Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3392

Search results for: non-Christian tribal community

3392 Community Policing Interventions in the Tribal Hamlets as a Positive Criminal Justice and Social Justice Strategy: A Study Based on the Community Policing Project of the Government of Kerala

Authors: Bharathadas Sandhya

Abstract:

Janamaithri Suraksha Project is the community policing project of Kerala police, fully sponsored by the Government of Kerala and in vogue in Kerala for the last ten years. The socio-economically weaker areas in the hilly terrains consisting of tribal hamlets are given special importance under the project. These hamlets are visited by the beat police officers, and they intervene in various issues in the hamlets. This study is based on data collected from 350 respondents living in the tribal hamlets of the Nilambur area in the District of Malappuram. The respondents were personally interviewed by the research team using a questionnaire consisting of 183 questions, seeking the details regarding their interaction with beat police officers, their ability to prevent or detect crimes, the menace of Maoists (extremist) presence, their interventions in other socio-economic problems like alcoholism, school dropout issues, lack of facilities for preparation for competitive examinations for educated youth, etc. The perception of the tribal population regarding the effectiveness of police intervention in their criminal justice complaints, the attitude of the police officers towards the tribal population when they approach the police station with a criminal complaint, are also studied. The general socio-economic problems of the tribal population as perceived by them are also brought out. Being the visible agency of the government, the police person coming on beat duty to the hamlet is generally seen by the tribal population as a representative to whom they can communicate the issues, even if it’s solution rests with another department like the forest or agriculture. The analysis of the primary data is carried out using computer applications. The amount of social justice benefits the tribal hamlets received through various government schemes, and their deficiencies are brought out in the study. From the conclusions of the study, certain suggestions for positive criminal justice and social justice intervention strategies are made out. The need for various government departments to work in tandem with each other so as to bring out more effectiveness in the socio-economic projects is evident from the study. Whether it is the need to obtain a transport to go to school or problem of drinking water or even opening a bank account, at least occasionally, the visiting beat police officer is of help to the tribal population. Mostly the tribal population feels free to approach the police with a criminal complaint without any inhibitions.

Keywords: community policing, beat police officer, criminal justice, social justice

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3391 The Study of Power as a Pertinent Motive among Tribal College Students of Assam

Authors: K. P. Gogoi

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The current research study investigates the motivational pattern viz Power motivation among the tribal college students of Assam. The sample consisted of 240 college students (120 tribal and 120 non-tribal) ranging from 18-24 years, 60 males and 60 females for both tribal’s and non-tribal’s. Attempts were made to include all the prominent tribes of Assam viz. Thematic Apperception Test, Power motive Scale and a semi structured interview schedule were used to gather information about their family types, parental deprivation, parental relations, social and political belongingness. Mean, Standard Deviation, and t-test were the statistical measures adopted in this 2x2 factorial design study. In addition to this discriminant analysis has been worked out to strengthen the predictive validity of the obtained data. TAT scores reveal significant difference between the tribal’s and non-tribal on power motivation. However results obtained on gender difference indicates similar scores among both the cultures. Cross validation of the TAT results was done by using the power motive scale by T. S. Dapola which confirms the results on need for power through TAT scores. Power motivation has been studied in three directions i.e. coercion, inducement and restraint. An interesting finding is that on coercion tribal’s score high showing significant difference whereas in inducement or seduction the non-tribal’s scored high showing significant difference. On the other hand on restraint no difference exists between both cultures. Discriminant analysis has been worked out between the variables n-power, coercion, inducement and restraint. Results indicated that inducement or seduction (.502) is the dependent measure which has the most discriminating power between these two cultures.

Keywords: power motivation, tribal, social, political, predictive validity, cross validation, coercion, inducement, restraint

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3390 Applications of Visual Ethnography in Public Anthropology

Authors: Subramaniam Panneerselvam, Gunanithi Perumal, KP Subin

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The Visual Ethnography is used to document the culture of a community through a visual means. It could be either photography or audio-visual documentation. The visual ethnographic techniques are widely used in visual anthropology. The visual anthropologists use the camera to capture the cultural image of the studied community. There is a scope for subjectivity while the culture is documented by an external person. But the upcoming of the public anthropology provides an opportunity for the participants to document their own culture. There is a need to equip the participants with the skill of doing visual ethnography. The mobile phone technology provides visual documentation facility to everyone to capture the moments instantly. The visual ethnography facilitates the multiple-interpretation for the audiences. This study explores the effectiveness of visual ethnography among the tribal youth through public anthropology perspective. The case study was conducted to equip the tribal youth of Nilgiris in visual ethnography and the outcome of the experiment shared in this paper.

Keywords: visual ethnography, visual anthropology, public anthropology, multiple-interpretation, case study

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3389 Development of Aboriginal Tribal Tourism: A Case Study of Hualien Truku Hongye Tribe in Taiwan

Authors: Yu-Chen Chien, Sheng-Jung Ou, Shang-Ling Hsu

Abstract:

Many aboriginal tribes in the early modern began to actively promote tribal tourism. The tribe uses rich ecological environment and unique folk culture successfully attract crowds. In addition to the tribe in the construction level to consider the cultural heritage and living needs, in order to improve tribal tourism for the tribe to bring the benefits of all levels, as well as to avoid the tourism industry is too prosperous brought negative tourism impact. How to successfully create the conditions of mutual benefit of residents and tourists is an important issue common to many tribes. Hualien Turuku Hongye Tribe in Taiwan around the tourist resources are very rich. It is famous for its Hongye hot springs and Ruisui hot springs. Hongye tribe to develop tribal tourism is bound to use its own has three advantages: Truku culture, in the agricultural products experience and marketing, and the surrounding hot springs industry tourism benefits. Tribal Development Association in the past to promote these three advantages for tribal tourism. But due to the impact of many levels led to the tribes in the promotion of tourism on the ineffective. At present, in addition to the Hongye Tribal Development Association in promoting tribal tourism, local residents to promote cultural heritage workshop also gradually rise. Its purpose is to link local cultural resources, agricultural specialty resources, spa tourism industry, the revitalization of the internal development of the tribes at all levels. Each tribe to promote tribal tourism due to geographical environment, resource types have a different set of practices and patterns. This study explores the tourist opportunities and resource points of Hongye tribes, and tribal tourism has been to promote the operation practices and benefits. To understand the difficulties encountered in the implementation of tribal tourism and the impact of all levels. Reference successful development of domestic and foreign tourism tribal tribe case. Develop a questionnaire and using the questionnaire survey to understand tribal residents for the tribal tribes to promote tribal tourism views. Finally, it puts forward some suggestions and strategies to promote the tribal tourism in Hongye tribe.

Keywords: cultural tourism, tourism impact, aboriginal tribe, Hongye Tribe

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3388 Strategies for a Sustainable Future of Forest and Tribal Peoples on This Planet

Authors: Dharmpal Singh

Abstract:

The objective of this proposed project is to relocation and resettlement of carnivores tribal communities who are currently residing in the protected forest land in all over the world just like resettlement project of the carnivores tribal families of Mongia who at past were residing in Ranthambhore Tiger Reserve (RTR) and had caused excess damage of endangered species of wildlife including Tigers. At present several tribal communities are residing in the another national parks and they not only consuming the wild animals but also involved in illegal trading of vital organs, skin and bones with National and international traders. Tribal are ideally suited for the job because they are highly skilled game trackers and due to having had a definite source of income over the years, they easily drawn in to the illegal wildlife trade and slaughter of wild animals. Their income is increasing but wild animals are on the brink of extinction. For the conservation of flora and fauna the rehabilitation process should be thought out according to the RTR project (which not only totally change the quality of life of mongia tribal community but also increased the conopy cover of forest and grass due to reduced the biotic pressure on protected land of forest in Rajasthan state) with appropriate understanding of the sociology of the people involved, their culture, education standard and the need of different skills to be acquired by them for sustenance such as agriculture, dairy, poultry, social forestry, job as forest guard and others eco-development programmes. Perhaps, the dimensions presented by me may generate discussion among the international wild life lovers and conservationists and remedies may be result oriented in the field of management of forest and conservation of wildlife on this planet.

Keywords: strategies, rehablety of tribals, conservation of forest, eco-development Programmes, wildlife

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3387 Community Resilience to Violent Extremism: A Case Study of Swat in the Wake of Operation Rah-E-Raast

Authors: Khushboo Ejaz

Abstract:

Community Resilience to Violent Extremism gain importance in the post 9/11 scenario. Resilience is a word that came from the engineering domain. Prior to 9/11, this word community resilience has been used in disasters and natural hazards. The literature on Community Resilience has been published in different multiethnic and multi-religious communities. There is less data and research done on Pakistan’s Community resilience experience. This research is a case study; how local community showed resilience against violent extremism of Tehrik-e-Taliban Swat in the wake of Operation Rah-e- Raast. Qualitative research based on interviews and focus group discussions from male and female groups of different Tehsils of Swat has been carried out to highlight the Community Resilience to Violent Extremism of Tehrik- e- Taliban and Tehrik- e- Nifaz- e -Shariat- e-Muhamadi (TNSM) .NVivo software has been used for data analysis and highlighting all factors of Community Resilience to Violent extremism (CRVE) in Swat . Recommendations has been made in the end to suggest Civil Society Organizations, NGOs and government departments in order to facilitate and enhance community resilience of tribal and rural areas affected by violent elements in Pakistan. This study will fill the gap in literature related to CRVE policies in Pakistani context.

Keywords: community resilience, operation Rah -e Raast, counter extremism, swat, Pakistan

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3386 Food Intake Pattern and Nutritional Status of Preschool Children of Chakma Ethnic Community

Authors: Md Monoarul Haque

Abstract:

Nutritional status is a sensitive indicator of community health and nutrition among preschool children, especially the prevalence of undernutrition that affects all dimensions of human development and leads to growth faltering in early life. The present study is an attempt to assess the food intake pattern and nutritional status of pre-school Chakma tribe children. It was a cross-sectional community based study. The subjects were selected purposively. This study was conducted at Savar Upazilla of Rangamati. Rangamati is located in the Chittagong Division. Anthropometric data height and weight of the study subjects were collected by standard techniques. Nutritional status was measured using Z score according WHO classification. χ2 test, independent t-test, Pearson’s correlation, multiple regression and logistic regression was performed as P<0.05 level of significance. Statistical analyses were performed by appropriate univariate and multivariate techniques using SPSS windows 11.5. Moderate (-3SD to <-2SD) to severe underweight (<-3SD) were 23.8% and 76.2% study subjects had normal weight for their age. Moderate (-3SD to <-2SD) to severe (<-3SD) stunted children were only 25.6% and 74.4% children were normal and moderate to severe wasting were 14.7% whereas normal child was 85.3%. Significant association had been found between child nutritional status and monthly family income, mother education and occupation of father and mother. Age, sex and incomes of the family, education of mother and occupation of father were significantly associated with WAZ and HAZ of the study subjects (P=0.0001, P=0.025, P=0.001 and P=0.0001, P=0.003, P=0.031, P=0.092, P=0.008). Maximum study subjects took local small fish and some traditional tribal food like bashrool, jhijhipoka and pork very much popular food among tribal children. Energy, carbohydrate and fat intake was significantly associated with HAZ, WAZ, BAZ and MUACZ. This study demonstrates that malnutrition among tribal children in Bangladesh is much better than national scenario in Bangladesh. Significant association was found between child nutritional status and family monthly income, mother education and occupation of father and mother. Most of the study subjects took local small fish and some traditional tribal food. Significant association was also found between child nutritional status and dietary intake of energy, carbohydrate and fat.

