Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15427

Search results for: multi-scale method

15427 Multiscale Edge Detection Based on Nonsubsampled Contourlet Transform

Authors: Enqing Chen, Jianbo Wang


It is well known that the wavelet transform provides a very effective framework for multiscale edges analysis. However, wavelets are not very effective in representing images containing distributed discontinuities such as edges. In this paper, we propose a novel multiscale edge detection method in nonsubsampled contourlet transform (NSCT) domain, which is based on the dominant multiscale, multidirection edge expression and outstanding edge location of NSCT. Through real images experiments, simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method is better than other edge detection methods based on Canny operator, wavelet and contourlet. Additionally, the proposed method also works well for noisy images.

Keywords: edge detection, NSCT, shift invariant, modulus maxima

Procedia PDF Downloads 408
15426 Building and Tree Detection Using Multiscale Matched Filtering

Authors: Abdullah H. Özcan, Dilara Hisar, Yetkin Sayar, Cem Ünsalan


In this study, an automated building and tree detection method is proposed using DSM data and true orthophoto image. A multiscale matched filtering is used on DSM data. Therefore, first watershed transform is applied. Then, Otsu’s thresholding method is used as an adaptive threshold to segment each watershed region. Detected objects are masked with NDVI to separate buildings and trees. The proposed method is able to detect buildings and trees without entering any elevation threshold. We tested our method on ISPRS semantic labeling dataset and obtained promising results.

Keywords: building detection, local maximum filtering, matched filtering, multiscale

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
15425 Specific Emitter Identification Based on Refined Composite Multiscale Dispersion Entropy

Authors: Shaoying Guo, Yanyun Xu, Meng Zhang, Weiqing Huang


The wireless communication network is developing rapidly, thus the wireless security becomes more and more important. Specific emitter identification (SEI) is an vital part of wireless communication security as a technique to identify the unique transmitters. In this paper, a SEI method based on multiscale dispersion entropy (MDE) and refined composite multiscale dispersion entropy (RCMDE) is proposed. The algorithms of MDE and RCMDE are used to extract features for identification of five wireless devices and cross-validation support vector machine (CV-SVM) is used as the classifier. The experimental results show that the total identification accuracy is 99.3%, even at low signal-to-noise ratio(SNR) of 5dB, which proves that MDE and RCMDE can describe the communication signal series well. In addition, compared with other methods, the proposed method is effective and provides better accuracy and stability for SEI.

Keywords: cross-validation support vector machine, refined com- posite multiscale dispersion entropy, specific emitter identification, transient signal, wireless communication device

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
15424 The Effect of Pre-Cracks on Structural Strength of the Nextel Fibers: A Multiscale Modeling Approach

Authors: Seyed Mohammad Mahdi Zamani, Kamran Behdinan


In this study, a multiscale framework is performed to model the strength of Nextel fibers in presence of an atomistic scale pre-crack at finite temperatures. The bridging cell method (BCM) is the multiscale technique applied in this study, which decomposes the system into the atomistic, bridging and continuum domains; solves the whole system in a finite element framework; and incorporates temperature dependent calculations. Since Nextel is known to be structurally stable and retain 70% of its initial strength up to 1100°C; simulations are conducted at both of the room temperatures, 25°C, and fire temperatures, 1200°C. Two cases are modeled for a pre-crack present in either phases of alumina or mullite of the Nextel structure. The materials’ response is studied with respect to deformation behavior and ultimate tensile strength. Results show different crack growth trends for the two cases, and as the temperature increases, the crack growth resistance and material’s strength decrease.

Keywords: Nextel fibers, multiscale modeling, pre-crack, ultimate tensile strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
15423 Information System for Early Diabetic Retinopathy Diagnostics Based on Multiscale Texture Gradient Method

Authors: L. S. Godlevsky, N. V. Kresyun, V. P. Martsenyuk, K. S. Shakun, T. V. Tatarchuk, K. O. Prybolovets, L. F. Kalinichenko, M. Karpinski, T. Gancarczyk


Structures of eye bottom were extracted using multiscale texture gradient method and color characteristics of macular zone and vessels were verified in CIELAB scale. The difference of average values of L*, a* and b* coordinates of CIE (International Commision of Illumination) scale in patients with diabetes and healthy volunteers was compared. The average value of L* in diabetic patients exceeded such one in the group of practically healthy persons by 2.71 times (P < 0.05), while the value of a* index was reduced by 3.8 times when compared with control one (P < 0.05). b* index exceeded such one in the control group by 12.4 times (P < 0.05). The integrated index on color difference (ΔE) exceeded control value by 2.87 times (P < 0.05). More pronounced differences with ΔE were followed by a shorter period of MA appearance with a correlation level at -0.56 (P < 0.05). The specificity of diagnostics raised by 2.17 times (P < 0.05) and negative prognostic index exceeded such one determined with the expert method by 2.26 times (P < 0.05).

