Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1407

Search results for: square footing

1407 Behaviour of Model Square Footing Resting on Three Dimensional Geogrid Reinforced Sand Bed

Authors: Femy M. Makkar, S. Chandrakaran, N. Sankar

Abstract:

The concept of reinforced earth has been used in the field of geotechnical engineering since 1960s, for many applications such as, construction of road and rail embankments, pavements, retaining walls, shallow foundations, soft ground improvement and so on. Conventionally, planar geosynthetic materials such as geotextiles and geogrids were used as the reinforcing elements. Recently, the use of three dimensional reinforcements becomes one of the emerging trends in this field. So, in the present investigation, three dimensional geogrid is proposed as a reinforcing material. Laboratory scaled plate load tests are conducted on a model square footing resting on 3D geogrid reinforced sand bed. The performance of 3D geogrids in triangular and square pattern was compared with conventional geogrids and the improvement in bearing capacity and reduction in settlement and heave are evaluated. When single layer of reinforcement was placed at an optimum depth of 0.25B from the bottom of the footing, the bearing capacity of conventional geogrid reinforced soil improved by 1.85 times compared to unreinforced soil, where as 3D geogrid reinforced soil with triangular pattern and square pattern shows 2.69 and 3.05 times improvement respectively compared to unreinforced soil. Also, 3D geogrids performs better than conventional geogrids in reducing the settlement and heave of sand bed around the model footing.

Keywords: 3D reinforcing elements, bearing capacity, heavy, settlement

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
1406 Effect of Reinforcement Density on the Behaviour of Reinforced Sand Under a Square Footing

Authors: Dhyaalddin Bahaalddin Noori Zangana

Abstract:

This study involves the behavior of reinforced sand under a square footing. A series of bearing capacity tests were performed on a small-scale laboratory model, which filled with a poorly-graded homogenous bed of sand, which was placed in a medium dense state using sand raining technique. The sand was reinforced with 40 mm wide household aluminum foil strips. The main studied parameters was to consider the effect of reinforcing strip length, with various linear density of reinforcement, number of reinforcement layers and depth of top layer of reinforcement below the footing, on load-settlement behavior, bearing capacity ratio and settlement reduction factor. The relation of load-settlement generally showed similar trend in all the tests. Failure was defined as settlement equal to 10% of the footing width. The recommended optimum reinforcing strip length, linear density of reinforcement, number of reinforcement layers and depth of top layer of reinforcing strips that give the maximum bearing capacity improvement and minimum settlement reduction factor were presented and discussed. Different bearing capacity ration versus length of the reinforcing strips and settlement reduction factor versus length of the reinforcing strips relations at failure were showed improvement of bearing capacity ratio by a factor of 3.82 and reduction of settlement reduction factor by a factor of 0.813. The optimum length of reinforcement was found to be 7.5 times the footing width.

Keywords: square footing, relative density, linear density of reinforcement, bearing capacity ratio, load-settlement behaviour

Procedia PDF Downloads 13
1405 Punching Shear Behavior of RC Column Footing on Stabilized Ground

Authors: Sukanta K. Shill, Md. M. Hoque, Md. Shaifullah

Abstract:

An experiment on the punching of RC column footing, comparison of test result to established different codes for punching shear calculation of column footings is presented in the paper. The principal aim of this study is to investigate the punching shear behavior of an isolated column footing using brick aggregate as coarse aggregate. Consequence, a RC model footing was constructed on a stabilized soil and tested the footing under field condition. The test result yields that the experimental punching shear capacity is greater than all the theoretical punching shear capacities obtained by using different codes of practices. It can be stated that BNBC 1993, as well as ACI 318, 2002 code formulae are very conservative in predicting the punching shear resistance of RC footing, whereas the CEB-FIP MC, 1990 formula and Eurocode2 formula are less conservative in predicting the punching shear resistance of footing.

