Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1753

Search results for: 21st century leadership

1753 Conceptualizing Creative Leadership and Collaborative School Culture

Authors: Zaidatol Akmaliah Lope Pihi, Suhaida Abd. Kadir, Keetanjaly Arivayagan

Abstract:

Lately in educational organization, voluminous studies accentuate the momentous of leadership in mobilizing creativity. Creativity skill is seen as one of the important skills required for the 21st century leadership, which is also known as the tool for creative leader’s mind in engaging and stimulating ideas to execute outcomes. Hence, leaders should create an opportunity by involving every employee and stakeholders in schools to contribute their ideas towards developing creative solutions to enhance school productivity. The focal point of this article is to offer a conceptual framework on creative leadership practices among school leaders towards collaborative school culture. Intensive reviews of literature will be used in the fields of creative leadership and school culture with the aim to nurture leaders into better leaders and encourage collaborative school culture. The framework contributes a new shed on the implication of creative leadership practices and collaborative school culture. It also will contribute a new theory development and offered suggestions for follow up research.

Keywords: 21st century leadership, creative leadership, collaborative, school culture

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1752 A Global Organizational Theory for the 21st Century

Authors: Troy A. Tyre

Abstract:

Organizational behavior and organizational change are elements of the ever-changing global business environment. Leadership and organizational behavior are 21st century disciplines. Network marketing organizations need to understand the ever-changing nature of global business and be ready and willing to adapt to the environment. Network marketing organizations have a challenge keeping up with a rapid escalation in global growth. Network marketing growth has been steady and global. Network marketing organizations have been slow to develop a 21st century global strategy to manage the rapid escalation of growth degrading organizational behavior, job satisfaction, increasing attrition, and degrading customer service. Development of an organizational behavior and leadership theory for the 21st century to help network marketing develops a global business strategy to manage the rapid escalation in growth that affects organizational behavior. Managing growth means organizational leadership must develop and adapt to the organizational environment. Growth comes with an open mind and one’s departure from the comfort zone. Leadership growth operates in the tacit dimension. Systems thinking and adaptation of mental models can help shift organizational behavior. Shifting the organizational behavior requires organizational learning. Organizational learning occurs through single-loop, double-loop, and triple-loop learning. Triple-loop learning is the most difficult, but the most rewarding. Tools such as theory U can aid in developing a landscape for organizational behavioral development. Additionally, awareness to espoused and portrayed actions is imperatives. Theories of motivation, cross-cultural diversity, and communications are instrumental in founding an organizational behavior suited for the 21st century.

Keywords: global, leadership, network marketing, organizational behavior

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1751 The Impact of Using Technology Tools on Preparing English Language Learners for the 21st Century

Authors: Ozlem Kaya

Abstract:

21st-century learners are energetic and tech-savvy, and the skills and the knowledge required in this century are complex and challenging. Therefore, teachers need to find new ways to appeal to the needs and interests of their students and meet the demands of the 21st century at the same time. One way to do so in English language learning has been to incorporate various technology tools into classroom practices. Although teachers think these practices are effective and their students enjoy them, students may have different perceptions. To find out what students think about the use of technology tools in terms of developing 21st-century skills and knowledge, this study was conducted at Anadolu University School of Foreign Languages. A questionnaire was administered to 40 students at elementary level. Afterward, semi-structured interviews were held with 8 students to provide deeper insight into their perceptions. The details of the findings of the study will be presented and discussed during the presentation.

Keywords: 21st century skills, technology tools, perception, English Language Learning

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1750 Preschool Teachers' Teaching Performance in Relation to Their Technology and 21st Century Skills

Authors: Vida Dones-Jimenez

Abstract:

The main purpose of this study is to determine the preschool teachers’ technology and 21st-century skills and its relation to teachers’ performance. The participants were 94 preschool teachers and 59 school administrators from the CDAPS member schools. The data were collected by using 21st Century Skill, developed by ISSA (2009), Technology Skills of Teachers Survey (2013) and Teacher Performance Evaluation Criteria and Descriptors (200) was modified by the current researcher to suit the needs of her study and was administered personally by her. The surveys were designed to measure the participants’ 21st-century skills, technology skills and teaching performance. The result of the study indicates that the majority of the preschool teachers are the college graduate. Most of them are in the teaching profession for 0 to 10 years. It also indicated that the majority of the school administrators are masters’ degree holder. The preschool teachers are outstanding in their teaching performance as rated by the school administrators. The preschool teachers are skillful in using technology, and they are very skillful in executing the 21st-century skills in teaching. It was further determined that no significant difference between preschool teachers 21st-century skill in regards to educational attainment same as with the number of years in teaching, likewise with their technology skills. Furthermore, the study has shown that there is a very weak relationship between technology and 21st-century skills of preschool teachers, a weak relationship between technology skills and teaching performance and a very weak relationship between 21st-century skills and teaching performance were also established. The study recommends that the preschool teachers should be encouraged to enroll in master degree programs. School administrators should support the implementation of newly adopted technologies and support faculty members at various levels of use and experience. It is also recommended that regular review of the professional development plan be undertaken to upgrade 21st-century teaching and learning skills of preschool teachers.

