Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 128

Search results for: sustained-release persulfate tablet

128 Sustained-Release Persulfate Tablets for Groundwater Remediation

Authors: Yu-Chen Chang, Yen-Ping Peng, Wei-Yu Chen, Ku-Fan Chen

Abstract:

Contamination of soil and groundwater has become a serious and widespread environmental problem. In this study, sustained-release persulfate tablets were developed using persulfate powder and a modified cellulose binder for organic-contaminated groundwater remediation. Conventional cement-based persulfate-releasing materials were also synthesized for the comparison. The main objectives of this study were to: (1) evaluate the release rates of the remedial tablets; (2) obtain the optimal formulas of the tablets; and (3) evaluate the effects of the tablets on the subsurface environment. The results of batch experiments show that the optimal parameter for the preparation of the persulfate-releasing tablet was persulfate:cellulose = 1:1 (wt:wt) with a 5,000 kg F/cm2 of pressure application. The cellulose-based persulfate tablet was able to release 2,030 mg/L of persulfate per day for 10 days. Compared to cement-based persulfate-releasing materials, the persulfate release rates of the cellulose-based persulfate tablets were much more stable. Moreover, since the tablets are soluble in water, no waste will be produced in the subsurface. The results of column tests show that groundwater flow would shorten the release time of the tablets. This study successfully developed unique persulfate tablets based on green remediation perspective. The efficacy of the persulfate-releasing tablets on the removal of organic pollutants needs to be further evaluated. The persulfate tablets are expected to be applied for site remediation in the future.

Keywords: sustained-release persulfate tablet, modified cellulose, green remediation, groundwater

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
127 Comparative Study of Ozone Based AOP's for Mineralization of Reactive Black 5

Authors: Sandip Sharma, Jayesh Ruparelia

Abstract:

The present work focuses on the comparative study of ozone based advanced oxidation processes (AOPs): O3, O3/UV and O3/UV/Persulfate for mineralization of synthetic wastewater containing Reactive Black5 (RB5) dye. The effect of various parameters: pH, ozone flow rate, initial concentration of dye and intensity of UV light was analyzed to access performance efficiency of AOPs. The performance of all the three AOPs was evaluated on the basis of decolorization, % TOC removal and ozone consumption. The highest mineralization rate of 86.83% was achieved for O3/UV/Persulfate followed by 71.53% and 66.82 % for O3/UV and O3 respectively. This is attributed to the fact that Persulfate ions (S2O82-) upon activation produce sulfate radical (SO4-●) which is very strong oxidant capable of degrading a wide variety of recalcitrant organic compounds, moreover to enhance the performance of Persulfate it is activated using UV irradiation. On increasing the intensity of UV irradiation from 11W to 66W, TOC removal efficiency is increased by 59.04%. Ozone based AOPs gives better mineralization on basic conditions, at pH 12 it gives 68.81%, 60.01% and 40.32% TOC removal for O3/UV/Persulfate, O3/UV and O3 process respectively. The result also reveals that decolorization of 98.95%, 95.17% and 94.71% was achieved by O3/UV/Persulfate, O3/UV and O3 process respectively. In addition to above, ozone consumption was also considerably decreased by 17% in case of O3/UV/Persulfate, as efficiency of process is enhanced by means of activation of persulfate through UV irradiation. Thus study reveals that mineralization follows: O3/UV/Persulfate> O3/UV> O3.

Keywords: AOP, mineralization, TOC, recalcitrant organic compounds

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
126 Investigating Students’ Acceptance Perception Level of Tablet PCs by a Variety of Variables

Authors: Baris Sezer

Abstract:

A great number of projects have been implemented by Turkey in order to integrate technologies into education. The FATİH Project is intended to integrate technology into all levels of education in Turkey. As part of the FATİH Project that is aimed to complete in 2016, it is intended to initially deliver a tablet PC to every student and teacher. We aimed to detect grade 9 students’ acceptance perception level of tablet PCs during the 2014 – 2015 school year in this study where quantitative and qualitative data collection techniques were used in combination. The study group consisted of 228 grade 9 students of high schools in Istanbul, Ankara, Zonguldak and Bursa in Turkey. Study data was obtained through the “Tablet PC Acceptance Scale” and structured interview forms. Given the results obtained from the study, the mean overall score was 70.08 (3.72 out of 5), which was derived from all the dimensions of the acceptance perception level of tablet PCs in the students’ view. Findings of the study indicate that mean scores for students’ acceptance perception level of tablet PCs did not differ by their gender and their level of use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Focus group interviews with students suggest that students did not effectively and actively use the tablet PCs; instead they used the interactive board during classes.

