Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32

Search results for: scour

32 Comparison of Selected Pier-Scour Equations for Wide Piers Using Field Data

Authors: Nordila Ahmad, Thamer Mohammad, Bruce W. Melville, Zuliziana Suif

Abstract:

Current methods for predicting local scour at wide bridge piers, were developed on the basis of laboratory studies and very limited scour prediction were tested with field data. Laboratory wide pier scour equation from previous findings with field data were presented. A wide range of field data were used and it consists of both live-bed and clear-water scour. A method for assessing the quality of the data was developed and applied to the data set. Three other wide pier-scour equations from the literature were used to compare the performance of each predictive method. The best-performing scour equation were analyzed using statistical analysis. Comparisons of computed and observed scour depths indicate that the equation from the previous publication produced the smallest discrepancy ratio and RMSE value when compared with the large amount of laboratory and field data.

Keywords: field data, local scour, scour equation, wide piers

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31 Experimental Study of Local Scour Depth around Cylindrical Bridge Pier

Authors: Mohammed T. Shukri

Abstract:

The failure of bridges due to excessive local scour during floods poses a challenging problem to hydraulic engineers. The failure of bridges piers is due to many reasons such as localized scour combined with general riverbed degradation. In this paper, we try to estimate the temporal variation of scour depth at nonuniform cylindrical bridge pier, by experimental work conducted in hydraulic laboratories of Gaziantep University Civil Engineering Department on a flume having dimensions of 8.3 m length, 0.8 m width and 0.9 m depth. The experiments will be carried on 20 cm depth of sediment layer having d50=0.4 mm. Three bridge pier shapes having different scaled models will be constructed in a 1.5m of test section in the channel.

Keywords: scour, local scour, bridge piers, scour depth

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
30 Prediction of Scour Profile Caused by Submerged Three-Dimensional Wall Jets

Authors: Abdullah Al Faruque, Ram Balachandar

Abstract:

Series of laboratory tests were carried out to study the extent of scour caused by a three-dimensional wall jets exiting from a square cross-section nozzle and into a non-cohesive sand beds. Previous observations have indicated that the effect of the tailwater depth was significant for densimetric Froude number greater than ten. However, the present results indicate that the cut off value could be lower depending on the value of grain size-to-nozzle width ratio. Numbers of equations are drawn out for a better scaling of numerous scour parameters. Also suggested the empirical prediction of scour to predict the scour centre line profile and plan view of scour profile at any particular time.

Keywords: densimetric froude number, jets, nozzle, sand, scour, tailwater, time

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29 Predicting Bridge Pier Scour Depth with SVM

Authors: Arun Goel

Abstract:

Prediction of maximum local scour is necessary for the safety and economical design of the bridges. A number of equations have been developed over the years to predict local scour depth using laboratory data and a few pier equations have also been proposed using field data. Most of these equations are empirical in nature as indicated by the past publications. In this paper, attempts have been made to compute local depth of scour around bridge pier in dimensional and non-dimensional form by using linear regression, simple regression and SVM (Poly and Rbf) techniques along with few conventional empirical equations. The outcome of this study suggests that the SVM (Poly and Rbf) based modeling can be employed as an alternate to linear regression, simple regression and the conventional empirical equations in predicting scour depth of bridge piers. The results of present study on the basis of non-dimensional form of bridge pier scour indicates the improvement in the performance of SVM (Poly and Rbf) in comparison to dimensional form of scour.

Keywords: modeling, pier scour, regression, prediction, SVM (Poly and Rbf kernels)

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28 Influence of Pier Modification Techniques for Reducing Scour around Bridge Piers

Authors: Rashid Farooq, Abdul Razzaq Ghumman, Hashim Nisar Hashmi

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Bridge piers often fail all over the world and the whole structure may be endangered due to scouring phenomena. Scouring has been linked to catastrophic failures that lead into the loss of human lives. Various techniques have been employed to extenuate the scouring process in order to assist the bridge designs. Pier modifications plays vital role to control scouring at the vicinity of the pier. This experimental study aims at monitoring the effectiveness of pier modification and temporal development of scour depth around a bridge pier by providing a collar, a cable or openings under the same flow conditions. Provision of a collar around the octagonal pier reduced more scour depth than that for other two configurations. Providing a collar around the octagonal pier found to be the best in reducing scour. The scour depth in front of pier was found to be 19.5% less than that at the octagonal pier without any modifications. Similarly, the scour depth around the octagonal pier having provision of a cable was less than that at pier with provision of openings. The scour depth around an octagonal pier was also compared with a plain circular pier and found to be 9.1% less.

Keywords: Scour, octagonal pier, collar, cable

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27 Retrofitting of Bridge Piers against the Scour Damages: Case Study of the Marand-Soofian Route Bridge

Authors: Shatirah Akib, Hossein Basser, Hojat Karami, Afshin Jahangirzadeh

Abstract:

Bridge piers which are constructed in the track of high water rivers cause some variations in the flow patterns. This variation mostly is a result of the changes in river sections. Decreasing the river section, bridge piers significantly impress the flow patterns. Once the flow approaches the piers, the stream lines change their order, causing the appearance of different flow patterns around the bridge piers. New flow patterns are created following the geometry and the other technical characteristics of the piers. One of the most significant consequences of this event is the scour generated around the bridge piers which threatens the safety of the structure. In order to determine the properties of scour holes, to find maximum depth of the scour is an important factor. In this manuscript a numerical simulation of the scour around Marand-Soofian route bridge piers has been carried out via SSIIM 2.0 Software and the amount of maximum scour has been achieved subsequently. Eventually the methods for retrofitting of bridge piers against scours and also the methods for decreasing the amount of scour have been offered.

