Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7482

Search results for: bearing capacity ratio

7482 A Review on Bearing Capacity Factor Nγ of Foundations with Different Shapes

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, S. Taghvamanesh

Abstract:

So far several methods by different researchers have been developed in order to calculate the bearing capacity factors of foundations and retaining walls. In this paper, the bearing capacity factor Ny (shape factor) for different types of foundation have been investigated. The formula for bearing capacity on c–φ–γ soil can still be expressed by Terzaghi’s equation except that the bearing capacity factor Ny depends on the surcharge ratio, and friction angle φ. Many empirical definitions have been used for measurement of the bearing capacity factors N

Keywords: bearing capacity, bearing capacity factor Nγ, irregular foundations, shape factor

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
7481 Effect of Sand Wall Stabilized with Different Percentages of Lime on Bearing Capacity of Foundation

Authors: Ahmed S. Abdulrasool

Abstract:

Recently sand wall started to gain more attention as the sand is easy to compact by using vibroflotation technique. An advantage of sand wall is the availability of different additives that can be mixed with sand to increase the stiffness of the sand wall and hence to increase its performance. In this paper, the bearing capacity of circular foundation surrounded by sand wall stabilized with lime is evaluated through laboratory testing. The studied parameters include different sand-lime walls depth (H/D) ratio (wall depth to foundation diameter) ranged between (0.0-3.0). Effect of lime percentages on the bearing capacity of skirted foundation models is investigated too. From the results, significant change is occurred in the behavior of shallow foundations due to confinement of the soil. It has been found that (H/D) ratio of 2 gives substantial improvement in bearing capacity, and beyond (H/D) ratio of 2, there is no significant improvement in bearing capacity. The results show that the optimum lime content is 11%, and the maximum increase in bearing capacity reaches approximately 52% at (H/D) ratio of 2.

Keywords: bearing capacity, circular foundation, clay soil, lime-sand wall

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
7480 Effect of Elastic Modulus Anisotropy on Foundation Behavior Reinforced with Geogrid in Sandy Soil

Authors: Reza Ziaie Moayed, Javad Shamsi Soosahab

Abstract:

The bearing capacity of shallow foundations is one of the interesting subjects in geotechnical engineering. Soil improvement by geosynthetic reinforcements is a modern method used in different projects to improve the bearing capacity of foundations. In this paper, numerical study is adopted to investigate the effect of geogrid soil reinforcement on shallow foundation behavior resting on anisotropic sand with using a finite element limit analysis software. The effect of the ratio of horizontal elastic modulus with respect to vertical elastic modulus (EH/EV) investigates on bearing capacity of foundations. The results illustrate that in sandy soils, the anisotropic ratio of elastic modulus (EH/EV) has notable effect on bearing capacity of shallow foundations. Also, based on the results of this study, it was concluded that geogrid could be used as soil reinforcement elements to improve the bearing of sandy soils and reduce its settlement possible remarkably.

Keywords: shallow foundations, bearing capacity, numerical study, soil anisotropy, geogrid

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7479 Discrete Element Modeling on Bearing Capacity Problems

Authors: N. Li, Y. M. Cheng

Abstract:

In this paper, the classical bearing capacity problem is re-considered from discrete element analysis. In the discrete element approach, the bearing capacity problem is considered from the elastic stage to plastic stage to rupture stage (large displacement). The bearing capacity failure mechanism of a strip footing on soil is investigated, and the influence of micro-parameters on the bearing capacity of soil is also observed. It is found that the distinct element method (DEM) gives very good visualized results, and basically coincides well with that derived by the classical methods.

Keywords: bearing capacity, distinct element method, failure mechanism, large displacement

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
7478 Evaluating of Bearing Capacity of Two Adjacent Strip Foundations Located around a Soil Slip

Authors: M. Meftahi, M. Hoseinzadeh, S. A. Naeini

Abstract:

Selection of soil bearing capacity is an important issue that should be investigated under different conditions. The bearing capacity of foundation around of soil slope is based on the active and passive forces. On the other hand, due to extension of urban structures, it is inevitable to put the foundations together. Concerning the two cases mentioned above, investigating the behavior of adjacent foundations which are constructed besides soil slope is essential. It should be noted that, according to the conditions, the bearing capacity of adjacent foundations can be less or more than mat foundations. Also, soil reinforcement increases the bearing capacity of adjacent foundations, and the amount of its increase depends on the distance between foundations. In this research, based on numerical studies, a method is presented for evaluating ultimate bearing capacity of adjacent foundations at different intervals. In the present study, the effect of foundation width, the center to center distance of adjacent foundations and reinforced soil has been investigated on the bearing capacity of adjacent foundations beside soil slope. The results indicate that, due to interference of failure surfaces created under foundation, it depends on their intervals and the ultimate bearing capacity of foundation varies.

