Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 55

Search results for: savanna grasslands

55 Assessing Vertical Distribution of Soil Organic Carbon Stocks in Westleigh Soil under Shrub Encroached Rangeland, Limpopo Province, South Africa

Authors: Abel L. Masotla, Phesheya E. Dlamini, Vusumuzi E. Mbanjwa

Abstract:

Accurate quantification of the vertical distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) in relation to land cover transformations, associated with shrub encroachment is crucial because deeper lying horizons have been shown to have greater capacity to sequester SOC. Despite this, in-depth soil carbon dynamics remain poorly understood, especially in arid and semi-arid rangelands. The objective of this study was to quantify and compare the vertical distribution of soil organic carbon stocks (SOCs) in shrub-encroached and open grassland sites. To achieve this, soil samples were collected vertically at 10 cm depth intervals under both sites. The results showed that SOC was on average 19% and 13% greater in the topsoil and subsoil respectively, under shrub-encroached grassland compared to open grassland. In both topsoil and subsoil, lower SOCs were found under shrub-encroached (4.53 kg m⁻² and 3.90 kgm⁻²) relative to open grassland (4.39 kgm⁻² and 3.67 kgm⁻²). These results demonstrate that deeper soil horizon play a critical role in the storage of SOC in savanna grassland.

Keywords: savanna grasslands, shrub-encroachment, soil organic carbon, vertical distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
54 Woody Plant Encroachment Effects on the Physical Properties of Vertic Soils in Bela-Bela, Limpopo Province

Authors: Rebone E. Mashapa, Phesheya E. Dlamini, Sandile S. Mthimkhulu

Abstract:

Woody plant encroachment, a land cover transformation that reduces grassland productivity may influence soil physical properties. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of woody plant encroachment on physical properties of vertic soils in a savanna grassland. In this study, we quantified and compared soil bulk density, aggregate stability and porosity in the top and subsoil of an open and woody encroached savanna grassland. The results revealed that soil bulk density increases, while porosity and mean weight diameter decreases with depth in both open and woody encroached grassland soil. Compared to open grassland, soil bulk density was 11% and 10% greater in the topsoil and subsoil, while porosity was 6% and 9% lower in the topsoil and subsoil of woody encroached grassland. Mean weight diameter, an indicator of soil aggregation increased by 38% only in the subsoil of encroached grasslands due to increasing clay content with depth. These results suggest that woody plant encroachment leads to compaction of vertic soils, which in turn reduces pore size distribution.

Keywords: soil depth, soil physical properties, vertic soils, woody plant encroachment

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
53 Estimating Understory Species Diversity of West Timor Tropical Savanna, Indonesia: The Basis for Planning an Integrated Management of Agricultural and Environmental Weeds and Invasive Species

Authors: M. L. Gaol, I. W. Mudita

Abstract:

Indonesia is well known as a country covered by lush tropical rain forests, but in fact, the northeastern part of the country, within the areas geologically known as Lesser Sunda, the dominant vegetation is tropical savanna. Lesser Sunda is a chain of islands located closer to Australia than to islands in the other parts of the country. Among those of islands in the chain which is closes to Australia, and thereby most strongly affected by the hot and dry Australian climate, is the island of Timor, the western part of which belongs to Indonesia and the eastern part is a sovereign state East Timor. Regardless of being the most dominant vegetation cover, tropical savanna in West Timor, especially its understory, is rarely investigated. This research was therefore carried out to investigate the structure, composition and diversity of the understory of this tropical savanna as the basis for looking at the possibility of introducing other spesieis for various purposes. For this research, 14 terrestrial communities representing major types of the existing savannas in West Timor was selected with aid of the most recently available satellite imagery. At each community, one stand of the size of 50 m x 50 m most likely representing the community was as the site of observation for the type of savanna under investigation. At each of the 14 communities, 20 plots of 1 m x 1 m in size was placed at random to identify understory species and to count the total number of individuals and to estimate the cover of each species. Based on such counts and estimation, the important value of each species was later calculated. The results of this research indicated that the understory of savanna in West Timor consisted of 73 understory species. Of this number of species, 18 species are grasses and 55 are non-grasses. Although lower than non-grass species, grass species indeed dominated the savanna as indicated by their number of individuals (65.33 vs 34.67%), species cover (57.80 vs 42.20%), and important value (123.15 vs 76.85). Of the 14 communities, the lowest density of grass was 13.50/m2 and the highest was 417.50/m2. Of 18 grass species found, all were commonly found as agricultural weeds, whereas of 55 non-grass, 10 species were commonly found as agricultural weeds, environmental weeds, or invasive species. In terms of better managing the savanna in the region, these findings provided the basis for planning a more integrated approach in managing such agricultural and environmental weeds as well as invasive species by considering the structure, composition, and species diversity of the understory species existing in each site. These findings also provided the basis for better understanding the flora of the region as a whole and for developing a flora database of West Timor in future.

Keywords: tropical savanna, understory species, integrated management, weedy and invasive species

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
52 Soil/Phytofisionomy Relationship in Southeast of Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil

Authors: Marcelo Araujo da Nóbrega, Ariel Moura Vilas Boas

Abstract:

This study aims to characterize the physicochemical aspects of the soils of southeastern Chapada Diamantina - Bahia related to the phytophysiognomies of this area, rupestrian field, small savanna (savanna fields), small dense savanna (savanna fields), savanna (Cerrado), dry thorny forest (Caatinga), dry thorny forest/savanna, scrub (Carrasco - ecotone), forest island (seasonal semi-deciduous forest - Capão) and seasonal semi-deciduous forest. To achieve the research objective, soil samples were collected in each plant formation and analyzed in the soil laboratory of ESALQ - USP in order to identify soil fertility through the determination of pH, organic matter, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, potential acidity, sum of bases, cation exchange capacity and base saturation. The composition of soil particles was also checked; that is, the texture, step made in the terrestrial ecosystems laboratory of the Department of Ecology of USP and in the soil laboratory of ESALQ. Another important factor also studied was to show the variations in the vegetation cover in the region as a function of soil moisture in the different existing physiographic environments. Another study carried out was a comparison between the average soil moisture data with precipitation data from three locations with very different phytophysiognomies. The soils found in this part of Bahia can be classified into 5 classes, with a predominance of oxisols. All of these classes have a great diversity of physical and chemical properties, as can be seen in photographs and in particle size and fertility analyzes. The deepest soils are located in the Central Pediplano of Chapada Diamantina where the dirty field, the clean field, the executioner and the semideciduous seasonal forest (Capão) are located, and the shallower soils were found in the rupestrian field, dry thorny forest, and savanna fields, the latter located on a hillside. As for the variations in water in the region's soil, the data indicate that there were large spatial variations in humidity in both the rainy and dry periods.

