Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 159

Search results for: seabed liquefaction

159 3-D Numerical Model for Wave-Induced Seabed Response around an Offshore Pipeline

Authors: Zuodong Liang, Dong-Sheng Jeng

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Seabed instability around an offshore pipeline is one of key factors that need to be considered in the design of offshore infrastructures. Unlike previous investigations, a three-dimensional numerical model for the wave-induced soil response around an offshore pipeline is proposed in this paper. The numerical model was first validated with 2-D experimental data available in the literature. Then, a parametric study will be carried out to examine the effects of wave, seabed characteristics and confirmation of pipeline. Numerical examples demonstrate significant influence of wave obliquity on the wave-induced pore pressures and the resultant seabed liquefaction around the pipeline, which cannot be observed in 2-D numerical simulation.

Keywords: pore pressure, 3D wave model, seabed liquefaction, pipeline

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
158 Scaling Analysis for the Liquefaction Phenomena Generated by Water Waves

Authors: E. Arcos, E. Bautista, F. Méndez

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In this work, a scaling analysis of the liquefaction phenomena is presented. The characteristic scales are obtained by balancing term by term of the well-known partial dynamics governing equations, (U − P). From the above, the order of magnitude of the horizontal displacement is very smaller compared with the vertical displacement and therefore the governing equation is only a function of the dependent vertical variables. The U − P approximation is reduced and presented in its dimensionless version. This scaling analysis can be used to obtain analytical solutions of the liquefaction phenomena under the action of the water waves.

Keywords: approximation U-P, porous seabed, scaling analysis, water waves

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
157 Investigation of Fluid-Structure-Seabed Interaction of Gravity Anchor under Liquefaction and Scour

Authors: Vinay Kumar Vanjakula, Frank Adam, Nils Goseberg, Christian Windt

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When a structure is installed on a seabed, the presence of the structure will influence the flow field around it. The changes in the flow field include, formation of vortices, turbulence generation, waves or currents flow breaking and pressure differentials around the seabed sediment. These changes allow the local seabed sediment to be carried off and results in Scour (erosion). These are a threat to the structure's stability. In recent decades, rapid developments of research work and the knowledge of scour On fixed structures (bridges and Monopiles) in rivers and oceans has been carried out, and very limited research work on scour and liquefaction for gravity anchors, particularly for floating Tension Leg Platform (TLP) substructures. Due to its importance and need for enhancement of knowledge in scour and liquefaction around marine structures, the MarTERA funded a three-year (2020-2023) research program called NuLIMAS (Numerical Modeling of Liquefaction Around Marine Structures). It’s a group consists of European institutions (Universities, laboratories, and consulting companies). The objective of this study is to build a numerical model that replicates the reality, which indeed helps to simulate (predict) underwater flow conditions and to study different marine scour and Liquefication situations. It helps to design a heavyweight anchor for the TLP substructure and to minimize the time and expenditure on experiments. And also, the achieved results and the numerical model will be a basis for the development of other design and concepts For marine structures. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) numerical model will build in OpenFOAM. A conceptual design of heavyweight anchor for TLP substructure is designed through taking considerations of available state-of-the-art knowledge on scour and Liquefication concepts and references to Previous existing designs. These conceptual designs are validated with the available similar experimental benchmark data and also with the CFD numerical benchmark standards (CFD quality assurance study). CFD optimization model/tool is designed as to minimize the effect of fluid flow, scour, and Liquefication. A parameterized model is also developed to automate the calculation process to reduce user interactions. The parameters such as anchor Lowering Process, flow optimized outer contours, seabed interaction study, and FSSI (Fluid-Structure-Seabed Interactions) are investigated and used to carve the model as to build an optimized anchor.

Keywords: gravity anchor, liquefaction, scour, computational fluid dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
156 Reliability-Based Method for Assessing Liquefaction Potential of Soils

Authors: Mehran Naghizaderokni, Asscar Janalizadechobbasty

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This paper explores probabilistic method for assessing the liquefaction potential of sandy soils. The current simplified methods for assessing soil liquefaction potential use a deterministic safety factor in order to determine whether liquefaction will occur or not. However, these methods are unable to determine the liquefaction probability related to a safety factor. A solution to this problem can be found by reliability analysis.This paper presents a reliability analysis method based on the popular certain liquefaction analysis method. The proposed probabilistic method is formulated based on the results of reliability analyses of 190 field records and observations of soil performance against liquefaction. The results of the present study show that confidence coefficient greater and smaller than 1 does not mean safety and/or liquefaction in cadence for liquefaction, and for assuring liquefaction probability, reliability based method analysis should be used. This reliability method uses the empirical acceleration attenuation law in the Chalos area to derive the probability density distribution function and the statistics for the earthquake-induced cyclic shear stress ratio (CSR). The CSR and CRR statistics are used in continuity with the first order and second moment method to calculate the relation between the liquefaction probability, the safety factor and the reliability index. Based on the proposed method, the liquefaction probability related to a safety factor can be easily calculated. The influence of some of the soil parameters on the liquefaction probability can be quantitatively evaluated.

