Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Search results for: Dhyaalddin Bahaalddin Noori Zangana

19 Effect of Reinforcement Density on the Behaviour of Reinforced Sand Under a Square Footing

Authors: Dhyaalddin Bahaalddin Noori Zangana


This study involves the behavior of reinforced sand under a square footing. A series of bearing capacity tests were performed on a small-scale laboratory model, which filled with a poorly-graded homogenous bed of sand, which was placed in a medium dense state using sand raining technique. The sand was reinforced with 40 mm wide household aluminum foil strips. The main studied parameters was to consider the effect of reinforcing strip length, with various linear density of reinforcement, number of reinforcement layers and depth of top layer of reinforcement below the footing, on load-settlement behavior, bearing capacity ratio and settlement reduction factor. The relation of load-settlement generally showed similar trend in all the tests. Failure was defined as settlement equal to 10% of the footing width. The recommended optimum reinforcing strip length, linear density of reinforcement, number of reinforcement layers and depth of top layer of reinforcing strips that give the maximum bearing capacity improvement and minimum settlement reduction factor were presented and discussed. Different bearing capacity ration versus length of the reinforcing strips and settlement reduction factor versus length of the reinforcing strips relations at failure were showed improvement of bearing capacity ratio by a factor of 3.82 and reduction of settlement reduction factor by a factor of 0.813. The optimum length of reinforcement was found to be 7.5 times the footing width.

Keywords: square footing, relative density, linear density of reinforcement, bearing capacity ratio, load-settlement behaviour

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18 Enhance Power Quality by HVDC System, Comparison Technique between HVDC and HVAC Transmission Systems

Authors: Smko Zangana, Ergun Ercelebi


The alternating current is the main power in all industries and other aspects especially for the short and mid distances, but as far as long a distance which exceeds 500 KMs, using the alternating current technically will face many difficulties and more costs because it's difficult to control the current and also other restrictions. Therefore, recently those reasons led to building transmission lines HVDC to transmit power for long distances. This document presents technical comparison and assessments for power transmission system among distances either ways and studying the stability of the system regarding the proportion of losses in the actual power sent and received between both sides in different systems and also categorizing filters used in the HVDC system and its impact and effect on reducing Harmonic in the power transmission. MATLAB /Simulink simulation software is used to simulate both HVAC & HVDC power transmission system topologies.

Keywords: HVAC power system, HVDC power system, power system simulation (MATLAB), the alternating current, voltage stability

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17 Wheat Production and Market in Afghanistan

Authors: Fayiz Saifurahman, Noori Fida Mohammad


Afghanistan produces the highest rate of wheat, it is the first source of food, and food security in Afghanistan is dependent on the availability of wheat. Although Afghanistan is the main producer of wheat, on the other hand, Afghanistan is the largest importers of flour. The objective of this study is to assess the structure and dynamics of the wheat market in Afghanistan, can compute with foreign markets, and increase the level of production. To complete this, a broad series of secondary data was complied with, group discussions and interviews with farmers, agricultural and market experts. The research findings propose that; the government should adopt different policies to support the local market. The government should distribute the seed, support financially and technically to increase wheat production.

Keywords: Afghanistan, wheat, production , import

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16 Components of Emotional Intelligence in Iranian Entrepreneurs

Authors: Farzaneh Noori


Entrepreneurs face different sort of difficulties especially with customers, organizations and employees. Emotional intelligence which is the ability to understand and control the emotions is an important factor to help entrepreneurs end up challenges to the result they prefer. Thus, it is assumed that entrepreneurs especially those who have passed the first challenging years of starting a new business, have high emotional intelligence. In this study the Iranian established entrepreneurs have been surveyed. According to Iran Gem 2014 report the percentage of established entrepreneur in Iran is 10.92%. So by using Cochran sample formula (1%) 96 Iranian established entrepreneurs have been selected and Emotional intelligence appraisal questionnaire distributed to them. The SPSS19 result shows high emotional intelligence in Iranian established entrepreneurs.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, emotional intelligence appraisal questionnaire, entrepreneurs, Iran