Keywords: food intake pattern, nutritional status, preschool children, Chakma ethnic community

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3385 Herbal Medicines Used for the Cure of Jaundice among the Some Tribal Populations of Madhya Pradesh, India

Authors: Awdhesh Narayan Sharma

Abstract:

The use of herbal medicines for the cure of various ailments among the tribal population is as old as human origin itself. Most of the tribal populations of Madhya Pradesh inhabit in remote and inaccessible ecological setup. From long back, tribals and forests are interrelated to each other. They use an enormous range of wild plants for their basic needs and medicines. The tribal developed a unique understanding with wild plants, herbs, etc., and earned specialized knowledge of disease pattern and curative therapy-through hard experiences, common sense, trial, and error methods. They have passed this knowledge through traditions, taboos, totems, folklore by words of mouth from generation to generation. Here, an attempt has been made to study the possible aspects of herbal medicine for the cure of Jaundice among the tribal populations of Madhya Pradesh, India, through primary data as well as available secondary data. The data have been collected from the 305 Bharias of Patalkot, Madhya Pradesh, India, and included available secondary source of data by various investigators. It may be concluded that a sizable herbal medicinal plants' wealth exists in Madhya Pradesh, India, which still awaits for scientific exploration. The existing herbal medicines used for the cure of jaundice need an extensive investigation from the pharmaceutical point of view.

Keywords: Bharias, herbal medicine, tribal, Madhya Pradesh

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3384 Impact of a Locally-Prepared Fermented Alcoholic Beverage from Jaggery on the Gut Bacterial Profile of the Tea-Tribal Populations of Assam, India

Authors: Rupamoni Thakur, Madhusmita Dehingia, Narayan C. Talukdar, Mojibur R. Khan

Abstract:

The human gut is an extremely active fermentation site and is inhabited by diverse bacterial species. Consumption of alcoholic beverages has been shown to substantially modulate the human gut bacterial profile (GBP) of an individual. Assam, a major north-eastern state of India, is home to a number of tribal populations of which the tea-tribes form a major community. These tea-tribal communities are known to prepare and consume a locally-prepared alcoholic beverage from fermented jaggery, whose chemical composition is unknown. In this study, we demonstrate the effect of daily intake of the locally-prepared alcoholic beverage on the GBP of the tea-tribal communities and correlate it with the changes in the biochemical biomarkers of the population. The fecal bacterial diversity of 40 drinkers and 35 non-drinking healthy individuals were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)–denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The results suggested that the GBP was significantly modulated in the fermented-beverage consuming subjects. Significant difference was also observed in the serum biochemical parameters such as triglyceride, total cholesterol and the liver marker enzymes (ASAT/ALAT and GGT). Further studies to identify the GBP of drinkers vs non-drinkers through Next-generation Sequencing (NGS) analysis and to correlate the changes with the biochemical biomarkers of the population is underway.

Keywords: alcoholic beverage, gut bacterial profile, PCR-DGGE analysis, tea-tribes of India

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3383 Villar Settlement Farm School for the Aetas: Assimilation through American Colonial Education in Zambales, Philippines

Authors: Julian E. Abuso, Alberto T. Paala Jr.

Abstract:

The creation of settlement farm schools at the outset of American colonization of the Philippines was not a matter of accident; rather, their establishment was a major component of a grand plan on public education based on the benevolent assimilation policy of the United States. This argument is illustrated by the case of Villar Settlement Farm School, a school for the Aetas as a non-Christian tribal community in 1907. The study aims to: (1) identify and describe the antecedents for the establishment of Settlement Farm School, (2) explicate the cultural conflicts encountered by Aetas in school, (3) appraise the consequences of education as acculturation among Aeta population. The study made use of the following: historical data based on primary and secondary sources and life histories from primary informants. The Settlement Farm School for the Aetas was borne out of the American’s change in policy from military to civilian authority, recognition of education as a tool for benevolent assimilation. The narratives of informants manifested resistance to certain aspects of the educational process.

Keywords: settlement farm school Aetas, tribe, colonial education, Aeta, non-Christian tribal community

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3382 Children and Communities Benefit from Mother-Tongue Based Multi-Lingual Education

Authors: Binay Pattanayak

Abstract:

Multilingual state, Jharkhand is home to more than 19 tribal and regional languages. These are used by more than 33 communities in the state. The state has declared 12 of these languages as official languages of the state. However, schools in the state do not recognize any of these community languages even in early grades! Children, who speak in their mother tongues at home, local market and playground, find it very difficult to understand their teacher and textbooks in school. They fail to acquire basic literacy and numeracy skills in early grades. Out of frustration due to lack of comprehension, the majority of children leave school. Jharkhand sees the highest dropout in early grades in India. To address this, the state under the guidance of the author designed a mother tongue based pre-school education programme named Bhasha Puliya and bilingual picture dictionaries in 9 tribal and regional mother tongues of children. This contributed significantly to children’s school readiness in the school. Followed by this, the state designed a mother-tongue based multilingual education programme (MTB-MLE) for multilingual context. The author guided textbook development in 5 tribal (Santhali, Mundari, Ho, Kurukh and Kharia) and two regional (Odia and Bangla) languages. Teachers and community members were trained for MTB-MLE in around 1,000 schools of the concerned language pockets. Community resource groups were constituted along with their academic calendars in each school to promote story-telling, singing, painting, dancing, riddles, etc. with community support. This, on the one hand, created rich learning environments for children. On the other hand, the communities have discovered a great potential in the process of developing a wide variety of learning materials for children in own mother-tongue using their local stories, songs, riddles, paintings, idioms, skits, etc. as a process of their literary, cultural and technical enrichment. The majority of children are acquiring strong early grade reading skills (basic literacy and numeracy) in grades I-II thereby getting well prepared for higher studies. In a phased manner they are learning Hindi and English after 4-5 years of MTB-MLE using the foundational language learning skills. Community members have started designing new books, audio-visual learning materials in their mother-tongues seeing a great potential for their cultural and technological rejuvenation.

