Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1099

Search results for: wood coating

1099 The Experimental and Statistical Analysis of the Wood Strength against Pressure According to Different Wood Types, Sizes, and Coatings

Authors: Mustafa Altin, Gamze Fahriye Pehlivan, Sadiye Didem Boztepe Erkis, Sakir Tasdemir, Sevda Altin

Abstract:

In this study, an experimental study was executed related to the strength of wooden materials which have been commonly used both in the past and present against pressure and whether fire retardant materials used against fire have any effects or not. Totally, 81 samples which included three different wood species, three different sizes, two different fire retardants and two unprocessed samples were prepared. Compressive pressure tests were applied to the prepared samples, their variance analyses were executed in accordance with the obtained results and it was aimed to determine the most convenient wooden materials and fire-retardant coating material. It was also determined that the species of wood and the species of coating caused the decrease and/or increase in the resistance against pressure.

Keywords: resistance of wood against pressure, species of wood, variance analysis, wood coating, wood fire safety

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
1098 Influence of Extractives Leaching from Larch Wood on Durability of Semi-Transparent Oil-Based Coating during Accelerated Weathering

Authors: O. Dvorak, M. Panek, E. Oberhofnerova, I. Sterbova

Abstract:

Extractives contained in larch wood (Larix decidua, Mill.) reduce the service-life of exterior coating systems, especially transparent and semi-transparent. The aim of this work was to find out whether the initial several-week leaching of extractives from untreated wood in the exterior will positively affect the selected characteristics and the overall life of the semi-transparent oil-based coating. Samples exposed to exterior leaching for 10 or 20 weeks, and the reference samples without leaching were then treated with a coating system. Testing was performed by the method of artificial accelerated weathering in the UV chamber combined with thermal cycling during 6 weeks. The changes of colour, gloss, surface wetting, microscopic analyses of surfaces, and visual damage of paint were evaluated. Only 20-week initial leaching had a positive effect. Both to increase the color stability during aging, but also to slightly increase the overall life of the tested semi-transparent coating system on larch wood.

Keywords: larch wood, coating, durability. extractives

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
1097 The Effect of Transparent Oil Wood Stain on the Colour Stability of Spruce Wood during Weathering

Authors: Eliska Oberhofnerova, Milos Panek, Stepan Hysek, Martin Lexa

Abstract:

Nowadays the use of wood, both indoors and outdoors, is constantly increasing. However wood is a natural organic material and in the exterior is subjected to a degradation process caused by abiotic factors (solar radiation, rain, moisture, wind, dust etc.). This process affects only surface layers of wood but neglecting some of the basic rules of wood protection leads to increased possibility of biological agents attack and thereby influences a function of the wood element. The process of wood degradation can be decreased by proper surface treatment, especially in the case of less naturally durable wood species, as spruce. Modern coating systems are subjected to many requirements such as colour stability, hydrophobicity, low volatile organic compound (VOC) content, long service life or easy maintenance. The aim of this study is to evaluate the colour stability of spruce wood (Picea abies), as the basic parameter indicating the coating durability, treated with two layers of transparent natural oil wood stain and exposed to outdoor conditions. The test specimens were exposed for 2 years to natural weathering and 2000 hours to artificial weathering in UV-chamber. The colour parameters were measured before and during exposure to weathering by the spectrophotometer according to CIELab colour space. The comparison between untreated and treated wood and both testing procedures was carried out. The results showed a significant effect of coating on the colour stability of wood, as expected. Nevertheless, increasing colour changes of wood observed during the exposure to weathering differed according to applied testing procedure - natural and artificial.