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15 The Effect of Fuel Type on Synthesis of CeO2-MgO Nano-Powder by Combustion Method

Authors: F. Ghafoori-Najafabadi, R. Sarraf-Mamoory, N. Riahi-Noori


In this study, nanocrystalline CeO2-MgO powders were synthesized by combustion reactions using citric acid, ethylene glycol, and glycine as different fuels and nitrate as an oxidant. The powders obtained with different kinds of fuels are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The size and morphology of the particles and the extent of agglomeration in the powders were studied using SEM analysis. It is observed that the variation of fuel has an intense influence on the particle size and morphology of the resulting powder. X-ray diffraction revealed that any combined phases were observed, and that MgO and CeO2 phases were formed, separately.

Keywords: nanoparticle, combustion synthesis, CeO2-MgO, nano-powder

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14 Intelligent Recognition Tools for Industrial Automation

Authors: Amin Nazerzadeh, Afsaneh Nouri Houshyar , Azadeh Noori Hoshyar


With the rapid growing of information technology, the industry and manufacturing systems are becoming more automated. Therefore, achieving the highly accurate automatic systems with reliable security is becoming more critical. Biometrics that refers to identifying individual based on physiological or behavioral traits are unique identifiers provide high reliability and security in different industrial systems. As biometric cannot easily be transferred between individuals or copied, it has been receiving extensive attention. Due to the importance of security applications, this paper provides an overview on biometrics and discuss about background, types and applications of biometric as an effective tool for the industrial applications.

Keywords: Industial and manufacturing applications, intelligence and security, information technology, recognition; security technology; biometrics

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13 Prevalence of Sarcocystosis in Slaughtered Sheep and Goats

Authors: Shivan N. Hussein, Ihsan K. Zangana


A total of 2358 sheep and 532 goats were examined for the presence of macrocystis of Sarcocystis. For microcysts, different muscle tissues were randomly taken from 118 sheep and 110 goats. Macrocystis were examined through naked eye inspection, while microcysts were examined microscopically by using histopathology, pepsin digestion, mincing & squeezing, and muscle squash method. Overall prevalence of macrocystis was 1.2% in sheep and 2.6% in goats. The intensity rate of the cysts was 4 cysts/ gram in sheep & 3 cysts/ gram in goats, respectively, while the overall prevalence of microcysts in sheep and goats was 96.5%. The infection rate in sheep was 96.6% and in goats was 96.4%. The total intensity rate of microcysts was 32.4 cysts/ field in sheep and 16.8 cysts/ field in goats, respectively. Histopathological examination found different shapes, size, wall thickness, and intensity rates of microcysts in muscle tissues of sheep & goats. The pathological reaction showed mild to moderate granulocytosis, and mononuclear cells infiltrated surrounding the microcysts with necrotizing and degeneration of myofibrils. The largest average size of spindle and round shaped cysts (290 ± 89.7 x 76.1 ± 10 µm and 88.8 ± 10.3 µm) in goats and (127.2 ± 18.9 x 53.3 ± 5.4 µm and 74.4 ± 7.5 µm) in sheep, was detected in the esophageal muscle. Statistically, there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in the prevalence of macrocystis in sheep and goats, while no significant difference (p > 0.05) was observed in the prevalence of microcysts between both animal species.

Keywords: macrocystis, microcysts, intensity rate, measurement size

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12 TiN/TiO2 Nanostructure Coating on Glass Substrate

Authors: F. Dabir, R. Sarraf-Mamoory, N. Riahi-Noori


In this work, a nanostructured TiO2 layer was coated onto a FTO-less glass substrate using screen printing technique for back contact DSSC application. Then, titanium nitride thin film was applied on TiO2 layer by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (PACVD) as charge collector layer. The microstructure of prepared TiO2 layer was characterized by SEM. The sheet resistance, microstructure and elemental composition of titanium nitride thin films were analysed by four point probe, SEM, and EDS, respectively. TiO2 layer had porous nanostructure. The EDS analysis of TiN thin film showed presence of chlorine impurity. Sheet resistance of TiN thin film was 30 Ω/sq. With respect to the results, PACVD TiN can be a good candidate as a charge collector layer in back contacts DSSC.