Keywords: diabetic retinopathy, multiscale texture gradient, color spectrum analysis, medical diagnostics

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15422 Multiscale Cohesive Zone Modeling of Composite Microstructure

Authors: Vincent Iacobellis, Kamran Behdinan


A finite element cohesive zone model is used to predict the temperature dependent material properties of a polyimide matrix composite with unidirectional carbon fiber arrangement. The cohesive zone parameters have been obtained from previous research involving an atomistic-to-continuum multiscale simulation of the fiber-matrix interface using the bridging cell multiscale method. The goal of the research was to both investigate the effect of temperature change on the composite behavior with respect to transverse loading as well as the validate the use of cohesive parameters obtained from atomistic-to-continuum multiscale modeling to predict fiber-matrix interfacial cracking. From the multiscale model cohesive zone parameters (i.e. maximum traction and energy of separation) were obtained by modeling the interface between the coarse-grained polyimide matrix and graphite based carbon fiber. The cohesive parameters from this simulation were used in a cohesive zone model of the composite microstructure in order to predict the properties of the macroscale composite with respect to changes in temperature ranging from 21 ˚C to 316 ˚C. Good agreement was found between the microscale RUC model and experimental results for stress-strain response, stiffness, and material strength at low and high temperatures. Examination of the deformation of the composite through localized crack initiation at the fiber-matrix interface also agreed with experimental observations of similar phenomena. Overall, the cohesive zone model was shown to be both effective at modeling the composite properties with respect to transverse loading as well as validated the use of cohesive zone parameters obtained from the multiscale simulation.

Keywords: cohesive zone model, fiber-matrix interface, microscale damage, multiscale modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 371
15421 Fatigue of Multiscale Nanoreinforced Composites: 3D Modelling

Authors: Leon Mishnaevsky Jr., Gaoming Dai


3D numerical simulations of fatigue damage of multiscale fiber reinforced polymer composites with secondary nanoclay reinforcement are carried out. Macro-micro FE models of the multiscale composites are generated automatically using Python based software. The effect of the nanoclay reinforcement (localized in the fiber/matrix interface (fiber sizing) and distributed throughout the matrix) on the crack path, damage mechanisms and fatigue behavior is investigated in numerical experiments.

Keywords: computational mechanics, fatigue, nanocomposites, composites

Procedia PDF Downloads 507
15420 Contrast Enhancement of Masses in Mammograms Using Multiscale Morphology

Authors: Amit Kamra, V. K. Jain, Pragya


Mammography is widely used technique for breast cancer screening. There are various other techniques for breast cancer screening but mammography is the most reliable and effective technique. The images obtained through mammography are of low contrast which causes problem for the radiologists to interpret. Hence, a high quality image is mandatory for the processing of the image for extracting any kind of information from it. Many contrast enhancement algorithms have been developed over the years. In the present work, an efficient morphology based technique is proposed for contrast enhancement of masses in mammographic images. The proposed method is based on Multiscale Morphology and it takes into consideration the scale of the structuring element. The proposed method is compared with other state-of-the-art techniques. The experimental results show that the proposed method is better both qualitatively and quantitatively than the other standard contrast enhancement techniques.

Keywords: enhancement, mammography, multi-scale, mathematical morphology

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15419 A Geometrical Multiscale Approach to Blood Flow Simulation: Coupling 2-D Navier-Stokes and 0-D Lumped Parameter Models

Authors: Azadeh Jafari, Robert G. Owens


In this study, a geometrical multiscale approach which means coupling together the 2-D Navier-Stokes equations, constitutive equations and 0-D lumped parameter models is investigated. A multiscale approach, suggest a natural way of coupling detailed local models (in the flow domain) with coarser models able to describe the dynamics over a large part or even the whole cardiovascular system at acceptable computational cost. In this study we introduce a new velocity correction scheme to decouple the velocity computation from the pressure one. To evaluate the capability of our new scheme, a comparison between the results obtained with Neumann outflow boundary conditions on the velocity and Dirichlet outflow boundary conditions on the pressure and those obtained using coupling with the lumped parameter model has been performed. Comprehensive studies have been done based on the sensitivity of numerical scheme to the initial conditions, elasticity and number of spectral modes. Improvement of the computational algorithm with stable convergence has been demonstrated for at least moderate Weissenberg number. We comment on mathematical properties of the reduced model, its limitations in yielding realistic and accurate numerical simulations, and its contribution to a better understanding of microvascular blood flow. We discuss the sophistication and reliability of multiscale models for computing correct boundary conditions at the outflow boundaries of a section of the cardiovascular system of interest. In this respect the geometrical multiscale approach can be regarded as a new method for solving a class of biofluids problems, whose application goes significantly beyond the one addressed in this work.