Keywords: Bahia, Brazil, chapada diamantina, phytophysiognomies, soils

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
51 Estimation of Carbon Sequestration and Air Quality of Terrestrial Ecosystems Using Remote Sensing Techniques

Authors: Kanwal Javid, Shazia Pervaiz, Maria Mumtaz, Muhammad Ameer Nawaz Akram

Abstract:

Forests and grasslands ecosystems play an important role in the global carbon cycle. Land management activities influence both ecosystems and enable them to absorb and sequester carbon dioxide (CO2). Similarly, in Pakistan, these terrestrial ecosystems are well known to mitigate carbon emissions and have a great source to supply a variety of services such as clean air and water, biodiversity, wood products, wildlife habitat, food, recreation and carbon sequestration. Carbon sequestration is the main agenda of developed and developing nations to reduce the impacts of global warming. But the amount of carbon storage within these ecosystems can be affected by many factors related to air quality such as land management, land-use change, deforestation, over grazing and natural calamities. Moreover, the long-term capacity of forests and grasslands to absorb and sequester CO2 depends on their health, productivity, resilience and ability to adapt to changing conditions. Thus, the main rationale of this study is to monitor the difference in carbon amount of forests and grasslands of Northern Pakistan using MODIS data sets and map results using Geographic Information System. Results of the study conclude that forests ecosystems are more effective in reducing the CO2 level and play a key role in improving the quality of air.

Keywords: carbon sequestration, grasslands, global warming, climate change.

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
50 Grassland Development on Evacuated Sites for Wildlife Conservation in Satpura Tiger Reserve, India

Authors: Anjana Rajput, Sandeep Chouksey, Bhaskar Bhandari, Shimpi Chourasia

Abstract:

Ecologically, grassland is any plant community dominated by grasses, whether they exist naturally or because of management practices. Most forest grasslands are anthropogenic and established plant communities planted for forage production, though some are established for soil and water conservation and wildlife habitat. In Satpura Tiger Reserve, Madhya Pradesh, India, most of the grasslands have been established on evacuated village sites. Total of 42 villages evacuated, and study was carried out in 23 sites to evaluate habitat improvement. Grasslands were classified into three categories, i.e., evacuated sites, established sites, and controlled sites. During the present study impact of various management interventions on grassland health was assessed. Grasslands assessment was done for its composition, status of palatable and non-palatable grasses, the status of herbs and legumes, status of weeds species, and carrying capacity of particular grassland. Presence of wild herbivore species in the grasslands with their abundance, availability of water resources was also assessed. Grassland productivity is dependent mainly on the biotic and abiotic components of the area, but management interventions may also play an important role in grassland composition and productivity. Variation in the status of palatable and non-palatable grasses, legumes, and weeds was recorded and found effected by management intervention practices. Overall in all the studied grasslands, the most dominant grasses recorded are Themeda quadrivalvis, Dichanthium annulatum, Ischaemum indicum, Oplismenus burmanii, Setaria pumilla, Cynodon dactylon, Heteropogon contortus, and Eragrostis tenella. Presence of wild herbivores, i.e., Chital, Sambar, Bison, Bluebull, Chinkara, Barking deer in the grassland area has been recorded through the installation of camera traps and estimated their abundance. Assessment of developed grasslands was done in terms of habitat suitability for Chital (Axis axis) and Sambar (Rusa unicolor). The parameters considered for suitability modeling are biotic and abiotic life requisite components existing in the area, i.e., density of grasses, density of legumes, availability of water, site elevation, site distance from human habitation. Findings of the present study would be useful for further grassland management and animal translocation programmes.

Keywords: carrying capacity, dominant grasses, grassland, habitat suitability, management intervention, wild herbivore

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
49 Estimation of Heritability and Repeatability for Pre-Weaning Body Weights of Domestic Rabbits Raised in Derived Savanna Zone of Nigeria

Authors: Adewale I. Adeolu, Vivian U. Oleforuh-Okoleh, Sylvester N. Ibe

Abstract:

Heritability and repeatability estimates are needed for the genetic evaluation of livestock populations and consequently for the purpose of upgrading or improvement. Pooled data on 604 progeny from three consecutive parities of purebred rabbit breeds (Chinchilla, Dutch and New Zealand white) raised in Derived Savanna Zone of Nigeria were used to estimate heritability and repeatability for pre-weaning body weights between 1st and 8th week of age. Traits studied include Individual kit weight at birth (IKWB), 2nd week (IK2W), 4th week (IK4W), 6th week (IK6W) and 8th week (IK8W). Nested random effects analysis of (Co)variances as described by Statistical Analysis System (SAS) were employed in the estimation. Respective heritability estimates from the sire component (h2s) and repeatability (R) as intra-class correlations of repeated measurements from the three parties for IKWB, IK2W, IK4W and IK8W are 0.59±0.24, 0.55±0.24, 0.93±0.31, 0.28±0.17, 0.64±0.26 and 0.12±0.14, 0.05±0.14, 0.58±0.02, 0.60±0.11, 0.20±0.14. Heritability and repeatability (except R for IKWB and IK2W) estimates are moderate to high. In conclusion, since pre-weaning body weights in the present study tended to be moderately to highly heritable and repeatable, improvement of rabbits raised in derived savanna zone can be realized through genetic selection criterions.

Keywords: heritability, nested design, parity, pooled data, repeatability

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
48 Growth Performance, Body Linear Measurements and Body Condition Score of Savanna Brown Goats Fed Enzyme Treated Sawdust Diets as Replacement for Maize Offal and Managed Semi-intensively

Authors: Alabi Olushola John, Ogbiko Anthonia, Tsado Daniel Nma, Mbajiorgu Ejike Felix, Adama Theophilus Zubairu

Abstract:

A total of thirty (30) goats weighting between 5.8 and 7.3 kg were used to determine the growth performance, body linear measurements and body condition score of Semi intensively manged Savanna Brown goats fed enzyme treated sawdust diets (ETSD). They divided into five dietary treatments (T) groups with three replications using a completely randomized design. Treatment one (1) comprises of animals fed diet on 0 % enzyme treated sawdust while Treatment 2 (T2), Treatment 3 (T3), Treatment 4 (T4) and Treatment 5 (T5) comprises of animals fed diets containing 10, 20, 30 and 40 % enzyme treated sawdust diets, respectively. The study lasted 16 weeks. Data on growth performance parameters, body linear measurement (height at wither, body length, chest girth, hind leg length, foreleg length, facial length) and body condition score were collected and analyzed using one way analysis of variance. No significant difference (p>0.05) was observed in the all growth performance parameters and linear body measurements. However, significant difference was observed in body length and daily body length gains with highest value observed in animals fed the control diets (7.38 and 0.08 cm respectively) and animals on 30 % ETSD (7.25 and 0.07 cm respectively) and lowest values (4.75 and 0.05 cm respectively) were observed in animals fed 10 % ETSD among the treatment groups. It was, therefore, concluded that enzyme treated sawdust can be used in the diets of Savanna Brown goats up to 40 % replacement for maize offal since this treatment improved the body length and daily body length gains.