Keywords: TiO2, TiN, charge collector, DSSC

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11 Numerical Modeling and Characteristic Analysis of a Parabolic Trough Solar Collector

Authors: Alibakhsh Kasaeian, Mohammad Sameti, Zahra Noori, Mona Rastgoo Bahambari


Nowadays, the parabolic trough solar collector technology has become the most promising large-scale technology among various solar thermal generations. In this paper, a detailed numerical heat transfer model for a parabolic trough collector with nanofluid is presented based on the finite difference approach for which a MATLAB code was developed. The model was used to simulate the performance of a parabolic trough solar collector’s linear receiver, called a heat collector element (HCE). In this model, the heat collector element of the receiver was discretized into several segments in axial directions and energy balances were used for each control volume. All the heat transfer correlations, the thermodynamic equations and the optical properties were considered in details and the set of algebraic equations were solved simultaneously using iterative numerical solutions. The modeling assumptions and limitations are also discussed, along with recommendations for model improvement.

Keywords: heat transfer, nanofluid, numerical analysis, trough

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10 Management of Municipal Solid Waste in Baghdad, Iraq

Authors: Ayad Sleibi Mustafa, Ahmed Abdulkadhim Mohsin, Layth Noori Ali


The deterioration of solid waste management in Baghdad city is considered as a great challenge in terms of human health and environment. Baghdad city is divided into thirteen districts which are distributed on both Tigris River banks. The west bank is Al-Karkh and the east bank is Al-Rusafa. Municipal Solid Waste Management is one of the most complicated problems facing the environment in Iraq. Population growth led to increase waste production and more load of the waste to the limited capacity infrastructure. The problems of municipal solid waste become more serious after the war in 2003. More waste is disposed in underground landfills in Baghdad with little or no concern for both human health and environment. The results showed that the total annually predicted solid waste is increasing for the period 2015-2030. Municipal solid waste in 2030 will be 6,427,773 tons in Baghdad city according to the population growth rate of 2.4%. This increase is estimated to be approximately 30%.

Keywords: municipal solid waste, solid waste composition and characteristics, Baghdad city, environment, human health

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9 Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil of Mentha piperita Endemic in Khorasan-Iran

Authors: V. Hakimzadeh, M. Noori, M. maleki


The aim of this study was to determine the composition and antimicrobial effect of Mentha piperita essential oil in "in-vitro" condition. The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained by hydro-distillation was examined by GC/MS and the antimicrobial effect was studied on the growth of seven microbial species including Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris using micro-dilution method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined. Chemical composition analysis identified a total of 28 compounds in which the main components were menthol (32%), mentone (13.4), menthyl acetate (12%), 1,8-cineole (8.2%) and neomenthol (4%) representing 69.6 % of the total oil. Other separated components accounted for less than 30.4% of the oil. Results of antimicrobial analysis showed that the MIC values for Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris was respectively 50, 200 and 100 µg/ml and the MBC was determined at 200, 400 and 200 µg/ml respectively. The results of the present study indicated that Mentha piperita essential oil had significant antimicrobial activity.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, essential oil composition, Mentha piperita

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8 Pre-Treatment of Anodic Inoculum with Nitroethane to Improve Performance of a Microbial Fuel Cell

Authors: Rajesh P.P., Md. Tabish Noori, Makarand M. Ghangrekar


Methanogenic substrate loss is reported to be a major bottleneck in microbial fuel cell which significantly reduces the power production capacity and coulombic efficiency (CE) of microbial fuel cell (MFC). Nitroethane is found to be a potent inhibitor of hydrogenotrophic methanogens in rumen fermentation process. Influence of nitroethane pre-treated sewage sludge inoculum on suppressing the methanogenic activity and enhancing the electrogenesis in MFC was evaluated. MFC inoculated with nitroethane pre-treated anodic inoculum demonstrated a maximum operating voltage of 541 mV, with coulombic efficiency and sustainable volumetric power density of 39.85 % and 14.63 W/m3 respectively. Linear sweep voltammetry indicated a higher electron discharge on the anode surface due to enhancement of electrogenic activity while suppressing methanogenic activity. A 63 % reduction in specific methanogenic activity was observed in anaerobic sludge pre-treated with nitroethane; emphasizing significance of this pretreatment for suppressing methanogenesis and its utility for enhancing electricity generation in MFC.