Keywords: geometrical multiscale models, haemorheology model, coupled 2-D navier-stokes 0-D lumped parameter modeling, computational fluid dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
15418 Color Image Enhancement Using Multiscale Retinex and Image Fusion Techniques

Authors: Chang-Hsing Lee, Cheng-Chang Lien, Chin-Chuan Han


In this paper, an edge-strength guided multiscale retinex (EGMSR) approach will be proposed for color image contrast enhancement. In EGMSR, the pixel-dependent weight associated with each pixel in the single scale retinex output image is computed according to the edge strength around this pixel in order to prevent from over-enhancing the noises contained in the smooth dark/bright regions. Further, by fusing together the enhanced results of EGMSR and adaptive multiscale retinex (AMSR), we can get a natural fused image having high contrast and proper tonal rendition. Experimental results on several low-contrast images have shown that our proposed approach can produce natural and appealing enhanced images.

Keywords: image enhancement, multiscale retinex, image fusion, EGMSR

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
15417 Optimal ECG Sampling Frequency for Multiscale Entropy-Based HRV

Authors: Manjit Singh


Multiscale entropy (MSE) is an extensively used index to provide a general understanding of multiple complexity of physiologic mechanism of heart rate variability (HRV) that operates on a wide range of time scales. Accurate selection of electrocardiogram (ECG) sampling frequency is an essential concern for clinically significant HRV quantification; high ECG sampling rate increase memory requirements and processing time, whereas low sampling rate degrade signal quality and results in clinically misinterpreted HRV. In this work, the impact of ECG sampling frequency on MSE based HRV have been quantified. MSE measures are found to be sensitive to ECG sampling frequency and effect of sampling frequency will be a function of time scale.

Keywords: ECG (electrocardiogram), heart rate variability (HRV), multiscale entropy, sampling frequency

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
15416 Electroencephalography (EEG) Analysis of Alcoholic and Control Subjects Using Multiscale Permutation Entropy

Authors: Lal Hussain, Wajid Aziz, Sajjad Ahmed Nadeem, Saeed Arif Shah, Abdul Majid


Brain electrical activity as reflected in Electroencephalography (EEG) have been analyzed and diagnosed using various techniques. Among them, complexity measure, nonlinearity, disorder, and unpredictability play vital role due to the nonlinear interconnection between functional and anatomical subsystem emerged in brain in healthy state and during various diseases. There are many social and economical issues of alcoholic abuse as memory weakness, decision making, impairments, and concentrations etc. Alcoholism not only defect the brains but also associated with emotional, behavior, and cognitive impairments damaging the white and gray brain matters. A recently developed signal analysis method i.e. Multiscale Permutation Entropy (MPE) is proposed to estimate the complexity of long-range temporal correlation time series EEG of Alcoholic and Control subjects acquired from University of California Machine Learning repository and results are compared with MSE. Using MPE, coarsed grained series is first generated and the PE is computed for each coarsed grained time series against the electrodes O1, O2, C3, C4, F2, F3, F4, F7, F8, Fp1, Fp2, P3, P4, T7, and T8. The results computed against each electrode using MPE gives higher significant values as compared to MSE as well as mean rank differences accordingly. Likewise, ROC and Area under the ROC also gives higher separation against each electrode using MPE in comparison to MSE.

Keywords: electroencephalogram (EEG), multiscale permutation entropy (MPE), multiscale sample entropy (MSE), permutation entropy (PE), mann whitney test (MMT), receiver operator curve (ROC), complexity measure

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15415 Multiscale Hub: An Open-Source Framework for Practical Atomistic-To-Continuum Coupling

Authors: Masoud Safdari, Jacob Fish


Despite vast amount of existing theoretical knowledge, the implementation of a universal multiscale modeling, analysis, and simulation software framework remains challenging. Existing multiscale software and solutions are often domain-specific, closed-source and mandate a high-level of experience and skills in both multiscale analysis and programming. Furthermore, tools currently existing for Atomistic-to-Continuum (AtC) multiscaling are developed with the assumptions such as accessibility of high-performance computing facilities to the users. These issues mentioned plus many other challenges have reduced the adoption of multiscale in academia and especially industry. In the current work, we introduce Multiscale Hub (MsHub), an effort towards making AtC more accessible through cloud services. As a joint effort between academia and industry, MsHub provides a universal web-enabled framework for practical multiscaling. Developed on top of universally acclaimed scientific programming language Python, the package currently provides an open-source, comprehensive, easy-to-use framework for AtC coupling. MsHub offers an easy to use interface to prominent molecular dynamics and multiphysics continuum mechanics packages such as LAMMPS and MFEM (a free, lightweight, scalable C++ library for finite element methods). In this work, we first report on the design philosophy of MsHub, challenges identified and issues faced regarding its implementation. MsHub takes the advantage of a comprehensive set of tools and algorithms developed for AtC that can be used for a variety of governing physics. We then briefly report key AtC algorithms implemented in MsHub. Finally, we conclude with a few examples illustrating the capabilities of the package and its future directions.