Keywords: adjacent foundation, bearing capacity, reinforcements, settlement, numerical analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
7477 Undrained Bearing Capacity of Circular Foundations on two Layered Clays

Authors: S. Benmebarek, S. Benmoussa, N. Benmebarek

Abstract:

Natural soils are often deposited in layers. The estimation of the bearing capacity of the soil using conventional bearing capacity theory based on the properties of the upper layer introduces significant inaccuracies if the thickness of the top layer is comparable to the width of the foundation placed on the soil surface. In this paper, numerical computations using the FLAC code are reported to evaluate the two clay layers effect on the bearing capacity beneath rigid circular rough footing subject to axial static load. The computation results of the parametric study are used to illustrate the sensibility of the bearing capacity, the shape factor and the failure mechanisms to the layered strength and layered thickness.

Keywords: numerical modeling, circular footings, layered clays, bearing capacity, failure

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7476 Effect of Footing Shape on Bearing Capacity and Settlement of Closely Spaced Footings on Sandy Soil

Authors: A. Shafaghat, H. Khabbaz, S. Moravej, Ah. Shafaghat

Abstract:

The bearing capacity of closely spaced shallow footings alters with their spacing and the shape of footing. In this study, the bearing capacity and settlement of two adjacent footings constructed on a sand layer are investigated. The effect of different footing shapes including square, circular, ring and strip on sandy soil is captured in the calculations. The investigations are carried out numerically using PLAXIS-3D software and analytically employing conventional settlement equations. For this purpose, foundations are modelled in the program with practical dimensions and various spacing ratios ranging from 1 to 5. The spacing ratio is defined as the centre-to-centre distance to the width of foundations (S/B). Overall, 24 models are analyzed; and the results are compared and discussed in detail. It can be concluded that the presence of adjacent foundation leads to the reduction in bearing capacity for round shape footings while it can increase the bearing capacity of rectangular footings in some specific distances.

Keywords: bearing capacity, finite element analysis, loose sand, settlement equations, shallow foundation

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
7475 Evaluation of Bearing Capacity of Vertically Loaded Strip Piled-Raft Embedded in Soft Clay

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Mohammad Hosseinzade

Abstract:

Settlement and bearing capacity of a piled raft are the two important issues for the foundations of the structures built on coastal areas from the geotechnical engineering point of view. Strip piled raft as a load carrying system could be used to reduce the possible extensive consolidation settlements and improve bearing capacity of structures in soft ground. The aim of this research was to evaluate the efficiency of strip piled raft embedded in soft clay. The efficiency of bearing capacity of strip piled raft foundation is evaluated numerically in two cases: in first case, the cap is placed directly on the ground surface and in the second, the cap is placed above the ground. Regarding to the fact that the geotechnical parameters of the soft clay are considered at low level, low bearing capacity is expected. The length, diameter and axe-to-axe distance of piles are the parameters which varied in this research to find out how they affect the bearing capacity. Results indicate that increasing the length and the diameter of the piles increase the bearing capacity. The complementary results will be presented in the final version of the paper.

Keywords: soft clay, strip piled raft, bearing capacity, settlement

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7474 Effect of Anisotropy and Heterogeneity on Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundations

Authors: S. A. Naeini, A. Mahigir

Abstract:

Naturally occurring cohesive soil deposits are inherently anisotropic with respect to different properties amongst which is the shear strength. The anisotropy is primary due to the process of sedimentation followed by predominantly one-dimensional consolidation. However, most soils in their natural states exhibit some anisotropy with respect to shear strength and some non-homogeneity with respect to depth. In this paper the standard Mohr-Coulomb yield criterion was modified to consider the anisotropic shear strength properties. The term non-homogeneity used in this paper refers to only the cohesion intercept which is assumed to vary linearly with depth. The effect of both anisotropy and deterministic non-homogeneity on bearing capacity of shallow foundation was investigated using finite difference method. Result of numerical analysis indicates that the cohesion anisotropy has a significant effect on bearing capacity of shallow foundation. Furthermore, the linear and bilinear heterogeneity affects the bearing capacity in a similar way although the anisotropy issue emerges to be more important as far as shallow foundations are considered.

