Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 2066

Search results for: contaminated sites

2066 Contaminated Sites Prioritization Process Promoting and Redevelopment Planning

Authors: Che-An Lin, Wan-Ying Tsai, Ying-Shin Chen, Yu-Jen Chung


With the number and area of contaminated sites continued to increase in Taiwan, the Government have to make a priority list of screening contaminated sites under the limited funds and information. This study investigated the announcement of Taiwan EPA land 261 contaminated sites (except the agricultural lands), after preliminary screening 211 valid data to propose a screening system, removed contaminated sites were used to check the accuracy. This system including two dimensions which can create the sequence and use the XY axis to construct four quadrants. One dimension included environmental and social priority and the other related economic. All of the evaluated items included population density, land values, traffic hub, pollutant compound, pollutant concentrations, pollutant transport pathways, land usage sites, site areas, and water conductivity. The classification results of this screening are 1. Prioritization promoting sites (10%). 2. Environmental and social priority of the sites (17%), 3. Economic priority of the sites (30%), 4. Non-priority sites (43 %). Finally, this study used three of the removed contaminated sites to check screening system verification. As the surmise each of them are in line with the priority site and Economic priority of the site.

Keywords: contaminated sites, redevelopment, environmental, economics

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2065 Plants as Alternative Covers at Contaminated Sites

Authors: M. Grifoni, G. Petruzzelli, M. Barbafieri, I. Rosellini, B. Pezzarossa, F. Pedron


Evapotranspiration (ET) covers are an alternative cover system that utilizes water balance approach to maximize the ET process to reduce the contaminants leaching through the soil profile. Microcosm tests allow to identify in a short time the most suitable plant species to be used as alternative covers, their survival capacity, and simultaneously the transpiration and evaporation rate of the cover in a specific contaminated soil. This work shows the soil characterization and ET results of microcosm tests carried out on two contaminated soils by using Triticum durum and Helianthus annuus species. The data indicated that transpiration was higher than evaporation, supporting the use of plants as alternative cover at this contaminated site.

Keywords: contaminated sites, evapotranspiration cover, evapotranspiration, microcosm experiments

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2064 Soil Remediation Technologies towards Green Remediation Strategies

Authors: G. Petruzzelli, F. Pedron, M. Grifoni, M. Barbafieri, I. Rosellini, B. Pezzarossa


As a result of diverse industrial activities, pollution from numerous contaminant affects both groundwater and soils. Many contaminated sites have been discovered in industrialized countries and their remediation is a priority in environmental legislations. The aim of this paper is to provide the evolution of remediation from consolidated invasive technologies to environmental friendly green strategies. Many clean-up technologies have been used. Nowadays the technologies selection is no longer exclusively based on eliminating the source of pollution, but the aim of remediation includes also the recovery of soil quality. “Green remediation”, a strategy based on “soft technologies”, appears the key to tackle the issue of remediation of contaminated sites with the greatest attention to environmental quality, including the preservation of soil functionality.

Keywords: bioremediation, Green Remediation, phytoremediation, remediation technologies, soil

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2063 Phytoextraction of Heavy Metals in a Contaminated Site in Assam, India Using Indian Pennywort and Fenugreek: An Experimental Study

Authors: Chinumani Choudhury


Heavy metal contamination is an alarming problem, which poses a serious risk to human health and the surrounding geology. Soils get contaminated with heavy metals due to the un-regularized industrial discharge of the toxic metal-rich effluents. Under such a condition, the remediation of the contaminated sites becomes imperative for a sustainable, safe, and healthy environment. Phytoextraction, which involves the removal of heavy metals from the soil through root absorption and uptake, is a viable remediation technique, which ensures extraction of the toxic inorganic compound available in the soil even at low concentrations. The soil present in the Silghat Region of Assam, India, is mostly contaminated with Zinc (Zn) and Lead (Pb), having concentrations as high as to cause a serious environmental problem if proper measures are not taken. In the present study, an extensive experimental study was carried out to understand the effectiveness of two commonly planted trees in Assam, namely, i) Indian Pennywort and ii) Fenugreek, in the removal of heavy metals from the contaminated soil. The basic characterization of the soil in the contaminated site of the Silghat region was performed and the field concentration of Zn and Pb was recorded. Various long-term laboratory pot tests were carried out by sowing the seeds of Indian Pennywort and Fenugreek in a soil, which was spiked, with a very high dosage of Zn and Pb. The tests were carried out for different concentration of a particular heavy metal and the individual effectiveness in the absorption of the heavy metal by the plants were studied. The concentration of the soil was monitored regularly to assess the rate of depletion and the simultaneous uptake of the heavy metal from the soil to the plant. The amount of heavy metal uptake by the plant was also quantified by analyzing the plant sample at the end of the testing period. Finally, the study throws light on the applicability of the studied plants in the field for effective remediation of the contaminated sites of Assam.