Keywords: footing, punching shear, field condition, stabilized soil, brick aggregate

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
1404 The Effect of Jet Grouting on the Behavior of Strip Footing Adjacent to Slope Crest

Authors: Ahmed M. El-Tuhami, Ahmed A. Mohamed

Abstract:

This paper studies the behavior of strip footing adjacent to slope crest and the effect of jet grouting under the footing. This problem is investigated numerically in the present study. Two dimensional plane strain program PLAXIS is used in this study. 15 nodes triangular element is used to idealize soil with hardening soil model. Five nodes isoperimetric beam element is used to idealize stripe footing. Interface element is used to represent the contact between beam element and soil. Two parameters were studied, the first is the foundation depth and the second is the Stripe footing distance from the slope crest. Settlement and horizontal displacement of strip footing were obtained and studied from the analyzed finite element model results. The reduction influence of jet grouting on footing displacement were studied and investigated. The results indicate that the inclusion of jet grouting under strip footing adjacent to slope crest has significant effect in improving the response of the strip footing and the slope.

Keywords: strip footing, jet grouting, slope, PLAXIS, relative distance

Procedia PDF Downloads 400
1403 Study of the Behavior of Geogrid Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls Under Cyclic Loading

Authors: Yongzhe Zhao, Ying Liu, Zhiyong Liu, Hui You

Abstract:

The soil behind retaining wall is normally subjected to cyclic loading, for example traffic loading. Geotextile has been widely used to reinforce the soil for the purpose of reducing the settlement of the soil. A series of physical model tests were performed to investigate the settlement of footing under cyclic loading. The settlement of the footing, ground deformation and the vertical earth pressure in subsoil were presented and discussed under different types of geotextiles. The results indicate that including geotextiles significantly decreases the footing settlement and the stiffer the geotextile, the less the settlement. Under cyclic loading, the soil below the footing shows dilation within certain depths and beyond that it experiences contraction. The location of footing relative to the retaining wall has important effects on the deformation behavior of the soil in the ground, and the closer the footing to the retaining wall, the greater the contraction soil shows. This is because the retaining wall experienced greater lateral displacement.

Keywords: physical model tests, reinforced retaining wall, cyclic loading, footing

Procedia PDF Downloads 18
1402 Effect of Footing Shape on Bearing Capacity and Settlement of Closely Spaced Footings on Sandy Soil

Authors: A. Shafaghat, H. Khabbaz, S. Moravej, Ah. Shafaghat

Abstract:

The bearing capacity of closely spaced shallow footings alters with their spacing and the shape of footing. In this study, the bearing capacity and settlement of two adjacent footings constructed on a sand layer are investigated. The effect of different footing shapes including square, circular, ring and strip on sandy soil is captured in the calculations. The investigations are carried out numerically using PLAXIS-3D software and analytically employing conventional settlement equations. For this purpose, foundations are modelled in the program with practical dimensions and various spacing ratios ranging from 1 to 5. The spacing ratio is defined as the centre-to-centre distance to the width of foundations (S/B). Overall, 24 models are analyzed; and the results are compared and discussed in detail. It can be concluded that the presence of adjacent foundation leads to the reduction in bearing capacity for round shape footings while it can increase the bearing capacity of rectangular footings in some specific distances.

Keywords: bearing capacity, finite element analysis, loose sand, settlement equations, shallow foundation

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
1401 Numerical Study of Modulus of Subgrade Reaction in Eccentrically Loaded Circular Footing Resting

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Mohammad Hossein Zade

Abstract:

This article is an attempt to present a numerically study of the behaviour of an eccentrically loaded circular footing resting on sand to determine ‎its ultimate bearing capacity. A surface circular footing of diameter 12 cm (D) was used as ‎shallow foundation. For this purpose, three dimensional models consist of foundation, and medium sandy soil was modelled by ABAQUS software. Bearing capacity of footing was evaluated and the ‎effects of the load eccentricity on bearing capacity, its settlement, and modulus of subgrade reaction were studied. Three different values of load eccentricity with equal space from inside the core on the core boundary and outside the core boundary, which were respectively e=0.75, 1.5, and 2.25 cm, were considered. The results show that by increasing the load eccentricity, the ultimate load and the ‎modulus of subgrade reaction decreased.

Keywords: circular foundation, sand, eccentric loading, modulus of subgrade reaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
1400 Evaluation of Stone Column Behavior Strengthened Circular Raft Footing under Static Load

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, B. Mohammadi-Haji

Abstract:

Stone columns have been widely employing to improve the load-settlement characteristics of soft soils. The results of two small scale displacement control loading tests on stone columns were used in order to validate numerical finite element simulations. Additionally, a series of numerical calculations of static loading have been performed on strengthened raft footing to investigate the effects of using stone columns on bearing capacity of footings. The bearing capacity of single and group of stone columns under static loading compares with unimproved ground.