Keywords: coulombic efficiency, methanogenesis inhibition, microbial fuel cell, nitroethane

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7 Urban Form of the Traditional Arabic City in the Light of Islamic Values

Authors: Akeel Noori Al-Mulla Hwaish


The environmental impact, economics, social and cultural factors, and the processes by which people define history and meaning had influenced the dynamic shape and character of the traditional Islamic Arabic city. Therefore, in regard to the period when Islam was at its peak (7th- 13th Centuries), Islamic city wasn’t the highly dynamited at the scale of buildings and city planning that demonstrates a distinguished city as an ‘Islamic’ as appeared after centuries when the function of the buildings and their particular arrangement and planning scheme in relation to one another that defined an Islamic city character. The architectural features of the urban fabric of the traditional Arabic Islamic city are a ‎reflection of the spiritual, social, and cultural characteristics of the people. It is a ‎combination of Islamic values ‘Din’ and life needs ‘Dunia’ as Prophet Muhammad built the first Mosque in ‎Madinah in the 1st year of his migration to it, then the Suq or market on 2nd of Hijrah, attached to ‎the mosque to signify the birth of a new Muslims community which considers both, ‎‎’Din’ and ‘Dunia’ and initiated nucleus for what which called after that as an ‘Islamic’ city. This research will discuss the main characteristics and components of the traditional Arab cities and demonstrate the impact of the Islamic values on shaping the planning layout and general built environment features of the early traditional Arab cities.

Keywords: urban, Islamic, Arabic, city

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6 Exploratory Analysis of A Review of Nonexistence Polarity in Native Speech

Authors: Deawan Rakin Ahamed Remal, Sinthia Chowdhury, Sharun Akter Khushbu, Sheak Rashed Haider Noori


Native Speech to text synthesis has its own leverage for the purpose of mankind. The extensive nature of art to speaking different accents is common but the purpose of communication between two different accent types of people is quite difficult. This problem will be motivated by the extraction of the wrong perception of language meaning. Thus, many existing automatic speech recognition has been placed to detect text. Overall study of this paper mentions a review of NSTTR (Native Speech Text to Text Recognition) synthesis compared with Text to Text recognition. Review has exposed many text to text recognition systems that are at a very early stage to comply with the system by native speech recognition. Many discussions started about the progression of chatbots, linguistic theory another is rule based approach. In the Recent years Deep learning is an overwhelming chapter for text to text learning to detect language nature. To the best of our knowledge, In the sub continent a huge number of people speak in Bangla language but they have different accents in different regions therefore study has been elaborate contradictory discussion achievement of existing works and findings of future needs in Bangla language acoustic accent.

Keywords: TTR, NSTTR, text to text recognition, deep learning, natural language processing

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5 Psychological Dominance During and Afterward of COVID-19 Impact of Online-Offline Educational Learning on Students

Authors: Afrin Jaman Bonny, Mehrin Jahan, Zannatul Ferdhoush, Mumenunnessa Keya, Md. Shihab Mahmud, Sharun Akter Khushbu, Sheak Rashed Haider Noori, Sheikh Abujar


In 2020, the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic had led all the educational institutions to move to online learning platforms to ensure safety as well as the continuation of learning without any disruption to students’ academic life. But after the reopening of those educational institutions suddenly in Bangladesh, it became a vital demand to observe students take on this decision and how much they are comfortable with the new habits. When all educational institutions were ordered to re-open after more than a year, data was collected from students of all educational levels. A Google Form was used to conduct this online survey, and a total of 565 students participated without being pressured. The survey reveals the students' preferences for online and offline education systems, as well as their mental health at the time including their behavior to get back to offline classes depending on getting vaccinated or not. After evaluating the findings, it is clear that respondents' choices vary depending on gender and educational level, with female and male participants experiencing various mental health difficulties and attitudes toward returning to offline classes. As a result of this study, the student’s overall perspective on the sudden reopening of their educational institutions has been analyzed.

