Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: FLAC3D

14 Numerical Study on the Effect of Spudcan Penetration on the Jacket Platform

Authors: Xiangming Ge, Bing Pan, Wei He, Hao Chen, Yong Zhou, Jiayao Wu, Weijiang Chu


How the extraction and penetration of spudcan affect the performance of the adjacent pile foundation supporting the jacket platform was studied in the program FLAC3D depending on a wind farm project in Bohai sea. The simulations were conducted at the end of the spudcan penetration, which induced a pockmark in the seabed. The effects of the distance between the pile foundation and the pockmark were studied. The displacement at the mudline arose when the pockmark was closer. The bearing capacity of this jacket platform with deep pile foundations has been less influenced by the process of spudcan penetration, which can induce severe stresses on the pile foundation. The induced rotation was also satisfied with the rotation-controlling criteria.

Keywords: offshore foundation, pile-soil interaction, spudcan penetration, FLAC3D

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13 Dilation Effect on 3D Passive Earth Pressure Coefficients for Retaining Wall

Authors: Khelifa Tarek, Benmebarek Sadok


The 2D passive earth pressures acting on rigid retaining walls problem has been widely treated in the literature using different approaches (limit equilibrium, limit analysis, slip line and numerical computation), however, the 3D passive earth pressures problem has received less attention. This paper is concerned with the numerical study of 3D passive earth pressures induced by the translation of a rigid rough retaining wall for associated and non-associated soils. Using the explicit finite difference code FLAC3D, the increase of the passive earth pressures due to the decrease of the wall breadth is investigated. The results given by the present numerical analysis are compared with other investigation. The influence of the angle of dilation on the coefficients is also studied.

Keywords: numerical modeling, FLAC3D, retaining wall, passive earth pressures, angle of dilation

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12 Numerical Modeling of a Retaining Wall in Soil Reinforced by Layers of Geogrids

Authors: M. Mellas, S. Baaziz, A. Mabrouki, D. Benmeddour


The reinforcement of massifs of backfill with horizontal layers of geosynthetics is an interesting economic solution, which ensures the stability of retaining walls. The mechanical behavior of reinforced soil by geosynthetic is complex, and requires studies and research to understand the mechanisms of rupture. The behavior of reinforcements in the soil and the behavior of the main elements of the system: reinforcement-wall-soil. The present study is interested in numerical modeling of a retaining wall in soil reinforced by horizontal layers of geogrids. This modeling makes use of the software FLAC3D. This work aims to analyze the effect of the length of the geogrid "L" where the soil massif is supporting a uniformly distributed surcharge "Q", taking into account the fixing elements rather than the layers of geogrids to the wall.

Keywords: retaining wall, geogrid, reinforced soil, numerical modeling, FLAC3D

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11 Settlement Prediction for Tehran Subway Line-3 via FLAC3D and ANFIS

Authors: S. A. Naeini, A. Khalili


Nowadays, tunnels with different applications are developed, and most of them are related to subway tunnels. The excavation of shallow tunnels that pass under municipal utilities is very important, and the surface settlement control is an important factor in the design. The study sought to analyze the settlement and also to find an appropriate model in order to predict the behavior of the tunnel in Tehran subway line-3. The displacement in these sections is also determined by using numerical analyses and numerical modeling. In addition, the Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) method is utilized by Hybrid training algorithm. The database pertinent to the optimum network was obtained from 46 subway tunnels in Iran and Turkey which have been constructed by the new Austrian tunneling method (NATM) with similar parameters based on type of their soil. The surface settlement was measured, and the acquired results were compared to the predicted values. The results disclosed that computing intelligence is a good substitute for numerical modeling.

Keywords: settlement, Subway Line, FLAC3D, ANFIS Method

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10 3D Numerical Analysis of Stone Columns Reinforced with Horizontal and Vertical Geosynthetic Materials

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, A. Khalili


Improvement and reinforcement of soils with poor strength and engineering properties for constructing low height structures or structures such as liquid storage tanks, bridge columns, and heavy structures have necessitated applying particular techniques. Stone columns are among the well-known methods applied in such soils. This method provides an economically justified way for improving engineering properties of soft clay and loose sandy soils. Stone column implementation in these soils increases their bearing capacity and reduces the settlement of foundation build on them. In the present study, the finite difference based FLAC3D software was used to investigate the performance and effect of soil reinforcement through stone columns without lining and those with geosynthetic lining with different levels of stiffness in horizontal and vertical modes in clayey soils. The results showed that soil improvement using stone columns with lining in vertical and horizontal modes results in improvement of bearing capacity and foundation settlement.