Keywords: circular raft footing, numerical analysis, validation, vertically encased stone column

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
1399 Circular Raft Footings Strengthened by Stone Columns under Dynamic Harmonic Loads

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, A. Mahigir

Abstract:

Stone column technique has been successfully employed to improve the load-settlement characteristics of foundations. A series of finite element numerical analyses of harmonic dynamic loading have been conducted on strengthened raft footing to study the effects of single and group stone columns on settlement of circular footings. The settlement of circular raft footing that improved by single and group of stone columns are studied under harmonic dynamic loading. This loading is caused by heavy machinery foundations. A detailed numerical investigation on behavior of single column and group of stone columns is carried out by varying parameters like weight of machinery, loading frequency and period. The result implies that presence of single and group of stone columns enhanced dynamic behavior of the footing so that the maximum and residual settlement of footing significantly decreased. 

Keywords: finite element analysis, harmonic loading, settlement, stone column

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
1398 Displacement Fields in Footing-Sand Interactions under Cyclic Loading

Authors: S. Joseph Antony, Z. K. Jahanger

Abstract:

Soils are subjected to cyclic loading in situ in situations such as during earthquakes and in the compaction of pavements. Investigations on the local scale measurement of the displacements of the grain and failure patterns within the soil bed under the cyclic loading conditions are rather limited. In this paper, using the digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV), local scale displacement fields of a dense sand medium interacting with a rigid footing are measured under the plane-strain condition for two commonly used types of cyclic loading, and the quasi-static loading condition for the purposes of comparison. From the displacement measurements of the grains, the failure envelopes of the sand media are also presented. The results show that, the ultimate cyclic bearing capacity (qultcyc) occurred corresponding to a relatively higher settlement value when compared with that of under the quasi-static loading. For the sand media under the cyclic loading conditions considered here, the displacement fields in the soil media occurred more widely in the horizontal direction and less deeper along the vertical direction when compared with that of under the quasi-static loading. The 'dead zone' in the sand grains beneath the footing is identified for all types of the loading conditions studied here. These grain-scale characteristics have implications on the resulting bulk bearing capacity of the sand media in footing-sand interaction problems.

Keywords: cyclic loading, DPIV, settlement, soil-structure interactions, strip footing

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
1397 Investigation of Several Parameters on Local Scour around Inclined Dual Bridge Piers

Authors: Murat Çeşme

Abstract:

For a bridge engineer to ensure a safe footing design, it is very important to estimate the maximum scour depth around the piers as accurately as possible. Many experimental studies have been performed by several investigators to obtain information about scouring mechanism. In order to examine the effect of inclination of dual bridge piers on scour depth under clear-water conditions for various uniform flow depths, an experimental research on scaled dual bridge piers has been carried over in METU Hydromechanics Lab. Dimensional and non-dimensional curves were developed and presented to show the variation of scour depth with respect to various parameters such as footing angle with the vertical, flow depth and footing dimensions. Results of the study were compared to those obtained from a similar study performed with single inclined piers to see the effect of the second pier on scour depths. Useful equations for the design engineers were developed based on multiple regression analyses to be used for predicting local scour depths around inclined piers in uniform and non-uniform sediments.

Keywords: experimental research, inclined dual bridge piers, footing safety, scour depth, clear water condition

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
1396 Application of Particle Image Velocimetry in the Analysis of Scale Effects in Granular Soil

Authors: Zuhair Kadhim Jahanger, S. Joseph Antony

Abstract:

The available studies in the literature which dealt with the scale effects of strip footings on different sand packing systematically still remain scarce. In this research, the variation of ultimate bearing capacity and deformation pattern of soil beneath strip footings of different widths under plane-strain condition on the surface of loose, medium-dense and dense sand have been systematically studied using experimental and noninvasive methods for measuring microscopic deformations. The presented analyses are based on model scale compression test analysed using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique. Upper bound analysis of the current study shows that the maximum vertical displacement of the sand under the ultimate load increases for an increase in the width of footing, but at a decreasing rate with relative density of sand, whereas the relative vertical displacement in the sand decreases for an increase in the width of the footing. A well agreement is observed between experimental results for different footing widths and relative densities. The experimental analyses have shown that there exists pronounced scale effect for strip surface footing. The bearing capacity factors rapidly decrease up to footing widths B=0.25 m, 0.35 m, and 0.65 m for loose, medium-dense and dense sand respectively, after that there is no significant decrease in . The deformation modes of the soil as well as the ultimate bearing capacity values have been affected by the footing widths. The obtained results could be used to improve settlement calculation of the foundation interacting with granular soil.

