Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1946

Search results for: agricultural/agro-industrial wastes

1946 The Effects of Agricultural Waste Compost Applications on Soil Properties

Authors: Ilker Sönmez, Mustafa Kaplan

Abstract:

The wastes that come out as a result of agricultural productions are disposed randomly and always by burning. Agricultural wastes have a great volume and agricultural wastes cause environmental pollution. Spent mushroom compost and cut flower carnation wastes have a serious potential in Turkey and especially in Antalya. One of the best evaluation methods of agricultural wastes is composting methods and so agricultural wastes transformed for a new product. In this study, agricultural wastes were evaluated the effects of compost and organic material on soil pH, EC, soil organic matter, and macro-micro nutrient contents of soil that it growth carnation. The effects of compost applications on soils were found to be statistically significant. Organic material applications have caused an increase in all physical and chemical parameters except for pH that pH decreased with compost added in soils. The best results among the compost applications were determined R1 compost that R1 compost included %75 Carnation Wastes + %25 Spent Mushroom Compost. The structural properties of soils can be improved with reusing of agricultural wastes by composting so it can be provided that decreasing the harmful effects of organic wastes on the environment.

Keywords: agricultural wastes, carnation wastes, composting, organic material, spent mushroom compost

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1945 Agricultural Solid Wastes Generation in Nigeria and Their Recycling Potentials into Building Materials

Authors: Usman Aliyu Jalam, Shuaibu Alolo Sumaila, Sa’adiya Iliyasu Muhammed

Abstract:

Modern building industry lays much emphasis on sophisticated materials that have high embodied energy with intrinsic distinctiveness for damaging the environment. But today, advances in solid waste management have resulted in alternative building materials as partial or complete replacement of the conventional materials like cement, aggregate etc particularly for low cost housing. Investigations carried out revealed that an estimated 18.0 million tonnes of agricultural solid wastes are being generated in Nigeria annually. This constitutes a problem not only to the natural environment but also to the built environment more particularly with the way the wastes are being dispose of. The paper has discussed the present status on the generation and utilisation of agricultural solid wastes, their recycling potentials and environmental implications. It further discovered that although considerable quantity of these wastes were found to have the potentials of being recycled as building materials, the availability of the appropriate technology remains a big challenge in the country. Moreover, majority of the wastes type have gained popularity as fuel. As such, the economic and environmental benefits of recycling the wastes and the use of the wastes as fuel need further investigation.

Keywords: agricultural waste, building, environment, materials, Nigeria

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1944 Biohydrogen Production from Starch Residues

Authors: Francielo Vendruscolo

Abstract:

This review summarizes the potential of starch agroindustrial residues as substrate for biohydrogen production. Types of potential starch agroindustrial residues, recent developments and bio-processing conditions for biohydrogen production will be discussed. Biohydrogen is a clean energy source with great potential to be an alternative fuel, because it releases energy explosively in heat engines or generates electricity in fuel cells producing water as only by-product. Anaerobic hydrogen fermentation or dark fermentation seems to be more favorable, since hydrogen is yielded at high rates and various organic waste enriched with carbohydrates as substrate result in low cost for hydrogen production. Abundant biomass from various industries could be source for biohydrogen production where combination of waste treatment and energy production would be an advantage. Carbohydrate-rich nitrogen-deficient solid wastes such as starch residues can be used for hydrogen production by using suitable bioprocess technologies. Alternatively, converting biomass into gaseous fuels, such as biohydrogen is possibly the most efficient way to use these agroindustrial residues.

Keywords: biofuel, dark fermentation, starch residues, food waste

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1943 Sustainable Use of Agricultural Waste to Enhance Food Security and Conserve the Environment

Authors: M. M. Tawfik, Ezzat M. Abd El Lateef, B. B. Mekki, Amany A. Bahr, Magda H. Mohamed, Gehan S. Bakhoom

Abstract:

The rapid increase in the world’s population coupled by decrease the arable land per capita has resulted into an increased demand for food which has in turn led to the production of large amounts of agricultural wastes, both at the farmer, municipality and city levels. Agricultural wastes can be a valuable resource for improving food security. Unfortunately, agricultural wastes are likely to cause pollution to the environment or even harm to human health. This calls for increased public awareness on the benefits and potential hazards of agricultural wastes, especially in developing countries. Agricultural wastes (residual stalks, straw, leaves, roots, husks, shells etcetera) and animal waste (manures) are widely available, renewable and virtually free, hence they can be an important resource. They can be converted into heat, steam, charcoal, methanol, ethanol, bio diesel as well as raw materials (animal feed, composting, energy and biogas construction etcetera). agricultural wastes are likely to cause pollution to the environment or even harm to human health, if it is not used in a sustainable manner. Organic wastes could be considered an important source of biofertilizer for enhancing food security in the small holder farming communities that would not afford use of expensive inorganic fertilizers. Moreover, these organic wastes contain high levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and organic matter important for improving nutrient status of soils in urban agriculture. Organic compost leading to improved crop yields and its nutritional values as compared with inorganic fertilization. This paper briefly reviews how agricultural wastes can be used to enhance food security and conserve the environment.