Keywords: bearing capacity, FLAC3D, geosynthetic, settlement, stone column

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9 Assessment of Rock Masses Performance as a Support of Lined Rock Cavern for Isothermal Compressed Air Energy Storage

Authors: Vathna Suy, Ki-Il Song


In order to store highly pressurized gas such as an isothermal compressed air energy storage, Lined Rock Caverns (LRC) are constructed underground and supported by layers of concrete, steel and rock masses. This study aims to numerically investigate the performance of rock masses which serve as a support of Lined Rock Cavern subjected to high cyclic pressure loadings. FLAC3D finite different software is used for the simulation since the software can effectively model the behavior of concrete lining and steel plate with its built-in structural elements. Cyclic pressure loadings are applied onto the inner surface of the cavern which then transmitted to concrete, steel and eventually to the surrounding rock masses. Changes of stress and strain are constantly monitored throughout all the process of loading operations. The results at various monitoring locations are then extracted and analyzed to assess the response of the rock masses, specifically on its ability to absorb energy during loadings induced by the changes of cyclic pressure loadings inside the cavern. By analyzing the obtained data of stress-strain relation and taking into account the behavior of materials under the effect of strain-dependency, conclusions on the performance of rock masses subjected to high cyclic loading conditions are drawn.

Keywords: cyclic loading, FLAC3D, lined rock cavern (LRC), strain-dependency

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8 Ground-Structure Interaction Analysis of Aged Tunnels

Authors: Behrang Dadfar, Hossein Bidhendi, Jimmy Susetyo, John Paul Abbatangelo


Finding structural demand under various conditions that a structure may experience during its service life is an important step towards structural life-cycle analysis. In this paper, structural demand for the precast concrete tunnel lining (PCTL) segments of Toronto’s 60-year-old subway tunnels is investigated. Numerical modelling was conducted using FLAC3D, a finite difference-based software capable of simulating ground-structure interaction and ground material’s flow in three dimensions. The specific structural details of the segmental tunnel lining, such as the convex shape of the PCTL segments at radial joints and the PCTL segment pockets, were considered in the numerical modelling. Also, the model was developed in a way to accommodate the flexibility required for the simulation of various deterioration scenarios, shapes, and patterns that have been observed over more than 20 years. The soil behavior was simulated by using plastic-hardening constitutive model of FLAC3D. The effect of the depth of the tunnel, the coefficient of lateral earth pressure as well as the patterns of deterioration of the segments were studied. The structural capacity under various deterioration patterns and the existing loading conditions was evaluated using axial-flexural interaction curves that were developed for each deterioration pattern. The results were used to provide recommendations for the next phase of tunnel lining rehabilitation program.

Keywords: precast concrete tunnel lining, ground-structure interaction, numerical modelling, deterioration, tunnels

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7 Determination of Safe Ore Extraction Methodology beneath Permanent Extraction in a Lead Zinc Mine with the Help of FLAC3D Numerical Model

Authors: Ayan Giri, Lukaranjan Phukan, Shantanu Karmakar


Structure and tectonics play a vital role in ore genesis and deposition. The existence of a swelling structure below the current level of a mine leads to the discovery of ores below some permeant developments of the mine. The discovery and the extraction of the ore body are very critical to sustain the business requirement of the mine. The challenge was to extract the ore without hampering the global stability of the mine. In order to do so, different mining options were considered and analysed by numerical modelling in FLAC3d software. The constitutive model prepared for this simulation is the improved unified constitutive model, which can better and more accurately predict the stress-strain relationships in a continuum model. The IUCM employs the Hoek-Brown criterion to determine the instantaneous Mohr-Coulomb parameters cohesion (c) and friction (ɸ) at each level of confining stress. The extra swelled part can be dimensioned as north-south strike width 50m, east-west strike width 50m. On the north side, already a stope (P1) is excavated of the dimension of 25m NS width. The different options considered were (a) Open stoping of extraction of southern part (P0) of 50m to the full extent, (b) Extraction of the southern part of 25m, then filling of both the primaries and extraction of secondary (S0) 25m in between. (c) Extraction of the southern part (P0) completely, preceded by backfill and modify the design of the secondary (S0) for the overall stability of the permanent excavation above the stoping.