Keywords: DPIV, granular mechanics, scale effect, upper bound analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
1395 Design of Soil Replacement under Axial Centric Load Isolated Footing by Limit State Method

Authors: Emad A. M. Osman, Ahmed M. Abu-Bakr

Abstract:

Compacted granular fill under shallow foundation is one of the oldest, cheapest, and easiest techniques to improve the soil characteristics to increase the bearing capacity and decrease settlement under footing. There are three main factors affecting the design of soil replacement to gain these advantages. These factors are the type of replaced soil, characteristics, and thickness. The first two factors can be easily determined by laboratory and field control. This paper emphasizes on how to determine the thickness accurately for footing under centric axial load by limit state design method. The advantages of the method are the way of determining the thickness (independent of experience) and it takes into account the replaced and original or underneath soil characteristics and reaches the goals of replaced soils economically.

Keywords: design of soil replacement, LSD method, soil replacement, soil improvement

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
1394 Effect of Cavities on the Behaviour of Strip Footing Subjected to Inclined Load

Authors: Ali A. Al-Jazaairry, Tahsin T. Sabbagh

Abstract:

One of the important concerns within the field of geotechnical engineering is the presence of cavities in soils. This present work is an attempt to understand the behaviour of strip footing subjected to inclined load and constructed on cavitied soil. The failure mechanism of strip footing located above such soils was studied analytically. The capability of analytical model to correctly expect the system behaviour is assessed by carrying out verification analysis on available studies. The study was prepared by finite element software (PLAXIS) in which an elastic-perfectly plastic soil model was used. It was indicated, from the results of the study, that the load carrying capacity of foundation constructed on cavity can be analysed well using such analysis. The research covered many foundation cases, and in each foundation case, there occurs a critical depth under which the presence of cavities has shown minimum impact on the foundation performance. When cavities are found above this critical depth, the load carrying capacity of the foundation differs with many influences, such as the location and size of the cavity and footing depth. Figures involving the load carrying capacity with the affecting factors studied are presented. These figures offer information beneficial for the design of strip footings rested on underground cavities. Moreover, the results might be used to design a shallow foundation constructed on cavitied soil, whereas the obtained failure mechanisms may be employed to improve numerical solutions for this kind of problems.

Keywords: axial load, cavity, inclined load, strip footing

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
1393 Study on Bending Characteristics of Square Tube Using Energy Absorption Part

Authors: Shigeyuki Haruyama, Zefry Darmawan, Ken Kaminishi

Abstract:

In the square tube subjected to the bending load, the rigidity of the entire square tube is reduced when a collapse occurs due to local stress concentration. Therefore, in this research, the influence of bending load on the square tube with attached energy absorbing part was examined and reported. The analysis was conducted by using Finite Element Method (FEM) to produced bending deflection and buckling points. Energy absorption was compared from rigidity of attached part and square tube body. Buckling point was influenced by the rigidity of attached part and the thickness rate of square tube.

Keywords: energy absorber, square tube, bending, rigidity

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
1392 Numerical Analysis of Shallow Footing Rested on Geogrid Reinforced Sandy Soil

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Javad Shamsi Soosahab

Abstract:

The use of geosynthetic reinforcement within the footing soils is a very effective and useful method to avoid the construction of costly deep foundations. This study investigated the use of geosynthetics for soil improvement based on numerical modeling using FELA software. Pressure settlement behavior and bearing capacity ratio of foundation on geogrid reinforced sand is investigated and the effect of different parameters like as number of geogrid layers and vertical distance between elements in three different relative density soil is studied. The effects of geometrical parameters of reinforcement layers were studied for determining the optimal values to reach to maximum bearing capacity. The results indicated that the optimum range of the distance ratio between the reinforcement layers was achieved at 0.5 to 0.6 and after number of geogrid layers of 4, no significant effect on increasing the bearing capacity of footing on reinforced sandy with geogrid

Keywords: geogrid, reinforced sand, FELA software, distance ratio, number of geogrid layers