Keywords: agricultural waste, organic compost, environment, valuable resources

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1942 Investigation of Biochar from Banana Peel

Authors: Anurita Selvarajoo, Svenja Hanson

Abstract:

Growing energy needs and increasing environmental issues are creating awareness for alternative energy which substitutes the non-renewable and polluting fossil fuels. Agricultural wastes are a good feedstock for biochar production through the pyrolysis process. There is potential to generate solid fuel from agricultural wastes, as there are large quantities of agricultural wastes available in Malaysia. This paper outlines the experimental study on the pyrolysis of banana peel. The effects of pyrolysis temperatures on the yield of biochar from the banana peel were investigated. Banana peel was pyrolysed in a horizontal tubular reactor under inert atmosphere by varying the temperatures between 300 and 700 0C. With increasing temperature, the total biochar yield decreased with increased heating value. It was found that the pyrolysis temperature had major effect on the yield of biochar product. It also exerted major influence on the heating value and C,H and O composition. The obtained biochar ranged between 31.9 to 56.7 %wt, at different pyrolysis temperatures. The optimum biochar yield was obtained at 325 0C. Biochar yield obtained at optimum temperature was 47 % wt with a heating value of 25.9 MJ kg-1. The study has been performed in order to demonstrate that agricultural wastes like banana peel are also important source of solid fuel.

Keywords: agricultural Wastes, banana peel, biochar, pyrolysis

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1941 Repeated Batch Production of Biosurfactant from Pseudomonas mendocina NK41 Using Agricultural and Agro-Industrial Wastes as Substate

Authors: Natcha Ruamyat, Nichakorn Khondee

Abstract:

The potential of an alkaliphilic bacteria isolated from soil in Thailand to utilized agro-industrial and agricultural wastes for the production of biosurfactants was evaluated in this study. Among five isolates, Pseudomonas mendocina NK41 used soapstock as substrate showing a high biosurfactant concentration of 7.10 g/L, oil displacement of 97.8 %, and surface tension reduction to 29.45 mN/m. Various agricultural residues were applied as mixed substrates with soapstock to enhance the synthesis of biosurfactants. The production of biosurfactant and bacterial growth was found to be the highest with coconut oil cake as compared to Sacha inchi shell, coconut kernel cake, and durian shell. The biodegradability of agro-industrial wastes was better than agricultural wastes, which allowed higher bacterial growth. The pretreatment of coconut oil cake by combined alkaline and hydrothermal method increased the production of biosurfactant from 12.69 g/L to 13.82 g/L. The higher microbial accessibility was improved by the swelling of the alkali-hydrothermal pretreated coconut oil cake, which enhanced its porosity and surface area. The pretreated coconut oil cake was reused twice in the repeated batch production, showing higher biosurfactant concentration up to 16.94 g/L from the second cycle. These results demonstrated the capability of using lignocellulosic wastes from agricultural and agro-industrial activities to produce a highly valuable biosurfactant. High biosurfactant yield with low-cost substrate reveals its potential towards further commercialization of biosurfactant on large-scale production.

Keywords: alkaliphilic bacteria, agricultural/agro-industrial wastes, biosurfactant, combined alkaline-hydrothermal pretreatment

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1940 A Review on the Usage of Ceramic Wastes in Concrete Production

Authors: O. Zimbili, W. Salim, M. Ndambuki

Abstract:

Construction and Demolition (C&D) wastes contribute the highest percentage of wastes worldwide (75%). Furthermore, ceramic materials contribute the highest percentage of wastes within the C&D wastes (54%). The current option for disposal of ceramic wastes is landfill. This is due to unavailability of standards, avoidance of risk, lack of knowledge and experience in using ceramic wastes in construction. The ability of ceramic wastes to act as a pozzolanic material in the production of cement has been effectively explored. The results proved that temperatures used in the manufacturing of these tiles (about 900 ⁰C) are sufficient to activate pozzolanic properties of clay. They also showed that, after optimization (11-14% substitution), the cement blend performs better, with no morphological differences between the cement blended with ceramic waste, and that blended with other pozzolanic materials. Sanitary ware and electrical insulator porcelain wastes are some wastes investigated for usage as aggregates in concrete production. When optimized, both produced good results, better than when natural aggregates are used. However, the research on ceramic wastes as partial substitute for fine aggregates or cement has not been overly exploited as the other areas. This review has been concluded with focus on investigating whether ceramic wall tile wastes used as partial substitute for cement and fine aggregates could prove to be beneficial since the two materials are the most high-priced during concrete production.