Keywords: phytoextraction, heavy-metals, Indian pennywort, fenugreek

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2062 Isolation of Biosurfactant Producing Spore-Forming Bacteria from Oman: Potential Applications in Bioremediation

Authors: Saif N. Al-Bahry, Yahya M. Al-Wahaibi, Abdulkadir E. Elshafie, Ali S. Al-Bemani, Sanket J. Joshi


Environmental pollution is a global problem and best possible solution is identifying and utilizing native microorganisms. One possible application of microbial product -biosurfactant is in bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated sites. We have screened forty two different petroleum contaminated sites from Oman, for biosurfactant producing spore-forming bacterial isolates. Initial screening showed that out of 42 soil samples, three showed reduction in surface tension (ST) and interfacial tension (IFT) within 24h of incubation at 40°C. Out of those 3 soil samples, one was further selected for isolation of bacteria and 14 different bacteria were isolated in pure form. Of those 14 spore-forming, rod shaped bacteria, two showed highest reduction in ST and IFT in the range of 70mN/m to < 35mN/m and 26.69mN/m to < 9mN/m, respectively within 24h. These bacterial biosurfactants may be utilized for bioremediation of oil-spills.

Keywords: bioremediation, hydrocarbon pollution, spore-forming bacteria, bio-surfactant

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2061 Remediation of Heavy Metal Contaminated Soil with Vivianite Nanoparticles

Authors: Shinen B., Bavor J., Dorjkhand B., Suvd B., Maitsetseg B.


A number of remediation techniques are available for the treatment of soils and sediments contaminated by heavy metals. However, some of these techniques are expensive and environmentally disruptive. Nanomaterials are used in the environment as environmental catalysts to convert toxic substances from water, soil, and sediment into environmentally benign compounds. This study was carried out to scrutinize the feasibility of vivianite nanoparticles for remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals. Column experiments were performed in the laboratory to examine nanoparticle sequestration of metal in soil amended with vivianite nanoparticle suspension. The effect of environmental parameters such as temperature, pH and redox potential on metal leachability and bioavailability of soil amended with nanoparticle suspension was examined and compared with non-amended soils. The vivianite was effective in reducing the leachability of metals in soils. It is suggested that vivianite nanoparticles could be applied for the remediation of contaminated sites polluted by heavy metals due to mining activities, particularly in Mongolia, where mining industries have been developing rapidly in the last decade.

Keywords: bioavailability, heavy metals, nanoparticles, remediation

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2060 Phytoremediation of Hydrocarbon-Polluted Soils: Assess the Potentialities of Six Tropical Plant Species

Authors: Pulcherie Matsodoum Nguemte, Adrien Wanko Ngnien, Guy Valerie Djumyom Wafo, Ives Magloire Kengne Noumsi, Pierre Francois Djocgoue