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
1391 Influence Zone of Strip Footing on Untreated and Cement Treated Sand Mat Underlain by Soft Clay (2nd reviewed)

Authors: Sharifullah Ahmed

Abstract:

Shallow foundation on soft soils without ground improvement can represent a high level of settlement. In such a case, an alternative to pile foundations may be shallow strip footings placed on a soil system in which the upper layer is untreated or cement-treated compacted sand to limit the settlement within a permissible level. This research work deals with a rigid plane-strain strip footing of 2.5m width placed on a soil consisting of untreated or cement treated sand layer underlain by homogeneous soft clay. Both the thin and thick compared the footing width was considered. The soft inorganic cohesive NC clay layer is considered undrained for plastic loading stages and drained in consolidation stages, and the sand layer is drained in all loading stages. FEM analysis was done using PLAXIS 2D Version 8.0 with a model consisting of clay deposits of 15m thickness and 18m width. The soft clay layer was modeled using the Hardening Soil Model, Soft Soil Model, Soft Soil Creep model, and the upper improvement layer was modeled using only the Hardening Soil Model. The system is considered fully saturated. The value of natural void ratio 1.2 is used. Total displacement fields of strip footing and subsoil layers in the case of Untreated and Cement treated Sand as Upper layer are presented. For Hi/B =0.6 or above, the distribution of major deformation within an upper layer and the influence zone of footing is limited in an upper layer which indicates the complete effectiveness of the upper layer in bearing the foundation effectively in case of the untreated upper layer. For Hi/B =0.3 or above, the distribution of major deformation occurred within an upper layer, and the function of footing is limited in the upper layer. This indicates the complete effectiveness of the cement-treated upper layer. Brittle behavior of cemented sand and fracture or cracks is not considered in this analysis.

Keywords: displacement, ground improvement, influence depth, PLAXIS 2D, primary and secondary settlement, sand mat, soft clay

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1390 Circular Raft Footings Strengthened by Stone Columns under Static Loads

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, B. Mohammadi-Haji

Abstract:

Stone columns have been widely employed to improve the load-settlement characteristics of soft soils. The results of two small scale displacement control loading tests on stone columns were used in order to validate numerical finite element simulations. Additionally, a series of numerical calculations of static loading have been performed on strengthened raft footing to investigate the effects of using stone columns on bearing capacity of footings. The bearing capacity of single and group of stone columns under static loading compares with unimproved ground.

Keywords: circular raft footing, numerical analysis, validation, vertically encased stone column

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
1389 Geotechnical Design of Bridge Foundations and Approaches in Hilly Granite Formation

Authors: Q. J. Yang

Abstract:

This paper presents a case study of geotechnical design of bridge foundations and approaches in hilly granite formation in northern New South Wales of Australia. Firstly, the geological formation and existing cut slope conditions which have high risks of rock fall will be described. The bridge has three spans to be constructed using balanced cantilever method with a middle span of 150 m. After concept design option engineering, it was decided to change from pile foundation to pad footing with ground anchor system to optimize the bridge foundation design. The geotechnical design parameters were derived after two staged site investigations. The foundation design was carried out to satisfy both serviceability limit state and ultimate limit state during construction and in operation. It was found that the pad footing design was governed by serviceability limit state design loading cases. The design of bridge foundation also considered presence of weak rock layer intrusion and a layer of “no core” to ensure foundation stability. The precast mass concrete block system was considered for the retaining walls for the bridge approaches to resolve the constructability issue over hilly terrain. The design considered the retaining wall block sliding stability, while the overturning and internal stabilities are satisfied.

Keywords: pad footing, Hilly formation, stability, block works

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
1388 Influence of Intermediate Principal Stress on Solution of Planar Stability Problems

Authors: M. Jahanandish, M. B. Zeydabadinejad

Abstract:

In this paper, von Mises and Drucker-Prager yield criteria, as typical ones that consider the effect of intermediate principal stress σ2, have been selected and employed for investigating the influence of σ2 on the solution of a typical stability problem. The bearing capacity factors have been calculated under plane strain condition (strip footing) and axisymmetric condition (circular footing) using the method of stress characteristics together with the criteria mentioned. Different levels of σ2 relative to the other two principal stresses have been considered. While a higher σ2 entry in yield criterion gives a higher bearing capacity; its entry in equilibrium equations (axisymmetric) causes substantial reduction.