Keywords: acceptance of technology, student’s view, FATIH project, tablet PCs

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
125 Preparation and Evaluation of Multiple Unit Tablets of Aceclofenac

Authors: Vipin Saini, Sunil Kamboj, Suman Bala, A. Pandurangan

Abstract:

The present research is aimed at fabrication of multiple-unit controlled-release tablet formulation of aceclofenac by employing acrylic polymers as the release controlling excipients for drug multi-particulates to achieve the desired objectives of maintaining the same controlled release characteristics as that prior to their compression into tablet. Various manufacturers are successfully manufacturing and marketing aceclofenac controlled release tablet by applying directly coating materials on the tablet. The basic idea behind development of such formulations was to employ aqueous acrylics polymers dispersion as an alternative to the existing approaches, wherein the forces of compression may cause twist of drug pellets, but do not have adverse effects on the drug release properties. Thus, the study was undertaken to illustrate manufacturing of controlled release aceclofenac multiple-unit tablet formulation.

Keywords: aceclofenac, multiple-unit tablets, acrylic polymers, controlled-release

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
124 Formulation of Extended-Release Ranolazine Tablet and Investigation Its Stability in the Accelerated Stability Condition at 40⁰C and 75% Humidity

Authors: Farzad Khajavi, Farzaneh Jalilfar, Faranak Jafari, Leila Shokrani

Abstract:

Formulation of Ranolazine in the form of extended-release tablet in 500 mg dosage form was performed using Eudragit L100-55 as a retarding agent. Drug-release profiles were investigated in comparison with the reference Ranexa extended-release 500 mg tablet. F₂ and f₁ were calculated as 64.16 and 8.53, respectively. According to Peppas equation, the release of drug is controlled by diffusion (n=0.5). The tablets were put into accelerated stability conditions (40 °C, 75% humidity) for 3 and 6 months. The dissolution release profiles and other physical and chemical characteristics of the tablets confirmed the robustness and stability of formulation in this condition.

Keywords: drug release, extended-release tablet, ranolazine, stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
123 Solid Dosages Form Tablet: A Summary on the Article by Shashank Tiwari

Authors: Shashank Tiwari

Abstract:

The most common method of drug delivery is the oral solid dosage form, of which tablets and capsules are predominant. The tablet is more widely accepted and used compared to capsules for a number of reasons, such as cost/price, tamper resistance, ease of handling and packaging, ease of identification, and manufacturing efficiency. Over the past several years, the issue of tamper resistance has resulted in the conversion of most over-the-counter (OTC) drugs from capsules to predominantly all tablets.

Keywords: capsule, drug delivery, dosages, solid, tablet

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
122 Optimizing Performance of Tablet's Direct Compression Process Using Fuzzy Goal Programming

Authors: Abbas Al-Refaie

Abstract:

This paper aims at improving the performance of the tableting process using statistical quality control and fuzzy goal programming. The tableting process was studied. Statistical control tools were used to characterize the existing process for three critical responses including the averages of a tablet’s weight, hardness, and thickness. At initial process factor settings, the estimated process capability index values for the tablet’s averages of weight, hardness, and thickness were 0.58, 3.36, and 0.88, respectively. The L9 array was utilized to provide experimentation design. Fuzzy goal programming was then employed to find the combination of optimal factor settings. Optimization results showed that the process capability index values for a tablet’s averages of weight, hardness, and thickness were improved to 1.03, 4.42, and 1.42, respectively. Such improvements resulted in significant savings in quality and production costs.

Keywords: fuzzy goal programming, control charts, process capability, tablet optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
121 Direct Compression Formulation of Poorly Compressible Drugs to Minimize the Tablet Defects

Authors: Abhishek Pandey

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Capping and lamination are the most common tablet defects with poorly compressible drugs the common example of that Ibuprofen and Acetaminophen. Generally both these drugs are compressed by wet granulation method which is very time consuming process Ibuprofen and Acetaminophen is widely used as prescription & non-prescription medicine. Ibuprofen mainly used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain related to headache, migraine, postoperative condition and in the management of spondylitis, osteoarthritis Acetaminophen used as an analgesic and antipyretic drug. Ibuprofen having high tendency of sticking to punches of tablet punching machine while Acetaminophen is not ordinarily compressible to tablet formulation because Acetaminophen crystals are very hard and brittle in nature and fracture very easily when compressed producing capping and laminating tablet defects therefore wet granulation method is used to make them compressible. The aim of study was to prepare Ibuprofen and Acetaminophen tablets by direct compression technique and their evaluation. In this Investigation tablets were prepared by using directly compressible grade excipients. Dibasic calcium phosphate, lactose anhydrous (DCL21), microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH 101). In order to obtain best or optimize formulation nine different formulations were generated among them batch F5, F6, F7 shows good results and within the acceptable limit. Formulation (F7) selected as optimize product on the basis of evaluation parameters.

Keywords: capping, lamination, tablet defects, direct compression

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
120 Verification of the Effect of the Hazard-Perception Training Tool for Drivers Ported from a Tablet Device to a Smartphone

Authors: K. Shimazaki, M. Mishina, A. Fujii

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In a previous study, we developed a hazard-perception training tool for drivers using a tablet device and verified its effectiveness. Accident movies recorded by drive recorders were separated into scenes before and after the collision. The scene before the collision is presented to the driver. The driver then touches the screen to point out where he/she feels danger. After the screen is touched, the tool presents the collision scene and tells the driver if what he/she pointed out is correct. Various effects were observed such as this tool increased the discovery rate of collision targets and reduced the reaction time. In this study, we optimized this tool for the smartphone and verified its effectiveness. Verifying in the same way as in the previous study on tablet devices clarified that the same effect can be obtained on the smartphone screen.

