Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6587

Search results for: sea surface height

6587 Study of Hydrocarbons Metering Issues in Algerian Fields under the New Law Context

Authors: A. Hadjadj, S. Maamir


Since the advent of the law 86/14 concerning the
exploitation of the national territory by foreign companies in
partnership with the Algerian oil and gas company, the problem of
hydrocarbons metering in the sharing production come out.
More generally, good management counting hydrocarbons can
provide data on the production wells, the field and the reservoir for
medium and long term planning, particularly in the context of the
management and field development.
In this work, we are interested in the transactional metering which
is a very delicate and crucial period in the current context of the new
hydrocarbon’s law characterized by assets system between the
various activities of Sonatrach and its foreign partners.
After a state of the art on hydrocarbons metering devices in
Algeria and elsewhere, we will decline the advantages and
disadvantages of each system, and then we describe the problem to
try to reach an optimal solution.

Keywords: transactional metering, flowmeter orifice, heat flow, Sonatrach

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
6586 Ultrasonic Evaluation of Periodic Rough Inaccessible Surfaces from Back Side

Authors: Chanh Nghia Nguyen, Yu Kurokawa, Hirotsugu Inoue


The surface roughness is an important parameter for evaluating the quality of material surfaces since it affects functions and performance of industrial components. Although stylus and optical techniques are commonly used for measuring the surface roughness, they are applicable only to accessible surfaces. In practice, surface roughness measurement from the back side is sometimes demanded, for example, in inspection of safety-critical parts such as inner surface of pipes. However, little attention has been paid to the measurement of back surface roughness so far. Since back surface is usually inaccessible by stylus or optical techniques, ultrasonic technique is one of the most effective among others. In this research, an ultrasonic pulse-echo technique is considered for evaluating the pitch and the height of back surface having periodic triangular profile as a very first step. The pitch of the surface profile is measured by applying the diffraction grating theory for oblique incidence; then the height is evaluated by numerical analysis based on the Kirchhoff theory for normal incidence. The validity of the proposed method was verified by both numerical simulation and experiment. It was confirmed that the pitch is accurately measured in most cases. The height was also evaluated with good accuracy when it is smaller than a half of the pitch because of the approximation in the Kirchhoff theory.

Keywords: back side, inaccessible surface, periodic roughness, pulse-echo technique, ultrasonic NDE

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
6585 Temperature-Dependent Barrier Characteristics of Inhomogeneous Pd/n-GaN Schottky Barrier Diodes Surface

Authors: K. Al-Heuseen, M. R. Hashim


The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of Pd/n-GaN Schottky barrier were studied at temperatures over room temperature (300-470K). The values of ideality factor (n), zero-bias barrier height (φB0), flat barrier height (φBF) and series resistance (Rs) obtained from I-V-T measurements were found to be strongly temperature dependent while (φBo) increase, (n), (φBF) and (Rs) decrease with increasing temperature. The apparent Richardson constant was found to be 2.1x10-9 Acm-2K-2 and mean barrier height of 0.19 eV. After barrier height inhomogeneities correction, by assuming a Gaussian distribution (GD) of the barrier heights, the Richardson constant and the mean barrier height were obtained as 23 Acm-2K-2 and 1.78eV, respectively. The corrected Richardson constant was very closer to theoretical value of 26 Acm-2K-2.

Keywords: electrical properties, Gaussian distribution, Pd-GaN Schottky diodes, thermionic emission

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
6584 The Development of GPS Buoy for Ocean Surface Monitoring: Initial Results

Authors: Anuar Mohd Salleh, Mohd Effendi Daud


This study presents a kinematic positioning approach which is use the GPS buoy for precise ocean surface monitoring. A GPS buoy data from two experiments have been processed using a precise, medium-range differential kinematic technique. In each case the data were collected for more than 24 hours at nearby coastal site at a high rate (1 Hz), along with measurements from neighboring tidal stations, to verify the estimated sea surface heights. Kinematic coordinates of GPS buoy were estimated using the epoch-wise pre-elimination and the backward substitution algorithm. Test results show the centimeter level accuracy in sea surface height determination can be successfully achieved using proposed technique. The centimeter level agreement between two methods also suggests the possibility of using this inexpensive and more flexible GPS buoy equipment to enhance (or even replace) the current use of tidal gauge stations.

Keywords: global positioning system, kinematic GPS, sea surface height, GPS buoy, tide gauge

Procedia PDF Downloads 424
6583 Investigating the Effect of Height on Essential Oils of Urtica diocia L.: Case Study of Ramsar, Mazandaran, Iran

Authors: Keivan Saeb, Azade Kakouei, Razieh Jafari Hajati, Khalil Pourshamsian, Babak Babakhani


Urtica Diocia L. from the Urticaceae family is a plant of herbal value and of a noticeable distribution in the north of Iran. The growth of different plants in various natural environments and ecosystems seems to be affected by factors such as the height (from sea surface).To investigate the effect of height on Urtica Diocia L. medicine compounds in its natural environment, three areas with the height of zero, 800 and 1800m were selected.The samples were randomly gathered three times and were dried; also, their compounds was extracted using the Clivenger with the water-distilling method. To determine the medicine compounds, the GC-MS as well as the GC machines were used. The analysis of variance was done in the form of the random-full-block design. The results indicated that there was a significant difference between the percent of EOs in the selected heights; however, such difference was not significant within each height. From among the eight flavors of the study, the phytol compound was more in terms of percentage. By increasing the height the percent of EOs would decrease. lower heights could be considered most appropriate for producing the studied effective materials despite of the moistened climate and soil there.