Keywords: anisotropic ratio, finite difference analysis, bearing capacity, heterogeneity

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7473 Effect of Reinforcement Density on the Behaviour of Reinforced Sand Under a Square Footing

Authors: Dhyaalddin Bahaalddin Noori Zangana

Abstract:

This study involves the behavior of reinforced sand under a square footing. A series of bearing capacity tests were performed on a small-scale laboratory model, which filled with a poorly-graded homogenous bed of sand, which was placed in a medium dense state using sand raining technique. The sand was reinforced with 40 mm wide household aluminum foil strips. The main studied parameters was to consider the effect of reinforcing strip length, with various linear density of reinforcement, number of reinforcement layers and depth of top layer of reinforcement below the footing, on load-settlement behavior, bearing capacity ratio and settlement reduction factor. The relation of load-settlement generally showed similar trend in all the tests. Failure was defined as settlement equal to 10% of the footing width. The recommended optimum reinforcing strip length, linear density of reinforcement, number of reinforcement layers and depth of top layer of reinforcing strips that give the maximum bearing capacity improvement and minimum settlement reduction factor were presented and discussed. Different bearing capacity ration versus length of the reinforcing strips and settlement reduction factor versus length of the reinforcing strips relations at failure were showed improvement of bearing capacity ratio by a factor of 3.82 and reduction of settlement reduction factor by a factor of 0.813. The optimum length of reinforcement was found to be 7.5 times the footing width.

Keywords: square footing, relative density, linear density of reinforcement, bearing capacity ratio, load-settlement behaviour

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7472 Numerical Analysis of Bearing Capacity of Caissons Subjected to Inclined Loads

Authors: Hooman Dabirmanesh, Mahmoud Ghazavi, Kazem Barkhordari

Abstract:

A finite element modeling for determination of the bearing capacity of caissons subjected to inclined loads is presented in this paper. The model investigates the uplift capacity of the caisson with varying cross sectional area. To this aim, the behavior of the soil is assumed to be elasto-plastic, and its failure is controlled by Modified Cam-Clay failure criterion. The simulation takes into account the couple analysis. The approach is verified using available data from other research work especially centrifuge data. Parametric studies are subsequently performed to investigate the effect of contributing parameters such as aspect ratio of the caisson, the loading rate, the loading direction angle, and points where the external load is applied. In addition, the influence of the caisson geometry is taken into account. The results show the bearing capacity of the caisson increases with increasing the taper angle. Hence, the pullout capacity will increase using the same material. In addition, the bearing capacity of caissons strongly depends on the suction that is generated at tip and in sealed surface on top of caisson. Other results concerning the influencing factors will be presented.

Keywords: aspect ratio, finite element method, inclined load, modified Cam clay, taper angle, undrained condition

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7471 Effect of Slope Height and Horizontal Forces on the Bearing Capacity of Strip Footings near Slopes in Cohesionless Soil

Authors: Sven Krabbenhoft, Kristian Krabbenhoft, Lars Damkilde

Abstract:

The problem of determining the bearing capacity of a strip foundation located near a slope of infinite height has been dealt with by several authors. Very often in practical problems the slope is of limited height, and furthermore the resulting load may be inclined at an angle to the horizontal, and in such cases the bearing capacity of the footing cannot be found using the existing methods. The present work comprises finite element based upper- and lower-bound calculations, using the geotechnical software OptumG2 to investigate the effect of the slope height and horizontal forces on the total bearing capacity, both without and with using superposition as presupposed in the traditional bearing capacity equation. The results for friction angles 30, 35 and 40 degrees, slope inclinations 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4, for selfweight and surcharge are given as charts showing the slope inclination factors suitable for design.

Keywords: footings, bearing capacity, slopes, cohesionnless soil

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7470 Numerical Analysis of Shallow Footing Rested on Geogrid Reinforced Sandy Soil

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Javad Shamsi Soosahab

Abstract:

The use of geosynthetic reinforcement within the footing soils is a very effective and useful method to avoid the construction of costly deep foundations. This study investigated the use of geosynthetics for soil improvement based on numerical modeling using FELA software. Pressure settlement behavior and bearing capacity ratio of foundation on geogrid reinforced sand is investigated and the effect of different parameters like as number of geogrid layers and vertical distance between elements in three different relative density soil is studied. The effects of geometrical parameters of reinforcement layers were studied for determining the optimal values to reach to maximum bearing capacity. The results indicated that the optimum range of the distance ratio between the reinforcement layers was achieved at 0.5 to 0.6 and after number of geogrid layers of 4, no significant effect on increasing the bearing capacity of footing on reinforced sandy with geogrid

Keywords: geogrid, reinforced sand, FELA software, distance ratio, number of geogrid layers

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7469 Soil Bearing Capacity of Shallow Foundation and Consolidation Settlement at Around the Prospective Area of Sei Gong Dam Batam

Authors: Andri Hidayat, Zufialdi Zakaria, Raden Irvan Sophian

Abstract:

Batam city within next five years are expected to experience water crisis. Sei Gong dam which is located in the Sijantung village, Galang District, Batam City, Riau Islands Province is one of 13 dams that will be built to solve the problems of raw water crisis in the Batam city. The purpose of this study are to determine the condition of engineering geology around Sei Gong Dam area, knowing the value of the soil bearing capacity and recommended pile foundation, and knowing the characteristics of the soil consolidation as one of the factors that affect the incidence of soil subsidence. Based on calculations for shallow foundation in general - soil shear condition and local - soil condition indicates that the highest value in ultimate soil bearing capacity (qu) for each depth was in the square foundations at two meters depth. The zonations of shallow foundation of the research area are divided into five zones, they are bearing capacity zone <10 ton/m2, bearing capacity zone 10-15 ton/m2, bearing capacity zone 15-20 ton/m2, bearing capacity zone 20-25 ton/m2, and bearing capacity zone >25 ton/m2. Based on the parameters of soil engineering analysis, Sei Gong Dam areas at the middle part has a higher value for land subsidence.

Keywords: ultimate bearing capacity, type of foundation, consolidation, land subsidence, Batam

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7468 Determination of the Bearing Capacity of Granular Pumice Soils by Laboratory Tests

Authors: Mustafa Yildiz, Ali Sinan Soganci

Abstract:

Pumice soils are countered in many projects such as transportation roads, channels and residential units throughout the World. The pumice deposits are characterized by the vesicular nature of their particles. When the pumice soils are evaluated considering the geotechnical viewpoint, they differ from silica sands in terms of physical and engineering characteristics. These differences are low grain strength, high friction angle, void ratio and compressibility. At stresses greater than a few hundred kPa, the stress-strain-strength behaviour of these soils is determined by particle crushing. Particle crushing leads to changes in the density and reduction in the components of shear stress due to expansion. In this study, the bearing capacity and behaviour of granular pumice soils compared to sand-gravels were investigated by laboratory model tests. Firstly the geotechnical properties of granular pumice soils were determined; then, the behaviour of pumice soils with an equivalent diameter of sand and gravel soils were investigated by model rectangular and circular foundation types and were compared with each other. For this purpose, basic types of model footing (15*15 cm, 20*20 cm, Φ=15 cm and Φ=20 cm) have been selected. When the experimental results of model bearing capacity are analyzed, the values of sand and gravel bearing capacity tests were found to be 1.0-1.5 times higher than the bearing capacity of pumice the same size. This fact has shown that sand and gravel have a higher bearing capacity than pumice of the similar particle sizes.

Keywords: pumice soils, laboratory model tests, bearing capacity, laboratory model tests, Nevşehir

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
7467 The Influence of the Geogrid Layers on the Bearing Capacity of Layered Soils

Authors: S. A. Naeini, H. R. Rahmani, M. Hossein Zade

Abstract:

Many classical bearing capacity theories assume that the natural soil's layers are homogenous for determining the bearing capacity of the soil. But, in many practical projects, we encounter multi-layer soils. Geosynthetic as reinforcement materials have been extensively used in the construction of various structures. In this paper, numerical analysis of the Plate Load Test (PLT) using of ABAQUS software in double-layered soils with different thicknesses of sandy and gravelly layers reinforced with geogrid was considered. The PLT is one of the common filed methods to calculate parameters such as soil bearing capacity, the evaluation of the compressibility and the determination of the Subgrade Reaction module. In fact, the influence of the geogrid layers on the bearing capacity of the layered soils is investigated. Finally, the most appropriate mode for the distance and number of reinforcement layers is determined. Results show that using three layers of geogrid with a distance of 0.3 times the width of the loading plate has the highest efficiency in bearing capacity of double-layer (sand and gravel) soils. Also, the significant increase in bearing capacity between unreinforced and reinforced soil with three layers of geogrid is caused by the condition that the upper layer (gravel) thickness is equal to the loading plate width.