Keywords: performance, sawdust, enzyme treated, semi-intensively, replacement

Procedia PDF Downloads 8
47 Yield and Sward Composition Responses of Natural Grasslands to Treatments Meeting Sustainability

Authors: D. Díaz Fernández, I. Csízi, K. Pető, G. Nagy

Abstract:

An outstanding part of the animal products are based on the grasslands, due to the fact that the grassland ecosystems can be found all over the globe. In places where economical and successful crop production cannot be managed, the grassland based animal husbandry can be an efficient way of food production. In addition, these ecosystems have an important role in carbon sequestration, and with their rich flora – and fauna connected to it – in conservation of biodiversity. The protection of nature, and the sustainable agriculture is getting more and more attention in the European Union, but, looking at the consumers’ needs, the production of healthy food cannot be neglected either. Because of these facts, the effects of two specific composts - which are officially authorized in organic farming, in Agri-environment Schemes and Natura 2000 programs – on grass yields and sward compositions were investigated in a field trial. The investigation took place in Hungary, on a natural grassland based on solonetz soil. Three rates of compost (10 t/ha, 20 t/ha, 30 t/ha) were tested on 3 m X 10 m experimental plots. Every treatment had four replications and both type of compost had four-four control plots too, this way 32 experimental plots were included in the investigations. The yield of the pasture was harvested two-times (in May and in September) and before cutting the plots, measurements on botanical compositions were made. Samples for laboratory analysis were also taken. Dry matter yield of pasture showed positive responses to the rates of composts. The increase in dry matter yield was partly due to some positive changes in sward composition. It means that the proportions of grass species with higher yield potential increased in ground cover of the sward without depressing out valuable native species of diverse natural grasslands. The research results indicate that the use of organic compost can be an efficient way to increase grass yields in a sustainable way.

Keywords: compost application, dry matter yield, native grassland, sward composition

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
46 REDD+ and Conservation: Challenges and Opportunities of the Landscape Governance Approach

Authors: Richard Mbatu

Abstract:

Implementation of the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) program will not only lead to significant net gains in greenhouse gas reduction but also gains in biodiversity conservation. However, the looming paradigm shift in the program in the form of the proposed landscape governance approach could change this inclination. The concern lies with the fact that pursue of carbon credits by governments and private entities under the proposed landscape approach could encourage obstinate land use behaviors that are detrimental to the cause of biodiversity conservation and ecosystem services. Yet, the landscape approach could also stimulate governments to develop and implement land use management policies for climate change adaptation and mitigation. Using two potential areas of land use under the proposed landscape approach – carbon farming in grasslands and carbon farming in plantations – this paper provides a balanced analytical review of conservation challenges and opportunities for forest governance and beyond under the proposed landscape approach to REDD+. The paper argues that such a balanced view will enable policymakers and other stakeholders to better present their arguments in their efforts to shape the course of the REDD+ program in the post-Paris Agreement era.

Keywords: biodiversity conservation, REDD+, forest governance, grasslands, landscape approach, plantations

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
45 Modeling Biomass and Biodiversity across Environmental and Management Gradients in Temperate Grasslands with Deep Learning and Sentinel-1 and -2

Authors: Javier Muro, Anja Linstadter, Florian Manner, Lisa Schwarz, Stephan Wollauer, Paul Magdon, Gohar Ghazaryan, Olena Dubovyk

Abstract:

Monitoring the trade-off between biomass production and biodiversity in grasslands is critical to evaluate the effects of management practices across environmental gradients. New generations of remote sensing sensors and machine learning approaches can model grasslands’ characteristics with varying accuracies. However, studies often fail to cover a sufficiently broad range of environmental conditions, and evidence suggests that prediction models might be case specific. In this study, biomass production and biodiversity indices (species richness and Fishers’ α) are modeled in 150 grassland plots for three sites across Germany. These sites represent a North-South gradient and are characterized by distinct soil types, topographic properties, climatic conditions, and management intensities. Predictors used are derived from Sentinel-1 & 2 and a set of topoedaphic variables. The transferability of the models is tested by training and validating at different sites. The performance of feed-forward deep neural networks (DNN) is compared to a random forest algorithm. While biomass predictions across gradients and sites were acceptable (r2 0.5), predictions of biodiversity indices were poor (r2 0.14). DNN showed higher generalization capacity than random forest when predicting biomass across gradients and sites (relative root mean squared error of 0.5 for DNN vs. 0.85 for random forest). DNN also achieved high performance when using the Sentinel-2 surface reflectance data rather than different combinations of spectral indices, Sentinel-1 data, or topoedaphic variables, simplifying dimensionality. This study demonstrates the necessity of training biomass and biodiversity models using a broad range of environmental conditions and ensuring spatial independence to have realistic and transferable models where plot level information can be upscaled to landscape scale.

Keywords: ecosystem services, grassland management, machine learning, remote sensing

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
44 Projected Uncertainties in Herbaceous Production Result from Unpredictable Rainfall Pattern and Livestock Grazing in a Humid Tropical Savanna Ecosystem

Authors: Daniel Osieko Okach, Joseph Otieno Ondier, Gerhard Rambold, John Tenhunen, Bernd Huwe, Dennis Otieno

Abstract:

Increased human activities such as grazing, logging, and agriculture alongside unpredictable rainfall patterns have been detrimental to the ecosystem service delivery, therefore compromising its productivity potential. This study aimed at simulating the impact of drought (50%) and enhanced rainfall (150%) on the future herbaceous CO2 uptake, biomass production and soil C:N dynamics in a humid savanna ecosystem influenced by livestock grazing. Rainfall pattern was predicted using manipulation experiments set up to reduce (50%) and increase (150%) ambient (100%) rainfall amounts in grazed and non-grazed plots. The impact of manipulated rainfall regime on herbaceous CO2 fluxes, biomass production and soil C:N dynamics was measured against volumetric soil water content (VWC) logged every 30 minutes using the 5TE (Decagon Devices Inc., Washington, USA) soil moisture sensors installed (at 20 cm soil depth) in every plots. Herbaceous biomass was estimated using destructive method augmented by standardized photographic imaging. CO2 fluxes were measured using the ecosystem chamber method and the gas analysed using LI-820 gas analyzer (USA). C:N ratio was calculated from the soil carbon and Nitrogen contents (analyzed using EA2400CHNS/O and EA2410 N elemental analyzers respectively) of different plots under study. The patterning of VWC was directly influenced by the rainfall amount with lower VWC observed in the grazed compared to the non-grazed plots. Rainfall variability, grazing and their interaction significantly affected changes in VWC (p < 0.05) and subsequently total biomass and CO2 fluxes. VWC had a strong influence on CO2 fluxes under 50% rainfall reduction in the grazed (r2 = 0.91; p < 0.05) and ambient rainfall in the ungrazed (r2 = 0.77; p < 0.05). The dependence of biomass on VWC across plots was enhanced under grazed (r2 = 0.78 - 0.87; p < 0.05) condition as compared to ungrazed (r2 = 0.44 - 0.85; p < 0.05). The C:N ratio was however not correlated to VWC across plots. This study provides insight on how the predicted trends in humid savanna will respond to changes influenced by rainfall variability and livestock grazing and consequently the sustainable management of such ecosystems.

Keywords: CO2 fluxes, rainfall manipulation, soil properties, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
43 Hydrodynamics in Wetlands of Brazilian Savanna: Electrical Tomography and Geoprocessing

Authors: Lucas M. Furlan, Cesar A. Moreira, Jepherson F. Sales, Guilherme T. Bueno, Manuel E. Ferreira, Carla V. S. Coelho, Vania Rosolen

Abstract:

Located in the western part of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, the study area consists of a savanna environment, represented by sedimentary plateau and a soil cover composed by lateritic and hydromorphic soils - in the latter, occurring the deferruginization and concentration of high-alumina clays, exploited as refractory material. In the hydromorphic topographic depressions (wetlands) the hydropedogical relationships are little known, but it is observed that in times of rainfall, the depressed region behaves like a natural seasonal reservoir - which suggests that the wetlands on the surface of the plateau are places of recharge of the aquifer. The aquifer recharge areas are extremely important for the sustainable social, economic and environmental development of societies. The understanding of hydrodynamics in relation to the functioning of the ferruginous and hydromorphic lateritic soils system in the savanna environment is a subject rarely explored in the literature, especially its understanding through the joint application of geoprocessing by UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) and electrical tomography. The objective of this work is to understand the hydrogeological dynamics in a wetland (with an area of 426.064 m²), in the Brazilian savanna,as well as the understanding of the subsurface architecture of hydromorphic depressions in relation to the recharge of aquifers. The wetland was compartmentalized in three different regions, according to the geoprocessing. Hydraulic conductivity studies were performed in each of these three portions. Electrical tomography was performed on 9 lines of 80 meters in length and spaced 10 meters apart (direction N45), and a line with 80 meters perpendicular to all others. With the data, it was possible to generate a 3D cube. The integrated analysis showed that the area behaves like a natural seasonal reservoir in the months of greater precipitation (December – 289mm; January – 277,9mm; February – 213,2mm), because the hydraulic conductivity is very low in all areas. In the aerial images, geotag correction of the images was performed, that is, the correction of the coordinates of the images by means of the corrected coordinates of the Positioning by Precision Point of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE-PPP). Later, the orthomosaic and the digital surface model (DSM) were generated, which with specific geoprocessing generated the volume of water that the wetland can contain - 780,922m³ in total, 265,205m³ in the region with intermediate flooding and 49,140m³ in the central region, where a greater accumulation of water was observed. Through the electrical tomography it was possible to identify that up to the depth of 6 meters the water infiltrates vertically in the central region. From the 8 meters depth, the water encounters a more resistive layer and the infiltration begins to occur horizontally - tending to concentrate the recharge of the aquifer to the northeast and southwest of the wetland. The hydrodynamics of the area is complex and has many challenges in its understanding. The next step is to relate hydrodynamics to the evolution of the landscape, with the enrichment of high-alumina clays, and to propose a management model for the seasonal reservoir.

Keywords: electrical tomography, hydropedology, unmanned aerial vehicle, water resources management

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
42 Bioprospecting for Indigenous Ruderal Plants with Potentials for Phytoremediation of Soil Heavy Metals in the Southern Guinea Savanna of North Western Nigeria

Authors: Sunday Paul Bako, Augustine Uwanekwu Ezealor, Yahuza Tanimu

Abstract:

In a study to evaluate the response of indigenous ruderal plants to the metal deposition regime imposed by anthropogenic modification in the Southern Guinea Savanna of north Western Nigeria during the dry and wet seasons, herbaceous plants and samples of soils were collected in three 5m by 5m quadrats laid around the environs of the Kaduna Refinery and Petrochemical Company and the banks of River Kaduna. Heavy metal concentration (Cd, Ni, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) in soil and plant samples was determined using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence. Concentrations of heavy metals in soils were generally observed to be higher during the wet season in both locations although the differences were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Concentrations of Cd, Zn, Cr, Cu and Ni in all the plants observed were found to be below levels described as phytotoxic to plants. However, above ‘normal’ concentrations of Cr was observed in most of the plant species sampled. The concentrations of Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn in soils around the KRPC and RKB were found to be above the acceptable limits. Although no hyper accumulator plant species was encountered in this study, twenty (20) plant species were identified to have high bioconcentration (BCF > 1.0) of Cd and Cu, which indicated tolerance of these plants to excessive or phytotoxic concentrations of these metals. In addition, they generally produce high above ground biomass, due to rapid vegetative growth. These are likely species for phytoextraction. Elevated concentration of metals in both soil and plant materials may cause a decrease in biodiversity due to direct toxicity. There are also risks to humans and other animals due to bioaccumulation across the food chain. There are further possibilities of further evaluating and genetically improving metal tolerance traits in some of these plant species in relation to their potential use in phytoremediation programmes in metal polluted sites.