Keywords: atomistic, continuum, coupling, multiscale

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15414 Computational Homogenization of Thin Walled Structures: On the Influence of the Global vs Local Applied Plane Stress Condition

Authors: M. Beusink, E. W. C. Coenen


The increased application of novel structural materials, such as high grade asphalt, concrete and laminated composites, has sparked the need for a better understanding of the often complex, non-linear mechanical behavior of such materials. The effective macroscopic mechanical response is generally dependent on the applied load path. Moreover, it is also significantly influenced by the microstructure of the material, e.g. embedded fibers, voids and/or grain morphology. At present, multiscale techniques are widely adopted to assess micro-macro interactions in a numerically efficient way. Computational homogenization techniques have been successfully applied over a wide range of engineering cases, e.g. cases involving first order and second order continua, thin shells and cohesive zone models. Most of these homogenization methods rely on Representative Volume Elements (RVE), which model the relevant microstructural details in a confined volume. Imposed through kinematical constraints or boundary conditions, a RVE can be subjected to a microscopic load sequence. This provides the RVE's effective stress-strain response, which can serve as constitutive input for macroscale analyses. Simultaneously, such a study of a RVE gives insight into fine scale phenomena such as microstructural damage and its evolution. It has been reported by several authors that the type of boundary conditions applied to the RVE affect the resulting homogenized stress-strain response. As a consequence, dedicated boundary conditions have been proposed to appropriately deal with this concern. For the specific case of a planar assumption for the analyzed structure, e.g. plane strain, axisymmetric or plane stress, this assumption needs to be addressed consistently in all considered scales. Although in many multiscale studies a planar condition has been employed, the related impact on the multiscale solution has not been explicitly investigated. This work therefore focuses on the influence of the planar assumption for multiscale modeling. In particular the plane stress case is highlighted, by proposing three different implementation strategies which are compatible with a first-order computational homogenization framework. The first method consists of applying classical plane stress theory at the microscale, whereas with the second method a generalized plane stress condition is assumed at the RVE level. For the third method, the plane stress condition is applied at the macroscale by requiring that the resulting macroscopic out-of-plane forces are equal to zero. These strategies are assessed through a numerical study of a thin walled structure and the resulting effective macroscale stress-strain response is compared. It is shown that there is a clear influence of the length scale at which the planar condition is applied.

Keywords: first-order computational homogenization, planar analysis, multiscale, microstrucutures

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15413 Prediction of Mechanical Strength of Multiscale Hybrid Reinforced Cementitious Composite

Authors: Salam Alrekabi, A. B. Cundy, Mohammed Haloob Al-Majidi


Novel multiscale hybrid reinforced cementitious composites based on carbon nanotubes (MHRCC-CNT), and carbon nanofibers (MHRCC-CNF) are new types of cement-based material fabricated with micro steel fibers and nanofilaments, featuring superior strain hardening, ductility, and energy absorption. This study focused on established models to predict the compressive strength, and direct and splitting tensile strengths of the produced cementitious composites. The analysis was carried out based on the experimental data presented by the previous author’s study, regression analysis, and the established models that available in the literature. The obtained models showed small differences in the predictions and target values with experimental verification indicated that the estimation of the mechanical properties could be achieved with good accuracy.

Keywords: multiscale hybrid reinforced cementitious composites, carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, mechanical strength prediction

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
15412 An Effective Modification to Multiscale Elastic Network Model and Its Evaluation Based on Analyses of Protein Dynamics

Authors: Weikang Gong, Chunhua Li


Dynamics plays an essential role in function exertion of proteins. Elastic network model (ENM), a harmonic potential-based and cost-effective computational method, is a valuable and efficient tool for characterizing the intrinsic dynamical properties encoded in biomacromolecule structures and has been widely used to detect the large-amplitude collective motions of proteins. Gaussian network model (GNM) and anisotropic network model (ANM) are the two often-used ENM models. In recent years, many ENM variants have been proposed. Here, we propose a small but effective modification (denoted as modified mENM) to the multiscale ENM (mENM) where fitting weights of Kirchhoff/Hessian matrixes with the least square method (LSM) is modified since it neglects the details of pairwise interactions. Then we perform its comparisons with the original mENM, traditional ENM, and parameter-free ENM (pfENM) on reproducing dynamical properties for the six representative proteins whose molecular dynamics (MD) trajectories are available in In the results, for B-factor prediction, mENM achieves the best performance among the four ENM models. Additionally, it is noted that with the weights of the multiscale Kirchhoff/Hessian matrixes modified, interestingly, the modified mGNM/mANM still has a much better performance than the corresponding traditional ENM and pfENM models. As to dynamical cross-correlation map (DCCM) calculation, taking the data obtained from MD trajectories as the standard, mENM performs the worst while the results produced by the modified mENM and pfENM models are close to those from MD trajectories with the latter a little better than the former. Generally, ANMs perform better than the corresponding GNMs except for the mENM. Thus, pfANM and the modified mANM, especially the former, have an excellent performance in dynamical cross-correlation calculation. Compared with GNMs (except for mGNM), the corresponding ANMs can capture quite a number of positive correlations for the residue pairs nearly largest distances apart, which is maybe due to the anisotropy consideration in ANMs. Furtherly, encouragingly the modified mANM displays the best performance in capturing the functional motional modes, followed by pfANM and traditional ANM models, while mANM fails in all the cases. This suggests that the consideration of long-range interactions is critical for ANM models to produce protein functional motions. Based on the analyses, the modified mENM is a promising method in capturing multiple dynamical characteristics encoded in protein structures. This work is helpful for strengthening the understanding of the elastic network model and provides a valuable guide for researchers to utilize the model to explore protein dynamics.