Keywords: colour stability, natural and artificial weathering, spruce wood, transparent coating

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
1096 Anti-Bubble Painting Booth for Wood Coating Resins

Authors: Abasali Masoumi, Amir Gholamian Bozorgi

Abstract:

To have the best quality in wood products such as tabletops and inlay-woods, applying two principles are required: aesthetic and protection against the destructive agent. Artists spent a lot of time creating a masterwork project and also for better demonstrating beautiful appearance and preserving it for hundred years. So they need good material and appropriate method to finish it. As usual, wood painters use polyester or epoxy resins. These finishes need a special skill to use and then give a fantastic paint film and clearness. If we let resins dry in exposure to environmental agents such as unstable temperature, dust and etc., no doubt it becomes cloudy, crack, blister and much wood dust and air bubbles in it. We have designed a special wood coating booth (IR-Patent No: 70429) for wood-coating resins (polyester and epoxy), and this booth provides an adjustable space to control factors that is necessary to have a good finish in the end. Anti-bubble painting booth has the ability to remove bubbles from resin, precludes the cracking process and causes the resin to be the best. With this booth drying time of resin is reduced from 24 hours to 6 hours by fixing the optimum temperature, and it is very good for saving time. This booth is environment-friendly and never lets the poisonous vapors and other VOC (Volatile organic components) enter to workplace atmosphere because they are very harmful to humans.

Keywords: wood coating, epoxy resin, polyester resin, wood finishes

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
1095 Study on Parallel Shear Stress of Cement-Wood Composites Using Pinus sp. and Eucalyptus sp. in natura and Treated with CCA

Authors: Rodrigo D. S. Oliveira, Sarah David-Muzel, Maristela Gava, Victor A. De Araujo, Glaucia A. Prates, Juliana Cortez-Barbosa

Abstract:

Improper disposal of treated wood waste is a problem of the timber sector, since this residue is toxic, due to the harmful characteristics of the preservative substances. An environmentally friendly alternative is the use of this waste for the production of cement-wood composites. The aim of this work was to study the possibility of using wood treated with CCA (Chromated Cooper Arsenate) in cement-wood. Specimens of Pinus sp. and Eucalyptus sp. were produced with wood raw in natura and treated with CCA. A test was performed to determine the parallel shear stress of samples after 14 days of drying, according to the Brazilian Standard NBR-7215/97. Based on the analyzed results it is concluded that the use of wood treated with CCA is not feasible in cement-wood production, because the composite samples of treated wood showed lower mechanical strength in shear stress than those with wood in natura.

Keywords: waste recovery, wood composites, cement-wood, wood preservation, chromated copper arsenate

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1094 Improving Fire Resistance of Wood and Wood-Based Composites and Fire Testing Systems

Authors: Nadir Ayrilmis

Abstract:

Wood and wood-based panels are one of the oldest structural materials used in the construction industry due to their significant advantages such as good mechanical properties, low density, renewable material, low-cost, recycling, etc. However, they burn when exposed to a flame source or high temperatures. This is very important when the wood products are used as structural or hemi-structural materials in the construction industry, furniture industry, so on. For this reason, the fire resistance is demanded property for wood products. They can be impregnated with fire retardants to improve their fire resistance. The most used fire retardants, fire-retardant mechanism, and fire-testing systems, and national and international fire-durability classifications and standard requirements for fire-durability of wood and wood-based panels were given in this study.

Keywords: fire resistance, wood-based panels, cone calorimeter, wood

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
1093 Fabrication of Titanium Diboride-Based High Emissive Paint Coating Using Economical Dip Coating Method for High Temperature Applications

Authors: Atasi Dan, Kamanio Chattopadhyay, Bikramjit Basu

Abstract:

A cost-effective titanium diboride (TiB2) paint coating has been developed on stainless steel substrate using commercially available polyvinylpyrrolidone as a binder by convenient dip-coating technique. The emittance of the coating has been explored by tailoring various process parameters to obtain highest thermal radiation. The optimized coating has achieved a high thermal emittance of 0.85. In addition, the coating exhibited an excellent thermal stability while heat-treated at 500 °C in air. Along with the emittance, the structural and physical properties of the As-deposited and heat-treated coatings have been investigated systematically. The high temperature annealing has not affected the emittance, chemical composition and morphology of the coating significantly. Hence, the fabricated paint coating is expected to open up new possibilities for using it as a low-cost, thermally stable emitter in high temperature applications.