Keywords: bearing capacity, reinforcement, geogrid, plate load test, layered soils

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
7466 Probabilistic Analysis of Bearing Capacity of Isolated Footing using Monte Carlo Simulation

Authors: Sameer Jung Karki, Gokhan Saygili

Abstract:

The allowable bearing capacity of foundation systems is determined by applying a factor of safety to the ultimate bearing capacity. Conventional ultimate bearing capacity calculations routines are based on deterministic input parameters where the nonuniformity and inhomogeneity of soil and site properties are not accounted for. Hence, the laws of mathematics like probability calculus and statistical analysis cannot be directly applied to foundation engineering. It’s assumed that the Factor of Safety, typically as high as 3.0, incorporates the uncertainty of the input parameters. This factor of safety is estimated based on subjective judgement rather than objective facts. It is an ambiguous term. Hence, a probabilistic analysis of the bearing capacity of an isolated footing on a clayey soil is carried out by using the Monte Carlo Simulation method. This simulated model was compared with the traditional discrete model. It was found out that the bearing capacity of soil was found higher for the simulated model compared with the discrete model. This was verified by doing the sensitivity analysis. As the number of simulations was increased, there was a significant % increase of the bearing capacity compared with discrete bearing capacity. The bearing capacity values obtained by simulation was found to follow a normal distribution. While using the traditional value of Factor of safety 3, the allowable bearing capacity had lower probability (0.03717) of occurring in the field compared to a higher probability (0.15866), while using the simulation derived factor of safety of 1.5. This means the traditional factor of safety is giving us bearing capacity that is less likely occurring/available in the field. This shows the subjective nature of factor of safety, and hence probability method is suggested to address the variability of the input parameters in bearing capacity equations.

Keywords: bearing capacity, factor of safety, isolated footing, montecarlo simulation

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7465 Experimental Study of Geotextile Effect on Improving Soil Bearing Capacity in Aggregate Surfaced Roads

Authors: Mahdi Taghipour Masoumi, Ali Abdi Kordani, Mahmoud Nazirizad

Abstract:

Geosynthetics utilization plays an important role in the construction of highways with no additive layers, such as asphalt concrete or cement concrete, or in a subgrade layer which affects the bearing capacity of unbounded layers. This laboratory experimental study was carried out to evaluate changes in the load bearing capacity of reinforced soil with these materials in highway roadbed with regard to geotextile properties. California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test samples were prepared with two types of soil: Clayey and sandy containing non-reinforced and reinforced soil. The samples comprised three types of geotextiles with different characteristics (150, 200, 300 g/m2) and depths (H= 5, 10, 20, 30, 50, 100 mm), and were grouped into two forms, one-layered and two-layered, based on the sample materials in order to perform defined tests. The results showed that the soil bearing characteristics increased when one layer of geotextile was used in clayey and sandy samples reinforced by geotextile. However, the bearing capacity of the soil, in the presence of a geotextile layer material with depth of more than 30 mm, had no remarkable effect. Furthermore, when the two-layered geotextile was applied in material samples, although it increased the soil resistance, it also showed that through the addition of a number or weights of geotextile into samples, the natural composition of the soil changed and the results are unreliable.

Keywords: reinforced soil, geosynthetics, geotextile, transportation capacity, CBR experiments

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7464 Improvement of Bearing Capacity of Soft Clay Using Geo-Cells

Authors: Siddhartha Paul, Aman Harlalka, Ashim K. Dey

Abstract:

Soft clayey soil possesses poor bearing capacity and high compressibility because of which foundations cannot be directly placed over soft clay. Normally pile foundations are constructed to carry the load through the soft soil up to the hard stratum below. Pile construction is costly and time consuming. In order to increase the properties of soft clay, many ground improvement techniques like stone column, preloading with and without sand drains/band drains, etc. are in vogue. Time is a constraint for successful application of these improvement techniques. Another way to improve the bearing capacity of soft clay and to reduce the settlement possibility is to apply geocells below the foundation. The geocells impart rigidity to the foundation soil, reduce the net load intensity on soil and thus reduce the compressibility. A well designed geocell reinforced soil may replace the pile foundation. The present paper deals with the applicability of geocells on improvement of the bearing capacity. It is observed that a properly designed geocell may increase the bearing capacity of soft clay up to two and a half times.

Keywords: bearing capacity, geo-cell, ground improvement, soft clay

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7463 Effect of Type of Pile and Its Installation Method on Pile Bearing Capacity by Physical Modelling in Frustum Confining Vessel

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, M. Mortezaee

Abstract:

Various factors such as the method of installation, the pile type, the pile material and the pile shape, can affect the final bearing capacity of a pile executed in the soil; among them, the method of installation is of special importance. The physical modeling is among the best options in the laboratory study of the piles behavior. Therefore, the current paper first presents and reviews the frustum confining vesel (FCV) as a suitable tool for physical modeling of deep foundations. Then, by describing the loading tests of two open-ended and closed-end steel piles, each of which has been performed in two methods, “with displacement" and "without displacement", the effect of end conditions and installation method on the final bearing capacity of the pile is investigated. The soil used in the current paper is silty sand of Firoozkooh. The results of the experiments show that in general the without displacement installation method has a larger bearing capacity in both piles, and in a specific method of installation the closed ended pile shows a slightly higher bearing capacity.