Keywords: intermediate principal stress, plane strain, axisymmetric, yield criteria

Procedia PDF Downloads 393
1387 Design Charts for Strip Footing on Untreated and Cement Treated Sand Mat over Underlying Natural Soft Clay

Authors: Sharifullah Ahmed, Sarwar Jahan Md. Yasin

Abstract:

Shallow foundations on unimproved soft natural soils can undergo a high consolidation and secondary settlement. For low and medium rise building projects on such soil condition, pile foundation may not be cost effective. In such cases an alternative to pile foundations may be shallow strip footings placed on a double layered improved soil system soil. The upper layer of this system is untreated or cement treated compacted sand and underlying layer is natural soft clay. This system will reduce the settlement to an allowable limit. The current research has been conducted with the settlement of a rigid plane-strain strip footing of 2.5 m width placed on the surface of a soil consisting of an untreated or cement treated sand layer overlying a bed of homogeneous soft clay. The settlement of the mentioned shallow foundation has been studied considering both cases with the thicknesses of the sand layer are 0.3 to 0.9 times the width of footing. The response of the clay layer is assumed as undrained for plastic loading stages and drained during consolidation stages. The response of the sand layer is drained during all loading stages. FEM analysis was done using PLAXIS 2D Version 8.0. A natural clay deposit of 15 m thickness and 18 m width has been modeled using Hardening Soil Model, Soft Soil Model, Soft Soil Creep Model, and upper improvement layer has been modeled using only Hardening Soil Model. The groundwater level is at the top level of the clay deposit that made the system fully saturated. Parametric study has been conducted to determine the effect of thickness, density, cementation of the sand mat and density, shear strength of the soft clay layer on the settlement of strip foundation under the uniformly distributed vertical load of varying value. A set of the chart has been established for designing shallow strip footing on the sand mat over thick, soft clay deposit through obtaining the particular thickness of sand mat for particular subsoil parameter to ensure no punching shear failure and no settlement beyond allowable level. Design guideline in the form of non-dimensional charts has been developed for footing pressure equivalent to medium-rise residential or commercial building foundation with strip footing on soft inorganic Normally Consolidated (NC) soil of Bangladesh having void ratio from 1.0 to 1.45.

Keywords: design charts, ground improvement, PLAXIS 2D, primary and secondary settlement, sand mat, soft clay

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
1386 A Review on the Perception of Beşiktaş Public Square

Authors: Neslinur Hizli, Berrak Kirbaş Akyürek

Abstract:

Beşiktaş, one of the historical coastal district of İstanbul, is on the very edge of the radical transformation because of an approaching ‘Beşiktaş Public Square Project’. At this juncture, due its location, presence on the coast, population density and distance to the other centers of the city, the decisions to be taken are critical to whole Istanbul that will be majorly affected from this transformation. As the new project aims to pedestrianize the area by placing the vehicular traffic under the ground, Beşiktaş and its square will change from top to bottom. Among those considerations, through the advantages and disadvantages the perception of the existing conditions of the Beşiktaş play significant role. The motive of this paper is the lack of determination and clarity on the cognition of the Square. After brief analysis on the historical transformation of the area, prominent studies on the criteria of public square are revised. Through cognitive mapping methodology, characteristics of the Square and the public space in general find a place to discuss from individual views. This study aims to discuss and review Beşiktaş Public Square from perspective, mind and behavior of the users. Cognitive map study with thirty subjects (30) is evaluated and categorized upon the five elements that Kevin Lynch defined as the images of the city. The results obtained digitized and represented with tables and graphs. Findings of the research underline the crucial issues on the approaching change in Beşiktaş. Thus, this study may help to develop comprehensive ideas and new suggestions on the Square.

Keywords: Beşiktaş public square, cognitive map, perception, public space

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
1385 Strategies of Spatial Optimization for Open Space in the Old-Age Friendly City: An Investigation of the Behavior of the Elderly in Xicheng Square in Hangzhou

Authors: Yunxiang Fang

Abstract:

With the aging trend continuing to accelerate, open space is important for the daily life of the elderly, and its old-age friendliness is worthy of attention. Based on behavioral observation and literature research, this paper studies the behavior of the elderly in urban open space. Through the investigation, classification and quantitative analysis of the activity types, time characteristics and spatial behavior order of the elderly in Xicheng Square in Hangzhou, it summarizes the square space suitable for the psychological needs, physiology and activity needs of the elderly, combined with the basis of literature research. Finally, the suggestions for the improvement of the old-age friendship of Xicheng Square are put forward, from the aspects of microclimate, safety and accessibility, space richness and service facility quality.