Keywords: preschool teacher, teaching performance, technology, 21st century skills

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1749 Literature as a Tool for Sustenance of Human Dignity in the 21st Century

Authors: Arubi Thompson Abari

Abstract:

Globally, a writer is absolutely necessary to the society, for he mirrors and projects the society, grumbles and protects against the ills that hinders its development. A writer is committed to the language, social-cultural, political and economic factors that determine the sustenance of human dignity in the society. In this 21st century. The literary artist holds literature as a tool for the restoration and sustenance of human dignity. In Nigeria, literature is politically committed because colonialism gives birth to the modern Nigerian literature. Literature thus was regarded as one of the greatest weapons against colonialism in Nigeria. Nigerian literature is aimed at the restoration and sustenance of the dignity of Nigerians in the 21st century. A literary writer is a member of the society and his sensibility is conditioned by the socio-political situations around him. A writer cannot be excused from the task of regeneration and restoration of his past lost glorious days that must be done. This academic paper therefore showcases the efficacy of literature in bringing about the sustenance of human dignity in the 21st century. Consequently, the paper in its introduction clarifies some vital concepts. It discusses the forms of literature, portrays the ability and capability of literature as a tool for the sustenance of human dignity globally, and makes useful recommendations for the growth of knowledge in the 21st century and beyond.

Keywords: literature, sustenance, human dignity, 21st century

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1748 21st Century Teacher Image to Stakeholders of Teacher Education Institutions in the Philippines

Authors: Marilyn U. Balagtas, Maria Ruth M. Regalado, Carmelina E. Barrera, Ramer V. Oxiño, Rosarito T. Suatengco, Josephine E. Tondo

Abstract:

This study presents the perceptions of the students and teachers from kindergarten to tertiary level of the image of the 21st century teacher to provide basis in designing teacher development programs in Teacher Education Institutions (TEIs) in the Philippines. The highlights of the report are the personal, psychosocial, and professional images of the 21st century teacher in basic education and the teacher educators based on a survey done to 612 internal stakeholders of nine member institutions of the National Network of Normal Schools (3NS). Data were obtained through the use of a validated researcher-made instrument which allowed generation of both quantitative and qualitative descriptions of the teacher image. Through the use of descriptive statistics, the common images of the teacher were drawn, which were validated and enriched by the information drawn from the qualitative data. The study recommends a repertoire of teacher development programs to create the good image of the 21st century teachers for a better Philippines.

Keywords: teacher image, 21st century teacher, teacher education, development program

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1747 Congruency of English Teachers’ Assessments Vis-à-Vis 21st Century Skills Assessment Standards

Authors: Mary Jane Suarez

Abstract:

A massive educational overhaul has taken place at the onset of the 21st century addressing the mismatches of employability skills with that of scholastic skills taught in schools. For a community to thrive in an ever-developing economy, the teaching of the necessary skills for job competencies should be realized by every educational institution. However, in harnessing 21st-century skills amongst learners, teachers, who often lack familiarity and thorough insights into the emerging 21st-century skills, are chained with the restraint of the need to comprehend the physiognomies of 21st-century skills learning and the requisite to implement the tenets of 21st-century skills teaching. With the endeavor to espouse 21st-century skills learning and teaching, a United States-based national coalition called Partnership 21st Century Skills (P21) has identified the four most important skills in 21st-century learning: critical thinking, communication, collaboration, and creativity and innovation with an established framework for 21st-century skills standards. Assessment of skills is the lifeblood of every teaching and learning encounter. It is correspondingly crucial to look at the 21st century standards and the assessment guides recognized by P21 to ensure that learners are 21st century ready. This mixed-method study sought to discover and describe what classroom assessments were used by English teachers in a public secondary school in the Philippines with course offerings on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). The research evaluated the assessment tools implemented by English teachers and how these assessment tools were congruent to the 21st assessment standards of P21. A convergent parallel design was used to analyze assessment tools and practices in four phases. In the data-gathering phase, survey questionnaires, document reviews, interviews, and classroom observations were used to gather quantitative and qualitative data simultaneously, and how assessment tools and practices were consistent with the P21 framework with the four Cs as its foci. In the analysis phase, the data were treated using mean, frequency, and percentage. In the merging and interpretation phases, a side-by-side comparison was used to identify convergent and divergent aspects of the results. In conclusion, the results yielded assessments tools and practices that were inconsistent, if not at all, used by teachers. Findings showed that there were inconsistencies in implementing authentic assessments, there was a scarcity of using a rubric to critically assess 21st skills in both language and literature subjects, there were incongruencies in using portfolio and self-reflective assessments, there was an exclusion of intercultural aspects in assessing the four Cs and the lack of integrating collaboration in formative and summative assessments. As a recommendation, a harmonized assessment scheme of P21 skills was fashioned for teachers to plan, implement, and monitor classroom assessments of 21st-century skills, ensuring the alignment of such assessments to P21 standards for the furtherance of the institution’s thrust to effectively integrate 21st-century skills assessment standards to its curricula.