Keywords: physical modeling, frustum confining vessel, pile, bearing capacity, installation method

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7462 Numerical Analysis of Jet Grouting Strengthened Pile under Lateral Loading

Authors: Reza Ziaie Moayed, Naeem Gholampoor

Abstract:

Jet grouting strengthened pile (JPP) is one of composite piles used in soft ground improvement. It may improve the vertical and lateral bearing capacity effectively and it has been practically used in a considerable scale. In order to make a further research on load transfer mechanism of single JPP with and without cap under lateral loads, JPP is analyzed by means of FEM analysis. It is resulted that the JPP pile could improve lateral bearing capacity by compared with bored concrete pile which is higher for shorter pile and the biggest bending moment of JPP pile is located in the depth of around 48% of embedded length of the pile. Meanwhile, increase of JPP pile length causes to increase of peak mobilized bending moment. Also, by cap addition, JPP piles will have a much higher lateral bearing capacity and increasing in cohesion of soil layer resulted to increase of lateral bearing capacity of JPP pile. In addition, the numerical results basically coincide with the experimental results presented by other researchers.

Keywords: bending moment, FEM analysis, JPP pile, lateral bearing capacity

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7461 Prediction of California Bearing Ratio from Physical Properties of Fine-Grained Soils

Authors: Bao Thach Nguyen, Abbas Mohajerani

Abstract:

The California bearing ratio (CBR) has been acknowledged as an important parameter to characterize the bearing capacity of earth structures, such as earth dams, road embankments, airport runways, bridge abutments, and pavements. Technically, the CBR test can be carried out in the laboratory or in the field. The CBR test is time-consuming and is infrequently performed due to the equipment needed and the fact that the field moisture content keeps changing over time. Over the years, many correlations have been developed for the prediction of CBR by various researchers, including the dynamic cone penetrometer, undrained shear strength, and Clegg impact hammer. This paper reports and discusses some of the results from a study on the prediction of CBR. In the current study, the CBR test was performed in the laboratory on some fine-grained subgrade soils collected from various locations in Victoria. Based on the test results, a satisfactory empirical correlation was found between the CBR and the physical properties of the experimental soils.

Keywords: California bearing ratio, fine-grained soils, soil physical properties, pavement, soil test

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7460 Experimental Investigations on Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Soft Soil Improved by a Group of End-Bearing Column

Authors: Mamata Mohanty, J. T. Shahu

Abstract:

The in-situ deep mixing is an effective ground improvement technique which involves columnar inclusion into soft ground to increase its bearing capacity and reduce settlement. The first part of the study presents the results of unconfined compression on cement-admixed clay prepared at different cement content and subjected to varying curing periods. It is found that cement content is a prime factor controlling the strength of the cement-admixed clay. Besides cement content, curing period is important parameter that adds to the strength of cement-admixed clay. Increase in cement content leads to significant increase in Unconfined Compressive Strength (UCS) values especially at cement contents greater than 8%. The second part of the study investigated the bearing capacity of the clay ground improved by a group of end-bearing column using model tests under plain-strain condition. This study mainly focus to examine the effect of cement contents on the ultimate bearing capacity and failure stress of the improved clay ground. The study shows that the bearing capacity of the improved ground increases significantly with increase in cement contents of the soil-cement columns. A considerable increase in the stiffness of the model ground and failure stress was observed with increase in cement contents.

Keywords: bearing capacity, cement content, curing time, unconfined compressive strength, undrained shear strength

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7459 Seismic Bearing Capacity Estimation of Shallow Foundations on Dense Sand Underlain by Loose Sand Strata by Using Finite Elements Limit Analysis

Authors: Pragyan Paramita Das, Vishwas N. Khatri

Abstract:

By using the lower- and upper- bound finite elements to limit analysis in conjunction with second-order conic programming (SOCP), the effect of seismic forces on the bearing capacity of surface strip footing resting on dense sand underlain by loose sand deposit is explored. The soil is assumed to obey the Mohr-Coulomb’s yield criterion and an associated flow rule. The angle of internal friction (ϕ) of the top and the bottom layer is varied from 42° to 44° and 32° to 34° respectively. The coefficient of seismic acceleration is varied from 0 to 0.3. The variation of bearing capacity with different thickness of top layer for various seismic acceleration coefficients is generated. A comparison will be made with the available solutions from literature wherever applicable.