Keywords: hazard perception, smartphone, tablet devices, driver education

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
119 Synthesis and Charaterization of Nanocomposite Poly (4,4' Methylenedianiline) Catalyzed by Maghnite-H+

Authors: A. Belmokhtar, A. Yahiaoui, A. Benyoucef, M. Belbachir

Abstract:

We reported the synthesis and characterization of nanocomposite poly (4,4’ methylenedianiline) via chemical polymerization of monomers 4,4’ methylenedianiline by ammonium persulfate (APS) at room temperature catalyzed by Maghnite-H+. A facile method was demonstrated to grow poly (4,4’ methylenedianiline) nanocomposite, which was carried out by mixing Ammonium Persulfate (APS) aqueous and 4,4’ methylenedianiline solution in the presence of Maghnite-H+ at room temperature The effect of amount of catalyst and time on the polymerization yield of the polymers was studied. Structure was confirmed by elemental analysis, UV vis, RMN-1H, and voltammetry cyclique.

Keywords: charaterization, maghnite-h+, polymerization, poly (4, 4’ methylenedianiline)

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
118 Performance Comparison of Tablet Devices and Medical Diagnostic Display Devices Using Digital Object Patterns in PACS Environment

Authors: Yan-Lin Liu, Cheng-Ting Shih, Jay Wu

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Tablet devices have been introduced into the medical environment in recent years. The performance of display can be varied based on the use of different hardware specifications and types of display technologies. Therefore, the differences between tablet devices and medical diagnostic LCDs have to be verified to ensure that image quality is not jeopardized for clinical diagnosis in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS). In this study, a set of randomized object test patterns (ROTPs) were developed, which included randomly located spheres in abdominal CT images. Five radiologists were asked to independently review the CT images on different generations of iPads and a diagnostic monochrome medical LCD monitor. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed by using a five-point rating scale, and the average area under curve (AUC) and average reading time (ART) were calculated. The AUC values for the second generation iPad, iPad mini, iPad Air, and monochrome medical monitor were 0.712, 0.717, 0.725, and 0.740, respectively. The differences between iPads were not significant. The ARTs were 177 min and 127 min for iPad mini and medical LCD monitor, respectively. A significant difference appeared (p = 0.04). The results show that the iPads were slightly inferior to the monochrome medical LCD monitor. However, tablet devices possess advantages in portability and versatility, which can improve the convenience of rapid diagnosis and teleradiology. With advances in display technology, the applicability of tablet devices and mobile devices may be more diversified in PACS.

Keywords: tablet devices, PACS, receiver operating characteristic, LCD monitor

Procedia PDF Downloads 408
117 The Effectiveness of Adaptive Difficulty Adjustment in Touch Tablet App on Young Children's Spatial Problem Solving Development

Authors: Chenchen Liu, Jacques Audran

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Using tablet apps with a certain educational purpose to promote young children’s cognitive development, is quite common now. Developing an educational app on an Ipad like tablet, especially for a young child (age 3-5) requires an optimal level of challenge to continuously attract children’s attention and obtain an educational effect. Adaptive difficulty adjustment, which could dynamically set the difficulty in the challenge according to children’s performance, seems to be a good solution. Since space concept plays an important role in young children’s cognitive development, we made an experimental comparison in a French kindergarten between one group of 23 children using an educational app ‘Debout Ludo’ with adaptive difficulty settings and another group of 20 children using the previous version of ‘Debout Ludo’ with a classic incremental difficulty adjustment. The experiment results of spatial problem solving indicated that a significantly higher learning outcome was acquired by the young children who used the adaptive version of the app.

Keywords: adaptive difficulty, spatial problem solving, tactile tablet, young children

Procedia PDF Downloads 352
116 Formulation and Evaluation of Mouth Dissolving Tablet of Ketorolac Tromethamine by Using Natural Superdisintegrants

Authors: J. P. Lavande, A. V.Chandewar

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Mouth dissolving tablet is the speedily growing and highly accepted drug delivery system. This study was aimed at development of Ketorolac Tromethamine mouth dissolving tablet (MDTs), which can disintegrate or dissolve rapidly once placed in the mouth. Conventional Ketorolac tromethamine tablet requires water to swallow it and has limitation like low disintegration rate, low solubility etc. Ketorolac Tromethamine mouth dissolving tablets (formulation) consist of super-disintegrate like Heat Modified Karaya Gum, Co-treated Heat Modified Agar & Filler microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). The tablets were evaluated for weight variation, friability, hardness, in vitro disintegration time, wetting time, in vitro drug release profile, content uniformity. The obtained results showed that low weight variation, good hardness, acceptable friability, fast wetting time. Tablets in all batches disintegrated within 15-50 sec. The formulation containing superdisintegrants namely heat modified karaya gum and heat modified agar showed better performance in disintegration and drug release profile.