Keywords: extraction, IUCM, FLAC 3D, stoping, tectonics

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6 Numerical Assessment on the Unsaturated Behavior of Silty Sand

Authors: Seyed Abolhassan Naeini, Ali Namaei


This investigation presents the behavior of the unsaturated silty sand by calculating the shear resistance of the specimens by numerical method. In order to investigate this behavior, a series of triaxial tests have been simulated in constant water condition. The finite difference software FLAC3D has been carried out for analyzing the shear resistance and the results are compared with findings from a previous laboratory tests. Constant water tests correspond to a field condition where the rate of the loading is much quicker than the rate at which the pore water is able to drain out of the soil. Tests were simulated on two groups of the silty sands. The obtained results show that the FLAC software may be able to simulate the behavior of specimens with the low suction value magnitude. As the initial suction increased, the differences between numerical and experimental results increased, especially in loose sand. Since some assumptions were used for input parameters, a conclusive result needs more investigations.

Keywords: finite difference, shear resistance, unsaturated silty sand, constant water test

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5 Study on the Dynamic Response of Slope under Pulse-like Ground Motion

Authors: Peter Antwi Buah, Yingbin Zhang, Chenlin Xiang, Delali Atsu Yao Bakah, Gideon Mante Tetteh


Near-fault ground motions with velocity pulses are considered to cause significant damage to structures compared to ordinary ground motions without pulse effects. The double pulsed pulse-like ground motion is as well known to be stronger than the single pulse. This study has numerically justified this notion by studying the behaviour and dynamic response of a homogeneous rock slope exposed to four pulse-like and two non-pulse-like ground motions using the numerical FLAC3D software. Two of the pulse-like ground motions have a single pulse. The results shows that near-fault ground motions with velocity pulses can cause a higher dynamic response than regular ground motions. Horizontal magnification effect in the PGA distribution of homogeneous slope structure is noticed, in which slopes amplification effect is seen to increase with an increase in slope Elevation. The double pulse ground motion records also cause a higher dynamic response compared to the single pulse. The PGV amplification factor under the effect of the non-pulse-like records is also smaller than those under the pulse-like records. The velocity pulse strengthens the earthquake damage to the slope, producing a more robust dynamic response

Keywords: velocity pulses, dynamic response, PGV magnification effect, elevation effect, double pulse

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4 Numerical Modeling of Determination of in situ Rock Mass Deformation Modulus Using the Plate Load Test

Authors: A. Khodabakhshi, A. Mortazavi


Accurate determination of rock mass deformation modulus, as an important design parameter, is one of the most controversial issues in most engineering projects. A 3D numerical model of standard plate load test (PLT) using the FLAC3D code was carried to investigate the mechanism governing the test process. Five objectives were the focus of this study. The first goal was to employ 3D modeling in the interpretation of PLT conducted at the Bazoft dam site, Iran. The second objective was to investigate the effect of displacements measuring depth from the loading plates on the calculated moduli. The magnitude of rock mass deformation modulus calculated from PLT depends on anchor depth, and in practice, this may be a cause of error in the selection of realistic deformation modulus for the rock mass. The third goal of the study was to investigate the effect of testing plate diameter on the calculated modulus. Moreover, a comparison of the calculated modulus from ISRM formula, numerical modeling and calculated modulus from the actual PLT carried out at right abutment of the Bazoft dam site was another objective of the study. Finally, the effect of plastic strains on the calculated moduli in each of the loading-unloading cycles for three loading plates was investigated. The geometry, material properties, and boundary conditions on the constructed 3D model were selected based on the in-situ conditions of PLT at Bazoft dam site. A good agreement was achieved between numerical model results and the field tests results.

Keywords: deformation modulus, numerical model, plate loading test, rock mass

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3 The Effect of Foundation on the Earth Fill Dam Settlement

Authors: Masoud Ghaemi, Mohammadjafar Hedayati, Faezeh Yousefzadeh, Hoseinali Heydarzadeh