Keywords: scour, bridge pier, numerical simulation, SSIIM 2.0

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26 Experimental Study of Local Scour Downstream of Cylindrical Bridge Piers

Authors: Mohammed Traeq Shukri

Abstract:

Scour is a natural phenomenon caused by the erosive action of flowing stream on alluvial beds, which removes the sediment around or near structures located in flowing water. It means the lowering of the riverbed level by water erosions such that there is a tendency to expose the foundations of a structure. It is the result of the erosive action of flowing water, excavating and carrying away material from the bed and banks of streams and from around the piers of bridges. The failure of bridges due to excessive local scour during floods poses a challenging problem to hydraulic engineers. The failure of bridges piers is due to many reasons such as localized scour combined with general riverbed degradation. In this paper, we try to estimate the temporal variation of scour depth at non-uniform cylindrical bridge pier, by experimental work in civil engineering hydraulic laboratories of Gaziantep University on a channel have dimensions of 8.3m length, 0.8m width and 0.9m depth. The experiments will be carried on 20 cm depth of sediment layer having d50=0.4 mm. Three bridge pier shapes having different scaled models will be constructed in a 1.5m of test section in the channel.

Keywords: scour, local scour, bridge piers, scour depth, vortex, horseshoe vortex

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
25 Three-Dimensional CFD Modeling of Flow Field and Scouring around Bridge Piers

Authors: P. Deepak Kumar, P. R. Maiti

Abstract:

In recent years, sediment scour near bridge piers and abutment is a serious problem which causes nationwide concern because it has resulted in more bridge failures than other causes. Scour is the formation of scour hole around the structure mounted on and embedded in erodible channel bed due to the erosion of soil by flowing water. The formation of scour hole around the structures depends upon shape and size of the pier, depth of flow as well as angle of attack of flow and sediment characteristics. The flow characteristics around these structures change due to man-made obstruction in the natural flow path which changes the kinetic energy of the flow around these structures. Excessive scour affects the stability of the foundation of the structure by the removal of the bed material. The accurate estimation of scour depth around bridge pier is very difficult. The foundation of bridge piers have to be taken deeper and to provide sufficient anchorage length required for stability of the foundation. In this study, computational model simulations using a 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model were conducted to examine the mechanism of scour around a cylindrical pier. Subsequently, the flow characteristics around these structures are presented for different flow conditions. Mechanism of scouring phenomenon, the formation of vortex and its consequent effect is discussed for a straight channel. Effort was made towards estimation of scour depth around bridge piers under different flow conditions.

Keywords: bridge pier, computational fluid dynamics, multigrid, pier shape, scour

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24 Optimization of Flip Bucket Dents in Order to Reduce Scour Hole Depth (Plunge Pool) Using a Comprehensive Physical Model

Authors: Majid Galoie, Khodadad Safavi, Abdolreza Karami Nejad, Reza Roshan

Abstract:

Scour downstream of a flip bucket in a plunge pool is caused by impingement of water jet force. In order to reduce this force and consequently reduce scour hole depth, flip buckets may equip by dents. The minimum scour hole depth might be occurred by optimization of dents (number, shape, placement) on flip buckets. In this study, a comprehensive physical model has been developed and various options for dents have been investigated. The experimental data for each dent option such as scour hole depth, angle of impingement jet, piezometric pressure in tail-water and jet trajectory have been measured for various discharges. Finally, the best option can be found by analysis of the experimental results which has been expressed in this paper.

Keywords: scouring process, plunge pool, scour hole depth, physical model, flip bucket

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23 Investigation of Several Parameters on Local Scour around Inclined Dual Bridge Piers

Authors: Murat Çeşme

Abstract:

For a bridge engineer to ensure a safe footing design, it is very important to estimate the maximum scour depth around the piers as accurately as possible. Many experimental studies have been performed by several investigators to obtain information about scouring mechanism. In order to examine the effect of inclination of dual bridge piers on scour depth under clear-water conditions for various uniform flow depths, an experimental research on scaled dual bridge piers has been carried over in METU Hydromechanics Lab. Dimensional and non-dimensional curves were developed and presented to show the variation of scour depth with respect to various parameters such as footing angle with the vertical, flow depth and footing dimensions. Results of the study were compared to those obtained from a similar study performed with single inclined piers to see the effect of the second pier on scour depths. Useful equations for the design engineers were developed based on multiple regression analyses to be used for predicting local scour depths around inclined piers in uniform and non-uniform sediments.

Keywords: experimental research, inclined dual bridge piers, footing safety, scour depth, clear water condition

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22 The Effect of the Side-Weir Crest Height to Scour in Clay-Sand Mixed Sediments