Keywords: liquefaction, reliability analysis, chalos area, civil and structural engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 385
155 Effect of Oil Contamination on the Liquefaction Behavior of Sandy Soils

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Mohammad Mahdi Shojaedin

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Oil leakage from the pipelines and the tanks carrying them, or during oil extraction, could lead to the changes in the characteristics and properties of the soil. In this paper, conducting a series of experimental cyclic triaxial tests, the effects of oil contamination on the liquefaction potential of sandy soils is investigated. The studied specimens are prepared by mixing the Firoozkuh sand with crude oil in 4, 8 and 12 percent by soil dry weight. The results show that the oil contamination up to 8% causes an increase in the soil liquefaction resistance and then with increase in the contamination, the liquefaction resistance decreases.

Keywords: cyclic triaxial test, liquefaction resistance, oil contamination, sandy soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 436
154 Reliability Analysis of Soil Liquefaction Based on Standard Penetration: A Case Study in Babol City

Authors: Mehran Naghizaderokni, Asscar Janalizadechobbasty

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There are more probabilistic and deterministic liquefaction evaluation procedures in order to judge whether liquefaction will occur or not. A review of this approach reveals that there is a need for a comprehensive procedure that accounts for different sources of uncertainty in liquefaction evaluation. In fact, for the same set of input parameters, different methods provide different factors of safety and/or probabilities of liquefaction. To account for the different uncertainties, including both the model and measurement uncertainties, reliability analysis is necessary. This paper has obtained information from Standard Penetration Test (SPT) and some empirical approaches such as: Seed et al, Highway bridge of Japan approach to soil liquefaction, The Overseas Coastal Area Development Institute of Japan (OCDI) and reliability method to studying potential of liquefaction in soil of Babol city in the north of Iran are compared. Evaluation potential of liquefaction in soil of Babol city is an important issue since the soil of some area contains sand, seismic area, increasing level of underground waters and consequently saturation of soil; therefore, one of the most important goals of this paper is to gain suitable recognition of liquefaction potential and find the most appropriate procedure of evaluation liquefaction potential to decrease related damages.

Keywords: reliability analysis, liquefaction, Babol, civil, construction and geological engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 442
153 Cyclic Liquefaction Resistance of Reinforced Sand

Authors: S. A. Naeini, Z. Eftekhari

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Liquefaction phenomenon in sand is nowadays a classical soil mechanics subject. Using a cyclic triaxial test apparatus, we use non-woven geotextile reinforcement to improve the liquefaction resistance of sand. The layer configurations used are zero, one, two and three horizontal reinforcing layers in a triaxial test sample. The influences of the number of geotextile layers, and cyclic stress ratio (CSR) were studied and described. The results illustrated that the geotextile inclusion increases liquefaction resistance.

Keywords: liquefaction resistance, geotextile, sand, cyclic triaxial test, cyclic stress ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 480
152 Evaluation of Iranian Standard for Assessment of Liquefaction Potential of Cohesionless Soils Based on SPT

Authors: Reza Ziaie Moayad, Azam Kouhpeyma

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In-situ testing is preferred to evaluate the liquefaction potential in cohesionless soils due to high disturbance during sampling. Although new in-situ methods with high accuracy have been developed, standard penetration test, the simplest and the oldest in-situ test, is still used due to the profusion of the recorded data. This paper reviews the Iranian standard of evaluating liquefaction potential in soils (codes 525) and compares the liquefaction assessment methods based on SPT results on cohesionless soil in this standard with the international standards. To this, methods for assessing liquefaction potential which are presented by Cetin et al. (2004), Boulanger and Idriss (2014) are compared with what is presented in standard 525. It is found that although the procedure used in Iranian standard of evaluating the potential of liquefaction has not been updated according to the new findings, it is a conservative procedure.