Keywords: Urtica diocia L., height, EOs, medicine

Procedia PDF Downloads 377
6582 Dynamic Process of Single Water Droplet Impacting on a Hot Heptane Surface

Authors: Mingjun Xu, Shouxiang Lu


Understanding the interaction mechanism between the water droplet and pool fire has an important significance in engineering application of water sprinkle/spray/mist fire suppression. The micro impact process is unclear when the droplet impacts on the burning liquid surface at present. To deepen the understanding of the mechanisms of pool fire suppression with water spray/mist, dynamic processes of single water droplet impinging onto a hot heptane surface are visualized with the aid of a high-speed digital camera at 2000 fps. Each test is repeated 20 times. The water droplet diameter is around 1.98 mm, and the impact Weber number ranges from 30 to 695. The heptane is heated by a hot plate to mimic the burning condition, and the temperature varies from 30 to 90°C. The results show that three typical phenomena, including penetration, crater-jet and surface bubble, are observed, and the pool temperature has a significant influence on the critical condition for the appearance of each phenomenon. A global picture of different phenomena is built according to impact Weber number and pool temperature. In addition, the pool temperature and Weber number have important influences on the characteristic parameters including maximum crater depth, crown height and liquid column height. For a fixed Weber number, the liquid column height increases with pool temperature.

Keywords: droplet impact, fire suppression, hot surface, water spray

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
6581 An Integrated Approach for Optimal Selection of Machining Parameters in Laser Micro-Machining Process

Authors: A. Gopala Krishna, M. Lakshmi Chaitanya, V. Kalyana Manohar


In the existent analysis, laser micro machining (LMM) of Silicon carbide (SiCp) reinforced Aluminum 7075 Metal Matrix Composite (Al7075/SiCp MMC) was studied. While machining, Because of the intense heat generated, A layer gets formed on the work piece surface which is called recast layer and this layer is detrimental to the surface quality of the component. The recast layer needs to be as small as possible for precise applications. Therefore, The height of recast layer and the depth of groove which are conflicting in nature were considered as the significant manufacturing criteria, Which determines the pursuit of a machining process obtained in LMM of Al7075/10%SiCp composite. The present work formulates the depth of groove and height of recast layer in relation to the machining parameters using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and correspondingly, The formulated mathematical models were put to use for optimization. Since the effect of machining parameters on the depth of groove and height of recast layer was contradictory, The problem was explicated as a multi objective optimization problem. Moreover, An evolutionary Non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) was employed to optimize the model established by RSM. Subsequently this algorithm was also adapted to achieve the Pareto optimal set of solutions that provide a detailed illustration for making the optimal solutions. Eventually experiments were conducted to affirm the results obtained from RSM and NSGA-II.

Keywords: Laser Micro Machining (LMM), depth of groove, Height of recast layer, Response Surface Methodology (RSM), non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
6580 Influence of 3D Printing Parameters on Surface Finish of Ceramic Hip Prostheses Fixed by Means of Osteointegration

Authors: Irene Buj-Corral, Ali Bagheri, Alejandro Dominguez-Fernandez


In recent years, use of ceramic prostheses as an implant in some parts of body has become common. In the present study, research has focused on replacement of the acetabulum bone, which is a part of the pelvis bone. Metallic prostheses have shown some problems such as release of metal ions into patient's blood. In addition, fracture of liners and squeezing between surface of femoral head and inner surface of acetabulum have been reported. Ceramic prostheses have the advantage of low debris and high strength, although they are more difficult to be manufactured than metallic ones. Specifically, new designs try to attempt an acetabulum in which the outer surface will be porous for proliferation of cells and fixation of the prostheses by means of osteointegration, while inner surface must be smooth enough to assure that the movement between femoral head and inner surface will be carried out with on feasibility. In the present study, 3D printing technologies are used for manufacturing ceramic prostheses. In Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) process, 3D printed plastic prostheses are obtained by means of melting of a plastic filament and subsequent deposition on a glass surface. A similar process is applied to ceramics in which ceramic powders need to be mixed with a liquid polymer before depositing them. After 3D printing, parts are subjected to a sintering process in an oven so that they can achieve final strength. In the present paper, influence of printing parameters on surface roughness 3D printed ceramic parts are presented. Three parameter full factorial design of experiments was used. Selected variables were layer height, infill and nozzle diameter. Responses were average roughness Ra and mean roughness depth Rz. Regression analysis was applied to responses in order to obtain mathematical models for responses. Results showed that surface roughness depends mainly on layer height and nozzle diameter employed, while infill was found not to be significant. In order to get low surface roughness, low layer height and low infill should be selected. As a conclusion, layer height and infill are important parameters for obtaining good surface finish in ceramic 3D printed prostheses. However, use of too low infill could lead to prostheses with low mechanical strength. Such prostheses could not be able to bear the static and dynamic charges to which they are subjected once they are implanted in the body. This issue will be addressed in further research.