Authors: F. A. Saracoglu Varol, H. Agaccıoglu

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Experimental studies to investigate the depth of the scour conducted at a side-weir intersection located at the 1800 curved flume which located Hydraulic Laboratory of Yıldız Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey. Side weirs were located at the middle of the straight part of the main channel. Three different lengths (25, 40 and 50 cm) and three different weir crest height (7, 10 and 12 cm) of the side weir placed on the side weir station. There is no scour when the material is only kaolin. Therefore, the cohesive bed was prepared by properly mixing clay material (kaolin) with 31% sand in all experiments. Following 24h consolidation time, in order to observe the effect of flow intensity on the scour depth, experiments were carried out for five different upstream Froude numbers in the range of 0.33-0.81. As a result of this study the relation between scour depth and upstream flow intensity as a function of time have been established. The longitudinal velocities decreased along the side weir; towards the downstream due to overflow over the side-weirs. At the beginning, the scour depth increases rapidly with time and then asymptotically approached constant values in all experiments for all side weir dimensions as in non-cohesive sediment. Thus, the scour depth reached equilibrium conditions. Time to equilibrium depends on the approach flow intensity and the dimensions of side weirs. For different heights of the weir crest, dimensionless scour depths increased with increasing upstream Froude number. Equilibrium scour depths which formed 7 cm side-weir crest height were obtained higher than that of the 12 cm side-weir crest height. This means when side-weir crest height increased equilibrium scour depths decreased. Although the upstream side of the scour hole is almost vertical, the downstream side of the hole is inclined.

Keywords: clay-sand mixed sediments, scour, side weir, hydraulic structures

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21 Scour Depth Prediction around Bridge Piers Using Neuro-Fuzzy and Neural Network Approaches

Authors: H. Bonakdari, I. Ebtehaj

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The prediction of scour depth around bridge piers is frequently considered in river engineering. One of the key aspects in efficient and optimum bridge structure design is considered to be scour depth estimation around bridge piers. In this study, scour depth around bridge piers is estimated using two methods, namely the Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). Therefore, the effective parameters in scour depth prediction are determined using the ANN and ANFIS methods via dimensional analysis, and subsequently, the parameters are predicted. In the current study, the methods’ performances are compared with the nonlinear regression (NLR) method. The results show that both methods presented in this study outperform existing methods. Moreover, using the ratio of pier length to flow depth, ratio of median diameter of particles to flow depth, ratio of pier width to flow depth, the Froude number and standard deviation of bed grain size parameters leads to optimal performance in scour depth estimation.

Keywords: adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), artificial neural network (ANN), bridge pier, scour depth, nonlinear regression (NLR)

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20 Studying the Effect of Froude Number and Densimetric Froude Number on Local Scours around Circular Bridge Piers

Authors: Md Abdullah Al Faruque

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A very large percentage of bridge failures are attributed to scouring around bridge piers and this directly influences public safety. Experiments are carried out in a 12-m long rectangular open channel flume made of transparent tempered glass. A 300 mm thick bed made up of sand particles is leveled horizontally to create the test bed and a 50 mm hollow plastic cylinder is used as a model bridge pier. Tests are carried out with varying flow depths and velocities. Data points of various scour parameters such as scour depth, width, and length are collected based on different flow conditions and visual observations of changes in the stream bed downstream the bridge pier are also made as the scour progresses. Result shows that all three major flow characteristics (flow depth, Froude number and densimetric Froude number) have one way or other affect the scour profile.

Keywords: bridge pier scour, densimetric Froude number, flow depth, Froude number, sand

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19 2D-Numerical Modelling of Local Scour around a Circular Pier in Steady Current

Authors: Mohamed Rajab Peer Mohamed, Thiruvenkatasamy Kannabiran

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In the present investigation, the scour around a circular pier subjected to a steady current were studied numerically using two-dimensional MIKE21 Flow Model (FM) and Sand Transport (ST)Modulewhich is developed by Danish Hydraulic Institute (DHI), Denmark. The unstructured flexible mesh generated with rectangular flume dimension of 10 m wide, 1 m deep, and 30 m long. The grain size of the sand was d50 = 0.16 mm, sediment size, sediment gradation=1.16, pier diameter D= 30 mm and depth-averaged current velocity, U = 0.449 m/s are considered in the model. The estimated scour depth obtained from this model is validated and it is observed that the results of the model have good agreement with flume experimental results.In order to estimate the scour depth, several simulations were made for three cases viz., Case I:change in sediment transport model description in the numerical model viz, i) Engelund-Hansen model, ii) Engelund-Fredsøe model, and iii) Van Rijn model, Case II: change in current velocity for keeping constant pile diameter D=0.03 m and Case III:change in pier diameter for constant depth averaged current speed U=0.449 m/s.In case I simulations, the results indicate that the scour depth S/D is the order of 1.73 for Engelund-Hansen model, 0.64 for Engelund-Fredsøe model and 0.46 for VanRijn model. The scour depth estimates using Engelund-Hansen method compares well the experimental results.In case II, simulations show that the scour depth increases with increasing current component of the flow.In case III simulations, the results indicate that the scour depth increases with increase in pier diameter and it stabilize attains steady value when the Froude number> 2.71.All the results of the numerical simulations are clearly matches with reported values of the experimental results. Hence, this MIKE21 FM –Sand Transport model can be used as a suitable tool to estimate the scour depth for field applications. Moreover, to provide suitable scour protection methods, the maximum scour depth is to be predicted, Engelund-Hansen method can be adopted to estimate the scour depth in the steady current region.

Keywords: circular pier, MIKE21, numerical model, scour, sediment transport

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18 Reliability Assessment of Various Empirical Formulas for Prediction of Scour Hole Depth (Plunge Pool) Using a Comprehensive Physical Model

Authors: Majid Galoie, Khodadad Safavi, Abdolreza Karami Nejad, Reza Roshan

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In this study, a comprehensive scouring model has been developed in order to evaluate the accuracy of various empirical relationships which were suggested for prediction of scour hole depth in plunge pools by Martins, Mason, Chian and Veronese. For this reason, scour hole depths caused by free falling jets from a flip bucket to a plunge pool were investigated. In this study various discharges, angles, scouring times, etc. have been considered. The final results demonstrated that the all mentioned empirical formulas, except Mason formula, were reasonably agreement with the experimental data.