Keywords: cohesionless soil, liquefaction, SPT, standard 525

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
151 Prediction of Soil Liquefaction by Using UBC3D-PLM Model in PLAXIS

Authors: A. Daftari, W. Kudla

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Liquefaction is a phenomenon in which the strength and stiffness of a soil is reduced by earthquake shaking or other rapid cyclic loading. Liquefaction and related phenomena have been responsible for huge amounts of damage in historical earthquakes around the world. Modelling of soil behaviour is the main step in soil liquefaction prediction process. Nowadays, several constitutive models for sand have been presented. Nevertheless, only some of them can satisfy this mechanism. One of the most useful models in this term is UBCSAND model. In this research, the capability of this model is considered by using PLAXIS software. The real data of superstition hills earthquake 1987 in the Imperial Valley was used. The results of the simulation have shown resembling trend of the UBC3D-PLM model.

Keywords: liquefaction, plaxis, pore-water pressure, UBC3D-PLM

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
150 UBCSAND Model Calibration for Generic Liquefaction Triggering Curves

Authors: Jui-Ching Chou

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Numerical simulation is a popular method used to evaluate the effects of soil liquefaction on a structure or the effectiveness of a mitigation plan. Many constitutive models (UBCSAND model, PM4 model, SANISAND model, etc.) were presented to model the liquefaction phenomenon. In general, inputs of a constitutive model need to be calibrated against the soil cyclic resistance before being applied to the numerical simulation model. Then, simulation results can be compared with results from simplified liquefaction potential assessing methods. In this article, inputs of the UBCSAND model, a simple elastic-plastic stress-strain model, are calibrated against several popular generic liquefaction triggering curves of simplified liquefaction potential assessing methods via FLAC program. Calibrated inputs can provide engineers to perform a preliminary evaluation of an existing structure or a new design project.

Keywords: calibration, liquefaction, numerical simulation, UBCSAND Model

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
149 Evaluation of Liquefaction Potential of Fine Grained Soil: Kerman Case Study

Authors: Reza Ziaie Moayed, Maedeh Akhavan Tavakkoli

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This research aims to investigate and evaluate the liquefaction potential in a project in Kerman city based on different methods for fine-grained soils. Examining the previous damages caused by recent earthquakes, it has been observed that fine-grained soils play an essential role in the level of damage caused by soil liquefaction. But, based on previous investigations related to liquefaction, there is limited attention to evaluating the cyclic resistance ratio for fine-grain soils, especially with the SPT method. Although using a standard penetration test (SPT) to find the liquefaction potential of fine-grain soil is not common, it can be a helpful method based on its rapidness, serviceability, and availability. In the present study, the liquefaction potential has been first determined by the soil’s physical properties obtained from laboratory tests. Then, using the SPT test and its available criterion for evaluating the cyclic resistance ratio and safety factor of liquefaction, the correction of effecting fine-grained soils is made, and then the results are compared. The results show that using the SPT test for liquefaction is more accurate than using laboratory tests in most cases due to the contribution of different physical parameters of soil, which leads to an increase in the ultimate N₁(60,cs).

Keywords: liquefaction, cyclic resistance ratio, SPT test, clay soil, cohesion soils

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148 Effect of Fines on Liquefaction Susceptibility of Sandy Soil

Authors: Ayad Salih Sabbar, Amin Chegenizadeh, Hamid Nikraz

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Investigation of liquefaction susceptibility of materials that have been used in embankments, slopes, dams, and foundations is very essential. Many catastrophic geo-hazards such as flow slides, declination of foundations, and damage to earth structure are associated with static liquefaction that may occur during abrupt shearing of these materials. Many artificial backfill materials are mixtures of sand with fines and other composition. In order to provide some clarifications and evaluations on the role of fines in static liquefaction behaviour of sand sandy soils, the effect of fines on the liquefaction susceptibility of sand was experimentally examined in the present work over a range of fines content, relative density, and initial confining pressure. The results of an experimental study on various sand-fines mixtures are presented. Undrained static triaxial compression tests were conducted on saturated Perth sand containing 5% bentonite at three different relative densities (10, 50, and 90%), and saturated Perth sand containing both 5% bentonite and slag (2%, 4%, and 6%) at single relative density 10%. Undrained static triaxial tests were performed at three different initial confining pressures (100, 150, and 200 kPa). The brittleness index was used to quantify the liquefaction potential of sand-bentonite-slag mixtures. The results demonstrated that the liquefaction susceptibility of sand-5% bentonite mixture was more than liquefaction susceptibility of clean sandy soil. However, liquefaction potential decreased when both of two fines (bentonite and slag) were used. Liquefaction susceptibility of all mixtures decreased with increasing relative density and initial confining pressure.  