Keywords: ceramic, hip prostheses, surface roughness, 3D printing

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
6579 Effect of the Distance Between the Cold Surface and the Hot Surface on the Production of a Simple Solar Still

Authors: Hiba Akrout, Khaoula Hidouri, Béchir Chaouachi, Romdhane Ben Slama


A simple solar distiller has been constructed in order to desalt water via the solar distillation process. An experimental study has been conducted in June. The aim of this work is to study the effect of the distance between the cold condensing surface and the hot steam generation surface in order to optimize the geometric characteristics of a simple solar still. To do this, we have developed a mathematical model based on thermal and mass equations system. Subsequently, the equations system resolution has been made through a program developed on MATLAB software, which allowed us to evaluate the production of this system as a function of the distance separating the two surfaces. In addition, this model allowed us to determine the evolution of the humid air temperature inside the solar still as well as the humidity ratio profile all over the day. Simulations results show that the solar distiller production, as well as the humid air temperature, are proportional to the global solar radiation. It was also found that the air humidity ratio inside the solar still has a similar evolution of that of solar radiation. Moreover, the solar distiller average height augmentation, for constant water depth, induces the diminution of the production. However, increasing the water depth for a fixed average height of solar distiller reduces the production.

Keywords: distillation, solar energy, heat transfer, mass transfer, average height

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
6578 Vertical Distribution of the Monthly Average Values of the Air Temperature above the Territory of Kakheti in 2012-2017

Authors: Khatia Tavidashvili, Nino Jamrishvili, Valerian Omsarashvili


Studies of the vertical distribution of the air temperature in the atmosphere have great value for the solution of different problems of meteorology and climatology (meteorological forecast of showers, thunderstorms, and hail, weather modification, estimation of climate change, etc.). From the end of May 2015 in Kakheti after 25-year interruption, the work of anti-hail service was restored. Therefore, in connection with climate change, the need for the detailed study of the contemporary regime of the vertical distribution of the air temperature above this territory arose. In particular, the indicated information is necessary for the optimum selection of rocket means with the works on the weather modification (fight with the hail, the regulation of atmospheric precipitations, etc.). Construction of the detailed maps of the potential damage distribution of agricultural crops from the hail, etc. taking into account the dimensions of hailstones in the clouds according to the data of radar measurements and height of locality are the most important factors. For now, in Georgia, there is no aerological probing of atmosphere. To solve given problem we processed information about air temperature profiles above Telavi, at 27 km above earth's surface. Information was gathered during four observation time (4, 10, 16, 22 hours with local time. After research, we found vertical distribution of the average monthly values of the air temperature above Kakheti in ‎2012-2017 from January to December. Research was conducted from 0.543 to 27 km above sea level during four periods of research. In particular, it is obtained: -during January the monthly average air temperature linearly diminishes with 2.6 °C on the earth's surface to -57.1 °C at the height of 10 km, then little it changes up to the height of 26 km; the gradient of the air temperature in the layer of the atmosphere from 0.543 to 8 km - 6.3 °C/km; height of zero isotherm - is 1.33 km. -during July the air temperature linearly diminishes with 23.5 °C to -64.7 °C at the height of 17 km, then it grows to -47.5 °C at the height of 27 km; the gradient of the air temperature of - 6.1 °C/km; height of zero isotherm - is 4.39 km, which on 0.16 km is higher than in the sixties of past century.

Keywords: hail, Kakheti, meteorology, vertical distribution of the air temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
6577 Significant Stressed Zone of Highway Embankment

Authors: Sharifullah Ahmed, P. Eng


The Axle Pressure and the Consolidation Pressure decrease with the height of the highway embankment and the depth of subsoil. This reduction of pressure depends on the height and width of the embankment. The depth is defined as the significantly stressed zone at which the pressure is reduced to 0.2 or 20%. The axle pressure is reduced to 7% for embankment height 1-3m and to 0.7% for embankment height 4-12m at the bottom level of Highway Embankment. This observation implies that, the portion of axle pressure transferred to subsoil underlying the embankment is not significant for ESAL factor 4.8. The 70% consolidation to have occurred after the construction of the surface layer of pavement. Considering this ratio of post construction settlement, 70% consolidation pressure (Δσ70) is used in this analysis. The magnitude of influence depth or Significant Stressed Zone (Ds) had been obtained for the range of crest width (at the top level of the embankment) is kept between 5m and 50m and for the range of embankment height from 1.0m to 12.0m considering 70% of consolidation pressure (Δσ70). Significantly stressed zones (Ds) for 70% embankment pressure are found as 2-6.2He for embankment top width 5-50m.