Keywords: blended, morphological, pozzolanic, waste

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1939 Anaerobic Digestion of Organic Wastes for Biogas Production

Authors: Ayhan Varol, Aysenur Ugurlu

Abstract:

Due to the depletion of fossil fuels and climate change, there is a rising interest in renewable energy sources. In this concept, a wide range of biomass (energy crops, animal manure, solid wastes, etc.) are used for energy production. There has been a growing interest in biomethane production from biomass. Biomethane production from organic wastes is a promising alternative for waste management by providing organic matter stabilization. Anaerobic digestion of organic material produces biogas, and organic substrate is degraded into a more stable material. Therefore, anaerobic digestion technology helps reduction of carbon emissions and produces renewable energy. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) and organic loading rate (OLR), as well as TS (VS) loadings, influences the anaerobic digestion of organic wastes significantly. The optimum range for HRT varies between 15 days to 30 days, whereas OLR differs between 0.5 to 5 g/L.d depending on the substrate type and its lipid, protein and carbohydrate contents. The organic wastes have biogas production potential through anaerobic digestion. In this study, biomethane production potential of wastes like sugar beet bagasse, agricultural residues, food wastes, olive mill pulp, and dairy manure having different characteristics was investigated in mesophilic CSTR reactor, and their performances were compared. The reactor was mixed in order to provide homogenized content at a rate of 80 rpm. The organic matter content of these wastes was between 85 to 94 % with 61% (olive pulp) to 22 % (food waste) dry matter content. The hydraulic retention time changed between 20-30 days. High biogas productions, 13.45 to 5.70 mL/day, were achieved from the wastes studied when operated at 9 to 10.5% TS loadings where OLR varied between 2.92 and 3.95 gVS/L.day. The results showed that food wastes have higher specific methane production rate and volumetric methane production potential than the other wastes studied, under the similar OLR values. The SBP was 680, 585, 540, 390 and 295 mL/g VS for food waste, agricultural residues, sugar beet bagasse, olive pulp and dairy manure respectively. The methane content of the biogas varied between 72 and 60 %. The volatile solids conversion rate for food waste was 62%.

Keywords: biogas production, organic wastes, biomethane, anaerobic digestion

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1938 Wastes of Oil Drilling: Treatment Techniques and Their Effectiveness

Authors: Abbas Hadj Abbas, Hacini Massaoud, Aiad Lahcen

Abstract:

In Hassi-Messoud’s oil industry, the systems which are water based (WBM) are generally used for drilling in the first phase. For the rest of the well, the oil mud systems are employed (OBM). In the field of oil exploration, panoply of chemical products is employed in the drilling fluids formulation. These components of different natures and whose toxicity and biodegradability are of ill-defined parameters are; however, thrown into nature. In addition to the hydrocarbon (HC, such as diesel) which is a major constituent of oil based mud, we also can notice spills as well as a variety of other products and additives on the drilling sites. These wastes are usually stored in places called (crud wastes). These may cause major problems to the ecosystem. To treat these wastes, we have considered two methods which are: solidification/ stabilization (chemical) and thermal. So that we can evaluate the techniques of treatment, a series of analyses are performed on dozens of specimens of wastes before treatment. After that, and on the basis of our analyses of wastes, we opted for diagnostic treatments of pollution before and after solidification and stabilization. Finally, we have done some analyses before and after the thermal treatment to check the efficiency of the methods followed in the study.

Keywords: wastes treatment, the oil pollution, the norms, wastes drilling

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1937 Biohydrogen and Potential Vinegar Production from Agricultural Wastes Using Thermotoga neopolitana

Authors: Nidhi Nalin

Abstract:

This study is theoretical modelling of the fermentation process of glucose in agricultural wastes like discarded peaches to produce hydrogen, acetic acid, and carbon dioxide using Thermotoga neopolitana bacteria. The hydrogen gas produced in this process can be used in hydrogen fuel cells to generate power, and the fermented broth with acetic acid and salts could be utilized as salty vinegar if enough acetic acid is produced. The theoretical modelling was done using SuperPro software, and the results indicated how much sugar (discarded peaches) is required to produce both hydrogen and vinegar for the process to be profitable.

Keywords: fermentation, thermotoga, hydrogen, vinegar, biofuel

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1936 Research on Eco-Sustainable Recycling of Industrial Wastes

Authors: Liliana Crăc, Nicolae Giorgi, Gheorghe Fometescu

Abstract:

In Romania, billions of tonnes of wastes are generated yearly, an important amount being stored within industrial dumps that covers high soil areas and affects the environment quality, especially of ground and surface waters. Landfill represents in Romania the most important way for wastes removal, over 75% being generated every year, the costs with the dumps construction being considerable. In most of the cases, the wastes generated mainly by the energy industry, oil exploitation and metallurgy, are still considered wastes with NO-use, and their removal and neutralization represent for transport, handling and storing, high non-productive expenses which raise the cost of the useful products obtained. The paper presents a recycling idea of three types of wastes in order to use them for building materials manufacturing, by promoting ECOWASTES LIFE+ project, whose aim is to demonstrate that the recycling of waste from energy industry (coal combustion waste), petroleum extraction (drilling mud) and metallurgy (steelmaking slag) is technically feasible.