Keywords: 21st-century skills, 21st-century skills assessments, assessment standards, congruency, four Cs

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1746 Learning Object Repositories as Developmental Resources for Educational Institutions in the 21st Century

Authors: Hanan A. Algamdi, Huda Y. Alyami

Abstract:

Learning object repositories contribute to developing educational process through its advantages; as they employ technology effectively, and use it to create new resources for effective learning, as well as they provide opportunities for collaboration in content through providing the ability for editing, modifying and developing it. This supports the relationships between communities that benefit from these repositories, and reflects positively on the content quality. Therefore, this study aims at exploring the most prominent learning topics in the 21st century, which should be included in learning object repositories, and identifying the necessary set of learning skills that the repositories should develop among today students. For conducting this study, the analytical descriptive method will be employed, and study sample will include a group of leaders, experts, and specialists in curricula and e-learning at ministry of education in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: learning object, repositories, 21st century, quality

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1745 Principal Creative Leadership for Teacher Learning and School Culture

Authors: Yashi Ye

Abstract:

Principles play vital roles in shaping the learning culture of schools by exerting their leadership by encouraging the learning culture and development of the teacher professional learning community. In the changing time of the 21st century, the creative leadership of school leaders is increasingly important in cultivating teachers for future learners. This study examines under what conditions and how principal creative leadership contributes to teachers’ professional learning and school learning culture. Data collected from 500 to 600 teachers in 30 primary and middle schools in mainland China will be analyzed using structural equation modeling and bootstrapping tests. A moderated mediation model of principle creative leadership effects will be used to analyze professional teacher learning and school learning culture in which the mediator will be teacher self-efficacy and the moderator will be the school culture. It is expected to draw the conclusion that the effects of principal creative leadership on teacher learning are directly and indirectly significant. Furthermore, the individual power distance orientation of teachers may moderate principal creative leadership effects on teacher professional learning and teacher efficacy. It is assumed that the perception of lower distance orientation in relation to principals would stimulate teacher efficacy and therefore promote professional teacher learning. The study will further discuss the implications for principal creative leadership during an era of change based on the contextualized nature of schools as learning organizations.

Keywords: teacher professional learning, principal leadership, creative leadership, culture

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1744 ICT in Education – A Quest for Quality Learning in the 21st Century

Authors: Adam Johnbull

Abstract:

The paper discusses ICT in Education as a quest for quality learning in the 21st century. Education is the key that unlock the door to development, without adequate education of the citizenry, the development of a nation becomes a sham. Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) has revolutionized the way people work today and are now transforming education systems. As a result, if schools train children in yesterday’s skills and technologies they may not be effective and fit in tomorrow’s world. This is a sufficient reason for ICT’s to win global recognition and attention and thus ensure desire quality in our school system. Thus, the purpose of the paper is to discuss amongst others, what is ICT. The roles of ICT’s in education, limitation and key challenges of integrating ICT to education in the enhancement of student learning and experiences in other to encourage policy makers, school administrators and teachers pay the required attention to integrate this technology in the education system. The paper concludes that regardless of all the limitation characterizing it. ICT benefit education system to provide quality education in the 21st century.

Keywords: ICTs, quest, information, global, sham, century

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1743 The Role of the Youth in Rebranding Nigeria

Authors: Hamzah Kamil Adeyemi, Oyesikun Abayomi Nathaniel

Abstract:

The plural nature of Nigeria state has created a leadership gap in the 21st century. The leadership problem encapsulated socio-economic system has called for a reorientation in youth to channel a programme that will redeem the image (OT) the country among the committee of nations and chart a way forward in bailing the country out of bad governance unemployment corruption and other anti-development policies. The touth need to raise up to the challenges of nation building. This study engaged theoretical analysis, both written records was used to add value to its quality and recommendation was made with conclusion.