Keywords: elastic network model, ENM, multiscale ENM, molecular dynamics, parameter-free ENM, protein structure

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15411 Multiscale Syntheses of Knee Collateral Ligament Stresses: Aggregate Mechanics as a Function of Molecular Properties

Authors: Raouf Mbarki, Fadi Al Khatib, Malek Adouni


Knee collateral ligaments play a significant role in restraining excessive frontal motion (varus/valgus rotations). In this investigation, a multiscale frame was developed based on structural hierarchies of the collateral ligaments starting from the bottom (tropocollagen molecule) to up where the fibred reinforced structure established. Experimental data of failure tensile test were considered as the principal driver of the developed model. This model was calibrated statistically using Bayesian calibration due to the high number of unknown parameters. Then the model is scaled up to fit the real structure of the collateral ligaments and simulated under realistic boundary conditions. Predications have been successful in describing the observed transient response of the collateral ligaments during tensile test under pre- and post-damage loading conditions. Collateral ligaments maximum stresses and strengths were observed near to the femoral insertions, a results that is in good agreement with experimental investigations. Also for the first time, damage initiation and propagation were documented with this model as a function of the cross-link density between tropocollagen molecules.

Keywords: multiscale model, tropocollagen, fibrils, ligaments commas

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15410 Structural Development and Multiscale Design Optimization of Additively Manufactured Unmanned Aerial Vehicle with Blended Wing Body Configuration

Authors: Malcolm Dinovitzer, Calvin Miller, Adam Hacker, Gabriel Wong, Zach Annen, Padmassun Rajakareyar, Jordan Mulvihill, Mostafa S.A. ElSayed


The research work presented in this paper is developed by the Blended Wing Body (BWB) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) team, a fourth-year capstone project at Carleton University Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering. Here, a clean sheet UAV with BWB configuration is designed and optimized using Multiscale Design Optimization (MSDO) approach employing lattice materials taking into consideration design for additive manufacturing constraints. The BWB-UAV is being developed with a mission profile designed for surveillance purposes with a minimum payload of 1000 grams. To demonstrate the design methodology, a single design loop of a sample rib from the airframe is shown in details. This includes presentation of the conceptual design, materials selection, experimental characterization and residual thermal stress distribution analysis of additively manufactured materials, manufacturing constraint identification, critical loads computations, stress analysis and design optimization. A dynamic turbulent critical load case was identified composed of a 1-g static maneuver with an incremental Power Spectral Density (PSD) gust which was used as a deterministic design load case for the design optimization. 2D flat plate Doublet Lattice Method (DLM) was used to simulate aerodynamics in the aeroelastic analysis. The aerodynamic results were verified versus a 3D CFD analysis applying Spalart-Allmaras and SST k-omega turbulence to the rigid UAV and vortex lattice method applied in the OpenVSP environment. Design optimization of a single rib was conducted using topology optimization as well as MSDO. Compared to a solid rib, weight savings of 36.44% and 59.65% were obtained for the topology optimization and the MSDO, respectively. These results suggest that MSDO is an acceptable alternative to topology optimization in weight critical applications while preserving the functional requirements.

Keywords: blended wing body, multiscale design optimization, additive manufacturing, unmanned aerial vehicle

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15409 Multiscale Simulation of Ink Seepage into Fibrous Structures through a Mesoscopic Variational Model

Authors: Athmane Bakhta, Sebastien Leclaire, David Vidal, Francois Bertrand, Mohamed Cheriet


This work presents a new three-dimensional variational model proposed for the simulation of ink seepage into paper sheets at the fiber level. The model, inspired by the Hising model, takes into account a finite volume of ink and describes the system state through gravity, cohesion, and adhesion force interactions. At the mesoscopic scale, the paper substrate is modeled using a discretized fiber structure generated using a numerical deposition procedure. A modified Monte Carlo method is introduced for the simulation of the ink dynamics. Besides, a multiphase lattice Boltzmann method is suggested to fine-tune the mesoscopic variational model parameters, and it is shown that the ink seepage behaviors predicted by the proposed model can resemble those predicted by a method relying on first principles.