Keywords: bearing capacity, conic programming, finite elements, seismic forces

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7458 Study of TiO2 Nanoparticles as Lubricant Additive in Two-Axial Groove Journal Bearing

Authors: K. Yathish, K. G. Binu, B. S. Shenoy, D. S. Rao, R. Pai

Abstract:

Load carrying capacity of an oil lubricated two-axial groove journal bearing is simulated by taking into account the viscosity variations in lubricant due to the addition of TiO2 nanoparticles as lubricant additive. Shear viscosities of TiO2 nanoparticle dispersions in oil are measured for various nanoparticle additive concentrations. The viscosity model derived from the experimental viscosities is employed in a modified Reynolds equation to obtain the pressure profiles and load carrying capacity of two-axial groove journal bearing. Results reveal an increase in load carrying capacity of bearings operating on nanoparticle dispersions as compared to plain oil

Keywords: journal bearing, TiO2 nanoparticles, viscosity model, Reynold's equation, load carrying capacity

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7457 Numerical Modeling of Geogrid Reinforced Soil Bed under Strip Footings Using Finite Element Analysis

Authors: Ahmed M. Gamal, Adel M. Belal, S. A. Elsoud

Abstract:

This article aims to study the effect of reinforcement inclusions (geogrids) on the sand dunes bearing capacity under strip footings. In this research experimental physical model was carried out to study the effect of the first geogrid reinforcement depth (u/B), the spacing between the reinforcement (h/B) and its extension relative to the footing length (L/B) on the mobilized bearing capacity. This paper presents the numerical modeling using the commercial finite element package (PLAXIS version 8.2) to simulate the laboratory physical model, studying the same parameters previously handled in the experimental work (u/B, L/B & h/B) for the purpose of validation. In this study the soil, the geogrid, the interface element and the boundary condition are discussed with a set of finite element results and the validation. Then the validated FEM used for studying real material and dimensions of strip foundation. Based on the experimental and numerical investigation results, a significant increase in the bearing capacity of footings has occurred due to an appropriate location of the inclusions in sand. The optimum embedment depth of the first reinforcement layer (u/B) is equal to 0.25. The optimum spacing between each successive reinforcement layer (h/B) is equal to 0.75 B. The optimum Length of the reinforcement layer (L/B) is equal to 7.5 B. The optimum number of reinforcement is equal to 4 layers. The study showed a directly proportional relation between the number of reinforcement layer and the Bearing Capacity Ratio BCR, and an inversely proportional relation between the footing width and the BCR.

Keywords: reinforced soil, geogrid, sand dunes, bearing capacity

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7456 Experimental Investigation on Geosynthetic-Reinforced Soil Sections via California Bearing Ratio Test

Authors: S. Abdi Goudazri, R. Ziaie Moayed, A. Nazeri

Abstract:

Loose soils normally are of weak bearing capacity due to their structural nature. Being exposed to heavy traffic loads, they would fail in most cases. To tackle the aforementioned issue, geotechnical engineers have come up with different approaches; one of which is making use of geosynthetic-reinforced soil-aggregate systems. As these polymeric reinforcements have highlighted economic and environmentally-friendly features, they have become widespread in practice during the last decades. The present research investigates the efficiency of four different types of these reinforcements in increasing the bearing capacity of two-layered soil sections using a series California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test. The studied sections are comprised of a 10 cm-thick layer of no. 161 Firouzkooh sand (weak subgrade) and a 10 cm-thick layer of compacted aggregate materials (base course) classified as SP and GW according to the United Soil Classification System (USCS), respectively. The aggregate layer was compacted to the relative density (Dr) of 95% at the optimum water content (Wopt) of 6.5%. The applied reinforcements were including two kinds of geocomposites (type A and B), a geotextile, and a geogrid that were embedded at the interface of the lower and the upper layers of the soil-aggregate system. As the standard CBR mold was not appropriate in height for this study, the mold used for soaked CBR tests were utilized. To make a comparison between the results of stress-settlement behavior in the studied specimens, CBR values pertinent to the penetrations of 2.5 mm and 5 mm were considered. The obtained results demonstrated 21% and 24.5% increments in the amount of CBR value in the presence of geocomposite type A and geogrid, respectively. On the other hand, the effect of both geotextile and geocomposite type B on CBR values was generally insignificant in this research.