Keywords: covid-19 epidemic, educational proceeding, university students, school/college students, physical activity, online platforms, mental health, psychological distress

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4 Sustainable Design for Building Envelope in Hot Climates: A Case Study for the Role of the Dome as a Component of an Envelope in Heat Exchange

Authors: Akeel Noori Almulla Hwaish


Architectural design is influenced by the actual thermal behaviour of building components, and this in turn depends not only on their steady and periodic thermal characteristics, but also on exposure effects, orientation, surface colour, and climatic fluctuations at the given location. Design data and environmental parameters should be produced in an accurate way for specified locations, so that architects and engineers can confidently apply them in their design calculations that enable precise evaluation of the influence of various parameters relating to each component of the envelope, which indicates overall thermal performance of building. The present paper will be carried out with an objective of thermal behaviour assessment and characteristics of the opaque and transparent parts of one of the very unique components used as a symbolic distinguished element of building envelope, its thermal behaviour under the impact of solar temperatures, and its role in heat exchange related to a specific U-value of specified construction materials alternatives. The research method will consider the specified Hot-Dry weather and new mosque in Baghdad, Iraq as a case study. Also, data will be presented in light of the criteria of indoor thermal comfort in terms of design parameters and thermal assessment for a“model dome”. Design alternatives and considerations of energy conservation, will be discussed as well using comparative computer simulations. Findings will be incorporated to outline the conclusions clarifying the important role of the dome in heat exchange of the whole building envelope for approaching an indoor thermal comfort level and further research in the future.

Keywords: building envelope, sustainable design, dome impact, hot-climates, heat exchange

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3 Optimum Performance of the Gas Turbine Power Plant Using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System and Statistical Analysis

Authors: Thamir K. Ibrahim, M. M. Rahman, Marwah Noori Mohammed


This study deals with modeling and performance enhancements of a gas-turbine combined cycle power plant. A clean and safe energy is the greatest challenges to meet the requirements of the green environment. These requirements have given way the long-time governing authority of steam turbine (ST) in the world power generation, and the gas turbine (GT) will replace it. Therefore, it is necessary to predict the characteristics of the GT system and optimize its operating strategy by developing a simulation system. The integrated model and simulation code for exploiting the performance of gas turbine power plant are developed utilizing MATLAB code. The performance code for heavy-duty GT and CCGT power plants are validated with the real power plant of Baiji GT and MARAFIQ CCGT plants the results have been satisfactory. A new technology of correlation was considered for all types of simulation data; whose coefficient of determination (R2) was calculated as 0.9825. Some of the latest launched correlations were checked on the Baiji GT plant and apply error analysis. The GT performance was judged by particular parameters opted from the simulation model and also utilized Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy System (ANFIS) an advanced new optimization technology. The best thermal efficiency and power output attained were about 56% and 345MW respectively. Thus, the operation conditions and ambient temperature are strongly influenced on the overall performance of the GT. The optimum efficiency and power are found at higher turbine inlet temperatures. It can be comprehended that the developed models are powerful tools for estimating the overall performance of the GT plants.

Keywords: gas turbine, optimization, ANFIS, performance, operating conditions

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2 Sensory Evaluation and Microbiological Properties of Gouda Cheese Affected by Bunium persicum (Boiss.) Essential Oil

Authors: N. Noori, P. Taherkhani, A. Akhondzadeh Basti, H. Gandomi, M. Alimohammadi