Keywords: bioprospecting, phytoremediation, heavy metals, Nigeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
41 A Plant-Insect Association for Enhancing Survival of an Ecosystem Engineer Termite Species in a Semi-Arid Savanna

Authors: G. Nampa, M. Ndlovu

Abstract:

Mutualistic relationships amongst organisms drive diversity in terrestrial ecosystems. Yet, few mutual associations have been documented in the semi-arid savannas of Africa. The levels and benefits of association between Carissa bispinosa, a medium-sized evergreen thorny shrub, and Trinervitermes trinervoides, an ecosystem engineer termite species, were studied at a semi-arid savanna setting in Nylsvley nature reserve, South Africa. It was hypothesized that there would be a close plant-insect association since termite mounds provide nutrients for plant growth and, in return, the thorny shrubs protect mounds from predation and also provide a temperature buffer. Comparative plant and mounds measurements were taken from associated and isolated occurrences seasonally. Soil particle size, macro- and micronutrients were also evaluated from mounds and the adjacent topsoil matrix General Additive Mixed Models were used to assess internal mound temperatures in relation to prevailing ambient and plant shade temperatures. Findings revealed that plants growing on mounds were significantly taller with a wider canopy and remained greener in the dry season with more fruits. On the other hand, termite mounds under plants were less prone to be damaged by aardvarks and pangolins and had a significantly wider diameter than exposed mounds. All soil macronutrients except for calcium and phosphorous were enriched in mounds relative to the matrix. Only Manganese was enriched in mounds while the other micronutrients (Cu, Fe, Zn and B) were not. Termite mounds under plants maintained a better constant and higher mean internal temperature during winter compared to exposed mounds. To our best knowledge, the study has revealed a previously undocumented survival mechanism that termites use to escape extreme temperatures and predation in semi-arid savannas.

Keywords: mound, mutualism, soil nutrients, termites, thermoregulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
40 Water Intake and Influence of Ambient Temperature on Carcass Characteristics of Savannah Brown Goats Fed Graded Levels of Maize Cob Diets Supplemented with Cowpea Husk

Authors: A. H. Dikko, D. N. Tsado, T. Z. Adama, Y. M. Ishiaku, S. U. Oyibo

Abstract:

This study investigated water intake and influence of ambient temperature on carcass characteristics of Savannah Brown goats fed graded levels of maize cob diets. A total of sixteen (16) Savannah Brown goats aged between 8-12 weeks with an average body weight of 10.19+0.19 kg were used. The goats were randomly allotted to four (4) dietary treatments, T1 (0 % maize cob diet), T2 (10% maize cob diet), T3 (20% maize cob diet) and T4 (30% maize cob diet) respectively. The goats were also fed cowpea husk as supplement. A complete randomized design was used. Each treatment was allotted four (4) goats and replicated twice with two (2) goats per replicate. The goats were kept under feedlot management and were allowed 7 days adjustment period during which the animals were dewormed using albendzole and treated with antibiotics against any sign of disease(s). The goats were each offered 500 g of experimental diet between 7.00 am-8.00 am daily and the supplement was given to them between 4.00 pm-5.00 pm daily. The goats were offered three (3) litters of water daily without restriction. The experiment lasted for nine (9) weeks. Two (2) goats were randomly selected from each treatment and slaughtered for carcass characteristic and sensory evaluation. The result showed that ambient temperature had significant (P<0.05) correlations with water intake and feed intake among the treatment groups. There was a strongly positive significant (P<0.01) correlations between feed intake, water intake and ambient temperatures. The result on carcass characteristics showed significant (P<0.05) differences among all the treatment groups. The goats fed 20% maize cob performed significantly (P<0.05) better in most carcass cuts than those fed 0% inclusion level. Also, the result on sensory evaluation showed that colour, tenderness, juiciness and flavor for both cooked and fried meat were significantly (P<0.05) different among all the treatment groups. It can be concluded that 20 % inclusion of maize cob in the diet of Savanna Brown goats will improve meat yield and water intake. Therefore, inclusion of maize cob into the diet of Savanna Brown goats up to 20% is here by recommended.

Keywords: water intake, ambient temperature, savannah brown goats, carcass

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
39 The Importance of Fruit Trees for Prescribed Burning in a South American Savanna

Authors: Rodrigo M. Falleiro, Joaquim P. L. Parime, Luciano C. Santos, Rodrigo D. Silva

Abstract:

The Cerrado biome is the most biodiverse savanna on the planet. Located in central Brazil, its preservation is seriously threatened by the advance of intensive agriculture and livestock. Conservation Units and Indigenous Lands are increasingly isolated and subject to mega wildfires. Among the characteristics of this savanna, we highlight the high rate of primary biomass production and the reduced occurrence of large grazing animals. In this biome, the predominant fauna is more dependent on the fruits produced by the dicotyledonous species in relation to other tropical savannas. Fire is a key element in the balance between mono and dicotyledons or between the arboreal and herbaceous strata. Therefore, applying fire regimes that maintain the balance between these strata without harming fruit production is essential in the conservation strategies of Cerrado's biodiversity. Recently, Integrated Fire Management has started to be implemented in Brazilian protected areas. As a result, management with prescribed burns has increasingly replaced strategies based on fire exclusion, which in practice have resulted in large wildfires, with highly negative impacts on fruit and fauna production. In the Indigenous Lands, these fires were carried out respecting traditional knowledge. The indigenous people showed great concern about the effects of fire on fruit plants and important animals. They recommended that the burns be carried out between April and May, as it would result in a greater production of edible fruits ("fruiting burning"). In other tropical savannas in the southern hemisphere, the preferential period tends to be later, in the middle of the dry season, when the grasses are dormant (June to August). However, in the Cerrado, this late period coincides with the flowering and sprouting of several important fruit species. To verify the best burning season, the present work evaluated the effects of fire on flowering and fruit production of theByrsonima sp., Mouriri pusa, Caryocar brasiliense, Anacardium occidentale, Pouteria ramiflora, Hancornia speciosa, Byrsonima verbascifolia, Anacardium humille and Talisia subalbens. The evaluations were carried out in the field, covering 31 Indigenous Lands that cover 104,241.18 Km², where 3,386 prescribed burns were carried out between 2015 and 2018. The burning periods were divided into early (carried out during the rainy season), modal or “fruiting” (carried out during the transition between seasons) and late (carried out in the middle of the dry season, when the grasses are dormant). The results corroborate the traditional knowledge, demonstrating that the modal burns result in higher rates of reproduction and fruit production. Late burns showed intermediate results, followed by early burns. We conclude that management strategies based mainly on forage production, which are usually applied in savannas populated by grazing ungulates, may not be the best management strategy for South American savannas. The effects of fire on fruit plants, which have a particular phenologicalsynchronization with the fauna cycle, also need to be observed during the prescription of burns.