Keywords: scour hole depth, plunge pool, physical model, reliability assessment

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17 Estimation of Scour Using a Coupled Computational Fluid Dynamics and Discrete Element Model

Authors: Zeinab Yazdanfar, Dilan Robert, Daniel Lester, S. Setunge

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Scour has been identified as the most common threat to bridge stability worldwide. Traditionally, scour around bridge piers is calculated using the empirical approaches that have considerable limitations and are difficult to generalize. The multi-physic nature of scouring which involves turbulent flow, soil mechanics and solid-fluid interactions cannot be captured by simple empirical equations developed based on limited laboratory data. These limitations can be overcome by direct numerical modeling of coupled hydro-mechanical scour process that provides a robust prediction of bridge scour and valuable insights into the scour process. Several numerical models have been proposed in the literature for bridge scour estimation including Eulerian flow models and coupled Euler-Lagrange models incorporating an empirical sediment transport description. However, the contact forces between particles and the flow-particle interaction haven’t been taken into consideration. Incorporating collisional and frictional forces between soil particles as well as the effect of flow-driven forces on particles will facilitate accurate modeling of the complex nature of scour. In this study, a coupled Computational Fluid Dynamics and Discrete Element Model (CFD-DEM) has been developed to simulate the scour process that directly models the hydro-mechanical interactions between the sediment particles and the flowing water. This approach obviates the need for an empirical description as the fundamental fluid-particle, and particle-particle interactions are fully resolved. The sediment bed is simulated as a dense pack of particles and the frictional and collisional forces between particles are calculated, whilst the turbulent fluid flow is modeled using a Reynolds Averaged Navier Stocks (RANS) approach. The CFD-DEM model is validated against experimental data in order to assess the reliability of the CFD-DEM model. The modeling results reveal the criticality of particle impact on the assessment of scour depth which, to the authors’ best knowledge, hasn’t been considered in previous studies. The results of this study open new perspectives to the scour depth and time assessment which is the key to manage the failure risk of bridge infrastructures.

Keywords: bridge scour, discrete element method, CFD-DEM model, multi-phase model

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16 Scouring Rate Pattern/Monitoring at Coastal and Offshore Structures

Authors: Ahmad Saifullah Mazlan, Hossein Basser, Shatirah Akib

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Scouring pattern evaluation and measuring its depth around coastal and offshore structures is very essential issue to assure the safety of the structures as well as providing needed design parameters. Scouring is known as one of the important phenomena which threatens the safety of infrastructures. Several countermeasures have been developed to control scouring by protecting the structures against water flow attack directly or indirectly by changing the water flow pattern. Recently, monitoring methods for estimating water flow pattern and scour depth are studied to track the safety of structures. Since most of studies regarding scouring is related to monitoring scouring around piers in rivers therefore it is necessary to develop researches investigating scouring around piers in coastal and offshore areas. This paper describes a review of monitoring methods may be used for detecting scour depth around piers in coastal and offshore structures.

Keywords: scour, monitoring, pier, coastal, offshore

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15 Investigation of Fluid-Structure-Seabed Interaction of Gravity Anchor under Liquefaction and Scour

Authors: Vinay Kumar Vanjakula, Frank Adam, Nils Goseberg, Christian Windt

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When a structure is installed on a seabed, the presence of the structure will influence the flow field around it. The changes in the flow field include, formation of vortices, turbulence generation, waves or currents flow breaking and pressure differentials around the seabed sediment. These changes allow the local seabed sediment to be carried off and results in Scour (erosion). These are a threat to the structure's stability. In recent decades, rapid developments of research work and the knowledge of scour On fixed structures (bridges and Monopiles) in rivers and oceans has been carried out, and very limited research work on scour and liquefaction for gravity anchors, particularly for floating Tension Leg Platform (TLP) substructures. Due to its importance and need for enhancement of knowledge in scour and liquefaction around marine structures, the MarTERA funded a three-year (2020-2023) research program called NuLIMAS (Numerical Modeling of Liquefaction Around Marine Structures). It’s a group consists of European institutions (Universities, laboratories, and consulting companies). The objective of this study is to build a numerical model that replicates the reality, which indeed helps to simulate (predict) underwater flow conditions and to study different marine scour and Liquefication situations. It helps to design a heavyweight anchor for the TLP substructure and to minimize the time and expenditure on experiments. And also, the achieved results and the numerical model will be a basis for the development of other design and concepts For marine structures. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) numerical model will build in OpenFOAM. A conceptual design of heavyweight anchor for TLP substructure is designed through taking considerations of available state-of-the-art knowledge on scour and Liquefication concepts and references to Previous existing designs. These conceptual designs are validated with the available similar experimental benchmark data and also with the CFD numerical benchmark standards (CFD quality assurance study). CFD optimization model/tool is designed as to minimize the effect of fluid flow, scour, and Liquefication. A parameterized model is also developed to automate the calculation process to reduce user interactions. The parameters such as anchor Lowering Process, flow optimized outer contours, seabed interaction study, and FSSI (Fluid-Structure-Seabed Interactions) are investigated and used to carve the model as to build an optimized anchor.

