Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9610

Search results for: marine spatial management

9610 Establishing Taiwan's Marine Space Planning System

Authors: Wen-Yan Chiau

Abstract:

Taiwan passed the 'Basic Ocean Act' in November 2019, and in accordance with Article 4 of its provisions, the government should draft a decree on ocean space planning (MSP). In the past few years, although Taiwan has passed the 'Coastal Zone Management Act' and the 'Spatial Planning Act', in the face of multiple use of marine areas, it still lacks a comprehensive marine area use blueprint and a fundamental mechanism for multi-purpose use planning management. In particular, Taiwan's active development of offshore wind power is facing this problem, and it is impossible to fully reconcile the use of each domain and the public welfare through a holistic system, highlighting the urgency of the establishment of MSP system. Therefore, this article will review relevant Taiwan laws and regulations, refer to important international initiatives and experiences, and participate in the exchange of practical experience in international conference(s), and propose adequate framework, principles, procedures, and promotion strategies on MSP. Possible solutions to promote sustainable and wise use in Taiwan's waters will also be suggested for comments.

Keywords: basic ocean act, coastal zone management act, marine spatial planning, spatial planning act, Taiwan

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9609 The Spatial Classification of China near Sea for Marine Biodiversity Conservation Based on Bio-Geographical Factors

Authors: Huang Hao, Li Weiwen

Abstract:

Global biodiversity continues to decline as a result of global climate change and various human activities, such as habitat destruction, pollution, introduction of alien species and overfishing. Although there are connections between global marine organisms more or less, it is better to have clear geographical boundaries in order to facilitate the assessment and management of different biogeographical zones. And so area based management tools (ABMT) are considered as the most effective means for the conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity. On a large scale, the geographical gap (or barrier) is the main factor to influence the connectivity, diffusion, ecological and evolutionary process of marine organisms, which results in different distribution patterns. On a small scale, these factors include geographical location, geology, and geomorphology, water depth, current, temperature, salinity, etc. Therefore, the analysis on geographic and environmental factors is of great significance in the study of biodiversity characteristics. This paper summarizes the marine spatial classification and ABMTs used in coastal area, open oceans and deep sea. And analysis principles and methods of marine spatial classification based on biogeographic related factors, and take China Near Sea (CNS) area as case study, and select key biogeographic related factors, carry out marine spatial classification at biological region scale, ecological regionals scale and biogeographical scale. The research shows that CNS is divided into 5 biological regions by climate and geographical differences, the Yellow Sea, the Bohai Sea, the East China Sea, the Taiwan Straits, and the South China Sea. And the bioregions are then divided into 12 ecological regions according to the typical ecological and administrative factors, and finally the eco-regions are divided into 98 biogeographical units according to the benthic substrate types, depth, coastal types, water temperature, and salinity, given the integrity of biological and ecological process, the area of the biogeographical units is not less than 1,000 km². This research is of great use to the coastal management and biodiversity conservation for local and central government, and provide important scientific support for future spatial planning and management of coastal waters and sustainable use of marine biodiversity.

Keywords: spatial classification, marine biodiversity, bio-geographical, conservation

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9608 The Effectiveness of Spatial Planning And Land Use Management Act, 2013 in Fetakgomo Tubatse Local Municipality: Case Study of Apel Nodal Point

Authors: Hlabishi Peter Ntloana

Abstract:

This paper aims to present the effectiveness of the Spatial Planning and Land Use Management Act, 2013, in addressing key spatial challenges in Fetakgomo Tubatse Local Municipality, mainly focusing on Apel nodal point. Spatial Planning and Land Use Management Act, 2013, popularly known as SPLUMA, aimed at addressing emerging and existing spatial planning and land use management challenges in South Africa. There are critical key spatial challenges that are continuously encountered in Apel Nodal Point, which include dispersed rural settlement mainly in a communal settlement. The spatial patterns and rural settlements development patterns are a challenge, and such results in uncoordinated human settlements. The objective of this research paper is to analyze the spatial planning of Apel nodal points and determine the effectiveness of the SPLUMA policy. Key Informant interviews were conducted with 20 participants, and also the municipal Spatial Development Framework was considered to explore more challenges and proposed recommendations. The results divulged that there is a huge gap in addressing spatial planning, mainly in rural areas, and correlation with the findings of the Municipal Spatial Development framework. In conclusion, spatial planning remains a critical dilemma in most rural settlements, and there must be programmes and strategies to balance the effectiveness of spatial planning in urban and rural settlements.