Keywords: mouth dissolving tablet, Ketorolac tromethamine, disintegration time, heat modified karaya gum, co-treated heat modified agar

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
115 Optimization of Moisture Content for Highest Tensile Strength of Instant Soluble Milk Tablet and Flowability of Milk Powder

Authors: Siddharth Vishwakarma, Danie Shajie A., Mishra H. N.

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Milk powder becomes very useful in the low milk supply area but the exact amount to add for one glass of milk and the handling is difficult. So, the idea of instant soluble milk tablet comes into existence for its high solubility and easy handling. The moisture content of milk tablets is increased by the direct addition of water with no additives for binding. The variation of the tensile strength of instant soluble milk tablets and the flowability of milk powder with the moisture content is analyzed and optimized for the highest tensile strength of instant soluble milk tablets and flowability, above a particular value of milk powder using response surface methodology. The flowability value is necessary for ease in quantifying the milk powder, as a feed, in the designed tablet making machine. The instant soluble nature of milk tablets purely depends upon the disintegration characteristic of tablets in water whose study is under progress. Conclusions: The optimization results are very useful in the commercialization of milk tablets.

Keywords: flowability, milk powder, response surface methodology, tablet making machine, tensile strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
114 Formulation of Extended-Release Gliclazide Tablet Using a Mathematical Model for Estimation of Hypromellose

Authors: Farzad Khajavi, Farzaneh Jalilfar, Faranak Jafari, Leila Shokrani

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Formulation of gliclazide in the form of extended-release tablet in 30 and 60 mg dosage forms was performed using hypromellose (HPMC K4M) as a retarding agent. Drug-release profiles were investigated in comparison with references Diamicron MR 30 and 60 mg tablets. The effect of size of powder particles, the amount of hypromellose in formulation, hardness of tablets, and also the effect of halving the tablets were investigated on drug release profile. A mathematical model which describes hypromellose behavior in initial times of drug release was proposed for the estimation of hypromellose content in modified-release gliclazide 60 mg tablet. This model is based on erosion of hypromellose in dissolution media. The model is applicable to describe release profiles of insoluble drugs. Therefore, by using dissolved amount of drug in initial times of dissolution and the model, the amount of hypromellose in formulation can be predictable. The model was used to predict the HPMC K4M content in modified-release gliclazide 30 mg and extended-release quetiapine 200 mg tablets.

Keywords: Gliclazide, hypromellose, drug release, modified-release tablet, mathematical model

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
113 Usability Testing with Children: BatiKids Case Study

Authors: Hestiasari Rante, Leonardo De Araújo, Heidi Schelhowe

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Usability testing with children is similar in many aspects to usability testing with adults. However, there are a few differences that one needs to be aware of in order to get the most out of the sessions, and to ensure that children are comfortable and enjoying the process. This paper presents the need to acquire methodological knowledge for involving children as test users in usability testing, with consideration on Piaget’s theory of cognitive growth. As a case study, we use BatiKids, an application developed to evoke children’s enthusiasm to be involved in culture heritage preservation. The usability test was applied to 24 children from 9 to 10 years old. The children were divided into two groups; one interacted with the application through a graphic tablet with pen, and the other through touch screen. Both of the groups had to accomplish the same amount of tasks. In the end, children were asked to give feedback. The results suggested that children who interacted using the graphic tablet with pen had more difficulties rather than children who interacted through touch screen. However, the difficulty brought by the graphic tablet with pen is an important learning objective in order to understand the difficulties of using canting, which is an important part of batik.

Keywords: batikids, children, child-computer interaction, usability test

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
112 Design, Development and Evaluation of a Portable Recording System to Capture Dynamic Presentations using the Teacher´s Tablet PC

Authors: Enrique Barra, Abel Carril, Aldo Gordillo, Joaquin Salvachua, Juan Quemada

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Computers and multimedia equipment have improved a lot in the last years. They have reduced costs and size while at the same time has increased their capabilities. These improvements allowed us to design and implement a portable recording system that also integrates the teacher´s tablet PC to capture what he/she writes on the slides and all that happens in it. This paper explains this system in detail and the validation of the recordings that we did after using it to record all the lectures of a course in our university called “Communications Software”. The results show that pupils used the recordings for different purposes and consider them useful for a variety of things, especially after missing a lecture.

Keywords: recording system, capture dynamic presentations, lecture recording

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
111 Preparation and Characterization of Conductive Poly(N-Ethyl Aniline)/Kaolinite Composite Material by Chemical Polymerization

Authors: Hande Taşdemir, Meral Şahin, Mehmet Saçak

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Conductive composite materials obtained by physical or chemical mixing of two or more components having conducting and insulating properties have been increasingly attracted. Kaolinite in kaolin clays is one of silicates with two layers of molecular sheets of (Si2O5)2− and [Al2(OH)4]2+ with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4. The most abundant hydrophillic kaolinite is extensively used in industrial processes and therefore it is convenient for the preparation of organic/inorganic composites. In this study, conductive poly(N-ethylaniline)/kaolinite composite was prepared by chemical polymerization of N-ethyl aniline in the presence of kaolinite particles using ammonium persulfate as oxidant in aqueous acidic medium. Poly(N-ethylaniline) content and conductivity of composite prepared were systematically investigated as a function of polymerization conditions such as ammonium persulfate, N-ethyl aniline and HCl concentrations. Poly(N-ethylaniline) content and conductivity of composite increased with increasing oxidant and monomer concentrations up to 0.1 M and 0.2 M, respectively, and decreased at higher concentrations. The maximum yield of polymer in the composite (15.0%) and the highest conductivity value of the composite (5.0×10-5 S/cm) was achieved by polymerization for 2 hours at 20°C in HCl of 0.5 M. The structure, morphological analyses and thermal behaviours of poly(N-ethylaniline)/kaolinite composite were characterized by FTIR and XRD spectroscopy, SEM and TGA techniques.