Keywords: gravity anchor, liquefaction, scour, computational fluid dynamics

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14 Biostabilisation of Sediments for the Protection of Marine Infrastructure from Scour

Authors: Rob Schindler

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Industry-standard methods of mitigating erosion of seabed sediments rely on ‘hard engineering’ approaches which have numerous environmental shortcomings: (1) direct loss of habitat by smothering of benthic species, (2) disruption of sediment transport processes, damaging geomorphic and ecosystem functionality (3) generation of secondary erosion problems, (4) introduction of material that may propagate non-local species, and (5) provision of pathways for the spread of invasive species. Recent studies have also revealed the importance of biological cohesion, the result of naturally occurring extra-cellular polymeric substances (EPS), in stabilizing natural sediments. Mimicking the strong bonding kinetics through the deliberate addition of EPS to sediments – henceforth termed ‘biostabilisation’ - offers a means in which to mitigate against erosion induced by structures or episodic increases in hydrodynamic forcing (e.g. storms and floods) whilst avoiding, or reducing, hard engineering. Here we present unique experiments that systematically examine how biostabilisation reduces scour around a monopile in a current, a first step to realizing the potential of this new method of scouring reduction for a wide range of engineering purposes in aquatic substrates. Experiments were performed in Plymouth University’s recirculating sediment flume which includes a recessed scour pit. The model monopile was 0.048 m in diameter, D. Assuming a prototype monopile diameter of 2.0 m yields a geometric ratio of 41.67. When applied to a 10 m prototype water depth this yields a model depth, d, of 0.24 m. The sediment pit containing the monopile was filled with different biostabilised substrata prepared using a mixture of fine sand (D50 = 230 μm) and EPS (Xanthan gum). Nine sand-EPS mixtures were examined spanning EPS contents of 0.0% < b0 < 0.50%. Scour development was measured using a laser point gauge along a 530 mm centreline at 10 mm increments at regular periods over 5 h. Maximum scour depth and excavated area were determined at different time steps and plotted against time to yield equilibrium values. After 5 hours the current was stopped and a detailed scan of the final scour morphology was taken. Results show that increasing EPS content causes a progressive reduction in the equilibrium depth and lateral extent of scour, and hence excavated material. Very small amounts equating to natural communities (< 0.1% by mass) reduce scour rate, depth and extent of scour around monopiles. Furthermore, the strong linear relationships between EPS content, equilibrium scour depth, excavation area and timescales of scouring offer a simple index on which to modify existing scour prediction methods. We conclude that the biostabilisation of sediments with EPS may offer a simple, cost-effective and ecologically sensitive means of reducing scour in a range of contexts including OWFs, bridge piers, pipeline installation, and void filling in rock armour. Biostabilisation may also reduce economic costs through (1) Use of existing site sediments, or waste dredged sediments (2) Reduced fabrication of materials, (3) Lower transport costs, (4) Less dependence on specialist vessels and precise sub-sea assembly. Further, its potential environmental credentials may allow sensitive use of the seabed in marine protection zones across the globe.

Keywords: biostabilisation, EPS, marine, scour

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13 Probabilistic-Based Design of Bridges under Multiple Hazards: Floods and Earthquakes

Authors: Kuo-Wei Liao, Jessica Gitomarsono

Abstract:

Bridge reliability against natural hazards such as floods or earthquakes is an interdisciplinary problem that involves a wide range of knowledge. Moreover, due to the global climate change, engineers have to design a structure against the multi-hazard threats. Currently, few of the practical design guideline has included such concept. The bridge foundation in Taiwan often does not have a uniform width. However, few of the researches have focused on safety evaluation of a bridge with a complex pier. Investigation of the scouring depth under such situation is very important. Thus, this study first focuses on investigating and improving the scour prediction formula for a bridge with complicated foundation via experiments and artificial intelligence. Secondly, a probabilistic design procedure is proposed using the established prediction formula for practical engineers under the multi-hazard attacks.

Keywords: bridge, reliability, multi-hazards, scour

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12 Turbulent Flow Characteristics and Bed Morphology around Circular Bridge Pier

Authors: Pratik Acharya

Abstract:

Scour is the natural phenomenon brought about by erosive action of the flowing stream in alluvial channels. Frequent scouring around bridge piers may cause damage to the structures. In alluvial channels, a complex interaction between the streamflow and the bed particles results in scouring around piers. Thus, the study of characteristics of flow around piers can give sound knowledge about the scouring process. The present research has been done to investigate the turbulent flow characteristics around bridge piers and corresponding changes in bed morphology. Laboratory experiments were carried out in a tilting flume with a sand bed. The velocities around the pier are measured by Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter. Measurements show that at upstream of the pier velocity and Reynolds stresses are negative near the bed and near the free surface at downstream of the pier. At the downstream of the pier, Reynolds stresses changes rapidly due to the formation of wake vortices. Experimental results show that secondary currents are more predominant at the downstream of the pier. As the flowing stream hits the pier, the flow gets separated in the form of downflow along the face of the pier due to a strong pressure gradient and along the sides of the piers. Separation of flow around the pier leads to scour the bed material and develop the vortex. The downflow hits the bed and removes the bed material, which can be carried forward by the flow circulations along sides of the piers. Eroded bed material is deposited along the centerline at the rear side of the pier and produces hump in the downstream region. Initially, the rate of scouring is high and reduces gradually with increasing time. After a certain limit, equilibrium sets between the erosive capacity of the flowing stream and resistance to the motion by bed particles.