Keywords: land use management, rural settlement, spatial development framework, spatial planning

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9607 Marine Ecosystem Mapping of Taman Laut Labuan: The First Habitat Mapping Effort to Support Marine Parks Management in Malaysia

Authors: K. Ismail, A. Ali, R. C. Hasan, I. Khalil, Z. Bachok, N. M. Said, A. M. Muslim, M. S. Che Din, W. S. Chong

Abstract:

The marine ecosystem in Malaysia holds invaluable potential in terms of economics, food security, pharmaceuticals components and protection from natural hazards. Although exploration of oil and gas industry and fisheries are active within Malaysian waters, knowledge of the seascape and ecological functioning of benthic habitats is still extremely poor in the marine parks around Malaysia due to the lack of detailed seafloor information. Consequently, it is difficult to manage marine resources effectively, protect ecologically important areas and set legislation to safeguard the marine parks. The limited baseline data hinders scientific linkage to support effective marine spatial management in Malaysia. This became the main driver behind the first seabed mapping effort at the national level. Taman Laut Labuan (TLL) is located to the west coast of Sabah and to the east of South China Sea. The total area of TLL is approximately 158.15 km2, comprises of three islands namely Pulau Kuraman, Rusukan Besar and Rusukan Kecil and is characterised by shallow fringing reef with few submerged shallow reef. The unfamiliar rocky shorelines limit the survey of multibeam echosounder to area with depth more than 10 m. Whereas, singlebeam and side scan sonar systems were used to acquire the data for area with depth less than 10 m. By integrating data from multibeam bathymetry and backscatter with singlebeam bathymetry and side sonar images, we produce a substrate map and coral coverage map for the TLL using i) marine landscape mapping technique and ii) RSOBIA ArcGIS toolbar (developed by T. Le Bas). We take the initiative to explore the ability of aerial drone and satellite image (WorldView-3) to derive the depths and substrate type within the intertidal and subtidal zone where it is not accessible via acoustic mapping. Although the coverage was limited, the outcome showed a promising technique to be incorporated towards establishing a guideline to facilitate a standard practice for efficient marine spatial management in Malaysia.

Keywords: habitat mapping, marine spatial management, South China Sea, National seabed mapping

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9606 Coastal Resources Spatial Planning and Potential Oil Risk Analysis: Case Study of Misratah’s Coastal Resources, Libya

Authors: Abduladim Maitieg, Kevin Lynch, Mark Johnson

Abstract:

The goal of the Libyan Environmental General Authority (EGA) and National Oil Corporation (Department of Health, Safety & Environment) during the last 5 years has been to adopt a common approach to coastal and marine spatial planning. Protection and planning of the coastal zone is a significant for Libya, due to the length of coast and, the high rate of oil export, and spills’ potential negative impacts on coastal and marine habitats. Coastal resource scenarios constitute an important tool for exploring the long-term and short-term consequences of oil spill impact and available response options that would provide an integrated perspective on mitigation. To investigate that, this paper reviews the Misratah coastal parameters to present the physical and human controls and attributes of coastal habitats as the first step in understanding how they may be damaged by an oil spill. This paper also investigates costal resources, providing a better understanding of the resources and factors that impact the integrity of the ecosystem. Therefore, the study described the potential spatial distribution of oil spill risk and the coastal resources value, and also created spatial maps of coastal resources and their vulnerability to oil spills along the coast. This study proposes an analysis of coastal resources condition at a local level in the Misratah region of the Mediterranean Sea, considering the implementation of coastal and marine spatial planning over time as an indication of the will to manage urban development. Oil spill contamination analysis and their impact on the coastal resources depend on (1) oil spill sequence, (2) oil spill location, (3) oil spill movement near the coastal area. The resulting maps show natural, socio-economic activity, environmental resources along of the coast, and oil spill location. Moreover, the study provides significant geodatabase information which is required for coastal sensitivity index mapping and coastal management studies. The outcome of study provides the information necessary to set an Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for the Misratah shoreline, which can be used for management of coastal resources and setting boundaries for each coastal sensitivity sectors, as well as to help planners measure the impact of oil spills on coastal resources. Geographic Information System (GIS) tools were used in order to store and illustrate the spatial convergence of existing socio-economic activities such as fishing, tourism, and the salt industry, and ecosystem components such as sea turtle nesting area, Sabkha habitats, and migratory birds feeding sites. These geodatabases help planners investigate the vulnerability of coastal resources to an oil spill.

Keywords: coastal and marine spatial planning advancement training, GIS mapping, human uses, ecosystem components, Misratah coast, Libyan, oil spill

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9605 Behavior Adoption on Marine Habitat Conservation in Indonesia

Authors: Muhammad Yayat Afianto, Darmawan, Agung Putra Utama, Hari Kushardanto

Abstract:

Fish Forever, Rare’s innovative coastal fisheries program, combined community-based conservation management approach with spatial management to restore and protect Indonesia’s small-scale fisheries by establishing Fishing Managed Access Area. A ‘TURF-Reserve’ is a fishery management approach that positions fishers at the center of fisheries management, empowering them to take care of and make decisions about the future of their fishery. After two years of the program, social marketing campaigns succeeded in changing their behavior by adopting the new conservation behavior. The Pride-TURF-R campaigns developed an overarching hypothesis of impact that captured the knowledge, attitude and behavior changes needed to reduce threats and achieve conservation results. Rare help Batu Belah fishers to develop their group, developed with their roles, sustainable fisheries plan, and the budget plan. On 12th February 2017, the Head of Loka Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Nasional (LKKPN) which is a Technical Implementation Unit for National Marine Conservation Areas directly responsible to the Directorate General for Marine Spatial Management in the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries had signed a Partnership Agreement with the Head of Batu Belah Village to manage a TURF+Reserve area as wide as 909 hectares. The fishers group have been collecting the catch and submitting the report monthly, initiated the installation of the buoy markers for the No Take Zone, and formed the Pokmaswas (community-based surveillance group). Prior to this behavior adoption, they don’t have any fisheries data, no group of fishers, and they have still fishing inside the No Take Zone. This is really a new behavior adoption for them. This paper will show the process and success story of the social marketing campaign to conserve marine habitat in Anambas through Pride-TURF-R program.

Keywords: behavior adoption, community participation, no take zone, pride-TURF-R

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9604 Mapping the Technological Interventions to the National Action Plan for Marine Litter Management 2018-2025: Addressing the Marine Plastic Litter at the Marine Tourism Destinations in Indonesia

Authors: Kaisar Akhir, Azhar Slamet

Abstract:

This study aims to provide recommendations for addressing marine plastic litter at the ocean tourism destinations in Indonesia sustainably through technological interventions in the framework of the National Action Plan for Marine Litter Management 2018-2025. In Indonesia, marine tourism is a rapidly growing economic sector. However, marine tourism destinations are facing a global challenge called marine plastic litter. Marine plastic litter is a threat to those destinations since it has potential impacts on the reduction of marine environmental sustainability, the health of tourists and local communities as well as tourism business income. Since 2018, the Indonesian government has passed and promulgated the National Plan of Action on Marine Litter Management 2018-2025. This national action plan consists of three important key aspects of interventions (i.e., societal effort, technological application, and institutional coordination) and five strategies for addressing marine litter in Indonesia, in particular, to address 70% of marine plastic litter by 2025. The strategies include 1) National movement for raising awareness of stakeholders, 2) Land-based litter management, 3) Litter management at the sea and coasts, 4) Funding mechanism, institutional strengthening, monitoring, and law enforcement, and 5) Research and development. In this study, technological interventions around the world and in Indonesia are reviewed and analyzed on their relevance to the national action plan based on five criteria. As a result, there are twelve kinds of technological interventions recommended to be implemented for addressing marine plastic litter in the marine tourism destinations in Indonesia.

Keywords: marine litter management, marine plastic litter, national action plan, ocean sustainability, ocean tourism destination, technological interventions

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9603 Spatial Econometric Approaches for Count Data: An Overview and New Directions

Authors: Paula Simões, Isabel Natário

Abstract:

This paper reviews a number of theoretical aspects for implementing an explicit spatial perspective in econometrics for modelling non-continuous data, in general, and count data, in particular. It provides an overview of the several spatial econometric approaches that are available to model data that are collected with reference to location in space, from the classical spatial econometrics approaches to the recent developments on spatial econometrics to model count data, in a Bayesian hierarchical setting. Considerable attention is paid to the inferential framework, necessary for structural consistent spatial econometric count models, incorporating spatial lag autocorrelation, to the corresponding estimation and testing procedures for different assumptions, to the constrains and implications embedded in the various specifications in the literature. This review combines insights from the classical spatial econometrics literature as well as from hierarchical modeling and analysis of spatial data, in order to look for new possible directions on the processing of count data, in a spatial hierarchical Bayesian econometric context.

Keywords: spatial data analysis, spatial econometrics, Bayesian hierarchical models, count data

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9602 Overview of Standard Unit System of Shenzhen Land Spatial Planning and Case Analysis

Authors: Ziwei Huang

Abstract:

The standard unit of Shenzhen land spatial planning has the characteristics of vertical conduction, horizontal evaluation, internal balance and supervision of implementation. It mainly assumes the role of geospatial unit, assists in promoting the complex development of the business in Shenzhen and undertakes the management and transmission of upper and lower levels of planning as well as the Urban management functions such as gap analysis of public facilities, planning evaluation and dynamic monitoring of planning information. Combining with the application examples of the analysis of gaps in public facilities in Longgang District, it can be found that the standard unit of land spatial planning in Shenzhen as a small-scale geographic basic unit, has a stronger urban spatial coupling effect. However, the universality of the application of the system is still lacking and it is necessary to propose more scientific and powerful standard unit delineation standards and planning function evaluation indicators to guide the implementation of the system's popularization and application.