Keywords: kaolinite, poly(N-ethylaniline), conductive composite, chemical polymerization

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
110 Tablet Computer Based Cognitive Rehabilitation Program, Injini, for Children with Cognitive Impairment

Authors: Eun Jae Ko, In Young Sung, Eui Soo Joeng

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Cognitive impairment is commonly encountered problem in children with various clinical diseases, including Down syndrome, autism spectrum disorder, brain injury, and others. Cognitive impairment limits participation in education and society, and this further hinders development in cognition. However, young children with cognitive impairment tend not to respond well to traditional cognitive treatments, therefore alternative treatment choices are need. As a cognitive training program, touch screen technology can easily be applied to very young children by involving visual and auditory support. Injini was developed as tablet computer based cognitive rehabilitation program for young children or individuals with severe cognitive impairment, which targeted on cognitive ages of 18 to 36 months. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a tablet computer based cognitive rehabilitation program (Injini) for children with cognitive impairment. 38 children between cognitive ages of 18 to 36 months confirmed by cognitive evaluations were recruited and randomly assigned to the intervention group (n=20) and the control group (n=18). The intervention group received tablet computer based cognitive rehabilitation program (Injini) for 30 minutes per session, twice a week, over a period of 12 weeks, in addition to the traditional rehabilitation program. The control group received traditional rehabilitation program only. Mental score of Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (BSID II), Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI), Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery (Lab-TAB), Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire (ECBQ), and Goal Attainment Scale (GAS) were evaluated before and after 12 weeks of therapeutic intervention. When comparing the baseline characteristics, there was no significant difference between the two groups in the measurements of cognitive function. After 12 weeks of treatment, both group showed improvements in all measurements. However, in comparison of improvements after treatment, the intervention group showed more improvements in the mental score of BSID II, social function domain of PEDI, observation domain of Lab-TAB, and GAS, as compared to the control group. Application of the tablet computer based cognitive rehabilitation program (Injini) would be beneficial for improvement of cognitive function in young children with cognitive impairment.

Keywords: cognitive therapy, computer-assisted therapy, early intervention, tablets

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
109 The Different Learning Path Analysis of Students with Different Learning Attitudes and Styles in Arts Creation

Authors: Tracy Ho, Huann-Shyang Lin, Mina Lin

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This study investigated the different learning path of students with different learning attitude and learning styles in Arts Creation. Based on direct instruction, guided-discovery learning, and discovery learning theories, a tablet app including the following three learning areas were developed for students: (1) replication and remix practice area, (2) guided creation area, and (3) free creation area. Thirty. students with different learning attitude and learning styles were invited to use this app. Students’ learning behaviors were categorized and defined. The results will provide both educators and researchers with insights that can form a useful foundation for designing different content and strategy with the application of new technologies in school teaching. It also sheds light on how an educational App can be designed to enhance Arts Creation.

Keywords: App, arts creation, learning attitude, learning style, tablet

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
108 Sulfate Radicals Applied to the Elimination of Selected Pollutants in Water Matrices

Authors: F. Javier Benitez, Juan L. Acero, Francisco J. Real, Elena Rodriguez

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Five selected pollutants which are frequently present in waters and wastewaters have been degraded by the advanced oxidation process constituted by UV radiation activated with the additional presence of persulfate (UV/PS). These pollutants were 1H-benzotriazole (BZ), N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide or DEET (DT), chlorophene (CP), 3-methylindole (ML), and nortriptyline hydrochloride (NH).While UV radiation alone almost not degraded these substances, the addition of PS generated the very reactive and oxidizing sulfate radical SO₄⁻. The kinetic study provided the second order rate constants for the reaction between this radical and each pollutant. An increasing dose of PS led to an increase in the degradation rate, being the highest results obtained at near neutral pH. Several water matrices were tested, and the presence of bicarbonate showed different effects: a decrease in the elimination of DT, BZ, and NH; and an increase in the oxidation of CP and ML. The additional presence of humic acids (AH) decreased this degradation, because of several effects: light screening and radical scavenging. The presence of several natural substances in waters (both types, inorganic and organic matter) usually diminishes the oxidation rates of organic pollutants, but this combination UV/PS process seems to be an efficient solution for the removal of the selected contaminants when are present in contaminated waters.