The identification of plant species with the capacity to grow on hydrocarbon-polluted soils is an essential step for phytoremediation. In view of developing phytoremediation in Cameroon, floristic surveys have been conducted in 4 cities (Douala, Yaounde, Limbe, and Kribi). In each city, 13 hydrocarbon-polluted, as well as unpolluted sites (control), have been investigated using quadrat method. 106 species belonging to 76 genera and 30 families have been identified on hydrocarbon-polluted sites, unlike the control sites where floristic diversity was much higher (166 species contained in 125 genera and 50 families). Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Asteraceae and Amaranthaceae have higher taxonomic richness on polluted sites (16, 15,10 and 8 taxa, respectively). Shannon diversity index of the hydrocarbon-polluted sites (1.6 to 2.7 bits/ind.) were significantly lower than the control sites (2.7 to 3.2 bits/ind.). Based on a relative frequency > 10% and abundance > 7%, this study highlights more than ten plants predisposed to be effective in the cleaning-up attempts of soils contaminated by hydrocarbons. Based on the floristic indicators, 6 species (Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn., Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R. Br. ex DC †, Commelinpa benghalensis L., Cleome ciliata Schum. & Thonn. and Asystasia gangetica (L.) T. Anderson) were selected for a study to determine their capacity to remediate a soil contaminated with fuel oil (82.5 ml/ kg of soil). The experiments lasting 150 days takes into account three modalities - Tn: uncontaminated soils planted (6) To contaminated soils unplanted (3) and Tp: contaminated soil planted (18) – randomized arranged. 3 on 6 species (Eleusine indica, Cynodon dactylon, and Alternanthera sessilis) survived the climatic and soil conditions. E. indica presents a significantly higher growth rate for density and leaf area while C. dactylon had a significantly higher growth rate for stem size and leaf numbers. A. sessilis showed stunted growth and development throughout the experimental period. The species Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. and Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. can be qualified as polluo-tolerant plant species; polluo-tolerance being the ability of a species to survive and develop in the midst subject to extreme physical and chemical disturbances.

Keywords: Cameroon, cleaning-up, floristic surveys, phytoremediation

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2059 Multi-Temporal Analysis of Vegetation Change within High Contaminated Watersheds by Superfund Sites in Wisconsin

Authors: Punwath Prum


Superfund site is recognized publicly to be a severe environmental problem to surrounding communities and biodiversity due to its hazardous chemical waste from industrial activities. It contaminates the soil and water but also is a leading potential point-source pollution affecting ecosystem in watershed areas from chemical substances. The risks of Superfund site on watershed can be effectively measured by utilizing publicly available data and geospatial analysis by free and open source application. This study analyzed the vegetation change within high risked contaminated watersheds in Wisconsin. The high risk watersheds were measured by which watershed contained high number Superfund sites. The study identified two potential risk watersheds in Lafayette and analyzed the temporal changes of vegetation within the areas based on Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) analysis. The raster statistic was used to compare the change of NDVI value over the period. The analysis results showed that the NDVI value within the Superfund sites’ boundary has a significant lower value than nearby surrounding and provides an analogy for environmental hazard affect by the chemical contamination in Superfund site.

Keywords: soil contamination, spatial analysis, watershed

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2058 Screening of Minimal Salt Media for Biosurfactant Production by Bacillus spp.

Authors: Y. M. Al-Wahaibi, S. N. Al-Bahry, A. E. Elshafie, A. S. Al-Bemani, S. J. Joshi, A. K. Al-Bahri


Crude oil is a major source of global energy. The major problem is its widespread use and demand resulted is in increasing environmental pollution. One associated pollution problem is ‘oil spills’. Oil spills can be remediated with the use of chemical dispersants, microbial biodegradation and microbial metabolites such as biosurfactants. Four different minimal salt media for biosurfactant production by Bacillus isolated from oil contaminated sites from Oman were screened. These minimal salt media were supplemented with either glucose or sucrose as a carbon source. Among the isolates, W16 and B30 produced the most active biosurfactants. Isolate W16 produced better biosurfactant than the rest, and reduced surface tension (ST) and interfacial tension (IFT) to 25.26mN/m and 2.29mN/m respectively within 48h which are characteristics for removal of oil in contaminated sites. Biosurfactant was produced in bulk and extracted using acid precipitation method. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) of acid precipitate biosurfactant revealed two concentrated bands. Further studies of W16 biosurfactant in bioremediation of oil spills are recommended.