Keywords: Shenzhen city, land spatial planning, standard unit system, urban delicacy management

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9601 Population Dynamics in Aquatic Environments: Spatial Heterogeneity and Optimal Harvesting

Authors: Sarita Kumari, Ranjit Kumar Upadhyay

Abstract:

This paper deals with plankton-fish dynamics where the fish population is growing logistically and nonlinearly harvested. The interaction between phytoplankton and zooplankton population is considered to be Crowley-Martin type functional response. It has been assumed that phytoplankton grows logistically and is affected by a space-dependent growth rate. Conditions for the existence of a positive equilibrium point and their stability analysis (both local and global) have been discussed for the non-spatial system. We have discussed maximum sustainable yields as well as optimal harvesting policy for maximizing the economic gain. The stability and existence of Hopf –bifurcation analysis have been discussed for the spatial system. Different conditions for turning pattern formation have been established through diffusion-driven instability analysis. Numerical simulations have been carried out for both non-spatial and spatial models. Phase plane analysis, the largest Lyapunov exponent, and bifurcation theory are used to numerically analyzed the non-spatial system. Our study shows that spatial heterogeneity, the mortality rate of phytoplankton, and constant harvesting of the fish population each play an important role in the dynamical behavior of the marine system.

Keywords: optimal harvesting, pattern formation, spatial heterogeneity, Crowley-Martin functional response

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9600 Estimation of Missing Values in Aggregate Level Spatial Data

Authors: Amitha Puranik, V. S. Binu, Seena Biju

Abstract:

Missing data is a common problem in spatial analysis especially at the aggregate level. Missing can either occur in covariate or in response variable or in both in a given location. Many missing data techniques are available to estimate the missing data values but not all of these methods can be applied on spatial data since the data are autocorrelated. Hence there is a need to develop a method that estimates the missing values in both response variable and covariates in spatial data by taking account of the spatial autocorrelation. The present study aims to develop a model to estimate the missing data points at the aggregate level in spatial data by accounting for (a) Spatial autocorrelation of the response variable (b) Spatial autocorrelation of covariates and (c) Correlation between covariates and the response variable. Estimating the missing values of spatial data requires a model that explicitly account for the spatial autocorrelation. The proposed model not only accounts for spatial autocorrelation but also utilizes the correlation that exists between covariates, within covariates and between a response variable and covariates. The precise estimation of the missing data points in spatial data will result in an increased precision of the estimated effects of independent variables on the response variable in spatial regression analysis.

Keywords: spatial regression, missing data estimation, spatial autocorrelation, simulation analysis

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9599 The Influence of 3D Printing Course on Middle School Students' Spatial Thinking Ability

Authors: Wang Xingjuan, Qian Dongming

Abstract:

As a common thinking ability, spatial thinking ability plays an increasingly important role in the information age. The key to cultivating students' spatial thinking ability is to cultivate students' ability to process and transform graphics. The 3D printing course enables students to constantly touch the rotation and movement of objects during the modeling process and to understand spatial graphics from different views. To this end, this article combines the classic PSVT: R test to explore the impact of 3D printing courses on the spatial thinking ability of middle school students. The results of the study found that: (1) Through the study of the 3D printing course, the students' spatial ability test scores have been significantly improved, which indirectly reflects the improvement of the spatial thinking ability level. (2) The student's spatial thinking ability test results are influenced by the parent's occupation.

Keywords: 3D printing, middle school students, spatial thinking ability, influence

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9598 Assessing Functional Structure in European Marine Ecosystems Using a Vector-Autoregressive Spatio-Temporal Model

Authors: Katyana A. Vert-Pre, James T. Thorson, Thomas Trancart, Eric Feunteun

Abstract:

In marine ecosystems, spatial and temporal species structure is an important component of ecosystems’ response to anthropological and environmental factors. Although spatial distribution patterns and fish temporal series of abundance have been studied in the past, little research has been allocated to the joint dynamic spatio-temporal functional patterns in marine ecosystems and their use in multispecies management and conservation. Each species represents a function to the ecosystem, and the distribution of these species might not be random. A heterogeneous functional distribution will lead to a more resilient ecosystem to external factors. Applying a Vector-Autoregressive Spatio-Temporal (VAST) model for count data, we estimate the spatio-temporal distribution, shift in time, and abundance of 140 species of the Eastern English Chanel, Bay of Biscay and Mediterranean Sea. From the model outputs, we determined spatio-temporal clusters, calculating p-values for hierarchical clustering via multiscale bootstrap resampling. Then, we designed a functional map given the defined cluster. We found that the species distribution within the ecosystem was not random. Indeed, species evolved in space and time in clusters. Moreover, these clusters remained similar over time deriving from the fact that species of a same cluster often shifted in sync, keeping the overall structure of the ecosystem similar overtime. Knowing the co-existing species within these clusters could help with predicting data-poor species distribution and abundance. Further analysis is being performed to assess the ecological functions represented in each cluster.