Keywords: liquefaction, bentonite, slag, brittleness index

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
147 Liquefaction Assessment of Marine Soil in Western Yemen Region Based on Laboratory and Field Tests

Authors: Monalisha Nayak, T. G. Sitharam

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Liquefaction is a major threat for sites consists of or on sandy soil. But this present study concentrates on the behavior of fine soil under cyclic loading. This paper presents the study of liquefaction susceptibility of marine silty clay to clayey silt for an offshore site near western Yemen. The submerged and loose sediment condition of marine soil of an offshore site can favour liquefaction during earthquakes. In this regard, the liquefaction susceptibility of the site was carried out based on both field test results and laboratory test results. From field test results of seismic cone penetration test (SCPT), liquefaction susceptibility was assessed considering normalized cone tip resistance, and normalized friction ratio and results give an idea regarding both cyclic mobility and flow liquefaction. Laboratory cyclic triaxial tests were also conducted on saturated undisturbed and remoulded sample to study the effect of cyclic loading on strength and strain characteristics. Liquefaction susceptibility of the marine soft soil was also carried out based on index properties like grain size distribution, natural moisture content and liquid limit of soil.

Keywords: index properties, liquefaction, marine soil, seismic cone penetration test (SCPT)

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
146 The Evaluation of Soil Liquefaction Potential Using Shear Wave Velocity

Authors: M. Nghizaderokni, A. Janalizadechobbasty, M. Azizi, M. Naghizaderokni

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The liquefaction resistance of soils can be evaluated using laboratory tests such as cyclic simple shear, cyclic triaxial, cyclic tensional shear, and field methods such as Standard Penetration Test (SPT), Cone Penetration Test (CPT), and Shear Wave Velocity (Vs). This paper outlines a great correlation between shear wave velocity and standard penetration resistance of granular soils was obtained. Using Seeds standard penetration test (SPT) based soil liquefaction charts, new charts of soil liquefaction evaluation based on shear wave velocity data were developed for various magnitude earthquakes.

Keywords: soil, liquefaction, shear wave velocity, standard penetration resistance

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
145 Effect of Plastic Fines on Liquefaction Resistance of Sandy Soil Using Resonant Column Test

Authors: S. A. Naeini, M. Ghorbani Tochaee

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The aim of this study is to assess the influence of plastic fines content on sand-clay mixtures on maximum shear modulus and liquefaction resistance using a series of resonant column tests. A high plasticity clay called bentonite was added to 161 Firoozkooh sand at the percentages of 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 by dry weight. The resonant column tests were performed on the remolded specimens at constant confining pressure of 100 KPa and then the values of Gmax and liquefaction resistance were investigated. The maximum shear modulus and cyclic resistance ratio (CRR) are examined in terms of fines content. Based on the results, the maximum shear modulus and liquefaction resistance tend to decrease within the increment of fine contents.

Keywords: Gmax, liquefaction, plastic fines, resonant column, sand-clay mixtures, bentonite

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
144 Second Sub-Harmonic Resonance in Vortex-Induced Vibrations of a Marine Pipeline Close to the Seabed

Authors: Yiming Jin, Yuanhao Gao

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In this paper, using the method of multiple scales, the second sub-harmonic resonance in vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) of a marine pipeline close to the seabed is investigated based on a developed wake oscillator model. The amplitude-frequency equations are also derived. It is found that the oscillation will increase all the time when both discriminants of the amplitude-frequency equations are positive while the oscillation will decay when the discriminants are negative.

Keywords: vortex-induced vibrations, marine pipeline, seabed, sub-harmonic resonance

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
143 Optimization of Quercus cerris Bark Liquefaction

Authors: Luísa P. Cruz-Lopes, Hugo Costa e Silva, Idalina Domingos, José Ferreira, Luís Teixeira de Lemos, Bruno Esteves

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The liquefaction process of cork based tree barks has led to an increase of interest due to its potential innovation in the lumber and wood industries. In this particular study the bark of Quercus cerris (Turkish oak) is used due to its appreciable amount of cork tissue, although of inferior quality when compared to the cork provided by other Quercus trees. This study aims to optimize alkaline catalysis liquefaction conditions, regarding several parameters. To better comprehend the possible chemical characteristics of the bark of Quercus cerris, a complete chemical analysis was performed. The liquefaction process was performed in a double-jacket reactor heated with oil, using glycerol and a mixture of glycerol/ethylene glycol as solvents, potassium hydroxide as a catalyst, and varying the temperature, liquefaction time and granulometry. Due to low liquefaction efficiency resulting from the first experimental procedures a study was made regarding different washing techniques after the filtration process using methanol and methanol/water. The chemical analysis stated that the bark of Quercus cerris is mostly composed by suberin (ca. 30%) and lignin (ca. 24%) as well as insolvent hemicelluloses in hot water (ca. 23%). On the liquefaction stage, the results that led to higher yields were: using a mixture of methanol/ethylene glycol as reagents and a time and temperature of 120 minutes and 200 ºC, respectively. It is concluded that using a granulometry of <80 mesh leads to better results, even if this parameter barely influences the liquefaction efficiency. Regarding the filtration stage, washing the residue with methanol and then distilled water leads to a considerable increase on final liquefaction percentages, which proves that this procedure is effective at liquefying suberin content and lignocellulose fraction.