Research on natural antimicrobial agents, especially of plant origin, highly noticed in recent years and evaluation of antimicrobial effects of native plants such as Bunium persicum Boiss. is especially important. In the present study, sensory characteristics and microbiological properties of Gouda cheese affected by different concentrations of Bunium persicum Boiss. essential oil were investigated. Extraction of the essential oil was performed by hydro distillation. The oil was analyzed by GC using flame ionization (FID) and GC/ MS for detection. The antimicrobial effects were determined against various microbial groups (aerobic mesophilic bacteria, enterococci, mesophilic lactobacilli, enterobacteriaceae, lactococcus and yeasts). Microbial groups were counted during ripening period using plate count on specific culture media. Organoleptic evaluation including teture, flavor, odor, color and total acceptability were determined at the end of aging. According to results, the essential oil yield was 4/1 % ( W/ W). Twenty- six compounds were identified in the oil that concluded 99.7 % of the total oil. The major components of Bunium persicum Boiss. essential oil were γ- terpinene- 7- al (26.9 %) and cuminaldehyde (23.3 %). Generally, the increase of Black Cumin essential oil concentration led to reduction in microbial counts in different groups. The maximum antimicrobial effect was seen in yeast that reduced by 2 log compared to the control group at EO concentration of 4µl/ ml at day 90.The minimum reduction was observed in enterobacteriaceae that showed only 0.75 log decreese compared to the control at the same concentration of EO. Addition of EO improved organoleptic properties of Gouda cheese especially in the case of flavor and odor characteristic. However, no significant differences were observed in texture and color between treatment and control groups. Bunium persicum Boiss. essential oil could be used as preservative material and flavoring agent in some kinds of food such as cheese and also could be provided consumers health.

Keywords: Bunium persicum Boiss. essential oil, Microbiological properties, sensory evaluation, gouda cheese

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1 Detection of Glyphosate Using Disposable Sensors for Fast, Inexpensive and Reliable Measurements by Electrochemical Technique

Authors: Jafar S. Noori, Jan Romano-deGea, Maria Dimaki, John Mortensen, Winnie E. Svendsen


Pesticides have been intensively used in agriculture to control weeds, insects, fungi, and pest. One of the most commonly used pesticides is glyphosate. Glyphosate has the ability to attach to the soil colloids and degraded by the soil microorganisms. As glyphosate led to the appearance of resistant species, the pesticide was used more intensively. As a consequence of the heavy use of glyphosate, residues of this compound are increasingly observed in food and water. Recent studies reported a direct link between glyphosate and chronic effects such as teratogenic, tumorigenic and hepatorenal effects although the exposure was below the lowest regulatory limit. Today, pesticides are detected in water by complicated and costly manual procedures conducted by highly skilled personnel. It can take up to several days to get an answer regarding the pesticide content in water. An alternative to this demanding procedure is offered by electrochemical measuring techniques. Electrochemistry is an emerging technology that has the potential of identifying and quantifying several compounds in few minutes. It is currently not possible to detect glyphosate directly in water samples, and intensive research is underway to enable direct selective and quantitative detection of glyphosate in water. This study focuses on developing and modifying a sensor chip that has the ability to selectively measure glyphosate and minimize the signal interference from other compounds. The sensor is a silicon-based chip that is fabricated in a cleanroom facility with dimensions of 10×20 mm. The chip is comprised of a three-electrode configuration. The deposited electrodes consist of a 20 nm layer chromium and 200 nm gold. The working electrode is 4 mm in diameter. The working electrodes are modified by creating molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) using electrodeposition technique that allows the chip to selectively measure glyphosate at low concentrations. The modification included using gold nanoparticles with a diameter of 10 nm functionalized with 4-aminothiophenol. This configuration allows the nanoparticles to bind to the working electrode surface and create the template for the glyphosate. The chip was modified using electrodeposition technique. An initial potential for the identification of glyphosate was estimated to be around -0.2 V. The developed sensor was used on 6 different concentrations and it was able to detect glyphosate down to 0.5 mgL⁻¹. This value is below the accepted pesticide limit of 0.7 mgL⁻¹ set by the US regulation. The current focus is to optimize the functionalizing procedure in order to achieve glyphosate detection at the EU regulatory limit of 0.1 µgL⁻¹. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to modify miniaturized sensor electrodes with functionalized nanoparticles for glyphosate detection.

Keywords: pesticides, glyphosate, rapid, detection, modified, sensor

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