Keywords: community resource groups, MTB-MLE, multilingual, socio-linguistic survey, learning

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3381 Impact of Development Induced Displaced on Tribal Indigenous Women of North East India

Authors: Bitopi Dutta

Abstract:

Forced Displacement of marginalised groups has been widely debated whole across the world, including India. This paper will do a gender analysis of Development Induced Displacement(DID) in tribal indigenous societies of North East India (NEI), a region that is frequently quoted as a relatively gender equal society as compared to the other parts of India. The central argument of the paper concerns how patriarchies in the discourses of the state and societies work together in shaping a particular gendered experience for women (and men) - in this context a violent gendered transformation in displaced indigenous communities. The primary analysis of the paper will be centered on the acquisition of Common Property Resources (CPRs) under the Land Law of India which has devastating consequences for the tribal women since CPRs forms the basis of their high status, identity and autonomy. Tracing the trajectory of DID in the NEI since 1947 to 2010, this paper will locate the violent gendered transition that these tribal societies have undergone during this period vis.a.vis their tradition which was grounded on a far more gender equal worldview. The paper will place this argument in terms of the lost status and impoverishment of tribal women in the social and economic domain reflected in terms of loss of property and land ownership rights, monetisation of the tribal economy under the sole custody of the men, forced internalisation of this reduced status by the women themselves and so on. DID in this sense will not only be understood as only physical displacement, but also as social and cultural displacement. Interviews of people displaced/affected by the development projects will be the primary mode of data collection which will be supplemented with documentary research using Government Data, and local archives of the region.

Keywords: common property resources, displacement, north east India, tribal, women

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3380 Omani Community in Digital Age: A Study of Omani Women Using Back Channel Media to Empower Themselves for Frontline Entrepreneurship

Authors: Sangeeta Tripathi, Muna Al Shahri

Abstract:

This research article presents the changing role and status of women in Oman. Transformation of women’s status started with the regime of His Majesty Sultan Qaboos Bin Said in 1970. It is always desired by the Sultan to enable women in all the ways for the balance growth of the country. Forbidding full face veil for women in public offices is one of the best efforts for their empowerment. Women education is also increasing rapidly. They are getting friendly with new information communication technology and using different social media applications such as WhatsApp, Instagram and Facebook for interaction and economic growth. Though there are some traditional and tribal boundaries, women are infused with courage and enjoying fair treatment and equal opportunities in different career positions. The study will try to explore changing mindset of young Omani women towards these traditional tribal boundaries, cultural heritage, business and career: ‘How are young Omani women making balance between work and social prestige?’, ‘How are they preserving their cultural values, embracing new technologies and approaching social network to enhance their economic power.’ This paper will discover their hurdles while using internet for their new entrepreneur. It will also examine the prospects of online business in Oman. The mixed research methodology is applied to find out the result.

Keywords: advertising, business, entrepreneurship, tribal barrier

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3379 Growth Pattern Analysis of Khagrachari Pourashava

Authors: Kutub Uddin Chisty, Md. Kamrul Islam, Md. Ashraful Islam

Abstract:

Growth pattern is an important factor for a city because it can help to predict future growth trend and development of a city. Khagrachari District is one of the three hill tracts districts in Bangladesh. It is bordered by the Indian State of Tripura on the north, Rangamati and Chittagong districts on the south, Rangamati district on the east, Chittagong district and the Indian State of Tripura on the west. Khagrachari Pourashava is surrounded by hills and waterways. The Pourashava area is mostly inhibited by non-tribal population, while tribal population lives in hilly regions within and around the Pourashava area. The hilly area growth is different. Based on questioners and expert opinions survey, growth pattern of Khagrachari is evaluated. Different culture, history, tribal people, non-tribal people enrich the hilly heritages. In our study, we analyse the city growth pattern and identify the prominent factors that influence the city growth. Thus, it can help us to identify growth trend of the city.

Keywords: growth pattern, growth trend, prominent factors, regional development

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3378 Multidimensional Inequality and Deprivation Among Tribal Communities of Andhra Pradesh, India

Authors: Sanjay Sinha, Mohd Umair Khan

Abstract:

The level of income inequality in India has been worrisome as the World Inequality Report termed it as a “poor and unequal country, with an affluent elite”. As important as income is to understand inequality and deprivation, it is just one dimension. But the historical roots and current realities of inequality and deprivation in India lies in many of the non-income dimensions such as housing, nutrition, education, agency, sense of inclusion etc. which are often ignored, especially in solution-oriented research. The level of inequality and deprivation among the tribal is one such case. There is a corpus of literature establishing that the tribal communities in India are disadvantageous on various grounds. Given their rural geography, issues of access and quality of basic facilities such as education and healthcare are often unaddressed. COVID-19 has further exacerbated this challenge and climate change will make it even more worrying. With this background, a succinct measurement tool at the village level is necessary to design short to medium-term actions with reference to risk mitigation for tribal communities. This research paper examines the level of inequality and deprivation among the tribal communities in the rural areas of Andhra Pradesh state of India using a Multidimensional Inequality and Deprivation Index based on the Alkire-Foster methodology. The methodology is theoretically grounded in the capability approach propounded by Amartya Sen, emphasizing on achieving the “beings and doings” (functionings) an individual reason to value. In the index, the authors have five domains, including Livelihood, Food Security, Education, Health and Housing and these domains are divided into sixteen indicators. This assessment is followed by domain-wise short-term and long-term solutions.