Keywords: consolidation pressure, consolidation settlement, ESAL, highway embankment, HS 20-44, significant stressed zone, stress distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 3
6576 Contribution to the Analytical Study of Barrier Surface Waves: Decomposition of the Solution

Authors: T. Zitoun, M. Bouhadef


When a partially or completely immersed solid moves in a liquid such as water, it undergoes a force called hydrodynamic drag. Reducing this force has always been the objective of hydrodynamic engineers to make water slide better on submerged bodies. This paper deals with the examination of the different terms composing the analytical solution of the flow over an obstacle embedded at the bottom of a hydraulic channel. We have chosen to use a linear method to study a two-dimensional flow over an obstacle, in order to understand the evolution of the drag. We set the following assumptions: incompressible inviscid fluid, irrotational flow, low obstacle height compared to the water height. Those assumptions allow overcoming the difficulties associated with modelling these waves. We will mathematically formulate the equations that allow the determination of the stream function, and then the free surface equation. A similar method is used to determine the exact analytical solution for an obstacle in the shape of a sinusoidal arch.

Keywords: analytical solution, free-surface wave, hydraulic channel, inviscid fluid

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
6575 Multi Response Optimization in Drilling Al6063/SiC/15% Metal Matrix Composite

Authors: Hari Singh, Abhishek Kamboj, Sudhir Kumar


This investigation proposes a grey-based Taguchi method to solve the multi-response problems. The grey-based Taguchi method is based on the Taguchi’s design of experimental method, and adopts Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) to transfer multi-response problems into single-response problems. In this investigation, an attempt has been made to optimize the drilling process parameters considering weighted output response characteristics using grey relational analysis. The output response characteristics considered are surface roughness, burr height and hole diameter error under the experimental conditions of cutting speed, feed rate, step angle, and cutting environment. The drilling experiments were conducted using L27 orthogonal array. A combination of orthogonal array, design of experiments and grey relational analysis was used to ascertain best possible drilling process parameters that give minimum surface roughness, burr height and hole diameter error. The results reveal that combination of Taguchi design of experiment and grey relational analysis improves surface quality of drilled hole.

Keywords: metal matrix composite, drilling, optimization, step drill, surface roughness, burr height, hole diameter error

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
6574 Experimental Study on Floating Breakwater Anchored by Piles

Authors: Yessi Nirwana Kurniadi, Nira Yunita Permata


Coastline is vulnerable to coastal erosion which damage infrastructure and buildings. Floating breakwaters are applied in order to minimize material cost but still can reduce wave height. In this paper, we investigated floating breakwater anchored by piles based on experimental study in the laboratory with model scale 1:8. Two type of floating model were tested with several combination wave height, wave period and surface water elevation to determined transmission coefficient. This experimental study proved that floating breakwater with piles can prevent wave height up to 27 cm. The physical model shows that ratio of depth to wave length is less than 0.6 and ratio of model width to wave length is less than 0.3. It is confirmed that if those ratio are less than those value, the transmission coefficient is 0.5. The result also showed that the first type model of floating breakwater can reduce wave height by 60.4 % while the second one can reduce up to 55.56 %.

Keywords: floating breakwater, experimental study, pile, transimission coefficient

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
6573 Plantation Forests Height Mapping Using Unmanned Aerial System

Authors: Shiming Li, Qingwang Liu, Honggan Wu, Jianbing Zhang


Plantation forests are useful for timber production, recreation, environmental protection and social development. Stands height is an important parameter for the estimation of forest volume and carbon stocks. Although lidar is suitable technology for the vertical parameters extraction of forests, but high costs make it not suitable for operational inventory. With the development of computer vision and photogrammetry, aerial photos from unmanned aerial system can be used as an alternative solution for height mapping. Structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetry technique can be used to extract DSM and DEM information. Canopy height model (CHM) can be achieved by subtraction DEM from DSM. Our result shows that overlapping aerial photos is a potential solution for plantation forests height mapping.

Keywords: forest height mapping, plantation forests, structure-from-motion photogrammetry, UAS

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
6572 Significance of Bike-Frame Geometric Factors for Cycling Efficiency and Muscle Activation

Authors: Luen Chow Chan


With the advocacy of green transportation and green traveling, cycling has become increasingly popular nowadays. Physiology and bike design are key factors for the influence of cycling efficiency. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the significance of bike-frame geometric factors on cycling efficiency and muscle activation for different body sizes of non-professional Asian male cyclists. Participants who represented various body sizes, as measured by leg and back lengths, carried out cycling tests using a tailor-assembled road bike with different ergonomic design configurations including seat-height adjustments (i.e., 96%, 100%, and 104% of trochanteric height) and bike frame sizes (i.e., small and medium frames) for an assessable distance of 1 km. A specific power meter and self-developed adaptable surface electromyography (sEMG) were used to measure average pedaling power and cadence generated and muscle activation, respectively. The results showed that changing the seat height was far more significant than the body and bike frame sizes. The sEMG data evidently provided a better understanding of muscle activation as a function of different seat heights. Therefore, the interpretation of this study is that the major bike ergonomic design factor dominating the cycling efficiency of Asian participants with different body sizes was the seat height.