Keywords: water purification, UV activated persulfate, kinetic study, sulfate radicals

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
107 RP-HPLC Method Development and Its Validation for Simultaneous Estimation of Metoprolol Succinate and Olmesartan Medoxomil Combination in Bulk and Tablet Dosage Form

Authors: S. Jain, R. Savalia, V. Saini

Abstract:

A simple, accurate, precise, sensitive and specific RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of Metoprolol Succinate and Olmesartan Medoxomil in bulk and tablet dosage form. The RP-HPLC method has shown adequate separation for Metoprolol Succinate and Olmesartan Medoxomil from its degradation products. The separation was achieved on a Phenomenex luna ODS C18 (250mm X 4.6mm i.d., 5μm particle size) with an isocratic mixture of acetonitrile: 50mM phosphate buffer pH 4.0 adjusted with glacial acetic acid in the ratio of 55:45 v/v. The mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0ml/min, Injection volume 20μl and wavelength of detection was kept at 225nm. The retention time for Metoprolol Succinate and Olmesartan Medoxomil was 2.451±0.1min and 6.167±0.1min, respectively. The linearity of the proposed method was investigated in the range of 5-50μg/ml and 2-20μg/ml for Metoprolol Succinate and Olmesartan Medoxomil, respectively. Correlation coefficient was 0.999 and 0.9996 for Metoprolol Succinate and Olmesartan Medoxomil, respectively. The limit of detection was 0.2847μg/ml and 0.1251μg/ml for Metoprolol Succinate and Olmesartan Medoxomil, respectively and the limit of quantification was 0.8630μg/ml and 0.3793μg/ml for Metoprolol and Olmesartan, respectively. Proposed methods were validated as per ICH guidelines for linearity, accuracy, precision, specificity and robustness for estimation of Metoprolol Succinate and Olmesartan Medoxomil in commercially available tablet dosage form and results were found to be satisfactory. Thus the developed and validated stability indicating method can be used successfully for marketed formulations.

Keywords: metoprolol succinate, olmesartan medoxomil, RP-HPLC method, validation, ICH

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
106 Design and Development of Buccal Delivery System for Atenolol Tablets by Using Different Bioadhesive Polymers

Authors: Venkatalakshmi Ranganathan, Ong Hsin Ju, Tan Yinn Ming, Lim Kien Sin, Wong Man Ting, Venkata Srikanth Meka

Abstract:

The mucoadhesive buccal tablet is an oral drug delivery system which attached to the buccal surface for direct drug absorption into the systemic circulation and the unidirectional drug release is ensured by formulating a hydrophobic backing layer. The objective of present study was to formulate mucoadhesive atenolol bilayer buccal tablets by using sodium alginate, hydroxyethyl cellulose, and xanthan gum as mucoadhesive polymer and the technique applied was direct compression method. Ethyl cellulose was used as backing layer of the tablet. FTIR and DSC analysis were carried out to identify the drug polymer interactions. The prepared tablets were evaluated for physicochemical parameters, ex vivo mucoadhesion time and in-vitro drug release. The formulated tablets showed the average surface pH 6-7 which is favourable for oral mucosa. The formulation containing sodium alginate showed more than 90 % of drug release at the end of the 7 hours in vitro dissolution studies. The formulation containing xanthan gum showed more than 8 hours of mucoadhesion time and all formulation exhibited non fickian release kinetics. The present study indicates enormous potential of erodible mucoadhesive buccal tablet containing atenolol for systemic delivery with an added advantage of circumventing the hepatic first pass metabolism.

Keywords: atenolol, mucoadhesion, in vitro drug release, direct compression, ethyl cellulose

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105 Optimization of Gastro-Retentive Matrix Formulation and Its Gamma Scintigraphic Evaluation

Authors: Swapnila V. Shinde, Hemant P. Joshi, Sumit R. Dhas, Dhananjaysingh B. Rajput

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The objective of the present study is to develop hydro-dynamically balanced system for atenolol, β-blocker as a single unit floating tablet. Atenolol shows pH dependent solubility resulting into a bioavailability of 36%. Thus, site specific oral controlled release floating drug delivery system was developed. Formulation includes novice use of rate controlling polymer such as locust bean gum (LBG) in combination of HPMC K4M and gas generating agent sodium bicarbonate. Tablet was prepared by direct compression method and evaluated for physico-mechanical properties. The statistical method was utilized to optimize the effect of independent variables, namely amount of HPMC K4M, LBG and three dependent responses such as cumulative drug release, floating lag time, floating time. Graphical and mathematical analysis of the results allowed the identification and quantification of the formulation variables influencing the selected responses. To study the gastrointestinal transit of the optimized gastro-retentive formulation, in vivo gamma scintigraphy was carried out in six healthy rabbits, after radio labeling the formulation with 99mTc. The transit profiles demonstrated that the dosage form was retained in the stomach for more than 5 hrs. The study signifies the potential of the developed system for stomach targeted delivery of atenolol with improved bioavailability.