Keywords: acoustic doppler velocimeter, pier, Reynolds stress, scour depth, velocity

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11 Physical Model Testing of Storm-Driven Wave Impact Loads and Scour at a Beach Seawall

Authors: Sylvain Perrin, Thomas Saillour

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The Grande-Motte port and seafront development project on the French Mediterranean coastline entailed evaluating wave impact loads (pressures and forces) on the new beach seawall and comparing the resulting scour potential at the base of the existing and new seawall. A physical model was built at ARTELIA’s hydraulics laboratory in Grenoble (France) to provide insight into the evolution of scouring overtime at the front of the wall, quasi-static and impulsive wave force intensity and distribution on the wall, and water and sand overtopping discharges over the wall. The beach was constituted of fine sand and approximately 50 m wide above mean sea level (MSL). Seabed slopes were in the range of 0.5% offshore to 1.5% closer to the beach. A smooth concrete structure will replace the existing concrete seawall with an elevated curved crown wall. Prior the start of breaking (at -7 m MSL contour), storm-driven maximum spectral significant wave heights of 2.8 m and 3.2 m were estimated for the benchmark historical storm event dated of 1997 and the 50-year return period storms respectively, resulting in 1 m high waves at the beach. For the wave load assessment, a tensor scale measured wave forces and moments and five piezo / piezo-resistive pressure sensors were placed on the wall. Light-weight sediment physical model and pressure and force measurements were performed with scale 1:18. The polyvinyl chloride light-weight particles used to model the prototype silty sand had a density of approximately 1 400 kg/m3 and a median diameter (d50) of 0.3 mm. Quantitative assessments of the seabed evolution were made using a measuring rod and also a laser scan survey. Testing demonstrated the occurrence of numerous impulsive wave impacts on the reflector (22%), induced not by direct wave breaking but mostly by wave run-up slamming on the top curved part of the wall. Wave forces of up to 264 kilonewtons and impulsive pressure spikes of up to 127 kilonewtons were measured. Maximum scour of -0.9 m was measured for the new seawall versus -0.6 m for the existing seawall, which is imputable to increased wave reflection (coefficient was 25.7 - 30.4% vs 23.4 - 28.6%). This paper presents a methodology for the setup and operation of a physical model in order to assess the hydrodynamic and morphodynamic processes at a beach seawall during storms events. It discusses the pros and cons of such methodology versus others, notably regarding structures peculiarities and model effects.

Keywords: beach, impacts, scour, seawall, waves

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10 Investigation of Fluid-Structure-Seabed Interaction of Gravity Anchor Under Scour, and Anchor Transportation and Installation (T&I)

Authors: Vinay Kumar Vanjakula, Frank Adam

Abstract:

The generation of electricity through wind power is one of the leading renewable energy generation methods. Due to abundant higher wind speeds far away from shore, the construction of offshore wind turbines began in the last decades. However, the installation of offshore foundation-based (monopiles) wind turbines in deep waters are often associated with technical and financial challenges. To overcome such challenges, the concept of floating wind turbines is expanded as the basis of the oil and gas industry. For such a floating system, stabilization in harsh conditions is a challenging task. For that, a robust heavy-weight gravity anchor is needed. Transportation of such anchor requires a heavy vessel that increases the cost. To lower the cost, the gravity anchor is designed with ballast chambers that allow the anchor to float while towing and filled with water when lowering to the planned seabed location. The presence of such a large structure may influence the flow field around it. The changes in the flow field include, formation of vortices, turbulence generation, waves or currents flow breaking and pressure differentials around the seabed sediment. These changes influence the installation process. Also, after installation and under operating conditions, the flow around the anchor may allow the local seabed sediment to be carried off and results in Scour (erosion). These are a threat to the structure's stability. In recent decades, rapid developments of research work and the knowledge of scouring on fixed structures (bridges and monopiles) in rivers and oceans have been carried out, and very limited research work on scouring around a bluff-shaped gravity anchor. The objective of this study involves the application of different numerical models to simulate the anchor towing under waves and calm water conditions. Anchor lowering involves the investigation of anchor movements at certain water depths under wave/current. The motions of anchor drift, heave, and pitch is of special focus. The further study involves anchor scour, where the anchor is installed in the seabed; the flow of underwater current around the anchor induces vortices mainly at the front and corners that develop soil erosion. The study of scouring on a submerged gravity anchor is an interesting research question since the flow not only passes around the anchor but also over the structure that forms different flow vortices. The achieved results and the numerical model will be a basis for the development of other designs and concepts for marine structures. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) numerical model will build in OpenFOAM and other similar software.

Keywords: anchor lowering, anchor towing, gravity anchor, computational fluid dynamics, scour

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9 Numerical Investigation of Tsunami Flow Characteristics and Energy Reduction through Flexible Vegetation

Authors: Abhishek Mukherjee, Juan C. Cajas, Jenny Suckale, Guillaume Houzeaux, Oriol Lehmkuhl, Simone Marras

Abstract:

The investigation of tsunami flow characteristics and the quantification of tsunami energy reduction through the coastal vegetation is important to understand the protective benefits of nature-based mitigation parks. In the present study, a three-dimensional non-hydrostatic incompressible Computational Fluid Dynamics model with a two-way coupling enabled fluid-structure interaction approach (FSI) is used. After validating the numerical model against experimental data, tsunami flow characteristics have been investigated by varying vegetation density, modulus of elasticity, the gap between stems, and arrangement or distribution of vegetation patches. Streamwise depth average velocity profiles, turbulent kinetic energy, energy flux reflection, and dissipation extracted by the numerical study will be presented in this study. These diagnostics are essential to assess the importance of different parameters to design the proper coastal defense systems. When a tsunami wave reaches the shore, it transforms into undular bores, which induce scour around offshore structures and sediment transport. The bed shear stress, instantaneous turbulent kinetic energy, and the vorticity near-bed will be presented to estimate the importance of vegetation to prevent tsunami-induced scour and sediment transport.