Keywords: fibrous media, lattice Boltzmann, modelling and simulation, Monte Carlo, variational model

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15408 Multiscale Modelization of Multilayered Bi-Dimensional Soils

Authors: I. Hosni, L. Bennaceur Farah, N. Saber, R Bennaceur


Soil moisture content is a key variable in many environmental sciences. Even though it represents a small proportion of the liquid freshwater on Earth, it modulates interactions between the land surface and the atmosphere, thereby influencing climate and weather. Accurate modeling of the above processes depends on the ability to provide a proper spatial characterization of soil moisture. The measurement of soil moisture content allows assessment of soil water resources in the field of hydrology and agronomy. The second parameter in interaction with the radar signal is the geometric structure of the soil. Most traditional electromagnetic models consider natural surfaces as single scale zero mean stationary Gaussian random processes. Roughness behavior is characterized by statistical parameters like the Root Mean Square (RMS) height and the correlation length. Then, the main problem is that the agreement between experimental measurements and theoretical values is usually poor due to the large variability of the correlation function, and as a consequence, backscattering models have often failed to predict correctly backscattering. In this study, surfaces are considered as band-limited fractal random processes corresponding to a superposition of a finite number of one-dimensional Gaussian process each one having a spatial scale. Multiscale roughness is characterized by two parameters, the first one is proportional to the RMS height, and the other one is related to the fractal dimension. Soil moisture is related to the complex dielectric constant. This multiscale description has been adapted to two-dimensional profiles using the bi-dimensional wavelet transform and the Mallat algorithm to describe more correctly natural surfaces. We characterize the soil surfaces and sub-surfaces by a three layers geo-electrical model. The upper layer is described by its dielectric constant, thickness, a multiscale bi-dimensional surface roughness model by using the wavelet transform and the Mallat algorithm, and volume scattering parameters. The lower layer is divided into three fictive layers separated by an assumed plane interface. These three layers were modeled by an effective medium characterized by an apparent effective dielectric constant taking into account the presence of air pockets in the soil. We have adopted the 2D multiscale three layers small perturbations model including, firstly air pockets in the soil sub-structure, and then a vegetable canopy in the soil surface structure, that is to simulate the radar backscattering. A sensitivity analysis of backscattering coefficient dependence on multiscale roughness and new soil moisture has been performed. Later, we proposed to change the dielectric constant of the multilayer medium because it takes into account the different moisture values of each layer in the soil. A sensitivity analysis of the backscattering coefficient, including the air pockets in the volume structure with respect to the multiscale roughness parameters and the apparent dielectric constant, was carried out. Finally, we proposed to study the behavior of the backscattering coefficient of the radar on a soil having a vegetable layer in its surface structure.

Keywords: multiscale, bidimensional, wavelets, backscattering, multilayer, SPM, air pockets

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15407 The Contact Behaviors of Seals Under Combined Normal and Tangential Loading: A Multiscale Finite Element Contact Analysis

Authors: Runliang Wang, Jianhua Liu, Duo Jia, Xiaoyu Ding


The contact between sealing surfaces plays a vital role in guaranteeing the sealing performance of various seals. To date, analyses of sealing structures have rarely considered both structural parameters (macroscale) and surface roughness information (microscale) of sealing surfaces due to the complex modeling process. Meanwhile, most of the contact analyses applied to seals were conducted only under normal loading, which still existssome distance from real loading conditions in engineering. In this paper, a multiscale rough contact model, which took both macrostructural parameters of seals and surface roughness information of sealing surfaces into consideration for the cone-cone seal, was established. By using the finite element method (FEM), the combined normal and tangential loading was applied to the model to simulate the assembly process of the cone-cone seal. The evolution of the contact behaviors during the assembly process, such as the real contact area (RCA), the distribution of contact pressure, and contact status, are studied in detail. The results showed the non-linear relationship between the RCA and the load, which was different from the normal loading cases. In addition, the evolution of the real contact area of cone-cone seals with isotropic and anisotropic rough surfaces are also compared quantitatively.

Keywords: contact mechanics, FEM, randomly rough surface, real contact area, sealing

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15406 Multiscale Process Modeling of Ceramic Matrix Composites

Authors: Marianna Maiaru, Gregory M. Odegard, Josh Kemppainen, Ivan Gallegos, Michael Olaya


Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are typically used in applications that require long-term mechanical integrity at elevated temperatures. CMCs are usually fabricated using a polymer precursor that is initially polymerized in situ with fiber reinforcement, followed by a series of cycles of pyrolysis to transform the polymer matrix into a rigid glass or ceramic. The pyrolysis step typically generates volatile gasses, which creates porosity within the polymer matrix phase of the composite. Subsequent cycles of monomer infusion, polymerization, and pyrolysis are often used to reduce the porosity and thus increase the durability of the composite. Because of the significant expense of such iterative processing cycles, new generations of CMCs with improved durability and manufacturability are difficult and expensive to develop using standard Edisonian approaches. The goal of this research is to develop a computational process-modeling-based approach that can be used to design the next generation of CMC materials with optimized material and processing parameters for maximum strength and efficient manufacturing. The process modeling incorporates computational modeling tools, including molecular dynamics (MD), to simulate the material at multiple length scales. Results from MD simulation are used to inform the continuum-level models to link molecular-level characteristics (material structure, temperature) to bulk-level performance (strength, residual stresses). Processing parameters are optimized such that process-induced residual stresses are minimized and laminate strength is maximized. The multiscale process modeling method developed with this research can play a key role in the development of future CMCs for high-temperature and high-strength applications. By combining multiscale computational tools and process modeling, new manufacturing parameters can be established for optimal fabrication and performance of CMCs for a wide range of applications.