Keywords: oil contamination, remediation, Bacillus spp, biosurfactant, surface tension, interfacial tension

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2057 Biodegradation Effects onto Source Identification of Diesel Fuel Contaminated Soils

Authors: Colin S. Chen, Chien-Jung Tien, Hsin-Jan Huang


For weathering studies, the change of chemical constituents by biodegradation effect in diesel-contaminated soils are important factors to be considered, especially when there is a prolonged period of weathering processes. The objective was to evaluate biodegradation effects onto hydrocarbon fingerprinting and distribution patterns of diesel fuels, fuel source screening and differentiation, source-specific marker compounds, and diagnostic ratios of diesel fuel constituents by laboratory and field studies. Biodegradation processes of diesel contaminated soils were evaluated by experiments lasting for 15 and 12 months, respectively. The degradation of diesel fuel in top soils was affected by organic carbon content and biomass of microorganisms in soils. Higher depletion of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), n-alkanes, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their alkyl homologues was observed in soils containing higher organic carbon content and biomass. Decreased ratio of selected isoprenoids (i.e., pristane (Pr) and phytane (Ph)) including n-C17/pristane and n-C18/phytane was observed. The ratio of pristane/phytane was remained consistent for a longer period of time. At the end of the experimental period, a decrease of pristane/phytane was observed. Biomarker compounds of bicyclic sesquiterpanes (BS) were less susceptible to the effects of biodegradation. The ratios of characteristic factors such as C15 sesquiterpane/ 8β(H)-drimane (BS3/BS5), C15 sesquiterpane/ 8β(H)-drimane (BS4/BS5), 8β(H)-drimane/8β(H)-homodrimane (BS5/BS10), and C15 sesquiterpane/8β(H)-homodrimane (BS3/BS10) could be adopted for source identification of diesel fuels in top soil. However, for biodegradation processes lasted for six months but shorter than nine months, only BS3/BS5 and BS3/BS10 could be distinguished in two diesel fuels. In subsoil experiments (contaminated soil located 50 cm below), the ratios of characteristic factors including BS3/BS5, BS4/BS5, and BS5/BS10 were valid for source identification of two diesel fuels for nine month biodegradation. At the early stage of contamination, biomass of soil decreased significantly. However, 6 and 7 dominant species were found in soils in top soil experiments, respectively. With less oxygen and nutrients in subsoil, less biomass of microorganisms was observed in subsoils. Only 2 and 4 diesel-degrading species of microorganisms were identified in two soils, respectively. Parameters of double ratio such as fluorene/C1-fluorene: C2-phenanthrene/C3-phenanthrene (C0F/C1F:C2P/C3P) in both top and subsoil, C2-naphthalene/C2-phenanthrene: C1-phenanthrene/C3-phenanthrene (C2N/C2P:C1P/C3P), and C1-phenanthrene/C1-fluorene: C3-naphthalene/C3-phenanthrene (C1P/C1F:C3N/C3P) in subsoil could serve as forensic indicators in diesel contaminated sites. BS3/BS10:BS4/BS5 could be used in 6 to 9 months of biodegradation processes. Results of principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that source identification of diesel fuels in top soil could only be perofrmed for weathering process less than 6 months. For subsoil, identification can be conducted for weathering process less than 9 months. Ratio of isoprenoids (pristane and phytane) and PAHs might be affected by biodegradation in spilled sites. The ratios of bicyclic sesquiterpanes could serve as forensic indicators in diesel-contaminated soils. Finally, source identification was attemped for samples collected from different fuel contaminated sites by using the unique pattern of sesquiterpanes. It was anticipated that the information generated from this study would be adopted by decision makers to evaluate the liability of cleanup in diesel contaminated sites.

Keywords: biodegradation, diagnostic ratio, diesel fuel, environmental forensics

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2056 Isolation and Identification of Biosurfactant Producing Microorganism for Bioaugmentation

Authors: Karthick Gopalan, Selvamohan Thankiah


Biosurfactants are lipid compounds produced by microbes, which are amphipathic molecules consisting of hydrophophic and hydrophilic domains. In the present investigation, ten bacterial strains were isolated from petroleum oil contaminated sites near petrol bunk. Oil collapsing test, haemolytic activity were used as a criteria for primary isolation of biosurfactant producing bacteria. In this study, all the bacterial strains gave positive results. Among the ten strains, two were observed as good biosurfactant producers, they utilize the diesel as a sole carbon source. Optimization of biosurfactant producing bacteria isolated from petroleum oil contaminated sites was carried out using different parameters such as, temperature (20ºC, 25ºC, 30ºC, 37ºC and 45ºC), pH (5,6,7,8 & 9) and nitrogen sources (ammonium chloride, ammonium carbonate and sodium nitrate). Biosurfactants produced by bacteria were extracted, dried and quantified. As a result of optimization of parameters the suitable values for the production of more amount of biosurfactant by the isolated bacterial species was observed as 30ºC (0.543 gm/lt) in the pH 7 (0.537 gm/lt) with ammonium nitrate (0.431 gm/lt) as sole carbon source.