Keywords: titanium diboride, emittance, paint coating, thermal stability

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1092 The Utilization of Bamboo for Wood Bamboo Composite in Lieu of Materials Furniture: Case Study of Furniture Industry in Jepara Indonesia

Authors: Muhammad Nurrizka Ramadhan

Abstract:

Today,Demand for wood increase in rapid rate. Wood is widely used for many things range from building materials to furniture materials. This makes the forest area in Indonesia dropped dramatically, it is estimated that the area of Indonesiaan forest in 2020 will be only about 16 million hectares. The more forest in Indonesia loss, people are required to look for another material to subtitute wood for the furniture. Jepara, a city with the largest furniture industry in Indonesia, requires a large supply of wood, it can reach 300.000 – 500.000 cubic meters per year. Most of the furniture in Jepara use teak, mahogany, and rosewood. Though teak wood is a rare species that must be protected. Today the availability of bamboo in Indonesia is very big. With cheap price, and the period of rapid growth makes bamboo can be used as a substitute for wood for the furniture industry in the future. By making use bamboo to make wood bamboo composite to replace the use of wood for furniture material. This paper is about the use of bamboo as a substitute for wood bamboo composite for the furniture industry. Expected in future, wood can be replaced by a wood bamboo composite.

Keywords: bamboo, composite, furniture, wood

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
1091 Cold Spray Fabrication of Coating for Highly Corrosive Environment

Authors: Harminder Singh

Abstract:

Cold spray is a novel and emerging technology for the fabrication of coating. In this study, coating is successfully developed by this process on superalloy surface. The selected coating composition is already proved as corrosion resistant. The microstructure of the newly developed coating is examined by various characterization techniques, for testing its suitability for high temperature corrosive conditions of waste incinerator. The energy producing waste incinerators are still running at low efficiency, mainly due to their chlorine based highly corrosive conditions. The characterization results show that the developed cold sprayed coating structure is suitable for its further testing in highly aggressive conditions.

Keywords: coating, cold spray, corrosion, microstructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
1090 Single-Element Simulations of Wood Material in LS-DYNA

Authors: Ren Zuo Wang

Abstract:

In this paper, in order to investigate the behavior of the wood structure, the non-linearity of wood material model in LS-DYNA is adopted. It is difficult and less efficient to conduct the experiment of the ancient wood structure, hence LS-DYNA software can be used to simulate nonlinear responses of ancient wood structure. In LS-DYNA software, there is material model called *MAT_WOOD or *MAT_143. This model is to simulate a single-element response of the wood subjected to tension and compression under the parallel and the perpendicular material directions. Comparing with the exact solution and numerical simulations results using LS-DYNA, it demonstrates the accuracy and the efficiency of the proposed simulation method.

Keywords: LS-DYNA, wood structure, single-element simulations, MAT_143

Procedia PDF Downloads 415
1089 Surface Coatings of Boards Made from Alternative Materials

Authors: Stepan Hysek, Petra Gajdacova

Abstract:

In recent years, alternative materials, such as annual plants or recycled and waste materials are becoming more and more popular input material for the production of composite materials. They can be used for the production of insulation boards, construction boards or furniture boards. Surface finishing of those boards is essential for utilization in furniture. However, some difficulties could occur during coating of boards from alternative materials; physical and chemical differences from conventional particleboards need to be considered. From the physical aspects, surface soundness and surface roughness mainly determine the quality of the surface. Since surface layers of boards from alternative materials have often lower density, these characteristics could be deteriorated and thus the production process needs to be optimized. Also, chemical reactions of board’s material with coating could be undesirable. The objective of this study is to evaluate the parameters affecting the surface quality of boards made form alternative materials and to find possibilities of the coating of these boards. In this study, boards of particles from rapeseed stems were produced using a laboratory press. Surface soundness, as representatives of mechanical properties and surface roughness, as representative of physical properties, were measured on boards from rapeseed stems. Results clearly indicated that produced boards had lower surface quality than commercially produced particle boards from wood. Therefore, higher thickness of surface coating on rapeseed based boards is needed.