Keywords: fly ash, drilled solid wastes, metallurgical slag, recycling, building materials

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1935 Estimation of Desktop E-Wastes in Delhi Using Multivariate Flow Analysis

Authors: Sumay Bhojwani, Ashutosh Chandra, Mamita Devaburman, Akriti Bhogal

Abstract:

This article uses the Material flow analysis for estimating e-wastes in the Delhi/NCR region. The Material flow analysis is based on sales data obtained from various sources. Much of the data available for the sales is unreliable because of the existence of a huge informal sector. The informal sector in India accounts for more than 90%. Therefore, the scope of this study is only limited to the formal one. Also, for projection of the sales data till 2030, we have used regression (linear) to avoid complexity. The actual sales in the years following 2015 may vary non-linearly but we have assumed a basic linear relation. The purpose of this study was to know an approximate quantity of desktop e-wastes that we will have by the year 2030 so that we start preparing ourselves for the ineluctable investment in the treatment of these ever-rising e-wastes. The results of this study can be used to install a treatment plant for e-wastes in Delhi.

Keywords: e-wastes, Delhi, desktops, estimation

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1934 Economic Evaluation of Biogas and Biomethane from Animal Manure

Authors: Shahab Shafayyan, Tara Naderi

Abstract:

Biogas is the product of decomposition of organic materials. A variety of sources, including animal wastes, municipal solid wastes, sewage and agricultural wastes may be used to produce biogas in an anaerobic process. The main forming material of biogas is methane gas, which can be used directly in a variety of ways, such as heating and as fuel, which is very common in a number of countries, such as China and India. In this article, the cost of biogas production from animal fertilizers, and its refined form, bio methane gas has been studied and it is shown that it can be an alternative for natural gas in terms of costs, in the near future. The cost of biogas purification to biomethane is more than three times the cost of biogas production for an average unit. Biomethane production costs, calculated for a small unit, is about $9/MMBTU and for an average unit is about $5.9/MMBTU.

Keywords: biogas, biomethane, anaerobic digestion, economic evaluation

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1933 Legal Regulation and Critical Analysis for an Effectively Treatment of Pharmaceutical Waste

Authors: Merita Dauti, Edita Alili-Idrizi, Sihana Ahmeti –Lika, Ledjan Malaj

Abstract:

The extermination and proper disposal of pharmaceutical wastes from expired and unused medications remains a disputable issue due to their specific nature and characteristics. Even though the hazards from these wastes are already well known in terms of environment and human health, people still treat them as usual wastes. At a national level, in many countries the management of pharmaceutical and medical wastes has been one of the main objectives in order to protect people’s health and the environment. Even though many legal regulations exist in this respect, there has not been a single law that would clearly explain the procedures of returning medicines, ways of selection, treatment and extermination of pharmaceutical wastes. This paper aims at analyzing the practices of pharmaceutical waste management and treatment in some European countries as well as a review of the legislation and official guidelines in managing these kinds of wastes and protecting the environment and human health. A suitable treatment and management of expired medications and other similar wastes would be in the interest of public health in the first place, as well as in the interest of healthcare institutions and other bodies engaged in environment protection.

Keywords: pharmaceutical waste, legal regulation, proper disposal, environment pollution

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1932 3D Modeling of Tunis Soft Soil Settlement Reinforced with Plastic Wastes

Authors: Aya Rezgui, Lasaad Ajam, Belgacem Jalleli

Abstract:

The Tunis soft soils present a difficult challenge as construction sites and for Geotechnical works. Currently, different techniques are used to improve such soil properties taking into account the environmental considerations. One of the recent methods is involving plastic wastes as a reinforcing materials. The present study pertains to the development of a numerical model for predicting the behavior of Tunis Soft soil (TSS) improved with recycled Monobloc chair wastes.3D numerical models for unreinforced TSS and reinforced TSS aims to evaluate settlement reduction and the values of consolidation times in oedometer conditions.

Keywords: Tunis soft soil, settlement, plastic wastes, finte -difference, FLAC3D modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
1931 Reorientation of Sustainable Livestock Management: A Case Study Applied to Wastes Management in Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Padjadjaran University, Indonesia

Authors: Raka Rahmatulloh, Mohammad Ilham Nugraha, Muhammad Ifan Fathurrahman

Abstract:

The agricultural sector covers a wide area, one of them is livestock subsector that supply needs of the food source of animal protein. Animal protein is produced by the main livestock production such as meat, milk, eggs, etc. Besides the main production, livestock would produce metabolic residue, so called livestock wastes. Characteristics of livestock wastes can be either solid (feces), liquid (urine), and gas (methane) which turned out to be useful and has economical value when well-processed and well-controlled. Nowadays, this livestock wastes is considered as a source of pollutants, especially water pollution. If the source of pollutants used in an integrated way, it will have a positive impact on organic farming and a healthy environment. Management of livestock wastes can be integrated with the farming sector to the planting and caring that rely on fertilizers. Most Indonesian farmers still use chemical fertilizers, where the use of it in the long term will disturb the ecological balance of the environment. One of the main efforts is to use organic fertilizers instead of chemical fertilizer that conducted by the Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Padjadjaran University. The method is to use the solid waste of livestock and agricultural wastes into liquid organic fertilizer, feed additive, biogas and vermicompost through decomposition. The decomposition takes as long as 14 days including aeration and extraction process using water as a nutrients solvent media which contained in decomposes and disinfection media to release pathogenic microorganisms in decomposes. Liquid organic fertilizer has highly efficient for the farmers to have a ratio of carbon/nitrogen (C/N) 25/1 to 30/1 and neutral pH (6.5-7.5) which is good for plant growth. Feed additive may be given to improve the digestibility of feed so that substances can be easily absorbed by the body for production. Biogas contains methane (CH4), which has a high enough heat to produce electricity. Vermicompost is an overhaul of waste organic material that has excellent structure, porosity, aeration, drainage, and moisture holding capacity. Based on the case study above, an integrated livestock wastes management program strongly supports the Indonesian government in the achievement of sustainable livestock development.

Keywords: integrated, livestock wastes, organic fertilizer, sustainable livestock development

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1930 Lagrangian Approach for Modeling Marine Litter Transport

Authors: Sarra Zaied, Arthur Bonpain, Pierre Yves Fravallo

Abstract:

The permanent supply of marine litter implies their accumulation in the oceans, which causes the presence of more compact wastes layers. Their Spatio-temporal distribution is never homogeneous and depends mainly on the hydrodynamic characteristics of the environment and the size and location of the wastes. As part of optimizing collect of marine plastic wastes, it is important to measure and monitor their evolution over time. For this, many research studies have been dedicated to describing the wastes behavior in order to identify their accumulation in oceans areas. Several models are therefore developed to understand the mechanisms that allow the accumulation and the displacements of marine litter. These models are able to accurately simulate the drift of wastes to study their behavior and stranding. However, these works aim to study the wastes behavior over a long period of time and not at the time of waste collection. This work investigates the transport of floating marine litter (FML) to provide basic information that can help in optimizing wastes collection by proposing a model for predicting their behavior during collection. The proposed study is based on a Lagrangian modeling approach that uses the main factors influencing the dynamics of the waste. The performance of the proposed method was assessed on real data collected from the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS). Evaluation results in the Java Sea (Indonesia) prove that the proposed model can effectively predict the position and the velocity of marine wastes during collection.

Keywords: floating marine litter, lagrangian transport, particle-tracking model, wastes drift

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1929 Physicochemical Characterization of Waste from Vegetal Extracts Industry for Use as Briquettes

Authors: Maíra O. Palm, Cintia Marangoni, Ozair Souza, Noeli Sellin

Abstract:

Wastes from a vegetal extracts industry (cocoa, oak, Guarana and mate) were characterized by particle size, proximate and ultimate analysis, lignocellulosic fractions, high heating value, thermal analysis (Thermogravimetric analysis – TGA, and Differential thermal analysis - DTA) and energy density to evaluate their potential as biomass in the form of briquettes for power generation. All wastes presented adequate particle sizes to briquettes production. The wastes showed high moisture content, requiring previous drying for use as briquettes. Cocoa and oak wastes had the highest volatile matter contents with maximum mass loss at 310 ºC and 450 ºC, respectively. The solvents used in the aroma extraction process influenced in the moisture content of the wastes, which was higher for mate due to water has been used as solvent. All wastes showed an insignificant loss mass after 565 °C, hence resulting in low ash content. High carbon and hydrogen contents and low sulfur and nitrogen contents were observed ensuring a low generation of sulfur and nitrous oxides. Mate and cocoa exhibited the highest carbon and lignin content, and high heating value. The dried wastes had high heating value, from 17.1 MJ/kg to 20.8 MJ/kg. The results indicate the energy potential of wastes for use as fuel in power generation.