Keywords: Andhra Pradesh, Alkire-Foster methodology, deprivation, inequality, multidimensionality, poverty, tribal

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3377 Norms and Laws: Fate of Community Forestry in Jharkhand

Authors: Pawas Suren

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The conflict between livelihood and forest protection has been a perpetual phenomenon in India. In the era of climate change, the problem is expected to aggravate the declining trend of dense forest in the country, creating impediments in the climate change adaptation by the forest dependent communities. In order to access the complexity of the problem, Hazarinagh and Chatra districts of Jharkhand were selected as a case study. To identify norms practiced by the communities to manage community forestry, the ethnographic study was designed to understand the values, traditions, and cultures of forest dependent communities, most of whom were tribal. It was observed that internalization of efficient forest norms is reflected in the pride and honor of such behavior while violators are sanctioned through guilt and shame. The study analyzes the effect of norms being practiced in the management and ecology of community forestry as common property resource. The light of the findings led towards the gaps in the prevalent forest laws to address efficient allocation of property rights. The conclusion embarks on reconsidering accepted factors of forest degradation in India.

Keywords: climate change, common property resource, community forestry, norms

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3376 Displacement Situation in Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan: Issues and Challenges

Authors: Sohail Ahmad, Inayat Kaleem

Abstract:

Federally Administered Tribal Area(FATA) of Pakistan is one of the most neglected regions in the world as far as development is concerned. It has been the hub of all sorts of illegal activities including militancy and export of terrorism. Therefore, it became inevitable for the government of Pakistan to take action against militants through military operations. Small and large scale military operations are being taken against the non-state actors in FATA with continuity. Over the years, hundreds of thousands have been displaced from the tribal areas of the country. Moreover, military operation Zarb-e-Azb has been launched in North Waziristan Agency in June 2014 to counter militancy across the Af-Pak border region. Though successful in curbing militancy, the operation has displaced around 0.5 million people from the area. Most of them opt to take shelter in the government installed shelter camps, some of them take refuge outside tent villages in the country while some of them prefer to cross into Afghanistan rather their own country Pakistan. This paper will evaluate how the influx of these internally displaced persons in the country is influencing the socio-economic situation of not only the displaced but of the hosting areas as well. Secondly, attention would be given to gauge the impact of such a huge number of displaced population on the law and order and security situation in the host areas.

Keywords: Af-Pak, federally administered tribal area, IDPs, internal displacement, Pakistan

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3375 Stress as Risk Factor for Onset of Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus in Visakhapatnam Tribal Community of Andhra Pradesh, India

Authors: Vijaya Nirmala Pangi, K. V. Subhramanyam, C. Vijay Lakshmi

Abstract:

Background: The prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is increasing drastically at a vigorous rate all over the world population. Aim: The present study aims to determine the prevalence of type-2 diabetes mellitus in Paderu tribal area population of Visakhapatnam district, located in northeastern region of Andhra Pradesh. Methods: A random sampling method was followed in 1025 subjects including controls (n=25) and determined 75-g oral glucose tolerance test to assess the presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The effect of anthropometric factors like age, gender, literacy, socio economic status, and environmental risk factors such as body fat response, hypertension and psychophysical stress response were determined in the studied subjects. Results: 78 (7.8%) were diabetic. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus was found to be comparable between the two genders. Prevalence of diabetes was observed to be high in illiterate, low economic status subjects. Body fat response was comparable between control and diabetic subjects. However hypertension, stress associated enzymes showed significant (p < 0.05) decrease in diabetic subjects compared to controls in both the genders. Conclusion: It appears that there is a rising pattern in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in tribal area, Paderu, Andhra Pradesh, India compared to previous rural studies.

Keywords: anthropometric studies, hypertension, oral glucose tolerance test, stress enzymes, type-2 diabetes mellitus

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3374 Issues and Challenges of Tribals in India: A Case of Andhra Pradesh

Authors: P. Lalitha

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Economic and social empowerment and educational upliftment of socially disadvantaged groups and marginalized sections of society is necessary for achieving faster and more inclusive development. Programmes are being implemented through states, government’s apex corporations, and NGOs for the up-liftment of disadvantaged and marginalized sections of society. As per the primary data collected, a majority of tribal land holdings (60%) are below 2 hectare and only 5% are above 10 hectares. However, the ownership of large holdings does not give a distinct advantage unless the land is of good quality. There are areas in which even large holdings beyond 5 hectares are not sufficient to meet the food necessity of the tribal families all-round the year. Some initiatives e.g. grain-golas, jhum cultivation, wadi project, Joint Forest Management(JFM), enhancing Livelihood and Health through Traditional Knowledge Management, Associating Individual Rural Volunteers (IRVs) in SHG Bank Linkage Programme have been taken in various tribal areas of the country.