Keywords: coating, surface, annual plant, composites, particleboard

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
1088 Fermentation of Wood Waste by Treating with H₃PO₄-Acetone for Bioethanol Production

Authors: Deokyeong Choe, Keonwook Nam, Young Hoon Roh

Abstract:

Wood waste is a potentially significant resource for economic and environment-friendly recycling. Wood waste represents a key sustainable source of biomass for transformation into bioethanol. Unfortunately, wood waste is highly recalcitrant for biotransformation, which limits its use and prevents economically viable conversion into bioethanol. As a result, an effective pretreatment is necessary to degrade cellulose of the wood waste, which improves the accessibility of cellulase. In this work, a H₃PO₄-acetone pretreatment was selected among the various pretreatment methods and used to dissolve cellulose and lignin. When the H₃PO₄ and acetone were used, 5–6% of the wood waste was found to be very appropriate for saccharification. Also, when the enzymatic saccharification was conducted in the mixture of the wood waste and 0.05 M citrate buffer solution, glucose and xylose were measured to be 80.2 g/L and 9.2 g/L respectively. Furthermore, ethanol obtained after 70 h of fermentation by S. cerevisiae was 30.4 g/L. As a result, the conversion yield from wood waste to bioethanol was calculated to be 57.4%. These results show that the pretreated wood waste can be used as good feedstocks for bioethanol production and that the H₃PO₄-acetone pretreatment can effectively increase the yield of ethanol production.

Keywords: wood waste, H₃PO₄-acetone, bioethanol, fermentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
1087 Technology of Thermal Spray Coating Machining

Authors: Jana Petrů, Tomáš Zlámal, Robert Čep, Lenka Čepová

Abstract:

This article is focused on the thermal spray coating machining issue. Those are irreplaceable in many areas of nowadays industrial branches such as aerospace industry, mostly thanks to their excellent qualities in production and also in renovation of machinery parts. The principals of thermal spraying and elementary diversification are described in introduction. Plasma coating method of composite materials -cermets- is described more thoroughly. The second part describes thermal spray coating machining and grinding in detail. This part contains suggestion of appropriate grinding tool and assessment of cutting conditions used for grinding a given part. Conclusion describes a problem which occurred while grinding a cermet thermal spray coating with a specially designed grindstone and a way to solve this problem.

Keywords: coating, aerospace, plasma, grinding

Procedia PDF Downloads 428
1086 Rubber Wood as a Potential Biomass Feedstock for Biochar via Slow Pyrolysis

Authors: Adilah Shariff, Radin Hakim, Nurhayati Abdullah

Abstract:

Utilisation of biomass feedstock for biochar has received increasing attention because of their potential for carbon sequestration and soil amendment. The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics of rubber wood as a biomass feedstock for biochar via slow pyrolysis process. This was achieved by using proximate, ultimate, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) as well as heating value, pH and lignocellulosic determination. Rubber wood contains 4.13 mf wt.% moisture, 86.30 mf wt.% volatile matter, 0.60 mf wt.% ash content, and 13.10 mf wt.% fixed carbon. The ultimate analysis shows that rubber wood consists of 44.33 mf wt.% carbon, 6.26 mf wt.% hydrogen, 19.31 mf wt.% nitrogen, 0.31 mf wt.% sulphur, and 29.79 mf wt.% oxygen. The higher heating value of rubber wood is 22.5 MJ/kg, and its lower heating value is 21.2 MJ/kg. At 27 °C, the pH value of rubber wood is 6.83 which is acidic. The lignocellulosic analysis revealed that rubber wood composition consists of 2.63 mf wt.% lignin, 20.13 mf wt.% cellulose, and 65.04 mf wt.% hemicellulose. The volatile matter to fixed carbon ratio is 6.58. This led to a biochar yield of 25.14 wt.% at 500 °C. Rubber wood is an environmental friendly feedstock due to its low sulphur content. Rubber wood therefore is a suitable and a potential feedstock for biochar production via slow pyrolysis.

Keywords: biochar, biomass, rubber wood, slow pyrolysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
1085 Psyllium (Plantago) Gum as an Effective Edible Coating to Improve Quality and Shelf Life of Fresh-Cut Papaya (Carica papaya)

Authors: Basharat Yousuf, Abhaya K. Srivastava

Abstract:

Psyllium gum alone and in combination with sunflower oil was investigated as a possible alternative edible coating for improvement of quality and shelf life of fresh-cut papaya. Different concentrations including 0.5, 1 and 1.5 percent of psyllium gum were used for coating of fresh-cut papaya. In some samples, refined sunflower oil was used as a lipid component to increase the effectiveness of coating in terms of water barrier properties. Soya lecithin was used as an emulsifier in coatings containing oil. Pretreatment with 1% calcium chloride was given to maintain the firmness of fresh-cut papaya cubes. 1% psyllium gum coating was found to yield better results. Further, addition of oil helped to maintain the quality and acted as a barrier to water vapour, therefore, minimizing the weight loss.