Keywords: agro-industrial waste, biomass, briquettes, combustion

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1928 Influence of Digestate Fertilization on Soil Microbial Activity, Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Yield

Authors: M. Doyeni, S. Suproniene, V. Tilvikiene

Abstract:

Agricultural wastes contribute significantly to global climate change through greenhouse gas emissions if not adequately recycled and sustainably managed. A recurring agricultural waste is livestock wastes that have consistently served as feedstock for biogas systems. The objective of this study was to access the influence of digestate fertilization on soil microbial activity and greenhouse gas emissions in agricultural fields. Wheat (Triticum spp. L.) was fertilized with different types of animal wastes digestates (organic fertilizers) and mineral nitrogen (inorganic fertilizer) for three years. The 170 kg N ha⁻¹ presented in digestates were split fertilized at an application rate of 90 and 80 kg N ha⁻¹. The soil microorganism activity could be predicted significantly using the dehydrogenase activity and soil microbial biomass carbon. By combining the two different monitoring approaches, the different methods applied in this study were sensitive to enzymatic activities and organic carbon in the living component of the soil organic matter. The emissions of greenhouse gasses (carbon dioxide (CO₂), methane (CH₄), and nitrous oxide (N₂O) were monitored directly by a static chamber system. The soil and environmental variables were measured to determine their influence on greenhouse gas emissions. Emission peaks was observed in N₂O and CO₂ after the first application of fertilizers with the emissions flattening out over the cultivating season while CH₄ emission was negligible with no apparent patterns observed. Microbial biomass carbon and dehydrogenase activity were affected by the fertilized organic digestates. A significant difference was recorded between the control and the digestate treated soils for the microbial biomass carbon and dehydrogenase. Results also showed individual and cumulative emissions of CO₂, CH₄ and N₂O from the digestates were relatively low suggesting the digestate fertilization can be an efficient method for improving soil quality and reducing greenhouse gases from agricultural sources in temperate climate conditions.

Keywords: greenhouse gas emission, manure digestate, soil microbial activity, yield

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1927 A Multi-Objective Methodology for Selecting Lean Initiatives in Modular Construction Companies

Authors: Saba Shams Bidhendi, Steven Goh, Andrew Wandel

Abstract:

The implementation of lean manufacturing initiatives has produced significant impacts in improving operational performance and reducing manufacturing wastes in the production process. However, selecting an appropriate set of lean strategies is critical to avoid misapplication of the lean manufacturing techniques and consequential increase in non-value-adding activities. To the author’s best knowledge, there is currently no methodology to select lean strategies that considers their impacts on manufacturing wastes and performance metrics simultaneously. In this research, a multi-objective methodology is proposed that suggests an appropriate set of lean initiatives based on their impacts on performance metrics and manufacturing wastes and within manufacturers’ resource limitation. The proposed methodology in this research suggests the best set of lean initiatives for implementation that have highest impacts on identified critical performance metrics and manufacturing wastes. Therefore, manufacturers can assure that implementing suggested lean tools improves their production performance and reduces manufacturing wastes at the same time. A case study was conducted to show the effectiveness and validate the proposed model and methodologies.

Keywords: lean manufacturing, lean strategies, manufacturing wastes, manufacturing performance, optimisation, decision making

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1926 Using Construction Wastes and Recyclable Materials in Sustainable Concrete Manufacture

Authors: Mohamed T. El-Hawary, Carsten Koenke, Amr M. El-Nemr, Nagy F. Hanna

Abstract:

Sustainable construction materials using solid construction wastes are of great environmental and economic significance. Construction wastes, demolishing wastes, and wastes coming out from the preparation of traditional materials could be used in sustainable concrete manufacture, which is the main scope of this paper. Ceramics, clay bricks, marble, recycled concrete, and many other materials should be tested and validated for use in the manufacture of green concrete. Introducing waste materials in concrete helps in reducing the required landfills, leaving more space for land investments, and decrease the environmental impact of the concrete buildings industry in both stages -construction and demolition-. In this paper, marble aggregate is used as a replacement for the natural aggregate in sustainable green concrete production. The results showed that marble aggregates can be used as a full replacement for the natural aggregates in eco-friendly green concrete.

Keywords: coarse aggregate replacement, economical designs, green concrete, marble aggregates, sustainability, waste management

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1925 Application of Acinetobacter sp. KKU44 for Cellulase Production from Agricultural Waste

Authors: Surasak Siripornadulsil, Nutt Poomai, Wilailak Siripornadulsil

Abstract:

Due to a high ethanol demand, the approach for effective ethanol production is important and has been developed rapidly worldwide. Several agricultural wastes are highly abundant in celluloses and the effective cellulose enzymes do exist widely among microorganisms. Accordingly, the cellulose degradation using microbial cellulose to produce a low-cost substrate for ethanol production has attracted more attention. In this study, the cellulose producing bacterial strain has been isolated from rich straw and identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis as Acinetobacter sp. KKU44. This strain is able to grow and exhibit the cellulose activity. The optimal temperature for its growth and cellulose production is 37 °C. The optimal temperature of bacterial cellulose activity is 60 °C. The cellulose enzyme from Acinetobacter sp. KKU44 is heat-tolerant enzyme. The bacterial culture of 36 h. showed highest cellulose activity at 120 U/mL when grown in LB medium containing 2% (w/v). The capability of Acinetobacter sp. KKU44 to grow in cellulosic agricultural wastes as a sole carbon source and exhibiting the high cellulose activity at high temperature suggested that this strain could be potentially developed further as a cellulose degrading strain for a production of low-cost substrate used in ethanol production.