Keywords: liquefaction, Quercus cerris, polyalcohol liquefaction, temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
142 Co-Liquefaction of Cellulosic Biomass and Waste Plastics

Authors: Katsumi Hirano, Yusuke Kakuta, Koji Yoshida, Shozo Itagaki, Masahiko Kajioka, Toshihiko Okada

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A conversion technology of cellulosic biomass and waste plastics to liquid fuel at low pressure and low temperature has been investigated. This study aims at the production of the liquefied fuel (CPLF) of substituting diesel oil by mixing cellulosic biomass and waste plastics in the presence of solvent. Co-liquefaction of cellulosic biomass (Japan cedar) and polypropylene (PP) using wood tar or mineral oil as solvent at 673K with an autoclave was carried out. It was confirmed that the co-liquefaction gave CPLF in a high yield among the cases of wood or of polypropylene Which was ascribed the acceleration of decomposition of plastics by radicals derived from the decomposition of wood. The co-liquefaction was also conducted by a small twin screw extruder. It was found that CPLF was obtained in the co-liquefaction, And the acceleration of decomposition of plastics in the presence of cellulosic biomass. The engine test of CPLF showed that the engine performances, Compression ignition and combustion characteristics were almost similar to those of diesel fuel at any mixing ratio of CPLF and any load, Therefore, CPLF could be practically used as alternative fuel for diesel engines.

Keywords: Cellulosic Biomass, Co-liquefaction, Solvent, Waste Plastics

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
141 Liquefaction Susceptibility of Tailing Storage Facility-Comparison of National Centre for Earthquake Engineering Research and Finite Element Methods

Authors: Mehdi Ghatei, Masoomeh Lorestani

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Upstream Tailings Storage Facilities (TSFs) may experience slope instabilities due to soil liquefaction, especially in regions known to be seismically active. In this study, liquefaction susceptibility of an upstream-raised TSF in Western Australia was assessed using two different approaches. The first approach assessed liquefaction susceptibility using Cone Penetration Tests with pore pressure measurement (CPTu) as described by the National Centre for Earthquake Engineering Research (NCEER). This assessment was based on the four CPTu tests that were conducted on the perimeter embankment of the TSF. The second approach used the Finite Element (FE) method with application of an equivalent linear model to predict the undrained cyclic behavior, the pore water pressure and the liquefaction of the materials. The tailings parameters were estimated from the CPTu profiles and from the laboratory tests. The cyclic parameters were estimated from the literature where test results of similar material were available. The results showed that there was a good agreement, in the liquefaction susceptibility of the tailings material, between the NCEER and FE methods with equivalent linear model.

Keywords: liquefaction , CPTU, NCEER, finite element method, equivalent linear model

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
140 Influence of Shear Parameter on Liquefaction Susceptibility of Ramsar Sand

Authors: Siavash Salamatpoor, Hossein Motaghedi, Jr., Mehrdad Nategh

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In this study, undrained triaxial tests under anisotropic consolidation were conducted on the reconstituted samples of Ramsar sand, which underlies a densely populated, seismic region of the southern coast of Caspian Sea in Mazandaran province, Iran. Ramsar costal city is regularly visited by many tourists. Accordingly, many tall building and heavy structures are going to be constructed over this coastal area. This region is overlaid by poorly graded clean sand and because of high water level, is susceptible to liquefaction. The specimens were consolidated anisotropically to simulate initial shear stress which is mobilized due to surface constructions. Different states of soil behavior were obtained by applying different levels of initial relative density, shear stress, and effective stress. It is shown that Ramsar clean sand can experience the whole possible states of liquefiable soils i.e. fully liquefaction, limited liquefaction, and dilation behaviors. It would be shown that by increasing the shear parameter in high confine pressure, the liquefaction susceptibility has increased while for low confine pressure it would be vice versa.