Keywords: coating, fresh-cut, gum, papaya, psylllium

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1084 The Performance of Typical Kinds of Coating of Printed Circuit Board under Accelerated Degradation Test

Authors: Xiaohui Wang, Liwei Sun, Guilin Zhang

Abstract:

Printed circuit board (PCB) is the carrier of electronic components. Its coating is the first barrier for protecting itself. If the coating is damaged, the performance of printed circuit board will decrease rapidly until failure. Therefore, the coating plays an important role in the entire printed circuit board. There are common four kinds of coating of printed circuit board that the material of the coatings are paryleneC, acrylic, polyurethane, silicone. In this paper, we designed an accelerated degradation test of humid and heat for these four kinds of coating. And chose insulation resistance, moisture absorption and surface morphology as its test indexes. By comparing the change of insulation resistance of the coating before and after the test, we estimate failure time of these coatings based on the degradation of insulation resistance. Based on the above, we estimate the service life of the four kinds of PCB.

Keywords: printed circuit board, life assessment, insulation resistance, coating material

Procedia PDF Downloads 453
1083 Assessment of Hygroscopic Characteristics of Hevea brasiliensis Wood

Authors: John Tosin Aladejana

Abstract:

Wood behave differently under different environmental conditions. The knowledge of the hygroscopic nature of wood becomes a key factor in selecting wood for use and required treatment. This study assessed the hygroscopic behaviour of Hevea brasiliensis (Rubber) wood. Void volume, volumetric swelling in the tangential, radial and longitudinal directions and volumetric shrinkage were used to assess the response of the wood when loosing or taking up moisture. Hevea brasiliensis wood samples cut into 20 × 20 × 60 mm taken longitudinally and transversely were used for the study and dried in the oven at 103 ± 2⁰C. The mean values for moisture content in green Hevea brasiliensis wood were 49.74 %, 51.14 % and 54.36 % for top, middle and bottom portion respectively while 51.77 %, 50.02 % and 53.45 % were recorded for outer, middle and inner portions respectively for the tree. The values obtained for volumetric shrinkage and swelling indicated that shrinkage and swelling were higher at the top part of H. brasiliensis. It was also observed that the longitudinal shrinkage was negligible while tangential direction showed the highest shrinkage among the wood direction. The values of the void volume obtained were 43.0 %, 39.0 % and 38.0 % at the top, middle and bottom respectively. The result obtained showed clarification on the wood density of hevea brasiliensis based on the position and portion of the wood species and the variation in moisture content, void volume, volumetric shrinkage and swelling were also revealed. This will provide information in the process of drying hevea brasiliensis wood to ensure better wood quality devoid of defects.

Keywords: moisture content, shrinkage, swelling, void volume

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
1082 Conversion of Tropical Wood to Bio-oil and Charcoal by Using the Process of Pyrolysis

Authors: Kittiphop Promdee, Somruedee Satitkune, Chakkrich Boonmee, Tharapong Vitidsant

Abstract:

Conversion of tropical wood using the process of pyrolysis, which converts tropical wood into fuel products, i.e. bio-oil and charcoal. The results showed the high thermal in the reactor core was thermally controlled between 0-600°C within 60 minutes. The products yield calculation showed that the liquid yield obtained from tropical wood was at its highest at 39.42 %, at 600°C, indicating that the tropical wood had received good yields because of a low gas yield average and high solid and liquid yield average. This research is not only concerned with the controlled temperatures, but also with the controlled screw rotating and feeding rate of biomass.