Keywords: cluster distribution shift, European marine ecosystems, functional distribution, spatio-temporal model

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9597 Challenges of Sustainable Marine Fishing in Ghana

Authors: Eric K. W. Aikins

Abstract:

Traditionally, Ghana is a marine fishing country. The fishing industry dominated by artisanal marine fishing helps Ghana to meet its fish and protein requirements. Also, it provides employment for most coastal dwellers that depend on fishing as their main economic enterprise. Nonetheless, the marine fishing industry is confronted with challenges that have contributed to a declining fish production in recent past decade. Bad fishing practices and the general limited knowledge on sustainable management of fisheries resources are the limiting factors that affect sustainable fish production and sustainable marine biodiversity management in Ghana. This paper discusses the challenges and strategies for attaining and maintaining sustainable marine fishing in Ghana as well as the state of marine fishing in Ghana. It concludes that an increase in the level of involvement of local fishers in the management of fisheries resources of the country could help local fishers to employ sustainable fisheries resources exploitation methods that could result in an improvement in the spatio-economic development and wellbeing of affected fishing communities in particular and Ghana in general.

Keywords: pair trawling, sargassum, spatio-economic development, sustainable marine fishing

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9596 Spatial Scale of Clustering of Residential Burglary and Its Dependence on Temporal Scale

Authors: Mohammed A. Alazawi, Shiguo Jiang, Steven F. Messner

Abstract:

Research has long focused on two main spatial aspects of crime: spatial patterns and spatial processes. When analyzing these patterns and processes, a key issue has been to determine the proper spatial scale. In addition, it is important to consider the possibility that these patterns and processes might differ appreciably for different temporal scales and might vary across geographic units of analysis. We examine the spatial-temporal dependence of residential burglary. This dependence is tested at varying geographical scales and temporal aggregations. The analyses are based on recorded incidents of crime in Columbus, Ohio during the 1994-2002 period. We implement point pattern analysis on the crime points using Ripley’s K function. The results indicate that spatial point patterns of residential burglary reveal spatial scales of clustering relatively larger than the average size of census tracts of the study area. Also, spatial scale is independent of temporal scale. The results of our analyses concerning the geographic scale of spatial patterns and processes can inform the development of effective policies for crime control.

Keywords: inhomogeneous K function, residential burglary, spatial point pattern, spatial scale, temporal scale

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9595 Harmonization of State Law and Local Laws in Coastal and Marine Areas Management

Authors: N. S. B. Ambarini, Tito Sofyan, Edra Satmaidi

Abstract:

Coastal and marine are two potential natural resource one of the pillars of the national economy. The Indonesian archipelago has marine and coastal which is quite spacious. Various important natural resources such as fisheries, mining and so on are in coastal areas and the sea, so that this region is a unique area with a variety of interests to exploit it. Therefore, to preserve a sustainable manner need good management and comprehensive. To the national and local level legal regulations have been published relating to the management of coastal and marine areas. However, in practice it has not been able to function optimally. Substantially has not touched the problems of the region, especially concerning the interests of local communities (local). This study is a legal non-doctrinal approach to socio-legal studies. Based on the results of research in some coastal and marine areas in Bengkulu province - Indonesia, there is a fact that the system of customary law and local wisdom began to weaken implementation. Therefore harmonization needs to be done in implementing laws and regulations that apply to the values of indigenous and local knowledge that exists in the community.

Keywords: coastal and marine, harmonization, law, local

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9594 Spatial Data Mining by Decision Trees

Authors: Sihem Oujdi, Hafida Belbachir

Abstract:

Existing methods of data mining cannot be applied on spatial data because they require spatial specificity consideration, as spatial relationships. This paper focuses on the classification with decision trees, which are one of the data mining techniques. We propose an extension of the C4.5 algorithm for spatial data, based on two different approaches Join materialization and Querying on the fly the different tables. Similar works have been done on these two main approaches, the first - Join materialization - favors the processing time in spite of memory space, whereas the second - Querying on the fly different tables- promotes memory space despite of the processing time. The modified C4.5 algorithm requires three entries tables: a target table, a neighbor table, and a spatial index join that contains the possible spatial relationship among the objects in the target table and those in the neighbor table. Thus, the proposed algorithms are applied to a spatial data pattern in the accidentology domain. A comparative study of our approach with other works of classification by spatial decision trees will be detailed.

Keywords: C4.5 algorithm, decision trees, S-CART, spatial data mining

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9593 Derivation of Bathymetry from High-Resolution Satellite Images: Comparison of Empirical Methods through Geographical Error Analysis

Authors: Anusha P. Wijesundara, Dulap I. Rathnayake, Nihal D. Perera

Abstract:

Bathymetric information is fundamental importance to coastal and marine planning and management, nautical navigation, and scientific studies of marine environments. Satellite-derived bathymetry data provide detailed information in areas where conventional sounding data is lacking and conventional surveys are inaccessible. The two empirical approaches of log-linear bathymetric inversion model and non-linear bathymetric inversion model are applied for deriving bathymetry from high-resolution multispectral satellite imagery. This study compares these two approaches by means of geographical error analysis for the site Kankesanturai using WorldView-2 satellite imagery. Based on the Levenberg-Marquardt method calibrated the parameters of non-linear inversion model and the multiple-linear regression model was applied to calibrate the log-linear inversion model. In order to calibrate both models, Single Beam Echo Sounding (SBES) data in this study area were used as reference points. Residuals were calculated as the difference between the derived depth values and the validation echo sounder bathymetry data and the geographical distribution of model residuals was mapped. The spatial autocorrelation was calculated by comparing the performance of the bathymetric models and the results showing the geographic errors for both models. A spatial error model was constructed from the initial bathymetry estimates and the estimates of autocorrelation. This spatial error model is used to generate more reliable estimates of bathymetry by quantifying autocorrelation of model error and incorporating this into an improved regression model. Log-linear model (R²=0.846) performs better than the non- linear model (R²=0.692). Finally, the spatial error models improved bathymetric estimates derived from linear and non-linear models up to R²=0.854 and R²=0.704 respectively. The Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) was calculated for all reference points in various depth ranges. The magnitude of the prediction error increases with depth for both the log-linear and the non-linear inversion models. Overall RMSE for log-linear and the non-linear inversion models were ±1.532 m and ±2.089 m, respectively.

Keywords: log-linear model, multi spectral, residuals, spatial error model

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9592 Research on the Development and Space Optimization of Rental-Type Public Housing in Hangzhou

Authors: Xuran Zhang, Huiru Chen

Abstract:

In recent years, China has made great efforts to cultivate and develop the housing rental market, especially the rental-type public housing, which has been paid attention to by all sectors of the society. This paper takes Hangzhou rental-type public housing as the research object, and divides it into three development stages according to the different supply modes of rental-type public housing. Through data collection and field research, the paper summarizes the spatial characteristics of rental-type public housing from the five perspectives of spatial planning, spatial layout, spatial integration, spatial organization and spatial configuration. On this basis, the paper proposes the optimization of the spatial layout. The study concludes that the spatial layout of rental-type public housing should be coordinated with the development of urban planning. When planning and constructing, it is necessary to select more mixed construction modes, to be properly centralized, and to improve the surrounding transportation service facilities.  It is hoped that the recommendations in this paper will provide a reference for the further development of rental-type public housing in Hangzhou.

Keywords: Hangzhou, rental-type public housing, spatial distribution, spatial optimization

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9591 Detecting of Crime Hot Spots for Crime Mapping

Authors: Somayeh Nezami

Abstract:

The management of financial and human resources of police in metropolitans requires many information and exact plans to reduce a rate of crime and increase the safety of the society. Geographical Information Systems have an important role in providing crime maps and their analysis. By using them and identification of crime hot spots along with spatial presentation of the results, it is possible to allocate optimum resources while presenting effective methods for decision making and preventive solutions. In this paper, we try to explain and compare between some of the methods of hot spots analysis such as Mode, Fuzzy Mode and Nearest Neighbour Hierarchical spatial clustering (NNH). Then the spots with the highest crime rates of drug smuggling for one province in Iran with borderline with Afghanistan are obtained. We will show that among these three methods NNH leads to the best result.

Keywords: GIS, Hot spots, nearest neighbor hierarchical spatial clustering, NNH, spatial analysis of crime

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9590 Algorithms used in Spatial Data Mining GIS

Authors: Vahid Bairami Rad

Abstract:

Extracting knowledge from spatial data like GIS data is important to reduce the data and extract information. Therefore, the development of new techniques and tools that support the human in transforming data into useful knowledge has been the focus of the relatively new and interdisciplinary research area ‘knowledge discovery in databases’. Thus, we introduce a set of database primitives or basic operations for spatial data mining which are sufficient to express most of the spatial data mining algorithms from the literature. This approach has several advantages. Similar to the relational standard language SQL, the use of standard primitives will speed-up the development of new data mining algorithms and will also make them more portable. We introduced a database-oriented framework for spatial data mining which is based on the concepts of neighborhood graphs and paths. A small set of basic operations on these graphs and paths were defined as database primitives for spatial data mining. Furthermore, techniques to efficiently support the database primitives by a commercial DBMS were presented.

Keywords: spatial data base, knowledge discovery database, data mining, spatial relationship, predictive data mining

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9589 Multi-Actors’ Scenario for Measuring Metropolitan Governance and Spatial Planning: A Case Study of Bangalore, India

Authors: H. S. Kumara

Abstract:

The rapid process of urbanization and the growing number of the metropolitan cities and its region call for better governance in India. This article attempts to argue that spatial planning really matters for measuring the governance at metropolitan scale. These study explore to metropolitan governance and spatial planning and its interrelationship issues, concepts and evolution of spatial planning in India and critically examines the multi actors’ scenario for measuring metropolitan governance by means of spatial planning in context with reviewing various master plans, concept of multi-actors viewpoint on role of spatial planning related to zoning regulations, master plan implementations and effective service delivery issues. This paper argues and concludes that the spatial planning of Bangalore directly impact on measuring metropolitan governance.