Keywords: cellulose enzyme, bagasse, rice straw, rice husk, acinetobacter sp. KKU44

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1924 The Composting Process from a Waste Management Method to a Remediation Procedure

Authors: G. Petruzzelli, F. Pedron, M. Grifoni, F. Gorini, I. Rosellini, B. Pezzarossa

Abstract:

Composting is a controlled technology to enhance the natural aerobic process of organic wastes degradation. The resulting product is a humified material that is principally recyclable for agricultural purpose. The composting process is one of the most important tools for waste management, by the European Community legislation. In recent years composting has been increasingly used as a remediation technology to remove biodegradable contaminants from soil, and to modulate heavy metals bioavailability in phytoremediation strategies. An optimization in the recovery of resources from wastes through composting could enhance soil fertility and promote its use in the remediation biotechnologies of contaminated soils.

Keywords: agriculture, biopile, compost, soil clean-up, waste recycling

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1923 Reduction Conditions of Briquetted Solid Wastes Generated by the Integrated Iron and Steel Plant

Authors: Gökhan Polat, Dicle Kocaoğlu Yılmazer, Muhlis Nezihi Sarıdede

Abstract:

Iron oxides are the main input to produce iron in integrated iron and steel plants. During production of iron from iron oxides, some wastes with high iron content occur. These main wastes can be classified as basic oxygen furnace (BOF) sludge, flue dust and rolling scale. Recycling of these wastes has a great importance for both environmental effects and reduction of production costs. In this study, recycling experiments were performed on basic oxygen furnace sludge, flue dust and rolling scale which contain 53.8%, 54.3% and 70.2% iron respectively. These wastes were mixed together with coke as reducer and these mixtures are pressed to obtain cylindrical briquettes. These briquettes were pressed under various compacting forces from 1 ton to 6 tons. Also, both stoichiometric and twice the stoichiometric cokes were added to investigate effect of coke amount on reduction properties of the waste mixtures. Then, these briquettes were reduced at 1000°C and 1100°C during 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 min in a muffle furnace. According to the results of reduction experiments, the effect of compacting force, temperature and time on reduction ratio of the wastes were determined. It is found that 1 ton compacting force, 150 min reduction time and 1100°C are the optimum conditions to obtain reduction ratio higher than 75%.

Keywords: Coke, iron oxide wastes, recycling, reduction

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1922 Conical Spouted Bed Combustor for Combustion of Vine Shoots Wastes

Authors: M. J. San José, S. Alvarez, R. López

Abstract:

In order to prove the applicability of a conical spouted bed combustor for the thermal exploitation of vineyard pruning wastes, the flow regimes of beds consisting of vine shoot beds and an inert bed were established under different operating conditions. The effect of inlet air temperature on the minimum spouted velocity was evaluated. Batch combustion of vine shoots in a conical spouted bed combustor was conducted at temperatures in the range 425-550 ºC with an inert bed. The experimental values of combustion efficiency of vine shoot calculated from the concentration the exhaust gases were assessed. The high experimental combustion efficiency obtained evidenced the proper suitability of the conical spouted bed combustor for the thermal combustion of vine shoots.

Keywords: biomass wastes, thermal combustion, conical spouted beds, vineyard wastes

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
1921 Res2ValHUM: Creation of Resource Management Tool and Microbial Consortia Isolation and Identification

Authors: A. Ribeiro, N. Valério, C. Vilarinho, J. Araujo, J. Carvalho

Abstract:

Res2ValHUM project involves institutions from the Spanish Autonomous Region of Galicia and the north of Portugal (districts of Porto and Braga) and has as overall objectives of promotion of composting as an process for the correct managing of organic waste, valorization of compost in different fields or applications for the constitution of products with high added value, reducing of raw materials losses, and reduction of the amount of waste throw in landfills. Three main actions were designed to achieve the objectives: development of a management tool to improve collection and residue channeling for composting, sensibilization of the population for composting and characterization of the chemical and biological properties of compost and humic and fulvic substances to envisage high-value applications of compost. Here we present the cooperative activity of Galician and northern Portuguese institutions to valorize organic waste in both regions with common socio-economic characteristics and residue management problems. Results from the creation of the resource manage tool proved the existence of a large number of agricultural wastes that could be valorized. In the North of Portugal, the wastes from maize, oats, potato, apple, grape pomace, rye, and olive pomace can be highlighted. In the Autonomous Region of Galicia the wastes from maize, wheat, potato, apple, and chestnuts can be emphasized. Regarding the isolation and identification of microbial consortia from compost samples, results proved microorganisms belong mainly to the genus Bacillus spp. Among all the species identified in compost samples, Bacillus licheniformis can be highlighted in the production of humic and fulvic acids.