Keywords: coastal defense, energy flux, fluid-structure interaction, natural hazards, sediment transport, tsunami mitigation

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8 Development a Forecasting System and Reliable Sensors for River Bed Degradation and Bridge Pier Scouring

Authors: Fong-Zuo Lee, Jihn-Sung Lai, Yung-Bin Lin, Xiaoqin Liu, Kuo-Chun Chang, Zhi-Xian Yang, Wen-Dar Guo, Jian-Hao Hong

Abstract:

In recent years, climate change is a major factor to increase rainfall intensity and extreme rainfall frequency. The increased rainfall intensity and extreme rainfall frequency will increase the probability of flash flood with abundant sediment transport in a river basin. The floods caused by heavy rainfall may cause damages to the bridge, embankment, hydraulic works, and the other disasters. Therefore, the foundation scouring of bridge pier, embankment and spur dike caused by floods has been a severe problem in the worldwide. This severe problem has happened in many East Asian countries such as Taiwan and Japan because of these areas are suffered in typhoons, earthquakes, and flood events every year. Results from the complex interaction between fluid flow patterns caused by hydraulic works and the sediment transportation leading to the formation of river morphology, it is extremely difficult to develop a reliable and durable sensor to measure river bed degradation and bridge pier scouring. Therefore, an innovative scour monitoring sensor using vibration-based Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) was developed. This vibration-based MEMS sensor was packaged inside a stainless sphere with the proper protection of the full-filled resin, which can measure free vibration signals to detect scouring/deposition processes at the bridge pier. In addition, a friendly operational system includes rainfall runoff model, one-dimensional and two-dimensional numerical model, and the applicability of sediment transport equation and local scour formulas of bridge pier are included in this research. The friendly operational system carries out the simulation results of flood events that includes the elevation changes of river bed erosion near the specified bridge pier and the erosion depth around bridge piers. In addition, the system is developed with easy operation and integrated interface, the system can supplies users to calibrate and verify numerical model and display simulation results through the interface comparing to the scour monitoring sensors. To achieve the forecast of the erosion depth of river bed and main bridge pier in the study area, the system also connects the rainfall forecast data from Taiwan Typhoon and Flood Research Institute. The results can be provided available information for the management unit of river and bridge engineering in advance.

Keywords: flash flood, river bed degradation, bridge pier scouring, a friendly operational system

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7 Installation of an Inflatable Bladder and Sill Walls for Riverbank Erosion Protection and Improved Water Intake Zone Smokey Hill River – Salina, Kansas

Authors: Jeffrey A. Humenik

Abstract:

Environmental, Limited Liability Corporation (EMR) provided civil construction services to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Kansas City District, for the placement of a protective riprap blanket on the west bank of the Smoky Hill River, construction of 2 shore abutments and the construction of a 140 foot long sill wall spanning the Smoky Hill River in Salina, Kansas. The purpose of the project was to protect the riverbank from erosion and hold back water to a specified elevation, creating a pool to ensure adequate water intake for the municipal water supply. Geotextile matting and riprap were installed for streambank erosion protection. An inflatable bladder (AquaDam®) was designed to the specific river dimension and installed to divert the river and allow for dewatering during the construction of the sill walls and cofferdam. AquaDam® consists of water filled polyethylene tubes to create aqua barriers and divert water flow or prevent flooding. A challenge of the project was the fact that 100% of the sill wall was constructed within an active river channel. The threat of flooding of the work area, damage to the aqua dam by debris, and potential difficulty of water removal presented a unique set of challenges to the construction team. Upon completion of the West Sill Wall, floating debris punctured the AquaDam®. The manufacturing and delivery of a new AquaDam® would delay project completion by at least 6 weeks. To keep the project ahead of schedule, the decision was made to construct an earthen cofferdam reinforced with rip rap for the construction of the East Abutment and East Sill Wall section. During construction of the west sill wall section, a deep scour hole was encountered in the wall alignment that prevented EMR from using the natural rock formation as a concrete form for the lower section of the sill wall. A formwork system was constructed, that allowed the west sill wall section to be placed in two horizontal lifts of concrete poured on separate occasions. The first sectional lift was poured to fill in the scour hole and act as a footing for the second sectional lift. Concrete wall forms were set on the first lift and anchored to the surrounding riverbed in a manner that the second lift was poured in a similar fashion as a basement wall. EMR’s timely decision to keep the project moving toward completion in the face of changing conditions enabled project completion two (2) months ahead of schedule. The use of inflatable bladders is an effective and cost-efficient technology to divert river flow during construction. However, a secondary plan should be part of project design in the event debris transported by river punctures or damages the bladders.

Keywords: abutment, AquaDam®, riverbed, scour

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6 A Machine Learning-Assisted Crime and Threat Intelligence Hunter

Authors: Mohammad Shameel, Peter K. K. Loh, James H. Ng

Abstract:

Cybercrime is a new category of crime which poses a different challenge for crime investigators and incident responders. Attackers can mask their identities using a suite of tools and with the help of the deep web, which makes them difficult to track down. Scouring the deep web manually takes time and is inefficient. There is a growing need for a tool to scour the deep web to obtain useful evidence or intel automatically. In this paper, we will explain the background and motivation behind the research, present a survey of existing research on related tools, describe the design of our own crime/threat intelligence hunting tool prototype, demonstrate its capability with some test cases and lastly, conclude with proposals for future enhancements.

