (altitude, humidity, cruising speed). Before the simulation research the identifying parameters and validating of model were studied. In order to verify the feasibility to take off power of gasoline radial aircraft engine model, some validation study was carried out. The first stage of the identification was completed with reference to the technical documentation provided by manufacturer of engine and the experiments on the test stand of the real engine. The second stage involved a comparison of simulation results with the results of the engine stand tests performed on a WSK ’PZL-Kalisz’. The engine was loaded by a propeller in a special test bench. Identifying the model parameters referred to a comparison of the test results to the simulation in terms of: pressure behind the throttles, pressure in the inlet pipe, and time course for pressure in the first inlet pipe, power, and specific fuel consumption. Accordingly, the required coefficients and error of simulation calculation relative to the real-object experiments were determined. Obtained the time course for pressure and its value is compatible with the experimental results. Additionally the engine power and specific fuel consumption tends to be significantly compatible with the bench tests. The mapping error does not exceed 1.5%, which verifies positively the model of combustion and allows us to predict engine performance if the process of combustion will be modified. The next conducted tests verified completely model. The maximum mapping error for the pressure behind the throttles and the inlet pipe pressure is 4 %, which proves the model of the inlet duct in the engine with the charging compressor to be correct.

Keywords: 1D-model, aircraft engine, performance, validation

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20203 Modeling of a Pendulum Test Including Skin and Muscles under Compression

Authors: M. J. Kang, Y. N. Jo, H. H. Yoo


Pendulum tests were used to identify a stretch reflex and diagnose spasticity. Some researches tried to make a mathematical model to simulate the motions. Thighs are subject to compressive forces due to gravity during a pendulum test. Therefore, it affects knee trajectories. However, the most studies on the pendulum tests did not consider that conditions. We used Kelvin-Voight model as compression model of skin and muscles. In this study, we investigated viscoelastic behaviors of skin and muscles using gelatin blocks from experiments of the vibration of the compliantly supported beam. Then we calculated a dynamic stiffness and loss factors from the experiment and estimated a damping coefficient of the model. We also did pendulum tests of human lower limbs to validate the stiffness and damping coefficient of a skin model. To simulate the pendulum motion, we derive equations of motion. We used stretch reflex activation model to estimate muscle forces induced by the stretch reflex. To validate the results, we compared the activation with electromyography signals during experiments. The compression behavior of skin and muscles in this study can be applied to analyze sitting posture as wee as developing surgical techniques.

Keywords: Kelvin-Voight model, pendulum test, skin and muscles under compression, stretch reflex

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20202 The Ratio of Second-to-Fourth Digit Length (2D:4D) and the Physical Ability in Men and Women

Authors: Marek Kociuba, Jarosław Kurek


Introduction: The digit length ratio (2D:4D) is generally higher in women compared to men. Lower 2D:4D is linked with greater physical ability, strength, and better sporting performance. Second-to-fourth digit lengths ratio (2D:4D) is an indicator of PT exposure. Lower 2D:4D indicates higher PT exposure and vice versa. Methods: The objectives of this paper were to investigate the relationship of 2D:4D with physical fitness in men and women. The study compared 137 female and 174 male students from Wrocław. Besides calculating 2D:4D for each hand, height and weight were also recorded. Assessment of physical fitness and endurance were performed through Eurofit tests. Handgrip strength was measured by a standardized isometric dynamometer. Results: Male participants had significantly lower 2D:4D than females on each hand. A weak relationship between 2D:4D and the results of strength tests was found.

Keywords: 2D:4D, physical fitness, prenatal testosterone, sexual dimorphism

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20201 Study on Constitutive Model of Particle Filling Material Considering Volume Expansion

Authors: Xu Jinsheng, Tong Xin, Zheng Jian, Zhou Changsheng


The NEPE (nitrate ester plasticized polyether) propellant is a kind of particle filling material with relatively high filling fraction. The experimental results show that the microcracks, microvoids and dewetting can cause the stress softening of the material. In this paper, a series of mechanical testing in inclusion with CCD technique were conducted to analyze the evolution of internal defects of propellant. The volume expansion function of the particle filling material was established by measuring of longitudinal and transverse strain with optical deformation measurement system. By analyzing the defects and internal damages of the material, a visco-hyperelastic constitutive model based on free energy theory was proposed incorporating damage function. The proposed constitutive model could accurately predict the mechanical properties of uniaxial tensile tests and tensile-relaxation tests.