Keywords: cerrado biome, fire regimes, native fruits, prescribed burns

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
38 Spectral Mapping of Hydrothermal Alteration Minerals for Geothermal Exploration Using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Short Wave Infrared Data

Authors: Aliyu J. Abubakar, Mazlan Hashim, Amin B. Pour

Abstract:

Exploiting geothermal resources for either power, home heating, Spa, greenhouses, industrial or tourism requires an initial identification of suitable areas. This can be done cost-effectively using remote sensing satellite imagery which has synoptic capabilities of covering large areas in real time and by identifying possible areas of hydrothermal alteration and minerals related to Geothermal systems. Earth features and minerals are known to have unique diagnostic spectral reflectance characteristics that can be used to discriminate them. The focus of this paper is to investigate the applicability of mapping hydrothermal alteration in relation to geothermal systems (thermal springs) at Yankari Park Northeastern Nigeria, using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) satellite data for resource exploration. The ASTER Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) bands are used to highlight and discriminate alteration areas by employing sophisticated digital image processing techniques including image transformations and spectral mapping methods. Field verifications are conducted at the Yankari Park using hand held Global Positioning System (GPS) monterra to identify locations of hydrothermal alteration and rock samples obtained at the vicinity and surrounding areas of the ‘Mawulgo’ and ‘Wikki’ thermal springs. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) results of rock samples obtained from the field validated hydrothermal alteration by the presence of indicator minerals including; Dickite, Kaolinite, Hematite and Quart. The study indicated the applicability of mapping geothermal anomalies for resource exploration in unmapped sparsely vegetated savanna environment characterized by subtle surface manifestations such as thermal springs. The results could have implication for geothermal resource exploration especially at the prefeasibility stages by narrowing targets for comprehensive surveys and in unexplored savanna regions where expensive airborne surveys are unaffordable.

Keywords: geothermal exploration, image enhancement, minerals, spectral mapping

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
37 Temporal Changes Analysis (1960-2019) of a Greek Rural Landscape

Authors: Stamatia Nasiakou, Dimitrios Chouvardas, Michael Vrahnakis, Vassiliki Kleftoyanni

Abstract:

Recent research in the mountainous and semi-mountainous rural landscapes of Greece shows that they have been significantly changed over the last 80 years. These changes have the form of structural modification of land cover/use patterns, with the main characteristic being the extensive expansion of dense forests and shrubs at the expense of grasslands and extensive agricultural areas. The aim of this research was to study the 60-year changes (1960-2019) of land cover/ use units in the rural landscape of Mouzaki (Karditsa Prefecture, central Greece). Relevant cartographic material such as forest land use maps, digital maps (Corine Land Cover -2018), 1960 aerial photos from Hellenic Military Geographical Service, and satellite imagery (Google Earth Pro 2014, 2016, 2017 and 2019) was collected and processed in order to study landscape evolution. ArcGIS v 10.2.2 software was used to process the cartographic material and to produce several sets of data. Main product of the analysis was a digitized photo-mosaic of the 1960 aerial photographs, a digitized photo-mosaic of recent satellite images (2014, 2016, 2017 and 2019), and diagrams and maps of temporal transformation of the rural landscape (1960 – 2019). Maps and diagrams were produced by applying photointerpretation techniques and a suitable land cover/ use classification system on the two photo-mosaics. Demographic and socioeconomic inventory data was also collected mainly from diachronic census reports of the Hellenic Statistical Authority and local sources. Data analysis of the temporal transformation of land cover/ use units showed that they are mainly located in the central and south-eastern part of the study area, which mainly includes the mountainous part of the landscape. The most significant change is the expansion of the dense forests that currently dominate the southern and eastern part of the landscape. In conclusion, the produced diagrams and maps of the land cover/ use evolution suggest that woody vegetation in the rural landscape of Mouzaki has significantly increased over the past 60 years at the expense of the open areas, especially grasslands and agricultural areas. Demographic changes, land abandonment and the transformation of traditional farming practices (e.g. agroforestry) were recognized as the main cause of the landscape change. This study is part of a broader research project entitled “Perspective of Agroforestry in Thessaly region: A research on social, environmental and economic aspects to enhance farmer participation”. The project is funded by the General Secretariat for Research and Technology (GSRT) and the Hellenic Foundation for Research and Innovation (HFRI).

Keywords: Agroforestry, Forest expansion, Land cover/ use changes, Mountainous and semi-mountainous areas

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
36 Alkaloid Levels in Experimental Lines of Ryegrass in Southtern Chile

Authors: Leonardo Parra, Manuel Chacón-Fuentes, Andrés Quiroz

Abstract:

One of the most important factors in beef and dairy production in the world as well as also in Chile, is related to the correct choice of cultivars or mixtures of forage grasses and legumes to ensure high yields and quality of grassland. However, a great problem is the persistence of the grasses as a result of the action of different hypogeous as epigean pests. The complex insect pests associated with grassland include white grubs (Hylamorpha elegans, Phytoloema herrmanni), blackworm (Dalaca pallens) and Argentine stem weevil (Listronotus bonariensis). In Chile, the principal strategy utilized for controlling this pest is chemical control, through the use of synthetic insecticides, however, underground feeding habits of larval and flight activity of adults makes this uneconomic method. Furthermore, due to problems including environmental degradation, development of resistance and chemical residues, there is a worldwide interest in the use of alternative environmentally friendly pest control methods. In this sense, in recent years there has been an increasing interest in determining the role of endophyte fungi in controlling epigean and hypogeous pest. Endophytes from ryegrass (Lolium perenne), establish a biotrophic relationship with the host, defined as mutualistic symbiosis. The plant-fungi association produces a “cocktail of alkaloids” where peramine is the main toxic substance present in endophyte of ryegrass and responsible for damage reduction of L. bonariensis. In the last decade, few studies have been developed on the effectiveness of new ryegrass cultivars carriers of endophyte in controlling insect pests. Therefore, the aim of this research is to provide knowledge concerning to evaluate the alkaloid content, such as peramine and Lolitrem B, present in new experimental lines of ryegrass and feasible to be used in grasslands of southern Chile. For this, during 2016, ryegrass plants of six experimental lines and two commercial cultivars sown at the Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias Carrillanca (Vilcún, Chile) were collected and subjected to a process of chemical extraction to identify and quantify the presence of peramine and lolitrem B by the technique of liquid chromatography of high resolution (HPLC). The results indicated that the experimental lines EL-1 and EL-3 had high content of peramine (0.25 and 0.43 ppm, respectively) than with lolitrem B (0.061 and 0.19 ppm, respectively). Furthermore, the higher contents of lolitrem B were detected in the EL-4 and commercial cultivar Alto (positive control) with 0.08 and 0.17 ppm, respectively. Peramine and lolitrem B were not detected in the cultivar Jumbo (negative control). These results suggest that EL-3 would have potential as future cultivate because it has high content of peramine, alkaloid responsible for controlling insect pest. However, their current role on the complex insects attacking ryegrass grasslands should be evaluated. The information obtained in this research could be used to improve control strategies against hypogeous and epigean pests of grassland in southern Chile and also to reduce the use of synthetic pesticides.