Keywords: bike frame sizes, cadence rate, pedaling power, seat height

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
6571 Influence of Long-Term Variability in Atmospheric Parameters on Ocean State over the Head Bay of Bengal

Authors: Anindita Patra, Prasad K. Bhaskaran


The atmosphere-ocean is a dynamically linked system that influences the exchange of energy, mass, and gas at the air-sea interface. The exchange of energy takes place in the form of sensible heat, latent heat, and momentum commonly referred to as fluxes along the atmosphere-ocean boundary. The large scale features such as El Nino and Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a classic example on the interaction mechanism that occurs along the air-sea interface that deals with the inter-annual variability of the Earth’s Climate System. Most importantly the ocean and atmosphere as a coupled system acts in tandem thereby maintaining the energy balance of the climate system, a manifestation of the coupled air-sea interaction process. The present work is an attempt to understand the long-term variability in atmospheric parameters (from surface to upper levels) and investigate their role in influencing the surface ocean variables. More specifically the influence of atmospheric circulation and its variability influencing the mean Sea Level Pressure (SLP) has been explored. The study reports on a critical examination of both ocean-atmosphere parameters during a monsoon season over the head Bay of Bengal region. A trend analysis has been carried out for several atmospheric parameters such as the air temperature, geo-potential height, and omega (vertical velocity) for different vertical levels in the atmosphere (from surface to the troposphere) covering a period from 1992 to 2012. The Reanalysis 2 dataset from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction-Department of Energy (NCEP-DOE) was used in this study. The study signifies that the variability in air temperature and omega corroborates with the variation noticed in geo-potential height. Further, the study advocates that for the lower atmosphere the geo-potential heights depict a typical east-west contrast exhibiting a zonal dipole behavior over the study domain. In addition, the study clearly brings to light that the variations over different levels in the atmosphere plays a pivotal role in supporting the observed dipole pattern as clearly evidenced from the trends in SLP, associated surface wind speed and significant wave height over the study domain.

Keywords: air temperature, geopotential height, head Bay of Bengal, long-term variability, NCEP reanalysis 2, omega, wind-waves

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
6570 Correlation between Sprint Performance and Vertical Jump Height in Elite Female Football Players

Authors: Svetlana Missina, Anatoliy Shipilov, Alexandr Vavaev


The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between sprint and vertical jump performance in elite female football players. Twenty four professional female football players (age, 18.6±3.1 years; height, 168.3±6.3 cm, body mass 61.6±7.4 kg; mean±SD) were tested for 30-m sprint time, 10-m sprint time and vertical countermovement (CMJ) and squat (SJ) jumps height. Participants performed three countermovement jumps and three squat jumps for maximal height on a force platform. Mean values of three trials were used in statistical analysis. The displacement of center of mass (COM) during flight phase (e.g. jump height) was calculated using the vertical velocity of the COM at the moment of take-off. 30-m and 10-m sprint time were measured using OptoGait optical system. The best of three trials were used for analysis. A significant negative correlation was found between 30-m sprint time and CMJ, SJ height (r = -0.85, r = -0.79 respectively), between 10-m sprint time and CMJ, SJ height (r = -0.73, r = -0.8 respectively), and step frequency was significantly related to CMJ peak power (r = -0.57). Our study indicates that there is strong correlation between sprint and jump performance in elite female football players, thus vertical jump test can be considered as a good sprint and agility predictor in female football.

Keywords: agility, female football players, sprint performance, vertical jump height

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
6569 Pressure-Detecting Method for Estimating Levitation Gap Height of Swirl Gripper

Authors: Kaige Shi, Chao Jiang, Xin Li


The swirl gripper is an electrically activated noncontact handling device that uses swirling airflow to generate a lifting force. This force can be used to pick up a workpiece placed underneath the swirl gripper without any contact. It is applicable, for example, in the semiconductor wafer production line, where contact must be avoided during the handling and moving of a workpiece to minimize damage. When a workpiece levitates underneath a swirl gripper, the gap height between them is crucial for safe handling. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a method to estimate the levitation gap height by detecting pressure at two points. The method is based on theoretical model of the swirl gripper, and has been experimentally verified. Furthermore, the force between the gripper and the workpiece can also be estimated using the detected pressure. As a result, the nonlinear relationship between the force and gap height can be linearized by adjusting the rotating speed of the fan in the swirl gripper according to the estimated force and gap height. The linearized relationship is expected to enhance handling stability of the workpiece.