Keywords: dewetting, constitutive model, uniaxial tensile tests, visco-hyperelastic, nonlinear

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
20200 Thymoquinone Prevented the Development of Symptoms in Animal Model of Parkinson’s Disease

Authors: Kambiz Hassanzadeh, Seyedeh Shohreh Ebrahimi, Shahrbanoo Oryan, Arman Rahimmi, Esmael Izadpanah


Parkinson’s disease is one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative diseases which occurs in elderly. There are convincing evidences that oxidative stress has an important role in both the initiation and progression of Parkinson’s disease. Thymoquinone (TQ) is shown to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in invitro and invivo studies. It is well documented that TQ acts as a free radical scavenger and prevents the cell damage. Therefore this study aimed to evaluate the effect of TQ on motor and non-motor symptoms in animal model of Parkinson’s disease. Male Wistar rats (10-12 months) received rotenone (1mg/kg/day, sc) to induce Parkinson’s disease model. Pretreatment with TQ (7.5 and 15 mg/kg/day, po) was administered one hour before the rotenone injection. Three motor tests (rotarod, rearing and bar tests) and two non-motor tests (forced swimming and elevated plus maze) were performed for behavioral assessment. Our results indicated that TQ significantly ameliorated the rotenone-induced motor dysfunction in rotarod and rearing tests also it could prevent the non-motor dysfunctions in forced swimming and elevated plus maze tests. In conclusion we found that TQ delayed the Parkinson's disease induction by rotenone and this effect might be related to its proved antioxidant effect.

Keywords: Parkinson's disease, thymoquinone, motor and non-motor symptoms, neurodegenerative disease

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20199 Entrepreneurs’ Perceptions of the Economic, Social and Physical Impacts of Tourism

Authors: Oktay Emir


The objective of this study is to determine how entrepreneurs perceive the economic, social and physical impacts of tourism. The study was conducted in the city of Afyonkarahisar, Turkey, which is rich in thermal tourism resources and investments. A survey was used as the data collection method, and the questionnaire was applied to 472 entrepreneurs. A simple random sampling method was used to identify the sample. Independent sampling t-tests and ANOVA tests were used to analyse the data obtained. Additionally, some statistically significant differences (p<0.05) were found based on the participants’ demographic characteristics regarding their opinions about the social, economic and physical impacts of tourism activities.

Keywords: tourism, perception, entrepreneurship, entrepreneurs, structural equation modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 373
20198 An Empirical Dynamic Fuel Cell Model Used for Power System Verification in Aerospace

Authors: Giuliano Raimondo, Jörg Wangemann, Peer Drechsel


In systems development involving Fuel Cells generators, it is important to have from an early stage of the project a dynamic model for the electrical behavior of the stack to be shared between involved development parties. It allows independent and early design and tests of fuel cell related power electronic. This paper presents an empirical Fuel Cell system model derived from characterization tests on a real system. Moreover, it is illustrated how the obtained model is used to build and validate a real-time Fuel Cell system emulator which is used for aerospace electrical integration testing activities.

Keywords: fuel cell, modelling, real time emulation, testing

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20197 Physical Characterization of a Watershed for Correlation with Parameters of Thomas Hydrological Model and Its Application in Iber Hidrodinamic Model

Authors: Carlos Caro, Ernest Blade, Nestor Rojas


This study determined the relationship between basic geo-technical parameters and parameters of the hydro logical model Thomas for water balance of rural watersheds, as a methodological calibration application, applicable in distributed models as IBER model, which represents a distributed system simulation models for unsteady flow numerical free surface. There was an exploration in 25 points (on 15 sub) basin of Rio Piedras (Boy.) obtaining soil samples, to which geo-technical characterization was performed by laboratory tests. Thomas model has a physical characterization of the input area by only four parameters (a, b, c, d). Achieve measurable relationship between geo technical parameters and 4 values of hydro logical parameters helps to determine subsurface, underground and surface flow more agile manner. It is intended in this way to reach some solutions regarding limits initial model parameters on the basis of Thomas geo-technical characterization. In hydro geological models of rural watersheds, calibration is an important process in the characterization of the study area. This step can require a significant computational cost and time, especially if the initial values or parameters before calibration are outside of the geo-technical reality. A better approach in these initial values means optimization of these process through a geo-technical materials area, where is obtained an important approach to the study as in the starting range of variation for the calibration parameters.