Keywords: HPLC, Lolitrem B, peramine, pest

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
35 Characteristics of Butterfly Communities according to Habitat Types of Jeongmaek in Korea

Authors: Ji-Suk Kim, Dong-Pil Kim, Kee-Rae Gang, Yoon Ho Choi

Abstract:

This study was conducted to investigate the characteristics of butterfly communities according to the habitat characteristics of Korean veins. The survey sites were 12 mountains located in the vein, and 12~30 quadrats (200 in total) were set. The species richness and biodiversity were different according to land use type. Two types of land use (forest and graveyard) showed lower species diversity index values ​​than other land use types. The species abundance was low in the forest and graveyards, and grasslands, forest tops, cultivated areas and urban areas showed relatively high species richness. The altitude was not statistically significant with the number of species of butterflies and biodiversity index. The degree of canopy closure showed a negative correlation. As a result of interspecific correlation analysis, it was confirmed that there was a very high correlation (R2=0.746) between Lycaena phlaeas and Pseudozizeeria maha argia, Choaspes benjaminii japonica and Argyronome ruslana.

Keywords: land use type, species diversity index, correlation, canopy closure

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
34 Climate Change and Its Effects on Terrestrial Insect Diversity in Mukuruthi National Park, Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, Tamilnadu, India

Authors: M. Elanchezhian, C. Gunasekaran, A. Agnes Deepa, M. Salahudeen

Abstract:

In recent years climate change is one of the most emerging threats facing by biodiversity both the animals and plants species. Elevated carbon dioxide and ozone concentrations, extreme temperature, changes in rainfall patterns, insects-plant interaction are the main criteria that affect biodiversity. In the present study, which emphasis the climate change and its effects on terrestrial insect diversity in Mukuruthi National Park a protected areas of Western Ghats in India. Sampling was done seasonally at the three areas using pitfall traps, over the period of January to December 2013. The statistical findings were done by Shannon wiener diversity index (H). A significant seasonal variation pattern was detected for total insect’s diversity at the different study areas. Totally nine orders of insects were recorded. Diversity and abundance of terrestrial insects shows much difference between the Natural, Shoal forest and the Grasslands.

Keywords: biodiversity, climate change, mukuruthi national park, terrestrial invertebrates

Procedia PDF Downloads 426
33 Impacts of Land Cover Changes over the Last Three Decades in Capital City of Pakistan Islamabad with the Perspective of Urbanization

Authors: Muhammad Tayyab Sohail, Li Jiangfeng

Abstract:

This study aimed at characterizing land cover dynamics for about three decades in capital city of Pakistan Islamabad. The specific objectives were identifying and map the major land cover types in 1993, 2002 and 2014 and check the reduction of greenery and urbanization rate and its some environments aspects. The study showed that overall grasslands decreased in the prescribed period. The key hotspots of these changes were distributed in all directions of the study area, but at different times. Urbanization is increasing every year in this city but the policies for this number of people are not sufficient to meet their living standard requirements. Apart from it, there is also an impact of urbanization on environmental related problems. Underground water is going down and down, traffic related issue and other associated problems are part of this research. Therefore, policies that integrate restoration and conservation of natural ecosystems with enhancement of agricultural productivity are strongly recommended. This will ensure environmental sustainability and socio-economic well-being in the area. Future research needs to address the problems related to urbanization and need to clarify the problems and solve it on high priority.

Keywords: land, Islamabad, water, urban

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
32 Paleopalynology as an Analysis Tool to Measure the Resilience of the Ecosystems of the Western Mediterranean and Their Adaptation to Climate Change

Authors: F. Ismael Roman Moreno, Francisca Alba Sanchez

Abstract:

Over time, the plant landscape has changed as a result of the numerous events on a global and local scale that have happened. This is the case of the Mediterranean ecosystems, one of the most complex and rich in endemisms on the planet, subjected to anthropic pressures from the beginning of civilizations. The intervention in these systems together with climate changes has led to changes in diversity, tree cover, shrub, and ultimately in the structure and functioning of these ecosystems. Paleopalinology is used as a tool for analysis of pollen and non-pollen microfossils preserved in the flooded grasslands of the Middle Atlas (Morocco). This allows reconstructing the evolution of vegetation and climate, as well as providing data and reasoning to different ecological, cultural and historical processes. Although climatic and anthropic events are well documented in Europe, they are not so well documented in North Africa, which gives added value to the study area. The results obtained serve to predict the behavior and evolution of Mediterranean mountain ecosystems during the Holocene, their response to future changes, resilience, and recovery from climatic and anthropic disturbances. In the stratigraphic series analyzed, nine major events were detected, eight of which appeared to be of climatic and anthropic origin, and one unexpected, related to volcanic activity.

Keywords: anthropic, Holocene, Morocco, paleopalynology, resilience

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
31 Stabilization of Soil Organic Carbon within Silt+Clay Fraction in Shrub-Encroached Rangeland Shallow Soil at the University of Limpopo Syferkuil Experimental Farm

Authors: Millicent N. Khumalo, Phesheya E. Dlamini

Abstract:

Shrub-encroachment leads to a gain or loss of soil organic carbon (SOC) in previously open rangelands. The stabilization mechanisms controlling the storage of soil organic carbon (SOC) within aggregates of shrub-encroached grassland soils are poorly understood, especially in shallow plinthic soils. In this study, physical fractionation of surface soils (0- 10 cm) collected from open and shrub-encroached grasslands was conducted to determine the distribution of SOC within macro-and- microaggregates. Soil aggregates were classified into four fractions by a wet-sieving procedure, namely >2000 (large macro-aggregates), 212-2000 (small macro-aggregates), 50-212 (microaggregates) and < 50µm (silt+clay). In both shrub-encroached and open grassland soils, SOC was greater in the silt+clay fraction. In this fraction, SOC was on average 133% greater in shrub-encroached compared to open grassland. The greater SOC within the silt+clay fraction is due to the greater surface area and thus more exchange sites for carbon absorption. This implies that the SOC physically protected within the silt+clay is stored long-term.

Keywords: aggregate fractions, shrub-encroachment, soil organic carbon, stabilization

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
30 Variations in Water Supply and Quality in Selected Groundwater Sources in a Part of Southwest Nigeria

Authors: Samuel Olajide Babawale, O. O. Ogunkoya

Abstract:

The study mapped selected wells in Inisa town, Osun state, in the guinea savanna region of southwest Nigeria, and determined the water quality considering certain elements. It also assessed the variation in the elevation of the water table surface to depth of the wells in the months of August and November. This is with a view to determine the level of contamination of the water with respect to land use and anthropogenic activities, and also to determine the variation that occurs in the quantity of well water in the rainy season and the start of the dry season. Results show a random pattern of the distribution of the mapped wells and shows that there is a shallow water table in the study area. The temporal changes in the elevation show that there are no significant variations in the depth of the water table surface over the period of study implying that there is a sufficient amount of water available to the town all year round. It also shows a high concentration of sodium in the water sample analyzed compared to other elements that were considered, which include iron, copper, calcium, and lead. This is attributed majorly to anthropogenic activities through the disposal of waste in landfill sites. There is a low concentration of lead which is a good indication of a reduced level of pollution.