Keywords: cybercrime, deep web, threat intelligence, web crawler

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5 Fluvial Stage-Discharge Rating of a Selected Reach of Jamuna River

Authors: Makduma Zahan Badhan, M. Abdul Matin

Abstract:

A study has been undertaken to develop a fluvial stage-discharge rating curve for Jamuna River. Past Cross-sectional survey of Jamuna River reach within Sirajgonj and Tangail has been analyzed. The analysis includes the estimation of discharge carrying capacity, possible maximum scour depth and sediment transport capacity of the selected reaches. To predict the discharge and sediment carrying capacity, stream flow data which include cross-sectional area, top width, water surface slope and median diameter of the bed material of selected stations have been collected and some are calculated from reduced level data. A well-known resistance equation has been adopted and modified to a simple form in order to be used in the present analysis. The modified resistance equation has been used to calculate the mean velocity through the channel sections. In addition, a sediment transport equation has been applied for the prediction of transport capacity of the various sections. Results show that the existing drainage sections of Jamuna channel reach under study have adequate carrying capacity under existing bank-full conditions, but these reaches are subject to bed erosion even in low flow situations. Regarding sediment transport rate, it can be estimated that the channel flow has a relatively high range of bed material concentration. Finally, stage­ discharge curves for various sections have been developed. Based on stage-discharge rating data of various sections, water surface profile and sediment-rating curve of Jamuna River have been developed and also the flooding conditions have been analyzed from predicted water surface profile.

Keywords: discharge rating, flow profile, fluvial, sediment rating

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4 Analysis of the Occurrence of Hydraulic Fracture Phenomena in Roudbar Lorestan Dam

Authors: Masoud Ghaemi, MohammadJafar Hedayati, Faezeh Yousefzadeh, Hoseinali Heydarzadeh

Abstract:

According to the statistics of the International Committee on Large Dams, internal erosion and piping (scour) are major causes of the destruction of earth-fill dams. If such dams are constructed in narrow valleys, the valley walls will increase the arching of the dam body due to the transfer of vertical and horizontal stresses, so the occurrence of hydraulic fracturing in these embankments is more likely. Roudbar Dam in Lorestan is a clay-core pebble earth-fill dam constructed in a relatively narrow valley in western Iran. Three years after the onset of impoundment, there has been a fall in dam behavior. Evaluation of the dam behavior based on the data recorded on the instruments installed inside the dam body and foundation confirms the occurrence of internal erosion in the lower and adjacent parts of the core on the left support (abutment). The phenomenon of hydraulic fracturing is one of the main causes of the onset of internal erosion in this dam. Accordingly, the main objective of this paper is to evaluate the validity of this hypothesis. To evaluate the validity of this hypothesis, the dam behavior during construction and impoundment has been first simulated with a three-dimensional numerical model. Then, using validated empirical equations, the safety factor of the occurrence of hydraulic fracturing phenomenon upstream of the dam score was calculated. Then, using the artificial neural network, the failure time of the given section was predicted based on the maximum stress trend created. The study results show that steep slopes of valley walls, sudden changes in coefficient, and differences in compressibility properties of dam body materials have caused considerable stress transfer from core to adjacent valley walls, especially at its lower levels. This has resulted in the coefficient of confidence of the occurrence of hydraulic fracturing in each of these areas being close to one in each of the empirical equations used.

Keywords: arching, artificial neural network, FLAC3D, hydraulic fracturing, internal erosion, pore water pressure

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3 Depth-Averaged Modelling of Erosion and Sediment Transport in Free-Surface Flows

Authors: Thomas Rowan, Mohammed Seaid

Abstract:

A fast finite volume solver for multi-layered shallow water flows with mass exchange and an erodible bed is developed. This enables the user to solve a number of complex sediment-based problems including (but not limited to), dam-break over an erodible bed, recirculation currents and bed evolution as well as levy and dyke failure. This research develops methodologies crucial to the under-standing of multi-sediment fluvial mechanics and waterway design. In this model mass exchange between the layers is allowed and, in contrast to previous models, sediment and fluid are able to transfer between layers. In the current study we use a two-step finite volume method to avoid the solution of the Riemann problem. Entrainment and deposition rates are calculated for the first time in a model of this nature. In the first step the governing equations are rewritten in a non-conservative form and the intermediate solutions are calculated using the method of characteristics. In the second stage, the numerical fluxes are reconstructed in conservative form and are used to calculate a solution that satisfies the conservation property. This method is found to be considerably faster than other comparative finite volume methods, it also exhibits good shock capturing. For most entrainment and deposition equations a bed level concentration factor is used. This leads to inaccuracies in both near bed level concentration and total scour. To account for diffusion, as no vertical velocities are calculated, a capacity limited diffusion coefficient is used. The additional advantage of this multilayer approach is that there is a variation (from single layer models) in bottom layer fluid velocity: this dramatically reduces erosion, which is often overestimated in simulations of this nature using single layer flows. The model is used to simulate a standard dam break. In the dam break simulation, as expected, the number of fluid layers utilised creates variation in the resultant bed profile, with more layers offering a higher deviation in fluid velocity . These results showed a marked variation in erosion profiles from standard models. The overall the model provides new insight into the problems presented at minimal computational cost.

Keywords: erosion, finite volume method, sediment transport, shallow water equations

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