Keywords: anisotropic, triaxial test, shear parameter, static liquefaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
139 Simplified Empirical Method for Predicting Liquefaction Potential and Its Application to Kaohsiung Areas in Taiwan

Authors: Darn H. Hsiao, Zhu-Yun Zheng

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Since Taiwan is located between the Eurasian and Filipino plates and earthquakes often thus occur. The coastal plains in western Taiwan are alluvial plains, and the soils of the alluvium are mostly from the Lao-Shan belt in the central mountainous area of ​​southern Taiwan. It could come mostly from sand/shale and slate. The previous investigation found that the soils in the Kaohsiung area of ​​southern Taiwan are mainly composed of slate, shale, quartz, low-plastic clay, silt, silty sand and so on. It can also be found from the past earthquakes that the soil in Kaohsiung is highly susceptible to soil subsidence due to liquefaction. Insufficient bearing capacity of building will cause soil liquefaction disasters. In this study, the boring drilling data from nine districts among the Love River Basin in the city center, and some factors affecting liquefaction include the content of fines (FC), standard penetration test N value (SPT N), the thickness of clay layer near ground-surface, and the thickness of possible liquefied soil were further discussed for liquefaction potential as well as groundwater level. The results show that the liquefaction potential is higher in the areas near the riverside, the backfill area, and the west area of ​​the study area. This paper also uses the old paleo-geological map, soil particle distribution curve, compared with LPI map calculated from the analysis results. After all the parameters finally were studied for five sub zones in the Love River Basin by maximum-minimum method, it is found that both of standard penetration test N value and the thickness of the clay layer will be most influential.

Keywords: liquefaction, western Taiwan, liquefaction potential map, high liquefaction potential areas

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
138 The Use of Piezocone Penetration Test Data for the Assessment of Iron Ore Tailings Liquefaction Susceptibility

Authors: Breno M. Castilho

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The Iron Ore Quadrangle, located in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil is responsible for most of the country’s iron ore production. As a result, some of the biggest tailings dams in the country are located in this area. In recent years, several major failure events have happened in Tailings Storage Facilities (TSF) located in the Iron Ore Quadrangle. Some of these failures were found to be caused by liquefaction flowslides. This paper presents Piezocone Penetration Test (CPTu) data that was used, by applying Olson and Peterson methods, for the liquefaction susceptibility assessment of the iron ore tailings that are typically found in most TSF in the area. Piezocone data was also used to determine the steady-state strength of the tailings so as to allow for comparison with its drained strength. Results have shown great susceptibility for liquefaction to occur in the studied tailings and, more importantly, a large reduction in its strength. These results are key to understanding the failures that took place over the last few years.

Keywords: Piezocone Penetration Test CPTu, iron ore tailings, mining, liquefaction susceptibility assessment

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
137 Investigation of the Effect of Fine-Grained and Its Plastic Properties on Liquefaction Resistance of Sand

Authors: S. A. Naeini, M. Mortezaee

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The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of fine grain content in soil and its plastic properties on soil liquefaction potential. For this purpose, the conditions for considering the fine grains effect and percentage of plastic fine on the liquefaction resistance of saturated sand presented by researchers has been investigated. Then, some comprehensive results of all the issues raised by some researchers are stated. From these investigations it was observed that by increasing the percentage of cohesive fine grains in the sandy soil (up to 20%), the maximum shear strength decreases and by adding more fine- grained percentage, the maximum shear strength of the resulting soil increases but never reaches the amount of clean sand.

Keywords: fine-grained, liquefaction, plasticity, shear strength, sand

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
136 Probabilistic Model for Evaluating Seismic Soil Liquefaction Based on Energy Approach

Authors: Hamid Rostami, Ali Fallah Yeznabad, Mohammad H. Baziar

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The energy-based method for evaluating seismic soil liquefaction has two main sections. First is the demand energy, which is dissipated energy of earthquake at a site, and second is the capacity energy as a representation of soil resistance against liquefaction hazard. In this study, using a statistical analysis of recorded data by 14 down-hole array sites in California, an empirical equation was developed to estimate the demand energy at sites. Because determination of capacity energy at a site needs to calculate several site calibration factors, which are obtained by experimental tests, in this study the standard penetration test (SPT) N-value was assumed as an alternative to the capacity energy at a site. Based on this assumption, the empirical equation was employed to calculate the demand energy for 193 liquefied and no-liquefied sites and then these amounts were plotted versus the corresponding SPT numbers for all sites. Subsequently, a discrimination analysis was employed to determine the equations of several boundary curves for various liquefaction likelihoods. Finally, a comparison was made between the probabilistic model and the commonly used stress method. As a conclusion, the results clearly showed that energy-based method can be more reliable than conventional stress-based method in evaluation of liquefaction occurrence.