Keywords: anthropogenic activities, land use, temporal changes, water quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
29 Chemical Analysis and Cytotoxic Evaluation of Asphodelus Aestivus Brot. Flowers

Authors: Mai M. Farid, Mona El-Shabrawy, Sameh R. Hussein, Ahmed Elkhateeb, El-Said S. Abdel-Hameed, Mona M. Marzouk

Abstract:

Asphodelus aestivus Brot. Is a wild plant distributed in Egypt and is considered one of the five Asphodelus spp. from the family Asphodelaceae; it grows in dry grasslands and on rocky or sandy soil. The chemical components of A. aestivus flowers extract were analyzed using different chromatographic and spectral techniques and led to the isolation of two anthraquinones identified as emodin and emodin-O-glucoside. In addition to, five flavonoid compounds;kaempferol,Kaempferol-3-O-glucoside,Apigenin-6-C-glucoside-7-O-glucoside (Saponarine), luteolin 7-O-β-glucopyranoside, Isoorientin-O-malic acid which is a new compound in nature. The LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of the flower extract of A. aestivus led to the identification of twenty- two compounds characterized by the presence of flavones, flavonols, and flavone C-glycosides. While GC/MS analysis led to the identification of 24 compounds comprising 98.32% of the oil, the major components of the oil were 9, 12, 15-Octadecatrieoic acid methyl ester 28.72%, and 9, 12-Octadecadieroic acid (Z, Z)-methyl ester 19.96%. In vitro cytotoxic activity of the aqueous methanol extract of A. aestivus flowers against HEPG2, HCT-116, MCF-7, and A549 culture was examined and showed moderate inhibition (62.3±1.1)% on HEPG2 cell line followed by (36.8±0.2)% inhibition on HCT-116 and a weak inhibition (5.7± 0.0.2) on MCF-7 cell line followed by (4.5± 0.4) % inhibition on A549 cell line and this is considered the first cytotoxic report of A. aestivus flowers.

Keywords: Anthraquinones, Asphodelus aestivus, Cytotoxic activity, Flavonoids, LC-ESI-MS/MS

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
28 Investigating Climate Change Trend Based on Data Simulation and IPCC Scenario during 2010-2030 AD: Case Study of Fars Province

Authors: Leila Rashidian, Abbas Ebrahimi

Abstract:

The development of industrial activities, increase in fossil fuel consumption, vehicles, destruction of forests and grasslands, changes in land use, and population growth have caused to increase the amount of greenhouse gases especially CO2 in the atmosphere in recent decades. This has led to global warming and climate change. In the present paper, we have investigated the trend of climate change according to the data simulation during the time interval of 2010-2030 in the Fars province. In this research, the daily climatic parameters such as maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation and number of sunny hours during the 1977-2008 time interval for synoptic stations of Shiraz and Abadeh and during 1995-2008 for Lar stations and also the output of HADCM3 model in 2010-2030 time interval have been used based on the A2 propagation scenario. The results of the model show that the average temperature will increase by about 1 degree centigrade and the amount of precipitation will increase by 23.9% compared to the observational data. In conclusion, according to the temperature increase in this province, the amount of precipitation in the form of snow will be reduced and precipitations often will occur in the form of rain. This 1-degree centigrade increase during the season will reduce production by 6 to 10% because of shortening the growing period of wheat.

Keywords: climate change, Lars WG, HADCM3, Gillan province, climatic parameters, A2 scenario

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
27 Effects of Fire on Vegetation of the Prairies and Black Oak Sand Savannas of Kankakee, Illinois

Authors: Megan Alkazoff, Charles Ruffner

Abstract:

Tallgrass prairies and sand savannas, once covering northern to central Illinois, are ecosystems in need of restoration and conservation in the Midwestern United States. The Nature Conservancy manages five sites containing fragments of remaining tallgrass prairies and sand savannas within the Kankakee Sands using techniques such as prescribed burning and invasive species removal. The objective of this study was to conduct a ten-year resampling of transects established on these five sites during previous studies to assess whether the management tools applied there are helping maintain the tallgrass prairie and sand savannas. During the summer of 2020, permanent transect lines were sampled using a quadrat to determine the % Cover Class of each species rooted in the quadrat. Data gathered was analyzed using linear regression to illustrate the relationship between fire occurrence and species composition on the landscape. The fire frequency had a highly significant effect (P= 0.0025) on the species richness of all sites. The frequency of fire had a non-significant effect (P>0.05) on the Floristic Quality Index, percent C value 4-10, and bare-ground percentage of a site. These results suggest that fire on the landscape, both wild and prescribed, have increased biodiversity on all five sites but has not affected the Floristic Quality Index, percent C value 4-10, and the percentage of bare-ground on the sites.

Keywords: fire, floristic quality assessment, sand savanna, species richness, tallgrass prairie

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
26 Allometric Models for Biomass Estimation in Savanna Woodland Area, Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: Abdullahi Jibrin, Aishetu Abdulkadir

Abstract:

The development of allometric models is crucial to accurate forest biomass/carbon stock assessment. The aim of this study was to develop a set of biomass prediction models that will enable the determination of total tree aboveground biomass for savannah woodland area in Niger State, Nigeria. Based on the data collected through biometric measurements of 1816 trees and destructive sampling of 36 trees, five species specific and one site specific models were developed. The sample size was distributed equally between the five most dominant species in the study site (Vitellaria paradoxa, Irvingia gabonensis, Parkia biglobosa, Anogeissus leiocarpus, Pterocarpus erinaceous). Firstly, the equations were developed for five individual species. Secondly these five species were mixed and were used to develop an allometric equation of mixed species. Overall, there was a strong positive relationship between total tree biomass and the stem diameter. The coefficient of determination (R2 values) ranging from 0.93 to 0.99 P < 0.001 were realised for the models; with considerable low standard error of the estimates (SEE) which confirms that the total tree above ground biomass has a significant relationship with the dbh. The F-test value for the biomass prediction models were also significant at p < 0.001 which indicates that the biomass prediction models are valid. This study recommends that for improved biomass estimates in the study site, the site specific biomass models should preferably be used instead of using generic models.

Keywords: allometriy, biomass, carbon stock , model, regression equation, woodland, inventory

Procedia PDF Downloads 367