Keywords: tribals, unemployment, health, food

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3373 Audience Perceptions and Attitudes Towards the Representation of Tribal South African Culture in Drama Series

Authors: Oluwayemisi Mary Onyenanakeya, Kevin Onyenankeya

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Commercial media entertainment offerings especially mainstream soap operas, in South Africa, are progressively infusing dominant social values and ideas which are alien to South African tribal societies. In most of the commodified television drama series, people who hold tight to traditional beliefs and values are often characterised as traditionalists, while those who have imbibed the western defined dicta and ideology of modernity are seen as progressives. This study, therefore, sought to ascertain how South African tribal language, traditional institutions, values, social norms and ancestral beliefs are portrayed through the television drama, Generations: The Legacy, and what the viewers think about those constructions and the implication for cultural identity. The mixed methods approach was employed involving the administration of questionnaire to 350 participants selected through random sampling and a content analysis of 20 episodes of Generations: The Legacy. The findings further showed that the values and traditions represented in generation do not significantly reflect the South African tribal tradition and values (p-value > 0.05). In most instances where traditional values are represented they tend to be portrayed as old fashioned (p-value > 0.05), and inferior and backward (p-value > 0.05). In addition, the findings indicate that Generations: The legacy is a vehicle for promoting dominant culture.

Keywords: identity, soap opera, South Africa, television

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3372 Sustainable Agriculture of Tribal Farmers: An Analysis in Koraput and Malkangiri Districts of Odisha, India

Authors: Amrita Mishra, Tushar Kanti Das

Abstract:

Agriculture is the backbone of the economy of Odisha. Sustainability of agriculture holds the key for the development of Odisha. The Sustainable Development Goals are a framework of 17 goals and 169 targets across social, economical and environmental areas of sustainable development. Among all the seventeen goals the second goal is focusing on the promotion of Sustainable Agriculture. In this research our main aim is also to contribute an understanding of effectiveness of sustainable agriculture as a tool for rural development in the selected tribal district (i.e. Koraput and Malkangiri) of Odisha. These two districts are comes under KBK districts of Odisha which are identified as most backward districts of Odisha. The objectives of our study are to investigate the effect of sustainable agriculture on the lives of tribal farmers, to study whether the farmers are empowered by their participation in sustainable agriculture initiatives to move towards their own vision of development and to study the investment and profit ratio in sustainable agriculture. This research will help in filling the major gaps in sociological studies of sustainable agriculture. This information will helpful for farmers, development organisations, donors and policy makers in formulating the development of effective initiatives and policies to support the development of sustainable agriculture. In this study, we have taken 210 respondents and used various statistical techniques like chi-square test, one-way ANOVA and percentage analysis. This research shows that sustainable agriculture is an effective development strategy that benefits the tribal farmers to move towards their own vision of Good Fortune. The poor farmers who struggle to feed their families and maintain viable livelihoods on shrinking land for them sustainable agriculture are really benefited. The farmers are using homemade pesticides, manure and also getting the seeds from different development organisations and Government. So the investment in Sustainable Agriculture is very less. All farmers said their lives are now better than before. The creation of farmers groups for training and marketing for the produces was shown to be very important for empowerment.

Keywords: sustainable, agriculture, tribal farmers, development, empowerment

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3371 Sericulture a Way for Bio-Diversity Conservation, Employment Generation and Socio-Economic Change: A-Comparison of Two Tribal Block of Raigarh, India

Authors: S. K. Dewangan, K. R. Sahu, S. Soni

Abstract:

Unemployment is today’s basic socio-economic problem eroding national income and living standards, aggravating national development and poverty alleviation. The farmers are encouraged to take up non-agriculture practices which are integrated with Sericulture. Sericulture is one of the primary occupations for livelihood of poor people in tribal area. Most of tribal are involved in Sericulture. Tasar, Eri are the main forest-based cultivation. Among these sericultures is the major crop adopted by the Tribal’s and practiced in respective areas. Out of the 6, 38,588 villages in India, sericultures are practiced in about 69000 villages providing employment to about 7.85 million people. Sericulture is providing livelihood for 9, 47,631 families. India continues to be the second largest producer of silk in the World. Among the four varieties of silk produced, as in 2012-13, Mulberry accounts for 18,715 MT, Eri 3116 MT, Tasar 1729 MT and Muga 119MT of the total raw silk production in the country. Sericulture with its unique features plays an important role in upgrading the socio-economic conditions of the rural folk and with employment opportunities to the educated rural youth and women. In view of the importance of sericulture enterprise for the biodiversity conservation as well as its cultural bondage, the paper tries to enlighten and discuss the significance of sericulture and strategies to be taken for the employment generation in Indian sericulture industry. The present paper explores the possible employment opportunities derived from problem analysis and strategies to be adopted aiming at revolutionary biodiversity conservation in the study area. The paper highlights the sericulture is a way for biodiversity conservation, employment generation in Raigarh district, their utilization and needs as they act as a tool for socio-economic change for tribal. The study concludes with some suggestions to improve the feasibility of sericulture in long term.

Keywords: bio-diversity, employment, sericulture, tribal, income, socio-economic

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3370 Ethnobotanical Study of Traditional Medicinal Plants Used by Indigenous Tribal People of Kodagu District, Central Western Ghats, Karnataka, India

Authors: Anush Patric, M. Jadeyegowda, M. N. Ramesh, M. Ravikumar, C. R. Ajay

Abstract:

Kodagu district which is situated in Central Western Ghats regions falls in one of the hottest of hot spots of biodiversity which is recognised by UNESCO. The district has one of the highest densities of community managed sacred forests in the world with rich floral and faunal diversity. It is a habitat for more than ten different types of Ethnic Indigenous tribal groups commonly called ‘Girijanas’ (Soligas, Yarvas, Jenukuruba, Bettakuruba etc.), who are having the rich knowledge of medicinal value of the plants that are commonly available in the forest. The tribal men of this region are the treasure house of the traditional plant knowledge and health care practices. An ethnobotanical survey was undertaken in tribal areas of the district to collect information about some of the indigenous medicinal plant knowledge of tribal people by semi-structured interviews, ranking exercises and field observations on their native habitat in order to evaluate the potential medicinal uses of local plants. The study revealed that, the ethnobotanical information of 83 plant species belonging to 45 families, of the total 83 species documented, most plants used in the treatment were trees (11 species), shrubs (41 species), herbs (22 species) and rarely climbers (9 species) which are used in the treatment of Hyperacidity, Respiratory disorders, Snake bite Abortifacient, Anthelmintic, Paralysis, Antiseptic, Fever, Chest pain, Stomachic, Jaundice, Piles, Asthma, Malaria, Renal disorders, Malaria and many other diseases. Maximum of 6 plant species each of Acanthaceae, Apiaceae and were used for drug preparation, followed by Asclepiadaceae, Liliaceae, Fabaceae, Verbenaceae, Caesalpinaceae, Bombaceae, Papilonaceae, Solanaceae, Rubiaceae, Myrtaceae, Amaranthaceae, Asteraceae, Ascelepidaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Apocyanaceae, and Solanaceae etc. In our present study, only medicinal plants and their local medicinal uses are recorded and presented. Information was obtained by local informants having the knowledge about medicinal plants. About 23 local tribes were interviewed. For each plant, necessary information like botanical name, family of plant species, local name and uses are given. Recent trend shows a decline in the number of traditional herbal healers in the tribal areas since the younger generation is not interested to continue this tradition. Hence, there is an urgent need to record and preserve all information on plants used by different ethnic/tribal communities for various purposes before it reaches to verge of extinction. In addition, several wild medicinal plants are declining in numbers due to deforestation and forest fires. There is need for phytochemical analysis and conservation measures to be taken for conserving medicinal plant species which is far better than allopathic medicines and these do not cause any side effects as they are the natural disease healers. So, conservation strategies have to be practiced in all levels and sectors by creating awareness about the value of such medicinal plants, and it is necessary to save the disappearing plants to strengthen the document and to conserve them for future generation.

Keywords: diseases, ethnic groups, folk medicine, Kodagu, medicinal plants

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3369 Online Community Suitable for e-Masjid ?

Authors: Norlizam Md Sukiban, Muhammad Faisal Ashaari, Hidayah bt Rahmalan

Abstract:

The role that a mosque or masjid have applied during the life of the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) was magnificent. Masjid managed to gather the community in lots of ways. It was the center of the first Islamic community and nation, with greatest triumphs and tragedies. It was a place to accommodate for the community center, homeless refuge, university and mosque all rolled into one. However, the role of masjid applied today was less than the time of the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) was alive. The advanced technology such as the internet has a major impact to the community nowadays. For example, community online has been chosen for lots of people to maintain their relationship and suggest various events among the communities members. This study is to investigate the possibility of the role of e-Masjid in adapting the concept of community online in order to remain the role played as such as role of masjid during the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W). Definition and the characteristic of the online community were listed, along with the benefits of the online community. Later, discussion on the possibility of the online community to be adapted in e-Masjid.

Keywords: e-masjid, online community, virtual community, e-community

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3368 Conservation and Restoration of Biodiversity in Khagrachari

Authors: Anima Ashraf

Abstract:

Over the past few decades biodiversity has become the issue of global concern for its rapid reduction worldwide. Bangladesh is no exception. The country is exceptionally endowed with a vast variety of flora and fauna, but due to tremendous population pressure, rural poverty and unemployment it has been decreased alarmingly. Since, both biodiversity and sustainable development are the part of human life in modern era and both work together to make our life safer and comfortable therefore balance should be kept in development and biodiversity conservation and priority should be given to alternative and sustainable development paths. This paper is based on study of two projects undertaken by Arannayk Foundation jointly with its local NGO partners. The aim was to understand previous, current and future scenarios for the hilly biodiversity of Khagrachari in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) of Bangladesh. It is also observed how alternative income generating activities (AIGA) improve livelihood of the tribal inhabitants of the area, decrease their dependency on forest resources and also aid conservation activities. Intensive field visits were made and interviews were conducted with key informants to see the progress and achievements of local NGOs working with the tribal community for the past seven years to restore the denuded hills of Khagrachari. The paper also covers the impacts and interventions of the projects and the methods used to aid conservation activities. Raising awareness among the villagers has reduced extraction of forests resources by 47% and granting funds and access to microcredit to adopt AIGAs have increased their average annual income by 25%. Finally, the paper concludes that effective community-based conservation practices are fundamental to ensure biodiversity conservation in the Chittagong Hill Tracts. In order to conserve biodiversity and restore the forests of CHT, livelihood development of the villagers has to be considered as the main component of the projects undertaken by all NGOs and the Government.

Keywords: biodiversity, conservation, forests, livelihood

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3367 Children Overcome Learning Disadvantages through Mother-Tongue Based Multi-Lingual Education Programme

Authors: Binay Pattanayak

Abstract:

More than 9 out of every 10 children in Jharkhand struggle to understand the texts and teachers in public schools. The medium of learning in the schools is Hindi, which is very different in structure and vocabulary than those in children’s home languages. Hence around 3 out of 10 children enrolled in early grades drop out in these schools. The state realized the cause of children’s high dropout in 2013-14 when the M-TALL, the language research shared the findings of a state-wide socio-linguistic study. The study findings suggested that there was a great need for initiating a mother-tongue based multilingual education (MTB-MLE) programme for the state in early grades starting from pre-school level. Accordingly, M-TALL in partnership with department of education designed two learning packages: Bhasha Puliya pre-school education programme for 3-6-year-old children for their school readiness with bilingual picture dictionaries in 9 tribal and regional languages. This was followed by a plan for MTB-MLE programme for early primary grades. For this textbooks in five tribal and two regional languages were developed under the guidance of the author. These books were printed and circulated in the 1000 schools of the state for each child. Teachers and community members were trained for facilitating culturally sensitive mother-tongue based learning activities in and around the schools. The mother-tongue based approach of learning has worked very effectively in enabling them to acquire the basic literacy and numeracy skills in own mother-tongues. Using this basic early grade reading skills, these children are able to learn Hindi and English systematically. Community resource groups were constituted in each school for promoting storytelling, singing, painting, dancing, acting, riddles, humor, sanitation, health, nutrition, protection, etc. and were trained. School academic calendar was designed in each school to enable the community resource persons to visit the school as per the learning plan to assist children and teacher in facilitating rich cultural activities in mother-tongue. This enables children to take part in plethora of learning activities and acquire desired knowledge, skills and interest in mother-tongues. Also in this process, it is attempted to promote 21st Century learning skills by enabling children to apply their new knowledge and skills to look at their local issues and address those in a collective manner through team work, innovations and leadership.

Keywords: community resource groups, learning, MTB-MLE, multilingual, socio-linguistic survey

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3366 Role of Indigenous Women in Securing Sustainable Livelihoods in Western Himalayan Region, India

Authors: Haresh Sharma, Jaimini Luharia

Abstract:

The ecology in the Western Himalayan region transforms with the change in altitude. This change is observed in terms of topography, species of flora and fauna and the quality of the soil. The current study focuses on women of indigenous communities of Pangi Valley, which is located in the state of Himachal Pradesh, India. The valley is bifurcated into three different areas –Saichu, Hudan Bhatori, and Sural Bhatori valleys. It is one of the most remote, rugged and difficult to access tribal regions of Chamba district. The altitude of the valley ranges from 2,000 m to 6,000 m above sea level. The Pangi valley is inhabited by ‘Pangwals’ and ‘Bhots’ tribes of the Himalayas who speak their local tribal language called’ Pangwali’. The valley is cut-off from the mainland due to heavy snow and lack of proper roads during peak winters. Due to difficult geographical location, the daily lives of the people are constantly challenged, and they are most of the times deprived of benefits targeted through government programs. However, the indigenous communities earn their livelihood through livestock and forest-based produce while some of them migrate to nearby places for better work. The current study involves snowball sampling methodology for data collection along with in-depth interviews of women members of Self-Help Groups and women farmers. The findings reveal that the lives of these indigenous communities largely depend on forest-based products. So, it creates all the more significance of enhancing, maintaining, and consuming natural resources sustainably. Under such circumstances, the women of the community play a significant role of guardians in conservation and protection of the forests. They are the custodians of traditional knowledge of environment conservation practices that have been followed for many years in the region. The present study also sought to establish a relationship between some of the development initiatives undertaken by the women in the valley that stimulate sustainable mountain economy and conservation practices. These initiatives include cultivation of products like hazelnut, ‘Gucchi’ rare quality mushroom, medicinal plants exclusively found in the region, thereby promoting long term sustainable conservation of agro-biodiversity of the Western Himalayan region. The measures taken by the community women are commendable as they ensure access and distribution of natural resources as well as manage them for future generations. Apart from this, the tribal women have actively formed Self-Help Groups promoting financial inclusion through various activities that augment ownership and accountability towards the overall development of the communities. But, the results also suggest that there’s not enough recognition given to women’s role in forests conservation practices due to several local socio-political reasons. There are not enough research studies done on communities of Pangi Valley due to inaccessibility created out of lack of proper roads and other resources. Also, there emerged a need to concretize indigenous and traditional knowledge of conservation practices followed by women in the community.

Keywords: forest conservation, indigenous community women, sustainable livelihoods, sustainable development, poverty alleviation, Western Himalayas

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3365 Community Structure Detection in Networks Based on Bee Colony

Authors: Bilal Saoud

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a new method to find the community structure in networks. Our method is based on bee colony and the maximization of modularity to find the community structure. We use a bee colony algorithm to find the first community structure that has a good value of modularity. To improve the community structure, that was found, we merge communities until we get a community structure that has a high value of modularity. We provide a general framework for implementing our approach. We tested our method on computer-generated and real-world networks with a comparison to very known community detection methods. The obtained results show the effectiveness of our proposition.

Keywords: bee colony, networks, modularity, normalized mutual information

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3364 Development of People's Participation in Environmental Development in Pathumthani Province

Authors: Sakapas Saengchai

Abstract:

Study on the development of people's participation in environmental development was a qualitative research method. Data were collected by participant observation, in-depth interview and discussion group in Pathumthani province. The study indicated that 1) People should be aware of environmental information from government agencies. 2) People in the community should be able to brainstorm information, exchange information about community environment development. 3) People should have a role with community leaders. 4) People in the community should have a role to play in the implementation of projects and activities in the development of the environment and 5) citizens, community leaders, village committee have directed the development of the area. Maintaining a community environment with a shared decision. By emphasizing the process of participation, self-reliance, mutual help, and responsibility for one's own community. Community empowerment strengthens the sustainable spatial development of the environment.

Keywords: people, participation, community, environment

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3363 Managing Education through, Effective School Community Relationships/Participation for National Security

Authors: Shehu S. Janguza

Abstract:

The need for national security cannot be over Emphasis, which should be pursued by any means. Thus the need for effective management of education through effective school community Relationship/participation. In preparing and implementing only effort to promote community involvement in manning Education, it is importance to understand the whole picture of community participation, how it works, what forms are used, what benefit it can yield and what we should expect in the process of carrying out the efforts finally emphasis will be made on how effective school community relationship/participation and lead to national security.

Keywords: community participation, managing, school community, national security

Procedia PDF Downloads 497