Keywords: behavior characteristics, old-age friendliness, open space, square

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
1384 A Numerical Study of Seismic Effects on Slope Stability Using Node-Based Smooth Finite Element Method

Authors: H. C. Nguyen

Abstract:

This contribution considers seismic effects on the stability of slope and footing resting on a slope. The seismic force is simply treated as static inertial force through the values of acceleration factor. All domains are assumed to be plasticity deformations approximated using node-based smoothed finite element method (NS-FEM). The failure mechanism and safety factor were then explored using numerical procedure based on upper bound approach in which optimization problem was formed as second order cone programming (SOCP). The data obtained confirm that upper bound procedure using NS-FEM and SOCP can give stable and rapid convergence results of seismic stability factors.

Keywords: upper bound analysis, safety factor, slope stability, footing resting on slope

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
1383 Evolution of Multimodulus Algorithm Blind Equalization Based on Recursive Least Square Algorithm

Authors: Sardar Ameer Akram Khan, Shahzad Amin Sheikh

Abstract:

Blind equalization is an important technique amongst equalization family. Multimodulus algorithms based on blind equalization removes the undesirable effects of ISI and cater ups the phase issues, saving the cost of rotator at the receiver end. In this paper a new algorithm combination of recursive least square and Multimodulus algorithm named as RLSMMA is proposed by providing few assumption, fast convergence and minimum Mean Square Error (MSE) is achieved. The excellence of this technique is shown in the simulations presenting MSE plots and the resulting filter results.

Keywords: blind equalizations, constant modulus algorithm, multi-modulus algorithm, recursive least square algorithm, quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM)

Procedia PDF Downloads 553
1382 Numerical Modelling of Prestressed Geogrid Reinforced Soil System

Authors: Soukat Kumar Das

Abstract:

Rapid industrialization and increase in population has resulted in the scarcity of suitable ground conditions. It has driven the need of ground improvement by means of reinforcement with geosynthetics with the minimum possible settlement and with maximum possible safety. Prestressing the geosynthetics offers an economical yet safe method of gaining the goal. Commercially available software PLAXIS 3D has made the analysis of prestressed geosynthetics simpler with much practical simulations of the ground. Attempts have been made so far to analyse the effect of prestressing geosynthetics and the effect of interference of footing on Unreinforced (UR), Geogrid Reinforced (GR) and Prestressed Geogrid Reinforced (PGR) soil on the load bearing capacity and the settlement characteristics of prestressed geogrid reinforced soil using the numerical analysis by using the software PLAXIS 3D. The results of the numerical analysis have been validated and compared with those given in the referred paper. The results have been found to be in very good agreement with those of the actual field values with very small variation. The GR soil has been found to be improve the bearing pressure 240 % whereas the PGR soil improves it by almost 500 % for 1mm settlement. In fact, the PGR soil has enhanced the bearing pressure of the GR soil by almost 200 %. The settlement reduction has also been found to be very significant as for 100 kPa bearing pressure the settlement reduction of the PGR soil has been found to be about 88 % with respect to UR soil and it reduced to up to 67 % with respect to GR soil. The prestressing force has resulted in enhanced reinforcement mechanism, resulting in the increased bearing pressure. The deformation at the geogrid layer has been found to be 13.62 mm for GR soil whereas it decreased down to mere 3.5 mm for PGR soil which certainly ensures the effect of prestressing on the geogrid layer. The parameter Improvement factor or conventionally known as Bearing Capacity Ratio for different settlements and which depicts the improvement of the PGR with respect to UR and GR soil and the improvement of GR soil with respect to UR soil has been found to vary in the range of 1.66-2.40 in the present analysis for GR soil and was found to be vary between 3.58 and 5.12 for PGR soil with respect to UR soil. The effect of prestressing was also observed in case of two interfering square footings. The centre to centre distance between the two footings (SFD) was taken to be B, 1.5B, 2B, 2.5B and 3B where B is the width of the footing. It was found that for UR soil the improvement of the bearing pressure was up to 1.5B after which it remained almost same. But for GR soil the zone of influence rose up to 2B and for PGR it further went up to 2.5B. So the zone of interference for PGR soil has increased by 67% than Unreinforced (UR) soil and almost 25 % with respect to GR soil.