Keywords: energy demand, liquefaction, probabilistic analysis, SPT number

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
135 Liquefaction Phenomenon in the Kathmandu Valley during the 2015 Earthquake of Nepal

Authors: Kalpana Adhikari, Mandip Subedi, Keshab Sharma, Indra P. Acharya

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The Gorkha Nepal earthquake of moment magnitude (Mw) 7.8 struck the central region of Nepal on April 25, 2015 with the epicenter about 77 km northwest of Kathmandu Valley . Peak ground acceleration observed during the earthquake was 0.18g. This motion induced several geotechnical effects such as landslides, foundation failures liquefaction, lateral spreading and settlement, and local amplification. An aftershock of moment magnitude (Mw) 7.3 hit northeast of Kathmandu on May 12 after 17 days of main shock caused additional damages. Kathmandu is the largest city in Nepal, have a population over four million. As the Kathmandu Valley deposits are composed mainly of sand, silt and clay layers with a shallow ground water table, liquefaction is highly anticipated. Extensive liquefaction was also observed in Kathmandu Valley during the 1934 Nepal-Bihar earthquake. Field investigations were carried out in Kathmandu Valley immediately after Mw 7.8, April 25 main shock and Mw 7.3, May 12 aftershock. Geotechnical investigation of both liquefied and non-liquefied sites were conducted after the earthquake. This paper presents observations of liquefaction and liquefaction induced damage, and the liquefaction potential assessment based on Standard Penetration Tests (SPT) for liquefied and non-liquefied sites. SPT based semi-empirical approach has been used for evaluating liquefaction potential of the soil and Liquefaction Potential Index (LPI) has been used to determine liquefaction probability. Recorded ground motions from the event are presented. Geological aspect of Kathmandu Valley and local site effect on the occurrence of liquefaction is described briefly. Observed liquefaction case studies are described briefly. Typically, these are sand boils formed by freshly ejected sand forced out of over-pressurized sub-strata. At most site, sand was ejected to agricultural fields forming deposits that varied from millimetres to a few centimeters thick. Liquefaction-induced damage to structures in these areas was not significant except buildings on some places tilted slightly. Boiled soils at liquefied sites were collected and the particle size distributions of ejected soils were analyzed. SPT blow counts and the soil profiles at ten liquefied and non-liquefied sites were obtained. The factors of safety against liquefaction with depth and liquefaction potential index of the ten sites were estimated and compared with observed liquefaction after 2015 Gorkha earthquake. The liquefaction potential indices obtained from the analysis were found to be consistent with the field observation. The field observations along with results from liquefaction assessment were compared with the existing liquefaction hazard map. It was found that the existing hazard maps are unrepresentative and underestimate the liquefaction susceptibility in Kathmandu Valley. The lessons learned from the liquefaction during this earthquake are also summarized in this paper. Some recommendations are also made to the seismic liquefaction mitigation in the Kathmandu Valley.

Keywords: factor of safety, geotechnical investigation, liquefaction, Nepal earthquake

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134 An Investigation into Why Liquefaction Charts Work: A Necessary Step toward Integrating the States of Art and Practice

Authors: Tarek Abdoun, Ricardo Dobry

Abstract:

This paper is a systematic effort to clarify why field liquefaction charts based on Seed and Idriss’ Simplified Procedure work so well. This is a necessary step toward integrating the states of the art (SOA) and practice (SOP) for evaluating liquefaction and its effects. The SOA relies mostly on laboratory measurements and correlations with void ratio and relative density of the sand. The SOP is based on field measurements of penetration resistance and shear wave velocity coupled with empirical or semi-empirical correlations. This gap slows down further progress in both SOP and SOA. The paper accomplishes its objective through: a literature review of relevant aspects of the SOA including factors influencing threshold shear strain and pore pressure buildup during cyclic strain-controlled tests; a discussion of factors influencing field penetration resistance and shear wave velocity; and a discussion of the meaning of the curves in the liquefaction charts separating liquefaction from no liquefaction, helped by recent full-scale and centrifuge results. It is concluded that the charts are curves of constant cyclic strain at the lower end (Vs1 < 160 m/s), with this strain being about 0.03 to 0.05% for earthquake magnitude, Mw ≈ 7. It is also concluded, in a more speculative way, that the curves at the upper end probably correspond to a variable increasing cyclic strain and Ko, with this upper end controlled by over consolidated and preshaken sands, and with cyclic strains needed to cause liquefaction being as high as 0.1 to 0.3%. These conclusions are validated by application to case histories corresponding to Mw ≈ 7, mostly in the San Francisco Bay Area of California during the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake.