Keywords: metropolitan governance, spatial planning, service delivery, multi-actors’, opinion survey, master plan

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9588 Assessment of the Remains in Historic Urban Area Based on Spatial Prototype: Case Study on Jingmen City, China

Authors: Guangtong Xu, Yi He

Abstract:

Like most historic and cultural cities in China, the historic urban area of Jingmen city is facing a typical spatial problem of fragmentation and fuzzification. This study focuses on exploring a method for evaluating the existing values of historic urban area based on spatial prototype, a concept introduced into urban morphology from 'Archetype' in architectural typology. As the spatial elements and built-up relationship of historic city, spatial prototype has habitual structural characteristics and formal modulus. It is the inherent logic and order rules behind the scattered historic environment, providing a clue to understand the spatial characteristics and a basis for guiding the construction and conservation in historic urban areas. Three criteria, the resolution of historical elements, the completeness of historical structure and the renewal potential of associated land, were selected to construct the integrated assessment system. These three dimensions are linked to the spatial prototype and its constituent elements, as well as the transformation relationship in ancient and present day. The results showed that historic urban areas have changed from a holistic city to different existing types dominated by their historic structure elements. It is necessary to improve the pertinence of planning strategies and develop diversified management measures in the conservation scope of historic urban area. Moreover, a constructive-conservation strategy should be put forward to enhance the integrity of historic urban area based on the trace of spatial prototype and evaluation results.

Keywords: constructive conservation, existing value, historic urban area, spatial prototype

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9587 Mapping of Urban Green Spaces Towards a Balanced Planning in a Coastal Landscape

Authors: Rania Ajmi, Faiza Allouche Khebour, Aude Nuscia Taibi, Sirine Essasi

Abstract:

Urban green spaces (UGS) as an important contributor can be a significant part of sustainable development. A spatial method was employed to assess and map the spatial distribution of UGS in five districts in Sousse, Tunisia. Ecological management of UGS is an essential factor for the sustainable development of the city; hence the municipality of Sousse has decided to support the districts according to different green spaces characters. And to implement this policy, (1) a new GIS web application was developed, (2) then the implementation of the various green spaces was carried out, (3) a spatial mapping of UGS using Quantum GIS was realized, and (4) finally a data processing and statistical analysis with RStudio programming language was executed. The intersection of the results of the spatial and statistical analyzes highlighted the presence of an imbalance in terms of the spatial UGS distribution in the study area. The discontinuity between the coast and the city's green spaces was not designed in a spirit of network and connection, hence the lack of a greenway that connects these spaces to the city. Finally, this GIS support will be used to assess and monitor green spaces in the city of Sousse by decision-makers and will contribute to improve the well-being of the local population.

Keywords: distributions, GIS, green space, imbalance, spatial analysis

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9586 Urban Greenery in the Greatest Polish Cities: Analysis of Spatial Concentration

Authors: Elżbieta Antczak

Abstract:

Cities offer important opportunities for economic development and for expanding access to basic services, including health care and education, for large numbers of people. Moreover, green areas (as an integral part of sustainable urban development) present a major opportunity for improving urban environments, quality of lives and livelihoods. This paper examines, using spatial concentration and spatial taxonomic measures, regional diversification of greenery in the cities of Poland. The analysis includes location quotients, Lorenz curve, Locational Gini Index, and the synthetic index of greenery and spatial statistics tools: (1) To verify the occurrence of strong concentration or dispersion of the phenomenon in time and space depending on the variable category, and, (2) To study if the level of greenery depends on the spatial autocorrelation. The data includes the greatest Polish cities, categories of the urban greenery (parks, lawns, street greenery, and green areas on housing estates, cemeteries, and forests) and the time span 2004-2015. According to the obtained estimations, most of cites in Poland are already taking measures to become greener. However, in the country there are still many barriers to well-balanced urban greenery development (e.g. uncontrolled urban sprawl, poor management as well as lack of spatial urban planning systems).

Keywords: greenery, urban areas, regional spatial diversification and concentration, spatial taxonomic measure

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9585 Geo Spatial Database for Railway Assets Management

Authors: Muhammad Umar

Abstract:

Safety and Assets management is considering a backbone of every department. GIS in the Railway become very important to Manage Assets and Security through Digital Maps and Web based GIS Maps. It provides a complete frame of work to the organization for the management of assets. Pakistan Railway is the most common and safest mode of traveling in Pakistan. Due to ever-increasing demand of transporting huge amount of information generated from various sources and this information must be accurate. This creates problems for Passengers and Administration that causes finical and time loss. GIS Solve this problem by Digital Maps & Database. It provides you a real time Spatial and Statistical analysis that helps you to communicate and exchange the information in a sophisticated way to the users. GIS Based Web system provides a facility to different end user to make query at a time as per requirements. This GIS System provides an advancement in an organization for a complete Monitoring, Safety and Decision System for tracks, Stations and Junctions that further use for the Analysis of different areas i.e. analysis of tracks, junctions and Stations in case of reconstruction, Rescue for rail accidents and Natural disasters .This Research work helps to reduce the financial loss and reduce human mistakes helps you provide a complete security and Management system of assets.