Keywords: digital engineering, finite elements, manufacturing, molecular dynamics

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15405 Multiscale Connected Component Labelling and Applications to Scientific Microscopy Image Processing

Authors: Yayun Hsu, Henry Horng-Shing Lu


In this paper, a new method is proposed to extending the method of connected component labeling from processing binary images to multi-scale modeling of images. By using the adaptive threshold of multi-scale attributes, this approach minimizes the possibility of missing those important components with weak intensities. In addition, the computational cost of this approach remains similar to that of the typical approach of component labeling. Then, this methodology is applied to grain boundary detection and Drosophila Brain-bow neuron segmentation. These demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach in the analysis of challenging microscopy images for scientific discovery.

Keywords: microscopic image processing, scientific data mining, multi-scale modeling, data mining

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15404 Automatic Segmentation of the Clean Speech Signal

Authors: M. A. Ben Messaoud, A. Bouzid, N. Ellouze


Speech Segmentation is the measure of the change point detection for partitioning an input speech signal into regions each of which accords to only one speaker. In this paper, we apply two features based on multi-scale product (MP) of the clean speech, namely the spectral centroid of MP, and the zero crossings rate of MP. We focus on multi-scale product analysis as an important tool for segmentation extraction. The multi-scale product is based on making the product of the speech wavelet transform coefficients at three successive dyadic scales. We have evaluated our method on the Keele database. Experimental results show the effectiveness of our method presenting a good performance. It shows that the two simple features can find word boundaries, and extracted the segments of the clean speech.

Keywords: multiscale product, spectral centroid, speech segmentation, zero crossings rate

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15403 Face Sketch Recognition in Forensic Application Using Scale Invariant Feature Transform and Multiscale Local Binary Patterns Fusion

Authors: Gargi Phadke, Mugdha Joshi, Shamal Salunkhe


Facial sketches are used as a crucial clue by criminal investigators for identification of suspects when the description of eyewitness or victims are only available as evidence. A forensic artist develops a sketch as per the verbal description is given by an eyewitness that shows the facial look of the culprit. In this paper, the fusion of Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) and multiscale local binary patterns (MLBP) are proposed as a feature to recognize a forensic face sketch images from a gallery of mugshot photos. This work focuses on comparative analysis of proposed scheme with existing algorithms in different challenges like illumination change and rotation condition. Experimental results show that proposed scheme can lead to better performance for the defined problem.

Keywords: SIFT feature, MLBP, PCA, face sketch

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15402 Multiscale Entropy Analysis of Electroencephalogram (EEG) of Alcoholic and Control Subjects

Authors: Lal Hussain, Wajid Aziz, Imtiaz Ahmed Awan, Sharjeel Saeed


Multiscale entropy analysis (MSE) is a useful technique recently developed to quantify the dynamics of physiological signals at different time scales. This study is aimed at investigating the electroencephalogram (EEG) signals to analyze the background activity of alcoholic and control subjects by inspecting various coarse-grained sequences formed at different time scales. EEG recordings of alcoholic and control subjects were taken from the publically available machine learning repository of University of California (UCI) acquired using 64 electrodes. The MSE analysis was performed on the EEG data acquired from all the electrodes of alcoholic and control subjects. Mann-Whitney rank test was used to find significant differences between the groups and result were considered statistically significant for p-values<0.05. The area under receiver operator curve was computed to find the degree separation between the groups. The mean ranks of MSE values at all the times scales for all electrodes were higher control subject as compared to alcoholic subjects. Higher mean ranks represent higher complexity and vice versa. The finding indicated that EEG signals acquired through electrodes C3, C4, F3, F7, F8, O1, O2, P3, T7 showed significant differences between alcoholic and control subjects at time scales 1 to 5. Moreover, all electrodes exhibit significance level at different time scales. Likewise, the highest accuracy and separation was obtained at the central region (C3 and C4), front polar regions (P3, O1, F3, F7, F8 and T8) while other electrodes such asFp1, Fp2, P4 and F4 shows no significant results.

Keywords: electroencephalogram (EEG), multiscale sample entropy (MSE), Mann-Whitney test (MMT), Receiver Operator Curve (ROC), complexity analysis

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15401 Multiple Fusion Based Single Image Dehazing

Authors: Joe Amalraj, M. Arunkumar


Haze is an atmospheric phenomenon that signicantly degrades the visibility of outdoor scenes. This is mainly due to the atmosphere particles that absorb and scatter the light. This paper introduces a novel single image approach that enhances the visibility of such degraded images. In this method is a fusion-based strategy that derives from two original hazy image inputs by applying a white balance and a contrast enhancing procedure. To blend effectively the information of the derived inputs to preserve the regions with good visibility, we filter their important features by computing three measures (weight maps): luminance, chromaticity, and saliency. To minimize artifacts introduced by the weight maps, our approach is designed in a multiscale fashion, using a Laplacian pyramid representation. This paper demonstrates the utility and effectiveness of a fusion-based technique for de-hazing based on a single degraded image. The method performs in a per-pixel fashion, which is straightforward to implement. The experimental results demonstrate that the method yields results comparative to and even better than the more complex state-of-the-art techniques, having the advantage of being appropriate for real-time applications.