Keywords: swirl gripper, noncontact handling, levitation, gap height estimation

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
6568 The Utilization of Rain Water to Ground Water with Tube in the Area of Tourism in Yogyakarta

Authors: Kurniawan Agung Pambudi, Alfian Deo Pradipta


Yogyakarta is the famous tourism city in Indonesia. The Tugu Jogja is a tourism center located in Jetis. To support the tourism activities required facilities such as tourist hotel and guest house. The existence of tourism also has an impact on the environment. The surface of the land is covered by cement and a local company dealing in ceramics, then an infiltration process is not running. The existence of the building in layers resulting in the amount of water resource in Jetis decreases. The purpose of this research is to know the impact of the construction of the building in layers in Jetis. To obtain the data done by observation, measurements and taking the land profile, along with the interview to people in Jetis. The results of the study showed that the number of water sources in Jetis, Yogyakarta start decreases as a result of the construction of the building on stilts as a result, the height of the surface of the groundwater decreases and digging a pit must be in to get the source of the waters. Based on the results of research it can be concluded that the height of the surface of the groundwater decreases. To resolve the issue required a method to rainwater can seep into the ground for maximum. The rain that fell upon the precarious houses or other buildings is channeled toward the ground through the tubes with the depth of 1-2 meters. Rainwater will be absorbed into the land and increase the amount of ground water.

Keywords: rain water, tube, water resource, groundwater

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
6567 Measuring the Height of a Person in Closed Circuit Television Video Footage Using 3D Human Body Model

Authors: Dojoon Jung, Kiwoong Moon, Joong Lee


The height of criminals is one of the important clues that can determine the scope of the suspect's search or exclude the suspect from the search target. Although measuring the height of criminals by video alone is limited by various reasons, the 3D data of the scene and the Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) footage are matched, the height of the criminal can be measured. However, it is still difficult to measure the height of CCTV footage in the non-contact type measurement method because of variables such as position, posture, and head shape of criminals. In this paper, we propose a method of matching the CCTV footage with the 3D data on the crime scene and measuring the height of the person using the 3D human body model in the matched data. In the proposed method, the height is measured by using 3D human model in various scenes of the person in the CCTV footage, and the measurement value of the target person is corrected by the measurement error of the replay CCTV footage of the reference person. We tested for 20 people's walking CCTV footage captured from an indoor and an outdoor and corrected the measurement values with 5 reference persons. Experimental results show that the measurement error (true value-measured value) average is 0.45 cm, and this method is effective for the measurement of the person's height in CCTV footage.

Keywords: human height, CCTV footage, 2D/3D matching, 3D human body model

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
6566 Numerical Analysis of Roughness Effect on Mini and Microchannels: Hydrodynamics and Heat Transfer

Authors: El-Ghalia Filali, Cherif Gadouche, Mohamed Tahar


A three-dimensional numerical simulation of flow through mini and microchannels with designed roughness is conducted here. The effect of the roughness height (surface roughness), geometry, Reynolds number on the friction factor and the Nusselt number is investigated. The study is carried out by employing CFD software, CFX. Our work focuses on a water flow inside a circular mini-channel of 1 mm and microchannels of 500 and 100 μm in diameter. The speed entry varies from 0.1 m/s to 20 m/s. The general trend can be observed that bigger sizes of roughness element lead to higher flow resistance. It is found that the friction factor increases in a nonlinear fashion with the increase in obstruction height. Particularly, the effect of roughness can no longer be ignored at relative roughness height higher than 3%. A significant increase in Poiseuille number is detected for all configurations considered. The same observation can be done for Nusselt number. The transition zone between laminar and turbulent flow depends on the channel diameter.

Keywords: hydrodynamics, heat transfer, minichannel, microchannel, roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
6565 Temperature and Substrate Orientation Effects on the Thermal Stability of Graphene Sheet Attached on the Si Surface

Authors: Wen-Jay Lee, Kuo-Ning Chiang


The graphene binding with silicon substrate has apparently Schottky barriers property, which can be used in the application of solar cell and light source. Because graphene has only one atom layer, the atomistic structure of graphene binding with the silicon surface plays an important role to affect the properties of graphene. In this work, temperature effect on the morphology of graphene sheet attached on different crystal planes of silicon substrates are investigated by Molecular dynamics (MD) (LAMMPS, developed by Sandia National Laboratories). The results show that the covered graphene sheet would cause the structural deformation of the surface Si atoms of stubtrate. To achieve a stable state in the binding process, the surface Si atoms would adjust their position and fit the honeycomb structure of graphene after the graphene attaches to the Si surface. The height contour of graphene on different plane of silicon surfaces presents different pattern, leading the local residual stress at the interface. Due to the high density of dangling bond on the Si (111)7x7 surface, the surface of Si(111)7x7 is not matching with the graphene so well in contrast with Si(100)2x1and Si(111)2x1. Si(111)7x7 is found that only partial silicon adatoms are rearranged on surface after the attachment when the temperature is lower than 200K, As the temperature gradually increases, the deformation of surface structure becomes significant, as well as the residue stress. With increasing temperature till the 815K, the graphene sheet begins to destroy and mixes with the silicon atoms. For the Si(100)2x1 and Si(111)2x1, the silicon surface structure keep its structural arrangement with a higher temperature. With increasing temperature, the residual stress gradually decrease till a critical temperatures. When the temperature is higher than the critical temperature, the residual stress gradually increases and the structural deformation is found on the surface of the Si substrates.