Keywords: bearing, geogrid, prestressed, reinforced

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
1381 Improving Tower Grounding and Insulation Level vs. Line Surge Arresters for Protection of Subtransmission Lines

Authors: Navid Eghtedarpour, Mohammad Reza Hasani

Abstract:

Since renewable wind power plants are usually installed in mountain regions and high-level lands, they are often prone to lightning strikes and their hazardous effects. Although the transmission line is protected using guard wires in order to prevent the lightning surges to strike the phase conductors, the back-flashover may also occur due to tower footing resistance. A combination of back-flashover corrective methods, tower-footing resistance reduction, insulation level improvement, and line arrester installation, are analyzed in this paper for back-flashover rate reduction of a double-circuit 63 kV line in the south region of Fars province. The line crosses a mountain region in some sections with a moderate keraunic level, whereas tower-footing resistance is substantially high at some towers. Consequently, an exceptionally high back-flashover rate is recorded. A new method for insulation improvement is studied and employed in the current study. The method consists of using a composite-type creepage extender in the string. The effectiveness of this method for insulation improvement of the string is evaluated through the experimental test. Simulation results besides monitoring the one-year operation of the 63-kV line show that due to technical, practical, and economic restrictions in operated sub-transmission lines, a combination of corrective methods can lead to an effective solution for the protection of transmission lines against lightning.

Keywords: lightning protection, BF rate, grounding system, insulation level, line surge arrester

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1380 A Study of Rapid Replication of Square-Microlens Structures

Authors: Ting-Ting Wen, Jung-Ruey Tsai

Abstract:

This paper reports a method for the replication of micro-scale structures. By using electromagnetic force-assisted imprinting system with magnetic soft stamp written square-microlens cavity, a photopolymer square-microlens structures can be rapidly fabricated. Under the proper processing conditions, the polymeric square-microlens structures with feature size of width 100.3um and height 15.2um across a large area can be successfully fabricated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and surface profiler observations confirm that the micro-scale polymer structures are produced without defects or distortion and with good pattern fidelity over a 60x60mm2 area. This technique shows great potential for the efficient replication of the micro-scale structure array at room temperature and with high productivity and low cost.

Keywords: square-microlens structures, electromagnetic force-assisted imprinting, magnetic soft stamp

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1379 Comparison Analysis of Multi-Channel Echo Cancellation Using Adaptive Filters

Authors: Sahar Mobeen, Anam Rafique, Irum Baig

Abstract:

Acoustic echo cancellation in multichannel is a system identification application. In real time environment, signal changes very rapidly which required adaptive algorithms such as Least Mean Square (LMS), Leaky Least Mean Square (LLMS), Normalized Least Mean square (NLMS) and average (AFA) having high convergence rate and stable. LMS and NLMS are widely used adaptive algorithm due to less computational complexity and AFA used of its high convergence rate. This research is based on comparison of acoustic echo (generated in a room) cancellation thorough LMS, LLMS, NLMS, AFA and newly proposed average normalized leaky least mean square (ANLLMS) adaptive filters.

Keywords: LMS, LLMS, NLMS, AFA, ANLLMS

Procedia PDF Downloads 475
1378 Nonuniformity Correction Technique in Infrared Video Using Feedback Recursive Least Square Algorithm

Authors: Flavio O. Torres, Maria J. Castilla, Rodrigo A. Augsburger, Pedro I. Cachana, Katherine S. Reyes

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a scene-based nonuniformity correction method using a modified recursive least square algorithm with a feedback system on the updates. The feedback is designed to remove impulsive noise contamination images produced by a recursive least square algorithm by measuring the output of the proposed algorithm. The key advantage of the method is based on its capacity to estimate detectors parameters and then compensate for impulsive noise contamination image in a frame by frame basics. We define the algorithm and present several experimental results to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method in comparison to several previously published recursive least square-based methods. We show that the proposed method removes impulsive noise contamination image.

Keywords: infrared focal plane arrays, infrared imaging, least mean square, nonuniformity correction

Procedia PDF Downloads 71