Careful monitoring in the earth dams to measure deformation caused by settlement and movement has always been a concern for engineers in the field. In order to measure settlement and deformation of earth dams, usually, the precision instruments of settlement set and combined Inclinometer that is commonly referred to IS instrument will be used. In some dams, because the thickness of alluvium is high and there is no possibility of alluvium removal (technically and economically and in terms of performance), there is no possibility of placing the end of IS instrument (precision instruments of Inclinometer-settlement set) in the rock foundation. Inevitably, have to accept installing pipes in the weak and deformable alluvial foundation that leads to errors in the calculation of the actual settlement (absolute settlement) in different parts of the dam body. The purpose of this paper is to present new and refine criteria for predicting settlement and deformation in earth dams. The study is based on conditions in three dams with a deformation quite alluvial (Agh Chai, Narmashir and Gilan-e Gharb) to provide settlement criteria affected by the alluvial foundation. To achieve this goal, the settlement of dams was simulated by using the finite difference method with FLAC3D software, and then the modeling results were compared with the reading IS instrument. In the end, the caliber of the model and validate the results, by using regression analysis techniques and scrutinized modeling parameters with real situations and then by using MATLAB software and CURVE FITTING toolbox, new criteria for the settlement based on elasticity modulus, cohesion, friction angle, the density of earth dam and the alluvial foundation was obtained. The results of these studies show that, by using the new criteria measures, the amount of settlement and deformation for the dams with alluvial foundation can be corrected after instrument readings, and the error rate in reading IS instrument can be greatly reduced.

Keywords: earth-fill dam, foundation, settlement, finite difference, MATLAB, curve fitting

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2 Influence of Dynamic Loads in the Structural Integrity of Underground Rooms

Authors: M. Inmaculada Alvarez-Fernández, Celestino González-Nicieza, M. Belén Prendes-Gero, Fernando López-Gayarre


Among many factors affecting the stability of mining excavations, rock-bursts and tremors play a special role. These dynamic loads occur practically always and have different sources of generation. The most important of them is the commonly used mining technique, which disintegrates a certain area of the rock mass not only in the area of the planned mining, but also creates waves that significantly exceed this area affecting the structural elements. In this work it is analysed the consequences of dynamic loads over the structural elements in an underground room and pillar mine to avoid roof instabilities. With this end, dynamic loads were evaluated through in situ and laboratory tests and simulated with numerical modelling. Initially, the geotechnical characterization of all materials was carried out by mean of large-scale tests. Then, drill holes were done on the roof of the mine and were monitored to determine possible discontinuities in it. Three seismic stations and a triaxial accelerometer were employed to measure the vibrations from blasting tests, establish the dynamic behaviour of roof and pillars and develop the transmission laws. At last, computer simulations by FLAC3D software were done to check the effect of vibrations on the stability of the roofs. The study shows that in-situ tests have a greater reliability than laboratory samples because of eliminating the effect of heterogeneities, that the pillars work decreasing the amplitude of the vibration around them, and that the tensile strength of a beam and depending on its span is overcome with waves in phase and delayed. The obtained transmission law allows designing a blasting which guarantees safety and prevents the risk of future failures.

Keywords: dynamic modelling, long term instability risks, room and pillar, seismic collapse

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1 Analysis of the Occurrence of Hydraulic Fracture Phenomena in Roudbar Lorestan Dam

Authors: Masoud Ghaemi, MohammadJafar Hedayati, Faezeh Yousefzadeh, Hoseinali Heydarzadeh


According to the statistics of the International Committee on Large Dams, internal erosion and piping (scour) are major causes of the destruction of earth-fill dams. If such dams are constructed in narrow valleys, the valley walls will increase the arching of the dam body due to the transfer of vertical and horizontal stresses, so the occurrence of hydraulic fracturing in these embankments is more likely. Roudbar Dam in Lorestan is a clay-core pebble earth-fill dam constructed in a relatively narrow valley in western Iran. Three years after the onset of impoundment, there has been a fall in dam behavior. Evaluation of the dam behavior based on the data recorded on the instruments installed inside the dam body and foundation confirms the occurrence of internal erosion in the lower and adjacent parts of the core on the left support (abutment). The phenomenon of hydraulic fracturing is one of the main causes of the onset of internal erosion in this dam. Accordingly, the main objective of this paper is to evaluate the validity of this hypothesis. To evaluate the validity of this hypothesis, the dam behavior during construction and impoundment has been first simulated with a three-dimensional numerical model. Then, using validated empirical equations, the safety factor of the occurrence of hydraulic fracturing phenomenon upstream of the dam score was calculated. Then, using the artificial neural network, the failure time of the given section was predicted based on the maximum stress trend created. The study results show that steep slopes of valley walls, sudden changes in coefficient, and differences in compressibility properties of dam body materials have caused considerable stress transfer from core to adjacent valley walls, especially at its lower levels. This has resulted in the coefficient of confidence of the occurrence of hydraulic fracturing in each of these areas being close to one in each of the empirical equations used.

Keywords: arching, artificial neural network, FLAC3D, hydraulic fracturing, internal erosion, pore water pressure

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