Keywords: floating tablet, factorial design, gamma scintigraphy, antihypertensive model drug, HPMC, locust bean gum

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
104 Dimensionless Binding Values in the Evaluation of Paracetamol Tablet Formulation

Authors: Abayomi T. Ogunjimi, Gbenga Alebiowu

Abstract:

Mechanical properties of paracetamol tablets containing Neem (Azadirachta indica) gum were compared with standard Acacia gum BP as binder. Two dimensionless binding quantities BEN and BEC were used in assessing the influence of binder type on two mechanical properties, Tensile Strength (TS) and Brittle Fracture Index (BFI). The two quantities were also used to assess the influence of relative density and binder concentration on TS and BFI as well as compare Binding Efficiencies (BE). The result shows that TS is dependent on relative density, binder type and binder concentration while BFI is dependent on the binder type and binder concentration; and that although, the inclusion of NMG in a paracetamol tablet formulation may not enhance the TS of the tablets produced, however it will decrease the tendency of the tablets to cap or laminate. This work concludes that BEN may be useful in quantitative assessment while BEC may be appropriate for qualitative assessment.

Keywords: binding efficiency, brittle fracture index, dimensionless binding, tensile strength

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103 Examining the Effects of Increasing Lexical Retrieval Attempts in Tablet-Based Naming Therapy for Aphasia

Authors: Jeanne Gallee, Sofia Vallila-Rohter

Abstract:

Technology-based applications are increasingly being utilized in aphasia rehabilitation as a means of increasing intensity of treatment and improving accessibility to treatment. These interactive therapies, often available on tablets, lead individuals to complete language and cognitive rehabilitation tasks that draw upon skills such as the ability to name items, recognize semantic features, count syllables, rhyme, and categorize objects. Tasks involve visual and auditory stimulus cues and provide feedback about the accuracy of a person’s response. Research has begun to examine the efficacy of tablet-based therapies for aphasia, yet much remains unknown about how individuals interact with these therapy applications. Thus, the current study aims to examine the efficacy of a tablet-based therapy program for anomia, further examining how strategy training might influence the way that individuals with aphasia engage with and benefit from therapy. Individuals with aphasia are enrolled in one of two treatment paradigms: traditional therapy or strategy therapy. For ten weeks, all participants receive 2 hours of weekly in-house therapy using Constant Therapy, a tablet-based therapy application. Participants are provided with iPads and are additionally encouraged to work on therapy tasks for one hour a day at home (home logins). For those enrolled in traditional therapy, in-house sessions involve completing therapy tasks while a clinician researcher is present. For those enrolled in the strategy training group, in-house sessions focus on limiting cue use in order to maximize lexical retrieval attempts and naming opportunities. The strategy paradigm is based on the principle that retrieval attempts may foster long-term naming gains. Data have been collected from 7 participants with aphasia (3 in the traditional therapy group, 4 in the strategy training group). We examine cue use, latency of responses and accuracy through the course of therapy, comparing results across group and setting (in-house sessions vs. home logins).

Keywords: aphasia, speech-language pathology, traumatic brain injury, language

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102 Formulation and In vivo Evaluation of Venlafaxine Hydrochloride Long Acting Tablet

Authors: Abdulwahhab Khedr, Tamer Shehata, Hanaa El-Ghamry

Abstract:

Venlafaxine HCl is a novel antidepressant drug used in the treatment of major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder and panic disorder. Conventional therapeutic regimens with venlafaxine HCl immediate-release dosage forms require frequent dosing due to short elimination half-life of the drug and reduced bioavailability. Hence, this study was carried out to develop sustained-release dosage forms of venlafaxine HCl to reduce its dosing frequency, to improve patient compliance and to reduce side effects of the drug. The polymers used were hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose, xanthan gum, sodium alginate, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, Carbopol 940 and ethyl cellulose. The physical properties of the prepared tablets including tablet thickness, diameter, weight uniformity, content uniformity, hardness and friability were evaluated. Also, the in-vitro release of venlafaxine HCl from different matrix tablets was studied. Based on physical characters and in-vitro release profiles, certain formulae showing promising sustained-release profiles were subjected to film coating with 15% w/v EC in dichloromethane/ethanol mixture (1:1 ratio) using 1% w/v HPMC as pore former and 30% w/w dibutyl phthalate as plasticizer. The optimized formulations were investigated for drug-excipient compatibility using FTIR and DSC studies. Physical evaluation of the prepared tablets fulfilled the pharmacopoeial requirements for tablet friability test, where the weight loss of the prepared formulae did not exceed 1% of the weight of the tested tablets. Moderate release was obtained from tablets containing HPMC. FTIR and DSC studies for such formulae revealed the absence of any type of chemical interaction between venlafaxine HCl and the used polymers or excipients. Forced swimming test in rats was used to evaluate the antidepressant activity of the selected matrix tablets of venlafaxine HCl. Results showed that formulations significantly decreased the duration of animals’ immobility during the 24 hr-period of the test compared to non-treated group.