Keywords: isolation and identification, biosurfactant, microorganism, bioaugmentation

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2055 Human Health Risk Assessment from Metals Present in a Soil Contaminated by Crude Oil

Authors: M. A. Stoian, D. M. Cocarta, A. Badea


The main sources of soil pollution due to petroleum contaminants are industrial processes involve crude oil. Soil polluted with crude oil is toxic for plants, animals, and humans. Human exposure to the contaminated soil occurs through different exposure pathways: Soil ingestion, diet, inhalation, and dermal contact. The present study research is focused on soil contamination with heavy metals as a consequence of soil pollution with petroleum products. Human exposure pathways considered are: Accidentally ingestion of contaminated soil and dermal contact. The purpose of the paper is to identify the human health risk (carcinogenic risk) from soil contaminated with heavy metals. The human exposure and risk were evaluated for five contaminants of concern of the eleven which were identified in soil. Two soil samples were collected from a bioremediation platform from Muntenia Region of Romania. The soil deposited on the bioremediation platform was contaminated through extraction and oil processing. For the research work, two average soil samples from two different plots were analyzed: The first one was slightly contaminated with petroleum products (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) in soil was 1420 mg/kgd.w.), while the second one was highly contaminated (TPH in soil was 24306 mg/kgd.w.). In order to evaluate risks posed by heavy metals due soil pollution with petroleum products, five metals known as carcinogenic were investigated: Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), ChromiumVI (CrVI), Nickel (Ni), and Lead (Pb). Results of the chemical analysis performed on samples collected from the contaminated soil evidence soil contamination with heavy metals as following: As in Site 1 = 6.96 mg/kgd.w; As in Site 2 = 11.62 mg/kgd.w, Cd in Site 1 = 0.9 mg/kgd.w; Cd in Site 2 = 1 mg/kgd.w; CrVI was 0.1 mg/kgd.w for both sites; Ni in Site 1 = 37.00 mg/kgd.w; Ni in Site 2 = 42.46 mg/kgd.w; Pb in Site 1 = 34.67 mg/kgd.w; Pb in Site 2 = 120.44 mg/kgd.w. The concentrations for these metals exceed the normal values established in the Romanian regulation, but are smaller than the alert level for a less sensitive use of soil (industrial). Although, the concentrations do not exceed the thresholds, the next step was to assess the human health risk posed by soil contamination with these heavy metals. Results for risk were compared with the acceptable one (10-6, according to World Human Organization). As, expected, the highest risk was identified for the soil with a higher degree of contamination: Individual Risk (IR) was 1.11×10-5 compared with 8.61×10-6

Keywords: carcinogenic risk, heavy metals, human health risk assessment, soil pollution

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2054 Growing Vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides L.) on Contaminated Soils with Heavy Metals in Bulgaria

Authors: Violina Angelova, Huu Q. Lee


A field study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides L.) for phytoremediation of contaminated soils. The experiment was performed on agricultural fields contaminated by the Non-Ferrous-Metal Works near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The experimental plots were situated at different distances (0.5, 3.5, and 15 km) from the source of pollution. The concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cd in vetiver (roots and leaves) were determined. Correlations between the content of the heavy metal mobile forms extracted with DTPA and their content in the roots and leaves of the Vetiver have been established. The Vetiver is tolerant to heavy metals and can be grown on soils contaminated with heavy metals. Plants are characterized by low ability to absorb and accumulate Pb, Cd, and Zn and have no signs of toxicity (chlorosis and necrosis) at 36.8 mg/kg Cd, 1158.8 mg/kg Pb and 1526.2 mg/kg Zn in the soil. Vetiver plants can be classified as Pb, Cd and Zn excluder, therefore, this plant has the suitable potential for the phytostabilization of heavy metal contaminated soils. Acknowledgements: The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support by the Bulgarian National Science Fund (Project DFNI 04/9).