Keywords: single image de-hazing, outdoor images, enhancing, DSP

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15400 Compressive Response of Unidirectional Basalt Fiber/Epoxy/MWCNTs Composites

Authors: Reza Eslami-Farsani, Hamed Khosravi


The aim of this work is to study the influence of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) addition at various contents with respect to the matrix (0-0.5 wt.% at a step of 0.1 wt.%) on the compressive response of unidirectional basalt fiber (UD-BF)/epoxy composites. Toward this end, MWCNTs were firstly functionalized with 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (3-GPTMS) to improve their dispersion state and interfacial compatibility with the epoxy. Subsequently, UD-BF/epoxy and multiscale 3-GPTMS-MWCNTs/UD-BF/epoxy composites were prepared. The mechanical properties of the composites were determined by quasi-static compression test. The compressive strength of the composites was obtained through performing the compression test on the off-axis specimens and extracting their longitudinal compressive strength. Results demonstrated that the highest value in compressive strength was attained at 0.4 wt.% MWCNTs with 41% increase, compared to the BF/epoxy composite. Potential mechanisms behind these were implied.

Keywords: multiscale polymeric composites, unidirectional basalt fibers, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, surface modification, compressive properties

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15399 Multiscale Modeling of Damage in Textile Composites

Authors: Jaan-Willem Simon, Bertram Stier, Brett Bednarcyk, Evan Pineda, Stefanie Reese


Textile composites, in which the reinforcing fibers are woven or braided, have become very popular in numerous applications in aerospace, automotive, and maritime industry. These textile composites are advantageous due to their ease of manufacture, damage tolerance, and relatively low cost. However, physics-based modeling of the mechanical behavior of textile composites is challenging. Compared to their unidirectional counterparts, textile composites introduce additional geometric complexities, which cause significant local stress and strain concentrations. Since these internal concentrations are primary drivers of nonlinearity, damage, and failure within textile composites, they must be taken into account in order for the models to be predictive. The macro-scale approach to modeling textile-reinforced composites treats the whole composite as an effective, homogenized material. This approach is very computationally efficient, but it cannot be considered predictive beyond the elastic regime because the complex microstructural geometry is not considered. Further, this approach can, at best, offer a phenomenological treatment of nonlinear deformation and failure. In contrast, the mesoscale approach to modeling textile composites explicitly considers the internal geometry of the reinforcing tows, and thus, their interaction, and the effects of their curved paths can be modeled. The tows are treated as effective (homogenized) materials, requiring the use of anisotropic material models to capture their behavior. Finally, the micro-scale approach goes one level lower, modeling the individual filaments that constitute the tows. This paper will compare meso- and micro-scale approaches to modeling the deformation, damage, and failure of textile-reinforced polymer matrix composites. For the mesoscale approach, the woven composite architecture will be modeled using the finite element method, and an anisotropic damage model for the tows will be employed to capture the local nonlinear behavior. For the micro-scale, two different models will be used, the one being based on the finite element method, whereas the other one makes use of an embedded semi-analytical approach. The goal will be the comparison and evaluation of these approaches to modeling textile-reinforced composites in terms of accuracy, efficiency, and utility.

Keywords: multiscale modeling, continuum damage model, damage interaction, textile composites

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15398 Multiscale Computational Approach to Enhance the Understanding, Design and Development of CO₂ Catalytic Conversion Technologies

Authors: Agnieszka S. Dzielendziak, Lindsay-Marie Armstrong, Matthew E. Potter, Robert Raja, Pier J. A. Sazio


Reducing carbon dioxide, CO₂, is one of the greatest global challenges. Conversion of CO₂ for utilisation across synthetic fuel, pharmaceutical, and agrochemical industries offers a promising option, yet requires significant research to understanding the complex multiscale processes involved. To experimentally understand and optimize such processes at that catalytic sites and exploring the impact of the process at reactor scale, is too expensive. Computational methods offer significant insight and flexibility but require a more detailed multi-scale approach which is a significant challenge in itself. This work introduces a computational approach which incorporates detailed catalytic models, taken from experimental investigations, into a larger-scale computational flow dynamics framework. The reactor-scale species transport approach is modified near the catalytic walls to determine the influence of catalytic clustering regions. This coupling approach enables more accurate modelling of velocity, pressures, temperatures, species concentrations and near-wall surface characteristics which will ultimately enable the impact of overall reactor design on chemical conversion performance.

Keywords: catalysis, CCU, CO₂, multi-scale model

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