Keywords: distributed hydrology, hydrological and geotechnical characterization, Iber model

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20196 Investigating Relationship between Body Size and Physical Fitness Factors among University Students

Authors: Allahyar Arabmomeni, Hojjatollah Alaei


Background: The objectives of this study was to investigate effect of anthropometric variables and body composition on physical capabilities among male and female students. Materials and Methods: The study had a descriptive correlation method. The statistical population consisted of all students of Islamic Azad University, Khomeinishahr Branch, from 2011 to 2013, which was about 7000 students. The statistical sample included 300 male and 300 female students who were randomly selected from among university students in proportion to frequency of students in each faculty. Descriptive statistical methods, t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient were used for data analysis. Results: Results of this research showed that body size of male students in the studied variables was more than that of female students (p<0.05). Moreover, there was significant difference between all the variables based on significance level of the table. Also, the results taken from the Pearson correlation of this study's variables showed a positive relationship between height and leg and hand length and sit-up, full-ups bar and vertical jump tests (p<0/01). Besides, there was a positive correlation between hand length, sit-up, full-ups bar and vertical jump tests. As far as tests of length of legs and vertical jump were concerned, a highly positive correlation was observed between them. Additionally, results of this study indicated a significant correlation at alpha level of 0.05 between age and height of the students; but, there was a negative correlation between age, sit-up and 1600-m tests (p<0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study indicated a relationship between size of weight, height, length of hands and legs and some physical fitness tests. Therefore, it is required to consider anthropometric factors in addition to gender and age while preparing norms of physical fitness since variables of height and length of hands also affect physical fitness evaluation.

Keywords: anthropometric variables, physical fitness factors, students, body composition

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20195 A Brief Study about Nonparametric Adherence Tests

Authors: Vinicius R. Domingues, Luan C. S. M. Ozelim


The statistical study has become indispensable for various fields of knowledge. Not any different, in Geotechnics the study of probabilistic and statistical methods has gained power considering its use in characterizing the uncertainties inherent in soil properties. One of the situations where engineers are constantly faced is the definition of a probability distribution that represents significantly the sampled data. To be able to discard bad distributions, goodness-of-fit tests are necessary. In this paper, three non-parametric goodness-of-fit tests are applied to a data set computationally generated to test the goodness-of-fit of them to a series of known distributions. It is shown that the use of normal distribution does not always provide satisfactory results regarding physical and behavioral representation of the modeled parameters.

Keywords: Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Anderson-Darling test, Cramer-Von-Mises test, nonparametric adherence tests

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20194 Correlations Between Electrical Resistivity and Some Properties of Clayey Soils

Authors: F. A. Hassona, M. M. Abu-Heleika, M. A. Hassan, A. E. Sidhom


Application of electrical measurements to evaluate engineering properties of soils has gained a wide, promising field of research in recent years. So, understanding of the relation between in-situ electrical resistivity of clay soil, and their mechanical and physical properties consider a promising field of research. This would assist in introducing a new technique for the determination of soil properties based on electrical resistivity. In this work soil physical and mechanical properties of clayey soil have been determined by experimental tests and correlated with the in-situ electrical resistivity. The research program was conducted through measuring fifteen vertical electrical sounding stations along with fifteen selected boreholes. These samples were analyzed and subjected to experimental tests such as physical tests namely bulk density, water content, specific gravity, and grain size distribution, and Attereberg limits tests. Mechanical test was also conducted such as direct shear test. The electrical resistivity data were interpreted and correlated with each one of the measured experimental parameters. Based on this study mathematical relations were extracted and discussed. These results exhibit an excellent match with the results reported in the literature. This study demonstrates the utility of the developed methodology for determining the mechanical properties of soils easily and rapidly depending on their electrical resistivity measurements.