Keywords: permeability, lateral spreading, liquefaction, centrifuge modeling, shear wave velocity charts

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133 Sediment Trapping by Seagrass Blades under Oscillatory Flow

Authors: Aina Barcelona, Carolyn Oldham, Jordi Colomer, Jordi Garcia-Orellana, Teresa Serra

Abstract:

Seagrass meadows increase the sedimentation within the canopy. However, there is still a lack of knowledge about how seagrasses impact the vertical distribution of sediment coming from external sources and reaches the meadow. This study aims to determine the number of particles retained by a seagrass meadow. Based on the hydrodynamics in the vertical direction, a meadow can be separated into different compartments: the blades, the seabed, within the canopy layer, and the above canopy layer. A set of laboratory experiments were conducted under different hydrodynamic conditions and canopy densities with the purpose to mimic the real field conditions. This study demonstrates and quantifies that seagrass meadows decrease the volume of the suspended sediment by two mechanisms: capturing the suspended sediment by the seagrass blades and promoting the particle sedimentation to the seabed. This study also demonstrates that the number of sediment particles trapped by single seagrass blades decreases with canopy density. However, when considering the trapping by the total number of blades, the sediment captured by all the blades of the meadow increases with canopy density. Furthermore, comparing with the bare seabed, this study demonstrated that there is a reduction in the suspended particles within the canopy, which implies an improvement in the water clarity. In addition, the particle sedimentation on the seabed increases with the canopy density compared with the bare seabed, making evident the contribution of the vegetation in enhancing sedimentation.

Keywords: seagrass, sediment capture, turbulent kinetic energy, oscillatory flow

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132 Optimization of Oxygen Plant Parameters Simulating with MATLAB

Authors: B. J. Sonani, J. K. Ratnadhariya, Srinivas Palanki

Abstract:

Cryogenic engineering is the fast growing branch of the modern technology. There are various applications of the cryogenic engineering such as liquefaction in gas industries, metal industries, medical science, space technology, and transportation. The low-temperature technology developed superconducting materials which lead to reduce the friction and wear in various components of the systems. The liquid oxygen, hydrogen and helium play vital role in space application. The liquefaction process is produced very low temperature liquid for various application in research and modern application. The air liquefaction system for oxygen plants in gas industries is based on the Claude cycle. The effect of process parameters on the overall system is difficult to be analysed by manual calculations, and this provides the motivation to use process simulators for understanding the steady state and dynamic behaviour of such systems. The parametric study of this system via MATLAB simulations provide useful guidelines for preliminary design of air liquefaction system based on the Claude cycle. Every organization is always trying for reduce the cost and using the optimum performance of the plant for the staying in the competitive market.

Keywords: cryogenic, liquefaction, low -temperature, oxygen, claude cycle, optimization, MATLAB

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131 Third Super-Harmonic Resonance in Vortex-Induced Vibration of a Pipeline Close to the Seabed

Authors: Yiming Jin, Ping Dong

Abstract:

The third super-harmonic resonance of a pipeline close to the seabed is investigated in this paper. To analyse the vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of the pipeline close to the seabed, the classic Van der Pol equation is extended with a nonlinear item. Then, on the base of the multi-scale method, the frequency-response curves of the pipeline with regard to the third super-harmonic resonance are studied with a series of parameters, such as the mass ratio, frequency, damp ratio and gap ratio. On the whole, the numerical results show that the characters of third super-harmonic resonance are quite from that of primary resonance, though with the same trend that the larger is the mass ratio, the smaller impact the gap ratio has on the frequency-response curves of the third super-harmonic resonance.

Keywords: the third super-harmonic resonance, gap ratio, vortex-induced vibration, multi-scale method

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130 Genetic Algorithm Optimization of a Small Scale Natural Gas Liquefaction Process

Authors: M. I. Abdelhamid, A. O. Ghallab, R. S. Ettouney, M. A. El-Rifai

Abstract:

An optimization scheme based on COM server is suggested for communication between Genetic Algorithm (GA) toolbox of MATLAB and Aspen HYSYS. The structure and details of the proposed framework are discussed. The power of the developed scheme is illustrated by its application to the optimization of a recently developed natural gas liquefaction process in which Aspen HYSYS was used for minimization of the power consumption by optimizing the values of five operating variables. In this work, optimization by coupling between the GA in MATLAB and Aspen HYSYS model of the same process using the same five decision variables enabled improvements in power consumption by 3.3%, when 77% of the natural gas feed is liquefied. Also on inclusion of the flow rates of both nitrogen and carbon dioxide refrigerants as two additional decision variables, the power consumption decreased by 6.5% for a 78% liquefaction of the natural gas feed.

Keywords: stranded gas liquefaction, genetic algorithm, COM server, single nitrogen expansion, carbon dioxide pre-cooling

Procedia PDF Downloads 294