Keywords: Geographical Information System (GIS) for assets management, geo spatial database, railway assets management, Pakistan

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9584 Analyzing the Relationship between the Spatial Characteristics of Cultural Structure, Activities, and the Tourism Demand

Authors: Deniz Karagöz

Abstract:

This study is attempt to comprehend the relationship between the spatial characteristics of cultural structure, activities and the tourism demand in Turkey. The analysis divided into four parts. The first part consisted of a cultural structure and cultural activity (CSCA) index provided by principal component analysis. The analysis determined four distinct dimensions, namely, cultural activity/structure, accessing culture, consumption, and cultural management. The exploratory spatial data analysis employed to determine the spatial models of cultural structure and cultural activities in 81 provinces in Turkey. Global Moran I indices is used to ascertain the cultural activities and the structural clusters. Finally, the relationship between the cultural activities/cultural structure and tourism demand was analyzed. The raw/original data of the study official databases. The data on the cultural structure and activities gathered from the Turkish Statistical Institute and the data related to the tourism demand was provided by the Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism.

Keywords: cultural activities, cultural structure, spatial characteristics, tourism demand, Turkey

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9583 Slovenian Spatial Legislation over Time and Its Issues

Authors: Andreja Benko

Abstract:

Article presents a short overview of the architects’ profession over time with outlined work of the architectural theoreticians. In the continuation is described a former affiliation of Slovenia as well as the spatial planning documents that were in use until the Slovenia joint Yugoslavia (last part in 1919). This legislation from former Austro-Hungarian monarchy was valid almost until 1950 in some parts of Yugoslavia even longer. Upon that will be mentioned some valid Slovenian spatial documents which will be compared with the German legislation. Analysed will be the number of architect and spatial planners in Slovenia and also their number upon certain region in Slovenia. Based on that will be given also the number from statistical office of Slovenia of the number of buildings between years 2007 and 2012, and described also the collapse of the major construction companies in Slovenia and consequences of that. At the end will be outlined the morality and ethics by spatial interventions and lack of the architectural law in Slovenia as well as the problematic of minimal collaboration between the Ministry of infrastructure and spatial planning with the profession.

Keywords: architect, history, legislation, Slovenia

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
9582 Interdependencies Of Culture, Economy, And Resource Availability ’ As 'Determinants Of Spatial Inequality In Cities

Authors: Shahna KC, Ar. Belay Menon, Ar. Taniya Joshua

Abstract:

As globalization in the era progresses, spatial inequality is turned to be one of the major concerns; the main intent of the Study is to focus on if there is any interdependencies of culture economy and resource availability on creating spatial inequality in cities. The paper tries to establish the relationship between spatial inequality – the quality of life – the DETERMINANT TRIAD (culture, economy, resource availability). Slum area of Dharavi is taken to evaluate the influence of these determinants on the quality of life as spatial inequality is evident there. Interdependencies of the determinants on creating spatial inequality is evaluated. For this, It is understood that these three parameters, i.e., culture, economy, resource availability, are determinants of urban design, each from the social, economic, environmental domains of sustainability, respectively. And there are studies individually on each of these aspects, how they determine the urban spaces, and how influential on the whole process of urbanization. Now extending the study towards the interdependencies of these three so as to find out how these trilogy shapes the urban form and space.

Keywords: spatial inequality, culture, economy, resource availability, quality of life

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9581 Spatial REE Geochemical Modeling at Lake Acıgöl, Denizli, Turkey: Analytical Approaches on Spatial Interpolation and Spatial Correlation

Authors: M. Budakoglu, M. Karaman, A. Abdelnasser, M. Kumral

Abstract:

The spatial interpolation and spatial correlation of the rare earth elements (REE) of lake surface sediments of Lake Acıgöl and its surrounding lithological units is carried out by using GIS techniques like Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) techniques. IDW technique which makes the spatial interpolation shows that the lithological units like Hayrettin Formation at north of Lake Acigol have high REE contents than lake sediments as well as ∑LREE and ∑HREE contents. However, Eu/Eu* values (based on chondrite-normalized REE pattern) show high value in some lake surface sediments than in lithological units and that refers to negative Eu-anomaly. Also, the spatial interpolation of the V/Cr ratio indicated that Acıgöl lithological units and lake sediments deposited in in oxic and dysoxic conditions. But, the spatial correlation is carried out by GWR technique. This technique shows high spatial correlation coefficient between ∑LREE and ∑HREE which is higher in the lithological units (Hayrettin Formation and Cameli Formation) than in the other lithological units and lake surface sediments. Also, the matching between REEs and Sc and Al refers to REE abundances of Lake Acıgöl sediments weathered from local bedrock around the lake.

Keywords: spatial geochemical modeling, IDW, GWR techniques, REE, lake sediments, Lake Acıgöl, Turkey

Procedia PDF Downloads 468