Keywords: electrical resistivity, clayey soil, physical properties, shear properties

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20193 Assessment and Evaluation of Football Performance

Authors: Bulus Kpame, Mukhtar Mohammed Alhaji, Garba Jibril


In any team sport, the most important variables that should be used to measure performance are physical condition, and technical and tactical performance. In a complex game like football, it is extremely difficult to measure the relative importance of each of these variables. However, physical fitness itself has been shown to consist of several components, like endurance, strength, flexibility, agility, coordination and speed. Each of these components has been shown to consist of several subcomponents. This paper attempts to describe a test battery to assess and evaluate physical performance in football players. This battery comprises a functional, structured training session of about 2.5hrs. it consists of quality rating of the warm-up procedure, tests of flexibility, football skills, power, speed, and endurance. Acceptable values for performance in each of the tests are also presented under each test. It is hoped that this battery of tests will be helpful to the coach in determining the effect of a specific training program. It would also be helpful to train physician and trainer, to monitor progress during rehabilitation after sustaining any injury.

Keywords: assessment, evaluation, performance, programs

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20192 Mechanical Contribution of Silica Fume and Hydrated Lime Addition in Mortars Assessed by Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Tests

Authors: Nacim Khelil, Amar Kahil, Said Boukais


The aim of the present study is to investigate the changes in the mechanical properties of mortars including additions of Condensed Silica Fume (CSF), Hydrated Lime (CH) or both at various amounts (5% to 15% of cement replacement) and high water ratios (w/b) (0.4 to 0.7). The physical and mechanical changes in the mixes were evaluated using non-destructive tests (Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV)) and destructive tests (crushing tests) on 28 day-long specimens consecutively, in order to assess CSF and CH replacement rate influence on the mechanical and physical properties of the mortars, as well as CSF-CH pre-mixing on the improvement of these properties. A significant improvement of the mechanical properties of the CSF, CSF-CH mortars, has been noted. CSF-CH mixes showed the best improvements exceeding 50% improvement, showing the sizable pozzolanic reaction contribution to the specimen strength development. UPV tests have shown increased velocities for CSF and CSH mixes, however no proportional evolution with compressive strengths could be noted. The results of the study show that CSF-CH addition could represent a suitable solution to significantly increase the mechanical properties of mortars.

Keywords: compressive strength, condensed silica fume, hydrated lime, pozzolanic reaction, UPV testing

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20191 Parameters Identification of Granular Soils around PMT Test by Inverse Analysis

Authors: Younes Abed


The successful application of in-situ testing of soils heavily depends on development of interpretation methods of tests. The pressuremeter test simulates the expansion of a cylindrical cavity and because it has well defined boundary conditions, it is more unable to rigorous theoretical analysis (i. e. cavity expansion theory) then most other in-situ tests. In this article, and in order to make the identification process more convenient, we propose a relatively simple procedure which involves the numerical identification of some mechanical parameters of a granular soil, especially, the elastic modulus and the friction angle from a pressuremeter curve. The procedure, applied here to identify the parameters of generalised prager model associated to the Drucker & Prager criterion from a pressuremeter curve, is based on an inverse analysis approach, which consists of minimizing the function representing the difference between the experimental curve and the curve obtained by integrating the model along the loading path in in-situ testing. The numerical process implemented here is based on the established finite element program. We present a validation of the proposed approach by a database of tests on expansion of cylindrical cavity. This database consists of four types of tests; thick cylinder tests carried out on the Hostun RF sand, pressuremeter tests carried out on the Hostun sand, in-situ pressuremeter tests carried out at the site of Fos with marine self-boring pressuremeter and in-situ pressuremeter tests realized on the site of Labenne with Menard pressuremeter.