Keywords: agricultural wastes, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus spp., humic-acids, fulvic-acids

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1920 A Study of Lean Principles Implementation in the Libyan Healthcare and Industry Sectors

Authors: Nasser M. Amaitik, Ngwan F. Elsagzli

Abstract:

The Lean technique is very important in the service and industrial fields. It is defined as an effective tool to eliminate the wastes. In lean the wastes are defined as anything which does not add value to the end product. There are wastes that can be avoided, but some are unavoidable to many reasons. The present study aims to apply the principles of lean in two different sectors, healthcare, and industry. Two case studies have been selected to apply the experimental work. The first case was Al-Jalaa Hospital while the second case study was the Technical Company of Aluminum Sections in Benghazi, Libya. In both case studies the Value Stream Map (VSM) of the current state has been constructed. The proposed plans have been implemented by merging or eliminating procedures or processes. The results obtained from both case studies showed improvement in capacity, idle time and utilized time.

Keywords: healthcare service delivery, idle time, lean principles, utilized time, value stream mapping, wastes

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
1919 Biosorption of Gold from Chloride Media in a Simultaneous Adsorption-Reduction Process

Authors: Shafiq Alam, Yen Ning Lee

Abstract:

Conventional hydrometallurgical processing of metals involves the use of large quantities of toxic chemicals. Realizing a need to develop sustainable technologies, extensive research studies are being carried out to recover and recycle base, precious and rare earth metals from their pregnant leach solutions (PLS) using green chemicals/biomaterials prepared from biomass wastes derived from agriculture, marine and forest resources. Our innovative research showed that bio-adsorbents prepared from such biomass wastes can effectively adsorb precious metals, especially gold after conversion of their functional groups in a very simple process. The highly effective ‘Adsorption-coupled-Reduction’ phenomenon witnessed appears promising for the potential use of this gold biosorption process in the mining industry. Proper management and effective use of biomass wastes as value added green chemicals will not only reduce the volume of wastes being generated every day in our society, but will also have a high-end value to the mining and mineral processing industries as those biomaterials would be cheap, but very selective for gold recovery/recycling from low grade ore, leach residue or e-wastes.

Keywords: biosorption, hydrometallurgy, gold, adsorption, reduction, biomass, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
1918 Highway Waste Management in Zambia Policy Preparedness and Remedies: The Case of Great East Road

Authors: Floyd Misheck Mwanza, Paul Boniface Majura

Abstract:

The paper looked at highways/ roadside waste generation, disposal and the consequent environmental impacts. The dramatic increase in vehicular and paved roads in the recent past in Zambia, has given rise to the indiscriminate disposal of litter that now poses a threat to health and the environment. Primary data was generated by carrying out oral interviews and field observations for holistic and in–depth assessment of the environment and the secondary data was obtained from desk review method, information on effects of roadside wastes on environment were obtained from relevant literatures. The interviews were semi structured and a purposive sampling method was adopted and analyzed descriptively. The results of the findings showed that population growth and unplanned road expansion has exceeded the expected limit in recent time with resultant poor system of roadside wastes disposal. Roadside wastes which contain both biodegradable and non-biodegradable roadside wastes are disposed at the shoulders of major highways in temporary dumpsites and are never collected by a road development agency (RDA). There is no organized highway to highway or street to street collection of the wastes in Zambia by the key organization the RDA. The study revealed that roadside disposal of roadside wastes has serious impacts on the environment. Some of these impacts include physical nuisance of the wastes to the environment, the waste dumps also serve as hideouts for rodents and snakes which are dangerous. Waste are blown around by wind making the environment filthy, most of the wastes are also been washed by overland flow during heavy downpour to block drainage channels and subsequently lead to flooding of the environment. Most of the non- biodegradable wastes contain toxic chemicals which have serious implications on the environmental sustainability and human health. The paper therefore recommends that Government/ RDA should come up with proper orientation and environmental laws should be put in place for the general public and also to provide necessary facilities and arrange for better methods of collection of wastes.

Keywords: biodegradable, disposal, environment, impacts

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
1917 Synthesis of Iron-Based Perovskite Type Catalysts from Rust Wastes as a Source of Iron

Authors: M. P. Joshi, F. Deganello, L. F. Liotta, V. La Parola, G. Pantaleo

Abstract:

For the first time, commercial iron nitrate was replaced by rust wastes, as a source of Iron for the preparation of LaFeO₃ powders by solution combustion synthesis (SCS). A detailed comparison with a reference powder obtained by SCS, starting from a commercial iron nitrate, was also performed. Several techniques such as X-ray diffraction combined with Rietveld refinement, mass plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption measurements, temperature programmed reduction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform analysis and scanning electron microscopy were used for the characterization of the rust wastes as well as of the perovskite powders. The performance of this ecofriendly material was evaluated by testing the activity and selectivity in the propylene oxidation, in order to use it for the benefit of the environment. Characterization and performance results clearly evidenced limitations and peculiarities of this new approach.

Keywords: perovskite type catalysts, solution combustion synthesis, X-ray diffraction, rust wastes

Procedia PDF Downloads 258