Keywords: molecular dynamics, graphene, silicon, Schottky barriers, interface

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
6564 Investigating the Sloshing Characteristics of a Liquid by Using an Image Processing Method

Authors: Ufuk Tosun, Reza Aghazadeh, Mehmet Bülent Özer


This study puts forward a method to analyze the sloshing characteristics of liquid in a tuned sloshing absorber system by using image processing tools. Tuned sloshing vibration absorbers have recently attracted researchers’ attention as a seismic load damper in constructions due to its practical and logistical convenience. The absorber is liquid which sloshes and applies a force in opposite phase to the motion of structure. Experimentally characterization of the sloshing behavior can be utilized as means of verifying the results of numerical analysis. It can also be used to identify the accuracy of assumptions related to the motion of the liquid. There are extensive theoretical and experimental studies in the literature related to the dynamical and structural behavior of tuned sloshing dampers. In most of these works there are efforts to estimate the sloshing behavior of the liquid such as free surface motion and total force applied by liquid to the wall of container. For these purposes the use of sensors such as load cells and ultrasonic sensors are prevalent in experimental works. Load cells are only capable of measuring the force and requires conducting tests both with and without liquid to obtain pure sloshing force. Ultrasonic level sensors give point-wise measurements and hence they are not applicable to measure the whole free surface motion. Furthermore, in the case of liquid splashing it may give incorrect data. In this work a method for evaluating the sloshing wave height by using camera records and image processing techniques is presented. In this method the motion of the liquid and its container, made of a transparent material, is recorded by a high speed camera which is aligned to the free surface of the liquid. The video captured by the camera is processed frame by frame by using MATLAB Image Processing toolbox. The process starts with cropping the desired region. By recognizing the regions containing liquid and eliminating noise and liquid splashing, the final picture depicting the free surface of liquid is achieved. This picture then is used to obtain the height of the liquid through the length of container. This process is verified by ultrasonic sensors that measured fluid height on the surface of liquid.

Keywords: fluid structure interaction, image processing, sloshing, tuned liquid damper

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
6563 Optimization Studies on Biosorption of Ni(II) and Cd(II) from Wastewater Using Pseudomonas putida in a Packed Bed Bioreactor

Authors: K.Narasimhulu, Y. Pydi Setty


The objective of this present study is the optimization of process parameters in biosorption of Ni(II) and Cd(II) ions by Pseudomonas putida using Response Surface Methodology in a Packed bed bioreactor. The experimental data were also tested with theoretical models to find the best fit model. The present paper elucidates RSM as an efficient approach for predictive model building and optimization of Ni(II) and Cd(II) ions using Pseudomonas putida. In packed bed biosorption studies, comparison of the breakthrough curves of Ni(II) and Cd(II) for Agar immobilized and PAA immobilized Pseudomonas putida at optimum conditions of flow rate of 300 mL/h, initial metal ion concentration of 100 mg/L and bed height of 20 cm with weight of biosorbent of 12 g, it was found that the Agar immobilized Pseudomonas putida showed maximum percent biosorption and bed saturation occurred at 20 minutes. Optimization results of Ni(II) and Cd(II) by Pseudomonas putida from the Design Expert software were obtained as bed height of 19.93 cm, initial metal ion concentration of 103.85 mg/L, and flow rate of 310.57 mL/h. The percent biosorption of Ni(II) and Cd(II) is 87.2% and 88.2% respectively. The predicted optimized parameters are in agreement with the experimental results.

Keywords: packed bed bioreactor, response surface mthodology, pseudomonas putida, biosorption, waste water

Procedia PDF Downloads 379
6562 A Comparison between the Results of Hormuz Strait Wave Simulations Using WAVEWATCH-III and MIKE21-SW and Satellite Altimetry Observations

Authors: Fatemeh Sadat Sharifi


In the present study, the capabilities of WAVEWATCH-III and MIKE21-SW for predicting the characteristics of wind waves in Hormuz Strait are evaluated. The GFS wind data (Global Forecast System) were derived. The bathymetry of gride with 2 arc-minute resolution, also were extracted from the ETOPO1. WAVEWATCH-III findings illustrate more valid prediction of wave features comparing to the MIKE-21 SW in deep water. Apparently, in shallow area, the MIKE-21 provides more uniformities with altimetry measurements. This may be due to the merits of the unstructured grid which are used in MIKE-21, leading to better representations of the coastal area. The findings on the direction of waves generated by wind in the modeling area indicate that in some regions, despite the increase in wind speed, significant wave height stays nearly unchanged. This is fundamental because of swift changes in wind track over the Strait of Hormuz. After discussing wind-induced waves in the region, the impact of instability of the surface layer on wave growth has been considered. For this purpose, the average monthly mean air temperature has been used. The results in cold months, when the surface layer is unstable, indicates an acceptable increase in the accuracy of prediction of the indicator wave height.