Keywords: geosynthetics, geogrid, geotextile, CBR test, increasing bearing capacity

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7455 Experimental and Analytical Studies for the Effect of Thickness and Axial Load on Load-Bearing Capacity of Fire-Damaged Concrete Walls

Authors: Yeo Kyeong Lee, Ji Yeon Kang, Eun Mi Ryu, Hee Sun Kim, Yeong Soo Shin

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is an investigation of the effects of the thickness and axial loading during a fire test on the load-bearing capacity of a fire-damaged normal-strength concrete wall. Two factors are attributed to the temperature distributions in the concrete members and are mainly obtained through numerous experiments. Toward this goal, three wall specimens of different thicknesses are heated for 2 h according to the ISO-standard heating curve, and the temperature distributions through the thicknesses are measured using thermocouples. In addition, two wall specimens are heated for 2 h while simultaneously being subjected to a constant axial loading at their top sections. The test results show that the temperature distribution during the fire test depends on wall thickness and axial load during the fire test. After the fire tests, the specimens are cured for one month, followed by the loading testing. The heated specimens are compared with three unheated specimens to investigate the residual load-bearing capacities. The fire-damaged walls show a minor difference of the load-bearing capacity regarding the axial loading, whereas a significant difference became evident regarding the wall thickness. To validate the experiment results, finite element models are generated for which the material properties that are obtained for the experiment are subject to elevated temperatures, and the analytical results show sound agreements with the experiment results. The analytical method based on validated thought experimental results is applied to generate the fire-damaged walls with 2,800 mm high considering the buckling effect: typical story height of residual buildings in Korea. The models for structural analyses generated to deformation shape after thermal analysis. The load-bearing capacity of the fire-damaged walls with pin supports at both ends does not significantly depend on the wall thickness, the reason for it is restraint of pinned ends. The difference of the load-bearing capacity of fire-damaged walls as axial load during the fire is within approximately 5 %.

Keywords: normal-strength concrete wall, wall thickness, axial-load ratio, slenderness ratio, fire test, residual strength, finite element analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
7454 Theoretical Bearing Capacity of Modified Kacapuri Foundation

Authors: Muhammad Afief Maruf

Abstract:

Kacapuri foundation is the traditional shallow foundation of building which has been used since long by traditional communities in Borneo, Indonesia. Kacapuri foundation is a foundation that uses a combination of ironwood (eusideroxylon zwageri) as a column and truss and softwood (Melaleuca leucadendra syn. M. leucadendron) as a raft. In today's modern era, ironwood happened to be a rare item, and it is protected by the Indonesian government. This condition then triggers the idea to maintain the shape of the traditional foundation by modifying the material. The suggestion is replacing the ironwood column with reinforced concrete column. In addition, the number of stem softwood is added to sustain the burden of replacing the column material. Although this modified form of Kacapuri foundation is currently still not been tested in applications in society, some research on the modified Kacapuri foundation has been conducted by some researchers and government unit. This paper will try to give an overview of the theoretical foundation bearing capacity Kacapuri modifications applied to the soft alluvial soil located in Borneo, Indonesia, where the original form of Kacapuri is implemented this whole time. The foundation is modeled buried depth in 2m below the ground surface and also below the ground water level. The calculation of the theoretical bearing capacity and then is calculated based on the bearing capacity equation suggested Skempton, Terzaghi and Ohsuki using the data of soft alluvial soil in Borneo. The result will then compared with the bearing capacity of the Kacapuri foundation original design from some previous research. The results show that the ultimate bearing capacity of the Modified Kacapuri foundation using Skempton equation amounted to 329,26 kN, Terzaghi for 456,804kN, and according Ohsaki amounted to 491,972 kN. The ultimate bearing capacity of the original Kacapuri foundation model based on Skempton equation is 18,23 kN. This result shows that the modification added the ultimate bearing capacity of the foundation, although the replacement of ironwood to reinforced concrete will also add some dead load to the total load itself.

Keywords: bearing capacity, Kacapuri, modified foundation, shallow foundation

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7453 Laboratory Model Tests on Encased Group Columns

Authors: Kausar Ali

Abstract:

There are several ground treatment techniques which may meet the twin objectives of increasing the bearing capacity with simultaneous reduction of settlements, but the use of stone columns is one of the most suited techniques for flexible structures such as embankments, oil storage tanks etc. that can tolerate some settlement and used worldwide. However, when the stone columns in very soft soils are loaded; stone columns undergo excessive settlement due to low lateral confinement provided by the soft soil, leading to the failure of the structure. The poor performance of stone columns under these conditions can be improved by encasing the columns with a suitable geosynthetic. In this study, the effect of reinforcement on bearing capacity of composite soil has been investigated by conducting laboratory model tests on floating and end bearing long stone columns with l/d ratio of 12. The columns were reinforced by providing geosynthetic encasement over varying column length (upper 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% column length). In this study, a group of columns has been used instead of single column, because in the field, columns used for the purpose always remain in groups. The tests indicate that the encasement over the full column length gives higher failure stress as compared to the encasement over the partial column length for both floating and end bearing long columns. The performance of end-bearing columns was found much better than the floating columns.

Keywords: geosynthetic, ground improvement, soft clay, stone column

Procedia PDF Downloads 351