Keywords: pyrolysis, tropical wood, bio-oil, charcoal, heating value, SEM

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1081 Analysis of Flexural Behavior of Wood-Concrete Beams

Authors: M. Li, V. D. Thi, M. Khelifa, M. El Ganaoui

Abstract:

This study presents an overview of the work carried out by the use of wood waste as coarse aggregate in mortar. The paper describes experimental and numerical investigations carried on pervious concrete made of wood chips and also sheds lights on the mechanical properties of this new product. The properties of pervious wood-concrete such as strength, elastic modulus, and failure modes are compared and evaluated. The characterization procedure of the mechanical properties of wood waste ash are presented and discussed. The numerical and tested load–deflection response results are compared. It was observed that the numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental results.

Keywords: wood waste ash, characterization, mechanical properties, bending tests

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1080 Wood Ashes from Electrostatic Filter as a Replacement for the Fly Ashes in Concrete

Authors: Piotr-Robert Lazik, Harald Garrecht

Abstract:

Many concrete technologists are looking for a solution to replace Fly Ashes that would be unavailable in a few years as an element that occurs as a major component of many types of concrete. The importance of such component is clear - it saves cement and reduces the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere that occurs during cement production. Wood Ashes from electrostatic filter can be used as a valuable substitute in concrete. The laboratory investigations showed that the wood ash concrete had a compressive strength comparable to coal fly ash concrete. These results indicate that wood ash can be used to manufacture normal concrete.

Keywords: wood ashes, fly ashes, electric filter, replacement, concrete technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
1079 Preparation of Protective Coating Film on Metal Alloy

Authors: Rana Th. A. Al-rubaye

Abstract:

A novel chromium-free protective coating films based on a zeolite coating was growing onto a FeCrAlloy metal using in –situ hydrothermal method. The zeolite film was obtained using in-situ crystallization process that is capable of coating large surfaces with complex shape and in confined spaces has been developed. The zeolite coating offers an advantage of a high mechanical stability and thermal stability. The physico-chemical properties were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Electron microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X–ray analysis (EDX) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). The transition from oxide-on-alloy wires to hydrothermally synthesised uniformly zeolite coated surfaces was followed using SEM and XRD. In addition, the robustness of the prepared coating was confirmed by subjecting these to thermal cycling (ambient to 550°C).

Keywords: fecralloy, zsm-5 zeolite, zeolite coatings, hydrothermal method

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1078 Influence of Machining Process on Surface Integrity of Plasma Coating

Authors: T. Zlámal, J. Petrů, M. Pagáč, P. Krajkovič

Abstract:

For the required function of components with the thermal spray coating, it is necessary to perform additional machining of the coated surface. The paper deals with assessing the surface integrity of Metco 2042, a plasma sprayed coating, after its machining. The selected plasma sprayed coating serves as an abradable sealing coating in a jet engine. Therefore, the spray and its surface must meet high quality and functional requirements. Plasma sprayed coatings are characterized by lamellar structure, which requires a special approach to their machining. Therefore, the experimental part involves the set-up of special cutting tools and cutting parameters under which the applied coating was machined. For the assessment of suitably set machining parameters, selected parameters of surface integrity were measured and evaluated during the experiment. To determine the size of surface irregularities and the effect of the selected machining technology on the sprayed coating surface, the surface roughness parameters Ra and Rz were measured. Furthermore, the measurement of sprayed coating surface hardness by the HR 15 Y method before and after machining process was used to determine the surface strengthening. The changes of strengthening were detected after the machining. The impact of chosen cutting parameters on the surface roughness after the machining was not proven.

Keywords: machining, plasma sprayed coating, surface integrity, strengthening

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
1077 Chromium Adsorption by Modified Wood

Authors: I. Domingos, B. Esteves, A. Figueirinha, Luísa P. Cruz-Lopes, J. Ferreira, H. Pereira

Abstract:

Chromium is one of the most common heavy metals which exist in very high concentrations in wastewater. The removal is very expensive due to the high cost of normal adsorbents. Lignocellulosic materials and mainly treated materials have proven to be a good solution for this problem. Adsorption tests were performed at different pH, different times and with varying concentrations. Results show that is at pH 3 that treated wood absorbs more chromium ranging from 70% (2h treatment) to almost 100% (12 h treatment) much more than untreated wood with less than 40%. Most of the adsorption is made in the first 2-3 hours for untreated and heat treated wood. Modified wood adsorbs more chromium throughout the time. For all the samples, adsorption fitted relatively well the Langmuir model with correlation coefficient ranging from 0.85 to 0.97. The results show that heat treated wood is a good adsorbent ant that this might be a good utilization for sawdust from treating companies.