Keywords: numerical modeling, WAVEWATCH-III, Strait of Hormuz, MIKE21-SW

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
6561 Role of Biomaterial Surface Nanotopography on Protein Unfolding and Immune Response

Authors: Rahul Madathiparambil Visalakshan, Alex Cavallaro, John Hayball, Krasimir Vasilev


The role of biomaterial surface nanotopograhy on fibrinogen adsorption and unfolding, and the subsequent immune response were studied. Inconsistent topography and varying chemical functionalities along with a lack of reproducibility pose a challenge in determining the specific effects of nanotopography or chemistry on proteins and cells. It is important to have a well-defined nanotopography with a homogeneous chemistry to study the real effect of nanotopography on biological systems. Therefore, we developed a technique that can produce well-defined and highly reproducible topography to identify the role of specific roughness, size, height and density with the presence of homogeneous chemical functionality. Using plasma polymerisation of oxazoline monomers and immobilized gold nanoparticles we created surfaces with an equal number density of nanoparticles of different sizes. This surface was used to study the role of surface nanotopography and the interplay of surface chemistry on proteins and immune cells. The effect of nanotopography on fibrinogen adsorption was investigated using Quartz Cristal Microbalance with Dissipation and micro BCA. The mass of fibrinogen adsorbed on the surface increased with increasing size of nano-topography. Protein structural changes up on adsorption to the nano rough surface was studied using circular dichroism spectroscopy. Fibrinogen unfolding varied depending on the specific nanotopography of the surfaces. It was revealed that the in vitro immune response to the nanotopography surfaces changed due to this protein unfolding.

Keywords: biomaterial inflammation, protein and cell responses, protein unfolding, surface nanotopography

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
6560 On Hyperbolic Gompertz Growth Model (HGGM)

Authors: S. O. Oyamakin, A. U. Chukwu,


We proposed a Hyperbolic Gompertz Growth Model (HGGM), which was developed by introducing a stabilizing parameter called θ using hyperbolic sine function into the classical gompertz growth equation. The resulting integral solution obtained deterministically was reprogrammed into a statistical model and used in modeling the height and diameter of Pines (Pinus caribaea). Its ability in model prediction was compared with the classical gompertz growth model, an approach which mimicked the natural variability of height/diameter increment with respect to age and therefore provides a more realistic height/diameter predictions using goodness of fit tests and model selection criteria. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and Shapiro-Wilk test was also used to test the compliance of the error term to normality assumptions while using testing the independence of the error term using the runs test. The mean function of top height/Dbh over age using the two models under study predicted closely the observed values of top height/Dbh in the hyperbolic gompertz growth models better than the source model (classical gompertz growth model) while the results of R2, Adj. R2, MSE, and AIC confirmed the predictive power of the Hyperbolic Monomolecular growth models over its source model.

Keywords: height, Dbh, forest, Pinus caribaea, hyperbolic, gompertz

Procedia PDF Downloads 370
6559 The Effect of Tip Parameters on Vibration Modes of Atomic Force Microscope Cantilever

Authors: Mehdi Shekarzadeh, Pejman Taghipour Birgani


In this paper, the effect of mass and height of tip on the flexural vibration modes of an atomic force microscope (AFM) rectangular cantilever is analyzed. A closed-form expression for the sensitivity of vibration modes is derived using the relationship between the resonant frequency and contact stiffness of cantilever and sample. Each mode has a different sensitivity to variations in surface stiffness. This sensitivity directly controls the image resolution. It is obtained an AFM cantilever is more sensitive when the mass of tip is lower and the first mode is the most sensitive mode. Also, the effect of changes of tip height on the flexural sensitivity is negligible.

Keywords: atomic force microscope, AFM, vibration analysis, flexural vibration, cantilever

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
6558 A Laboratory Study into the Effects of Surface Waves on Freestyle Swimming

Authors: Scott Draper, Nat Benjanuvatra, Grant Landers, Terry Griffiths, Justin Geldard


Open water swimming has been an Olympic sport since 2008 and is growing in popularity world-wide as a low impact form of exercise. Unlike pool swimming, open water swimmers experience a range of different environmental conditions, including surface waves, variable water temperature, aquatic life, and ocean currents. This presentation will describe experimental research to investigate how freestyle swimming behaviour and performance is influenced by surface waves. A group of 12 swimmers were instructed to swim freestyle in the 54 m long wave flume located at The University of Western Australia’s Coastal and Offshore Engineering Laboratory. A variety of different regular waves were simulated, varying in height (up to 0.3 m), period (1.25 – 4s), and direction (with or against the swimmer). Swimmer’s velocity and acceleration, respectively, were determined from video recording and inertial sensors attached to five different parts of the swimmer’s body. The results illustrate how the swimmers stroke rate and the wave encounter frequency influence their forward speed and how particular wave conditions can benefit or hinder performance. Comparisons to simplified mathematical models provide insight into several aspects of performance, including: (i) how much faster swimmers can travel when swimming with as opposed to against the waves, and (ii) why swimmers of lesser ability are expected to be affected proportionally more by waves than elite swimmers. These findings have implications across the spectrum from elite to ‘weekend’ swimmers, including how they are coached and their ability to win (or just successfully complete) iconic open water events such as the Rottnest Channel Swim held annually in Western Australia.

Keywords: open water, surface waves, wave height/length, wave flume, stroke rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 42