Keywords: antidepressant, sustained-release, matrix tablet, venlafaxine hydrochloride

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101 Nacre Deposition Rate in Japanese and Hybrid Mother Oysters, Pinctada Fucata, and Its Relationship with Their Respective Pearls

Authors: Gunawan Muhammad, Takashi Atsumi, Akira Komaru

Abstract:

Pinctada fucata has been the most important pearl culture species in Japan and known as Japanese Akoya Pearl Oyster. However, during summer 1994, mass mortality devastated pearl culture in most parts of Japan. Therefore, pearl farmers started to import Chinese Pearl Oysters from Hainan Island that came from the same species because they are believed to be more resistant towards high water temperature, despite their lack of ability in producing high-quality pearls. The local farmers were then hybridized Japanese and Chinese pearl oysters and currently known as Hybrid pearl oysters, as an attempt to produce a new oyster's strain which is more resistant towards high temperature but also able to produce higher quality pearls. However, despite both strains were implanted by mantle tissues from the same group of donors, the thickness of pearl nacre produced by both strains was different, even though tablet thickness shows a rather similar pattern. Hence, this leads to a question of whether mother oysters play a major role in both nacre deposition rate and tablet thickness of pearls or not. This study first describes the nacre deposition rate of the shells of Japanese and Hybrid mother oysters towards the water temperature condition in Ago Bay, Mie Prefecture, Japan. Later, a comparative study was conducted among 4 shell positions that had been chosen according to the mantle tissue location and shell growth directions. A correlative study was then taken between shells and pearls nacre deposition rate to know whether mother oyster ability in depositing nacre on their shells is related to that of pearls. All the four shell positions were significantly different in shell nacre growth rate (Kruskal-Wallis, p-value < 0.05), and the third position have faster nacre growth among the other three both in Japanese and Hybrid strains, especially in warm temperature. The ability to deposit nacre between Japanese and Hybrid during warm water conditions (August and September) is also significantly different in almost all positions (Mann Whitney U, p-value < 0.01), Japanese oyster growth faster than Hybrid in all four positions. This leads to a different total growth among the two strains and a higher possibility of thicker nacre thickness in Japanese shell nacre. Tablet thickness is significantly different among all positions of shells (Kruskal-Wallis, p-value < 0.01), the 2nd position deposited rather thinner tablet thickness than the other three, including on the 6th month of culture which is more desirable in producing pearls with good luster. This result gives us new information that pearl growth rate is highly affected by the mother oysters; however, nacre tablet thickness might be the result of the shell matrix expressed by different mantle position from donor oysters.

Keywords: nacre, deposition, biomineralization, pearl aquaculture, pearl oyster, Akoya pearl, pearl

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100 A Design-Based Approach to Developing a Mobile Learning System

Authors: Martina Holenko Dlab, Natasa Hoic-Bozic, Ivica Boticki

Abstract:

This paper presents technologically innovative and scalable mobile learning solution within the SCOLLAm project (“Opening up education through Seamless and COLLAborative mobile learning on tablet computers”). The main research method applied during the development of the SCOLLAm mobile learning system is design-based research. It assumes iterative refinement of the system guided by collaboration between researches and practitioners. Following the identification of requirements, a multiplatform mobile learning system SCOLLAm [in]Form was developed. Several experiments were designed and conducted in the first and second grade of elementary school. SCOLLAm [in]Form system was used to design learning activities for math classes during which students practice calculation. System refinements were based on experience and interaction data gathered during class observations. In addition to implemented improvements, the data were used to outline possible improvements and deficiencies of the system that should be addressed in the next phase of the SCOLLAm [in]Form development.

Keywords: adaptation, collaborative learning, educational technology, mobile learning, tablet computers

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99 Removal of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHS) and the Response of Indigenous Bacteria in Highly Contaminated Aged Soil after Persulfate Oxidation

Authors: Yaling Gou, Sucai Yang, Pengwei Qiao

Abstract:

Integrated chemical-biological treatment is an attractive alternative to remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated soil; wherein indigenous bacteria is the key factor for the biodegradation of residual PAHs concentrations after the application of chemical oxidation. However, the systematical study on the impact of persulfate (PS) oxidation on indigenous bacteria as well as PAHs removal is still scarce. In this study, the influences of different PS dosages (1%, 3%, 6%, and 10% [w/w]), as well as various activation methods (native iron, H2O2, alkaline, ferrous iron, and heat) on PAHs removal and indigenous bacteria in highly contaminated aged soil were investigated. Apparent degradation of PAHs in the soil treated with PS oxidation was observed, and the removal efficiency of total PAHs in the soil ranged from 38.28% to 79.97%. The removal efficiency of total PAHs in the soil increased with increasing consumption of PS. However, the bacterial abundance in soil was negatively affected following oxidation for all of the treatments added with PS, with bacterial abundance in the soil decreased by 0.89~2.88 orders of magnitude compared to the untreated soil. Moreover, the number of total bacteria in the soil decreased as PS consumption increased. Different PS activation methods and PS dosages exhibited different influences on the bacterial community composition. Bacteria capable of degrading PAHs under anoxic conditions were composed predominantly by Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. The total amount of Proteobacteria and Firmicutes also decreased with increasing consumption of PS. The results of this study provide important insight into the design of PAHs contaminated soil remediation projects.

Keywords: activation method, chemical oxidation, indigenous bacteria, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon

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