Keywords: adsorption, chromium, heat treatment, wood modification

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
1076 Biotechonomy System Dynamics Modelling: Sustainability of Pellet Production

Authors: Andra Blumberga, Armands Gravelsins, Haralds Vigants, Dagnija Blumberga

Abstract:

The paper discovers biotechonomy development analysis by use of system dynamics modelling. The research is connected with investigations of biomass application for production of bioproducts with higher added value. The most popular bioresource is wood, and therefore, the main question today is about future development and eco-design of products. The paper emphasizes and evaluates energy sector which is open for use of wood logs, wood chips, wood pellets and so on. The main aim for this research study was to build a framework to analyse development perspectives for wood pellet production. To reach the goal, a system dynamics model of energy wood supplies, processing, and consumption is built. Production capacity, energy consumption, changes in energy and technology efficiency, required labour source, prices of wood, energy and labour are taken into account. Validation and verification tests with available data and information have been carried out and indicate that the model constitutes the dynamic hypothesis. It is found that the more is invested into pellets production, the higher the specific profit per production unit compared to wood logs and wood chips. As a result, wood chips production is decreasing dramatically and is replaced by wood pellets. The limiting factor for pellet industry growth is availability of wood sources. This is governed by felling limit set by the government based on sustainable forestry principles.

Keywords: bioenergy, biotechonomy, system dynamics modelling, wood pellets

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
1075 Studies on Plasma Spray Deposited La2O3 - YSZ (Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia) Composite Thermal Barrier Coating

Authors: Prashant Sharma, Jyotsna Dutta Majumdar

Abstract:

The present study concerns development of a composite thermal barrier coating consisting of a mixture of La2O3 and YSZ (with 8 wt.%, 32 wt.% and 50 wt.% 50% La2O3) by plasma spray deposition technique on a CoNiCrAlY based bond coat deposited on Inconel 718 substrate by high velocity oxy-fuel deposition (HVOF) technique. The addition of La2O3 in YSZ causes the formation of pyrochlore (La2Zr2O7) phase in the inter splats boundary along with the presence of LaYO3 phase. The coefficient of thermal expansion is significantly reduced from due to the evolution of different phases and structural defects in the sprayed coating. The activation energy for TGO growth under isothermal and cyclic oxidation was increased in the composite coating as compared to YSZ coating.

Keywords: plasma spraying, oxidation resistance, thermal barrier coating, microstructure, X-ray method

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
1074 Titanium-Aluminium Oxide Coating on Aluminized Steel

Authors: Fuyan Sun, Guang Wang, Xueyuan Nie

Abstract:

In this study, a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process was used to form titanium-aluminium oxide coating on aluminized steel. The present work was mainly to study the effects of treatment time of PEO process on properties of the titanium coating. A potentiodynamic polarization corrosion test was employed to investigate the corrosion resistance of the coating. The friction coefficient and wear resistance of the coating were studied by using pin-on-disc test. The thermal transfer behaviours of uncoated and PEO-coated aluminized steels were also studied. It could be seen that treatment time of PEO process significantly influenced the properties of the titanium oxide coating. Samples with a longer treatment time had a better performance for corrosion and wear protection. This paper demonstrated different treatment time could alter the surface behaviour of the coating material.