Keywords: youth, education, unempolyment, rebranding, Nigeria

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1742 Understanding Embryology in Promoting Peace Leadership: A Document Review

Authors: Vasudev Das

Abstract:

The specific problem is that many leaders of the 21st century do not understand that the extermination of embryos wreaks havoc on peace leadership. The purpose of the document review is to understand embryology in facilitating peace leadership. Extermination of human embryos generates a requital wave of violence which later falls on human society in the form of disturbances, considering that violence breeds further violence as a consequentiality. The study results reveal that a deep understanding of embryology facilitates peace leadership, given that minimizing embryo extermination enhances non-violence in the global village. Neo-Newtonians subscribe to the idea that every action has an equal and opposite reaction. The US Federal Government recognizes the embryo or fetus as a member of Homo sapiens. The social change implications of this study are that understanding human embryology promotes peace leadership, considering that the consequentiality of embryo extermination can serve as a deterrent for violence on embryos.

Keywords: consequentiality, Homo sapiens, neo-Newtonians, violence

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1741 19th Century Exam, 21st Century Policing: An Examination of the New York State Civil Service and Police Officer Recruitment Efforts

Authors: A. Edwards

Abstract:

The civil service was created to reform the hiring process for public officials, changing the patronage system to a merit-based system. Though exam reforms continued throughout the 20th century, there have been few during the 21st century, particularly in New York state. In the case of police departments, the civil service exam has acted as a hindrance to its ‘21st Century Policing’ goals and new exam reform efforts have left out officers voices and concerns. Through in-depth interviews of current and retired police officers and local and state civil service administrators in Albany County in New York, this study seeks to understand police influence and insight regarding the civil service exam, placing some of the voice and input for civil service reform on police departments, instead of local and state bureaucrats. The study also looks at the relationship between civil service administrators and police departments. Using practice theory, the study seeks to understand the ways in which the civil service exam was defined in the 20th century and how it is out of step with current thinking while examining possible changes to the civil service exam that would lead to a more equitable hiring process and successful police departments.

Keywords: civil service, hiring, merit, policing

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1740 The Attitudinal Development of Nigerian Children: The Role of Social Studies in the 21st Century

Authors: Agogo Agnes

Abstract:

An attempt was made in the paper to x-ray the progressive and systematic development of the Nigerian child vis-a-vis the role of social studies as a discipline in the 21st century. An indepth explanation was equally made with regards to the commitment and role of teachers in both cognitive and social modification of the attitude of the Nigerian child.

Keywords: social studies, systematic development, social skills, vis-a-vis

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1739 OAS and Interstate Dispute Resolution at the Beginning of the 21st Century: General Pattern and Peculiarities

Authors: Victor Jeifets, Liliia Khadorich

Abstract:

The paper describes the OAS role in dispute resolution. The authors make an attempt to identify a general pattern of the OAS activities within the peaceful settlement of interstate conflicts, in the beginning of 21st century, as well as to analyze some features of Honduras–Belize, Nicaragua–Honduras, Honduras–El Salvador, Costa-Rica–Nicaragua, Colombia–Ecuador cases.

Keywords: OAS, peace maintenance, border dispute, dispute resolution, peaceful settlement

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1738 Fusionopolis: The Most Decisive Economic Power Centers of the 21st Century

Authors: Norbert Csizmadia

Abstract:

The 21st Century's main power centers are the cities. More than 52% of the world’s population lives in cities, in particular in the megacities which have a population over 10 million people and is still growing. According to various research and forecasts, the main economic concentration will be in 40 megacities and global centers. Based on various competitiveness analyzes and indices, global city centers, and city networks are outlined, but if we look at other aspects of urban development like complexity, connectivity, creativity, technological development, viability, green cities, pedestrian and child friendly cities, creative and cultural centers, cultural spaces and knowledge centers, we get a city competitiveness index with quite new complex indicators. The research shows this result. In addition to the megacities and the global centers, with the investigation of functionality, we got 64 so-called ‘fusiononopolis’ (i.e., fusion-polis) which stand for the most decisive economic power centers of the 21st century. In this city competition Asian centers considerably rise, as the world's functional city competitiveness index is being formed.

Keywords: economic geography, human geography, technological development, urbanism

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1737 Zooming into the Leadership Behaviours Desired by the 21st Century Workforce: Introduction of the Research Theory and Methods

Authors: Anita Bela, Marta Juhasz

Abstract:

Adapting to the always-changing environment comes with complex determinants. The authors are zooming into one aspect only when the current workforce comes with obstacles by being less keen to stay engaged, even short or mid-term, resulting in additional challenges impacting the business performance. Seeing these occurring in practice made the researchers eager to gain a better understanding of the reasons behind. The paper aims to provide an overview of the theoretical background and research methods planned for the different stages of the research. The theoretical part takes the leadership behaviors under lens while the focus is on finding ways to attract and retain those who prefer working under more flexible employment conditions (e.g. contractor, contingent worker, etc.). These are considered as the organizational values and along with the power of people management are having their engaging relevance. The organizational culture (visible or invisible level) is clearly the mirror of the set of shared values guiding all members of the companies towards acceptable behavior. The applied research method, inductive reasoning was selected since the focus and questions raised in this research are results of specific observations made on the employees (various employment types) and leaders of start-ups and corporates. By comparing the similarities and differences, the researchers are hoping to prove the readiness and agility of the start-up culture for the desired leadership behaviours of the current and future workforce against the corporate culture. While exploring the preferences and engaging factors of the 21st-century workforce the data gathering would happen through website analysis – using ATLAS.ti qualitative software – followed by interview sessions where demographics will be collected and preferred leadership behaviors - using the Critical Incident Technique. Moreover, a short engagement survey will be administered to understand the linkage between the organizational culture type and engagement level. To conclude, after gaining theoretical understanding, we will zoom back to the employees to reveal the behaviors to be followed to achieve engagement in an environment where nothing is stable and where the companies always must keep their agile eyes and reactions vivid.

Keywords: leadership behaviours, organizational culture, qualitative analysis, workforce engagement

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1736 Exploratory Study of Contemporary Models of Leadership

Authors: Gadah Alkeniah

Abstract:

Leadership is acknowledged internationally as fundamental to school efficiency and school enhancement nevertheless there are various understandings of what leadership is and how it is realised in practice. There are a number of educational leadership models that are considered important. However, the present study uses a systematic review method to examine and compare five models of the most well-known contemporary models of leadership as well as introduces the dimension of each model. Our results reveal that recently the distributed leadership has grown in popularity within the field of education. The study concludes by suggesting future directions in leadership development and education research.

Keywords: distributed leadership, instructional leadership, leadership models, moral leadership, strategic leadership, transformational leadership

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1735 Promoting 21st Century Skills through Telecollaborative Learning

Authors: Saliha Ozcan

Abstract:

Technology has become an integral part of our lives, aiding individuals in accessing higher order competencies, such as global awareness, creativity, collaborative problem solving, and self-directed learning. Students need to acquire these competencies, often referred to as 21st century skills, in order to adapt to a fast changing world. Today, an ever-increasing number of schools are exploring how engagement through telecollaboration can support language learning and promote 21st century skill development in classrooms. However, little is known regarding how telecollaboration may influence the way students acquire 21st century skills. In this paper, we aim to shed light to the potential implications of telecollaborative practices in acquisition of 21st century skills. In our context, telecollaboration, which might be carried out in a variety of settings both synchronously or asynchronously, is considered as the process of communicating and working together with other people or groups from different locations through online digital tools or offline activities to co-produce a desired work output. The study presented here will describe and analyse the implementation of a telecollaborative project between two high school classes, one in Spain and the other in Sweden. The students in these classes were asked to carry out some joint activities, including creating an online platform, aimed at raising awareness of the situation of the Syrian refugees. We conduct a qualitative study in order to explore how language, culture, communication, and technology merge into the co-construction of knowledge, as well as supporting the attainment of the 21st century skills needed for network-mediated communication. To this end, we collected a significant amount of audio-visual data, including video recordings of classroom interaction and external Skype meetings. By analysing this data, we verify whether the initial pedagogical design and intended objectives of the telecollaborative project coincide with what emerges from the actual implementation of the tasks. Our findings indicate that, as well as planned activities, unplanned classroom interactions may lead to acquisition of certain 21st century skills, such as collaborative problem solving and self-directed learning. This work is part of a wider project (KONECT, EDU2013-43932-P; Spanish Ministry of Economy and Finance), which aims to explore innovative, cross-competency based teaching that can address the current gaps between today’s educational practices and the needs of informed citizens in tomorrow’s interconnected, globalised world.

Keywords: 21st century skills, telecollaboration, language learning, network mediated communication

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1734 Linguistic World Order in the 21st Century: Need of Alternative Linguistics

Authors: Shailendra Kumar Singh

Abstract:

In the 21st century, we are living through extraordinary times as we are linguistically blessed to live through an era in which the each sociolinguistic example of living appears to be refreshingly new without any precedence of the past. The word `New Linguistic World Order’ is no longer just the intangible fascination but an indication of the emerging reality that we are living through a time in which the word ‘linguistic purism’ no longer invokes the sense of self categorization and self identification. The contemporary world of today is linguistically rewarding. This is a time in which the very existence of global, powerful and local needs to be revisited in the context of power shift, demographic shift, social psychological shift and technological shift. Hence, the old linguistic world view has to be challenged in the midst of 21st century. The first years of the 21st century have thus far been marked by the rise global economy, technological revolution and demographic shift, now we are witnessing linguistic shift which is leading towards forming a new linguistic world order. On the other hand, with rising powers of China and India in Asia in tandem the notion of alternative west is set to become a lot more interesting linguistically. It comes at a point when the world is moving towards inclusive globalization due to vanishing power corridor of the west and ascending geopolitical impact of emerging superpower and superpower in waiting. Now it is a reality that the western world no longer continues to rise – in fact, it will have more pressure to act in situation when the alternative west is looking for balanced globalization. It is more than likely that demographically strong languages of alternative west will be in advantageous position. The paper challenges our preconceptions about the nature of sociolinguistic nature of world in the 21st century. It investigates what a linguistic world is likely to be in the future in contrast to what was a linguistic world before 21st century. In particular, the paper tries to answer the following questions: (a) What will be the common linguistic thread across world? (b) How unprecedented transformations can be mapped linguistically? (c) Do we need alternative linguistics to define inclusive globalization as the linguistic reality of the contemporary world has already been reshaped by increasingly integrated world economy, linguistic revolution and alternative west? (d) In which ways these issues can be addressed holistically? (e) Why linguistic world order is changing dramatically? (f) Is it true that the linguistic world around is changing faster than we can even really cope? (g) Is it true that what is coming next is linguistically greater than ever? (h) Do we need to prepare ourselves with new theoretical strategies to address emerging sociolinguistic reality?

Keywords: alternative linguistics, new linguistic world order, power shift, demographic shift, social psychological shift, technological shift

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1733 Edward Bond's Questioning of Existence in His Play 'Have I None?'

Authors: Aycan Gurluyer

Abstract:

21st-century theatre has been shaped by lots of world-changing forces devastating human psychology and existence. Accepted as the greatest living English playwright, it is post-war British dramatist Edward Bond who uses a late-21st-century apocalyptic landscape as a weapon to question the human existence in his play 'Have I None?'. In this play, he tries to underline the degenerating and destructive effects of the society and environment on a couple whose lives are changed by an unexpected and annoying stranger. As victim of the society and the cultural corruption, the three vulnerable Bondian characters struggle for their expectations to find a place in this fictional world by sacrificing their own lives. Set in the 2077’s world, the play depicts that rigidly formed rules of the system/authority eliminates the existence of humans. According to Bond, the fascist practices of the governments/systems make people paralyzed in any way, so they choose to deny all realities by becoming biological beings or they gather to commit to suicide as troops. Our main aim is to underscore the questioning of the human existence by drawing the socio-political framework of the era, the capitalist system’s dehumanized individuals and their defence to survive, and what reality is in the 21st century, by focusing on Bond’s hallucinatory and tragic vision of the future in 'Have I None?'.

Keywords: Edward Bond, apocalyptic, existence, Have I None?

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1732 The Effects of Three Leadership Styles on Individual Performance

Authors: Leilei Liang

Abstract:

Leadership is commonly classified as formal leadership and informal leadership, which ignores and neglects the effects of 3rd type leadership. The emergence of 3rd type of leadership is closely related to special relations. To figure out the mechanism and effects of 3rd type leadership as well as the impacts of formal leadership and informal leadership on employee performance, this study collects data from 350 participants through a survey and proposes three hypotheses respectively from the perspective of expectation theory. The analytical results provide strong evidence for two of the three hypotheses, which demonstrate the positive correlation between formal leadership and individual performance and the negative relationship between 3rd type leadership and individual performance. This study contributes to leadership literature by putting forward the concept of the 3rd type of leadership. In addition, the effects of formal leadership, informal leadership, and 3rd type leadership on individual performance are discussed respectively in this study.

Keywords: formal leadership, informal leadership, 3rd leadership, individual performance, expectation theory

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1731 Analyzing Architectural Narrative in 21st-Century Museums

Authors: Ihjaz Zubair Pallakkan Tharammal, Lakshmi S. R.

Abstract:

Storytelling has been an important part of human life throughout history. It allows communities to unlearn, learn and relearn. There are different mediums of storytelling that are used in an individual's day to day life. For instance, ideas are shared through oral stories, comics, music, art, architecture, etc. This paper explores the concept of architectural narrative and its significance in conveying messages and stories. The research aims to study and analyse the potential of museums and the importance of incorporating architectural narratives in museums, particularly in 21st century India. The research is also an exploratory and comparative analysis of narrative elements like semiotics, symbolism, spatial structure, etc., and finally derives strategies to design spaces that speak to the users.