Keywords: granular soils, cavity expansion, pressuremeter test, finite element method, identification procedure

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20190 The Influence of Strengthening on the Fundamental Frequency and Stiffness of a Confined Masonry Wall with an Opening for а Window

Authors: Emin Z. Mahmud


Shaking table tests are planned in order to deepen the understanding of the behavior of confined masonry structures with or without openings. The tests are realized in the laboratory of the Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Seismology (IZIIS) – Skopje. The specimens were examined separately on the shaking table, with uniaxial, in-plane excitation. After testing, samples were strengthened with GFRP (Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic) and re-tested. This paper presents the observations from a series of shaking-table tests done on a 1:1 scaled confined masonry wall model, with opening for a window – specimens CMWuS (before strengthening) and CMWS (after strengthening). Frequency and stiffness changes before and after GFRP wall strengthening are analyzed. Definition of dynamic properties of the models was the first step of the experimental testing, which enabled acquiring important information about the achieved stiffness (natural frequencies) of the model. The natural frequency was defined in the Y direction of the model by applying resonant frequency search tests. It is important to mention that both specimens CMWuS and CMWS are subjected to the same effects. The initial frequency of the undamaged model CMWuS is 18.79 Hz, while at the end of the testing, the frequency decreased to 12.96 Hz. This emphasizes the reduction of the initial stiffness of the model due to damage, especially in the masonry and tie-beam to tie-column connection. After strengthening the damaged wall, the natural frequency increases to 14.67 Hz. This highlights the beneficial effect of strengthening. After completion of dynamic testing at CMWS, the natural frequency is reduced to 10.75 Hz.

Keywords: behaviour of masonry structures, Eurocode, frequency, masonry, shaking table test, strengthening

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20189 Large Eddy Simulation of Hydrogen Deflagration in Open Space and Vented Enclosure

Authors: T. Nozu, K. Hibi, T. Nishiie


This paper discusses the applicability of the numerical model for a damage prediction method of the accidental hydrogen explosion occurring in a hydrogen facility. The numerical model was based on an unstructured finite volume method (FVM) code “NuFD/FrontFlowRed”. For simulating unsteady turbulent combustion of leaked hydrogen gas, a combination of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and a combustion model were used. The combustion model was based on a two scalar flamelet approach, where a G-equation model and a conserved scalar model expressed a propagation of premixed flame surface and a diffusion combustion process, respectively. For validation of this numerical model, we have simulated the previous two types of hydrogen explosion tests. One is open-space explosion test, and the source was a prismatic 5.27 m3 volume with 30% of hydrogen-air mixture. A reinforced concrete wall was set 4 m away from the front surface of the source. The source was ignited at the bottom center by a spark. The other is vented enclosure explosion test, and the chamber was 4.6 m × 4.6 m × 3.0 m with a vent opening on one side. Vent area of 5.4 m2 was used. Test was performed with ignition at the center of the wall opposite the vent. Hydrogen-air mixtures with hydrogen concentrations close to 18% vol. were used in the tests. The results from the numerical simulations are compared with the previous experimental data for the accuracy of the numerical model, and we have verified that the simulated overpressures and flame time-of-arrival data were in good agreement with the results of the previous two explosion tests.

Keywords: deflagration, large eddy simulation, turbulent combustion, vented enclosure

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20188 Experimental and Modal Determination of the State-Space Model Parameters of a Uni-Axial Shaker System for Virtual Vibration Testing

Authors: Jonathan Martino, Kristof Harri


In some cases, the increase in computing resources makes simulation methods more affordable. The increase in processing speed also allows real time analysis or even more rapid tests analysis offering a real tool for test prediction and design process optimization. Vibration tests are no exception to this trend. The so called ‘Virtual Vibration Testing’ offers solution among others to study the influence of specific loads, to better anticipate the boundary conditions between the exciter and the structure under test, to study the influence of small changes in the structure under test, etc. This article will first present a virtual vibration test modeling with a main focus on the shaker model and will afterwards present the experimental parameters determination. The classical way of modeling a shaker is to consider the shaker as a simple mechanical structure augmented by an electrical circuit that makes the shaker move. The shaker is modeled as a two or three degrees of freedom lumped parameters model while the electrical circuit takes the coil impedance and the dynamic back-electromagnetic force into account. The establishment of the equations of this model, describing the dynamics of the shaker, is presented in this article and is strongly related to the internal physical quantities of the shaker. Those quantities will be reduced into global parameters which will be estimated through experiments. Different experiments will be carried out in order to design an easy and practical method for the identification of the shaker parameters leading to a fully functional shaker model. An experimental modal analysis will also be carried out to extract the modal parameters of the shaker and to combine them with the electrical measurements. Finally, this article will conclude with an experimental validation of the model.

Keywords: lumped parameters model, shaker modeling, shaker parameters, state-space, virtual vibration

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