Keywords: titanium-aluminum oxide, plasma electrolytic oxidation, corrosion, wear, thermal property

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
1073 The Use of the Steel Aggregate and Procedures for Application on Rural Roads to Improve Traffic

Authors: Luís Felipe da Cunha Mendonça

Abstract:

Normally, rural roads do not have any type of coating, and when they have any coating, they have a high maintenance cost due to the characteristics of natural materials. The Steel Aggregate has specific technical characteristics, which considerably reduce the maintenance costs of rural roads with the execution of the Primary Coating. For use as a primary coating, it must be mixed with clay due to the physical-chemical properties of the material. The application is mainly in the Primary Coating of rural roads due to the cementitious property in the presence of water, offering greater resistance to wear caused by traffic and consequently a longer useful life of the coating. The Steel Aggregate executed on rural roads has reduced particulate emissions and offers normal traffic in any weather condition, as well as creating sustainability. Contribute to the quality of life of communities through improvements in the conditions of rural and urban unpaved roads. Leading to substantial savings in maintenance. Because the durability, if applied correctly, is about 3 years, but if annual monitoring is carried out, it can be extended for more than 5 years.

Keywords: steel slag, co-product, primary coating, steel aggregate

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1072 The Characteristcs and Amino Acid Profile of Edible Coating Extracted from Pigskin Gelatin

Authors: Meity Sompie, Agnes Triasih, Wisje Ponto

Abstract:

Edible coating is thin layers that act as a barrier to the external factors and protect the food products. The addition of the plasticizer to the edible coating is required to overcome film caused by extensive intermolecular forces. The potential development of pigskin with different ages as a raw material for the manufacture of edible films had not been widely publicized. This research was aimed to determine the influence of gelatin concentration and different type of plasticizer on the edible coating characteristics extracted from pigskin gelatin. This study used Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with two factors and three replicates of treatments. The first factor was consisted of pigskin gelatin concentration ( 10, 20, and 30 %) and the second factor was different type of plasticizer (glycerol, sorbitol and PEG). The results show that the interaction between the use of gelatin concentrations and type of plasticizer had significant effect (P< 0.05) on the thickness, tensile strength, elongation, water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), water content and amino acid profile of edible coating. It was concluded that the edible coating from pigskin gelatin with plasticizer gliserol had the best film characteristics, and it can be applied as an edible coating.

Keywords: edible coating, edible film, pigskin gelatin, plasticizer

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
1071 Steel Dust as a Coating Agent for Iron Ore Pellets at Ironmaking

Authors: M. Bahgat, H. Hanafy, H. Al-Tassan

Abstract:

Cluster formation is an essential phenomenon during direct reduction processes at shaft furnaces. Decreasing the reducing temperature to avoid this problem can cause a significant drop in throughput. In order to prevent sticking of pellets, a coating material basically inactive under the reducing conditions prevailing in the shaft furnace, should be applied to cover the outer layer of the pellets. In the present work, steel dust is used as coating material for iron ore pellets to explore dust coating effectiveness and determines the best coating conditions. Steel dust coating is applied for iron ore pellets in various concentrations. Dust slurry concentrations of 5.0-30% were used to have a coated steel dust amount of 1.0-5.0 kg per ton iron ore. Coated pellets with various concentrations were reduced isothermally in weight loss technique with simulated gas mixture to the composition of reducing gases at shaft furnaces. The influences of various coating conditions on the reduction behavior and the morphology were studied. The optimum reduced samples were comparatively applied for sticking index measurement. It was found that the optimized steel dust coating condition that achieve higher reducibility with lower sticking index was 30% steel dust slurry concentration with 3.0 kg steel dust/ton ore.

Keywords: reduction, ironmaking, steel dust, coating

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
1070 Cold Spray Coating and Its Application for High Temperature

Authors: T. S. Sidhu

Abstract:

Amongst the existing coatings methods, the cold spray is new upcoming process to deposit coatings. As from the name itself, the cold spray coating takes place at very low temperature as compare to other thermal spray coatings. In all other thermal spray coating process the partial melting of the coating powder particles takes place before deposition, but cold spray process takes place in solid state. In cold spray process, the bonding of coating power with substrate is not metallurgical as in other thermal spray processes. Due to supersonic speed and less temperature of spray particles, solid state, dense, and oxide free coatings are produced. Due to these characteristics, the cold spray coatings have been used to protect the materials against hot corrosion. In the present study, the cold spray process, cold spray fundaments, its types, and its applications for high temperatures are discussed in the light of presently available literature. In addition, the assessment of cold spray with the competitive technologies has been conferred with available literature.

Keywords: cold spray coating, hot corrosion, thermal spray coating, high-temperature materials

Procedia PDF Downloads 146