Keywords: museum, architectural narrative, narratology, spatial storytelling

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1730 A Study of Relationship between Leadership Style and Organisational Culture in Private Organisations

Authors: Shreya Sirohi, Vineeta Sirohi

Abstract:

In the 21st century, the nature of work has become quite complex and dynamic, and in response to this, the organizational culture continues to change and develop new perspectives. Organizational culture and leadership are important elements of any organization. Organization’s performance and success to a large extent, depend upon these two factors. The ability of a leader lies in confronting with the challenge of evolving and adapting the culture of the organization as per the situational demands. Leadership and organizational culture are conceptually intertwined. Leadership is a key ingredient for the successful transformation of any organization, and a favorable organizational culture helps to motivate the employees towards their work. Organizational culture and leadership style plays a crucial role in achieving the specified objectives of an organization. The harmony between culture and leader within organization undoubtedly affects relationships, processes, and employee performance. The present investigation aimed to study the Leadership style and Organisational Culture of private organizations and the relationship between the two. The study was carried out on a sample of 100 employees from five private organizations located in the cities of Gurgaon and Delhi in India. The data was collected by employing organisational culture profile and multifactor leadership questionnaire. The findings of the study indicate that the selected organizations had dominant transformation leadership style, whereas the organizational culture varied from one organization to another. However, technocratic culture was found to be prominent, followed by entrepreneurial organizational culture. A low positive correlation was found between leadership style and organizational culture. The transformational leaders have a positive and significant relationship with employee’s satisfaction, productivity, and organization’s culture. The leaders practicing transformational leadership style inspire their followers, are innovative and are aware of their needs as well as of their followers. Such leadership style has a positive impact both on employees and working culture. Employees of such organization are able to come up with innovative ideas and are efficient in handling situations and making effective decisions. However, low correlation is self indicative of the fact that a single leadership style or a single culture type alone cannot contribute solely towards the growth of an organization. There is a need to blend the culture types and leadership styles suiting the needs of the organization. Organisational culture represents the deeper values and beliefs of the employees and influences organizational performance; hence, the leader has a crucial role to play in creating and managing organizational culture in aligning to the requirements of the present era of competitiveness, globalization and technological advancement.

Keywords: leadership style, organizational culture, technocratic, transformational

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1729 The Perception on 21st Century Skills of Nursing Instructors and Nursing Students at Boromarajonani College of Nursing, Chonburi

Authors: Kamolrat Turner, Somporn Rakkwamsuk, Ladda Leungratanamart

Abstract:

The aim of this descriptive study was to determine the perception of 21st century skills among nursing professors and nursing students at Boromarajonani College of Nursing, Chonburi. A total of 38 nursing professors and 75 second year nursing students took part in the study. Data were collected by 21st century skills questionnaires comprised of 63 items. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the findings. The results have shown that the overall mean scores of the perception of nursing professors on 21st century skills were at a high level. The highest mean scores were recorded for computing and ICT literacy, and career and leaning skills. The lowest mean scores were recorded for reading and writing and mathematics. The overall mean scores on perception of nursing students on 21st century skills were at a high level. The highest mean scores were recorded for computer and ICT literacy, for which the highest item mean scores were recorded for competency on computer programs. The lowest mean scores were recorded for the reading, writing, and mathematics components, in which the highest item mean score was reading Thai correctly, and the lowest item mean score was English reading and translate to other correctly. The findings from this study have shown that the perceptions of nursing professors were consistent with those of nursing students. Moreover, any activities aiming to raise capacity on English reading and translate information to others should be taken into the consideration.

Keywords: 21st century skills, perception, nursing instructor, nursing student

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1728 Formation of an Empire in the 21st Century: Theoretical Approach in International Relations and a Worldview of the New World Order

Authors: Rami Georg Johann

Abstract:

Against the background of the current geopolitical constellations, the author looks at various empire models, which are discussed and compared with each other with regard to their stability and functioning. The focus is on the fifth concept as a possible new world order in the 21st century. These will be discussed and compared to one another according to their stability and functioning. All empires to be designed will be conceptualised based on one, two, three, four, and five worlds. All worlds are made up of a different constellation of states and relating coalitions. All systems will be discussed in detail. The one-world-system, the“Western Empire,” will be presented as a possible solution to a new world order in the 21st century (fifth concept). The term “Western” in “Western Empire” describes the Western concept after World War II. This Western concept was the result of two horrible world wars in the 20th century.” With this in mind, the fifth concept forms a stable empire system, the “Western Empire,” by political measures tied to two issues. Thus, this world order provides a significantly higher long-term stability in contrast to all other empire models (comprising five, four, three, or two worlds). Confrontations and threats of war are reduced to a minimum. The two issues mentioned are “merger” and “competition.” These are the main differences in forming an empire compared to all empires and realms in the history of mankind. The fifth concept of this theory, the “Western Empire,” acts explicitly as a counter model. The Western Empire (fifth concept) is formed by the merger of world powers without war. Thus, a world order without competition is created. This merged entity secures long-term peace, stability, democratic values, freedom, human rights, equality, and justice in the new world order.

Keywords: empire formation, theory of international relations, Western Empire, world order

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1727 A Literature Review of Servant Leadership and Criticism of Advanced Research

Authors: So-Jung Kim, Kyoung-Seok Kim, Yeong-Gyeong Choi

Abstract:

Although there are many theories and discussion of leadership, the necessity of having a new leadership paradigm was emphasized. The existing leadership characteristic of instruction and control revealed its limitations. Market competition becomes fierce and economic recession never ends worldwide. Of the leadership theories, servant leadership was introduced recently and is in line with the environmental changes of the organization. Servant leadership is a combination of two words, 'servant' and 'leader' and can be defined as the role of the leader who focuses on doing voluntary work for others with altruistic ethics, makes members, customers, and local communities a priority, and makes a commitment to satisfying their needs. This leadership received attention as one field of leadership in the late 1990s and secured its legitimacy. This study discusses the existing research trends of leadership, the concept, behavior characteristics, and lower dimensions of servant leadership, compares servant leadership with the existing leadership researches and diagnoses if servant leadership is a useful concept for further leadership researches. Finally, this study criticizes the limitations in the existing researches on servant leadership.

Keywords: leadership philosophy, leadership theory, servant leadership, traditional leadership

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1726 The Impact of Constitutional and Legal Provisions on the Indian Women’s Status in 21st Century

Authors: Mamta Chandrashekhar

Abstract:

Women’s participation in mainstream political and social activity has important implications for the broader arena of governance in any country. This research work will highlights some of the key issues that concerned with the impact of constitutional & Legal provision on the Indian women Status in present century. The principle of gender equality is enshrined in the Indian Constitution in its Preamble, Fundamental Rights, Fundamental Duties and Directive Principles. The Constitution not only grants equality to women, but also empowers the State to adopt measures of positive discrimination in favour of women. In recent years, the empowerment of women has been recognized as the central issue in determining the status of women. The main objective of this research is to analyzed the status of Indian women and the existing wide gap between the goals enunciated in the Constitution, legislation, policies, plans, programmes, and related mechanisms on the one hand and the situational reality of the status of women in India, This work encourage and inspire to women empowerment, will be beneficial to build a well-organized ideal society through Gender Equality and Development & Peace in the 21st century.

Keywords: awareness, constitution, development, empowerment

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1725 Reforming Traditional and Cultural Practices in Nigeria for Enhancement and Sustainable Development in the 21st Century: A Case Study of the Jukun People

Authors: Iliya Ibrahim Gimba

Abstract:

Human beings or groups over the world have a traditional and cultural practices which guide and direct their ways of life. They value and promote these practices not minding the attitude of others towards them. In spite of the place of culture which is an embodiment of these practices in every human society some people still reduce the understanding of culture to idolatry and other archaic and anachronistic arts good perhaps only for the museum. Others consider culture to be just drumming and dancing. Whether a culture is “good” or “bad”, civilized or barbaric, it can be reformed for the betterment of the society. Hence, this paper focuses on reforming traditional and cultural practices in Nigeria for enhancing development in the 21st century using the Jukun people as a case study. Relevant literatures from journals, reports, published books among others will be consulted.

Keywords: Jukun, traditional and cultural practices, sustainable development, human

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1724 A Leadership Approach for the Sake of Organizations: Human-Oriented Leadership

Authors: Eser Bingül

Abstract:

The leadership and leaders, also having been a privileged subject of scientific researches in the last century, have become influential in shaping the destiny of the states since the first examples of the warfare history. The issue of leadership, finding a place in the management science, can also be defined as an integration of function within the aspect of leader. In this description, the relationship has come to the foreground which is established between the development of leadership theories and the elements of function which are leader, followers, and condition. While one reason of this analysis in leadership is to keep a lens to the historical background, the main reason has been a questioning the traits and education of leaders who have still affected the nation’s and organization’s fate. The links and analysis established in the definition of leadership have put forward the necessity of solving the unpredictable structure of human nature and behaviors in the focus of leadership approach. On the other hand becoming a model that meets the today’s needs of any system has given a clue that the leaders should turn towards the people. Being aware of this necessity, human-oriented leadership approach aims to gain both followers and their abilities to the system with giving them a deserved esteem and create the team spirit based on mutual trust. Ultimately this approach, with the determined leadership qualities consisting of charisma, ability of communication and trust, will be able to produce the solutions to the instant and long-term problems and uncertainties, derived from the variables of function, for the sake of systems.

Keywords: human nature, leadership, human-oriented approach, social sciences and humanities

Procedia PDF Downloads 243