Keywords: contaminated soils, heavy metals, phytoremediation, vetiver

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2053 In-situ Performance of Pre-applied Bonded Waterproofing Membranes at Contaminated Test Slabs

Authors: Ulli Heinlein, Thomas Freimann


Pre-applied bonded membranes are used as positive-side waterproofing on concrete basements, are installed before the concrete work, and achieve a tear-resistant and waterproof bond with the subsequently placed fresh concrete. This bond increases redundancy compared to lose waterproofing membranes by preventing lateral water migrations in the event of damage. So far, the membranes have been tested in the laboratory, but it is not yet known how they behave on construction sites in the presence of dirt, soil, cement paste or moisture. This article, therefore, conducts investigations on six construction sites using 18 test slabs where the pre-applied bonded membranes are selectively contaminated or wetted. Subsequently, cores are taken, and the influence of the contaminations on the adhesive tensile strength and waterproof bond is tested. Pre-applied bonded membranes with smooth or granular but closed surfaces show no sensitivity to wetness, whereas open-pored membranes with nonwovens do not tolerate standing water. Contaminations decline the performance of all pre-applied bonded membranes since a separating layer is formed between the bonding layer and the concrete. The influence depends on the thickness of the contamination and its mechanical properties.

Keywords: waterproofing, positive-side waterproofing, basement, pre-applied bonded waterproofing membrane, In-situ testing, lateral water migrations

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2052 Central Composite Design for the Optimization of Fenton Process Parameters in Treatment of Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soil using Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron

Authors: Ali Gharaee, Mohammad Reza Khosravi Nikou, Bagher Anvaripour, Ali Asghar Mahjoobi


Soil contamination by petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) is a major concern facing the oil and gas industry. Particularly, condensate liquids have been found to contaminate soil at gas production sites. The remediation of PHCs is a difficult challenge due to the complex interaction between contaminant and soil. A study has been conducted to enhance degradation of PHCs by Fenton oxidation and using Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron as catalyst. The various operating conditions such as initial H2O2 concentration, nZVI dosage, reaction time, and initial contamination dose were investigated. Central composite design was employed to optimize and analyze the effect of operational parameters on the PHC removal efficiency. It was found that optimal molar ratio of H2O2/Fe0 was 58 with maximum TPH removal of 84% and 3hr reaction time and initial contaminant concentration was 15g oil /kg soil. Based on the results, combination of Nanoscale ZVI and Fenton has proved to be a promising remedy for contaminated soil.

Keywords: oil contaminated Soil, fenton oxidation, zero valent iron nano-particles

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2051 Potential of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) for Phytoremediation of Soils Contaminated with Heavy Metals

Authors: Violina R. Angelova, Vanja I. Akova, Stefan V. Krustev, Krasimir I. Ivanov


A field study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of safflower plant for phytoremediation of contaminated soils. The experiment was performed on an agricultural fields contaminated by the Non-Ferrous-Metal Works near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The concentrations of Pb, Zn and Cd in safflower (roots, stems, leaves and seeds), safflower oil and meal were determined. A correlation was found between the quantity of the mobile forms and the uptake of Pb, Zn and Cd by the safflower seeds. Safflower is a plant which is tolerant to heavy metals and can be grown on contaminated soils, and which can be referred to the hyperaccumulators of cadmium and the accumulators of lead and zinc, and can be successfully used in the phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. The processing of seeds to oil and using the obtained oil for nutritional purposes will greatly reduce the cost of phytoremediation. The possibility of further industrial processing will make safflower economically interesting crops for farmers of phytoremediation technology.

Keywords: heavy metals, phytoremediation, polluted soils, safflower

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2050 Assessment of Water Pollution in the River Nile (Egypt) by Applying Blood Biomarkers in Two Excellent Model Species Oreochromis niloticus niloticus and Clarias gariepinus

Authors: Alaa G. M. Osman, Abd-El –Baset M. Abd El Reheem, Khaled Y. Abouelfadl, Usama M. Mahmoud, Mohsen A. Moustafa


This study aimed to explore new sites of biomarker research and to establish the use of blood parameters in wild fish populations. Four hundred and twenty fish samples were collected from six sites along the whole course of the river Nile, Egypt. The mean values of erythrocytes, thrombocytes, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit value, and mean corpuscular volume were significantly lower in the blood of Nile tilapia and African catfish collected from downstream (contaminated) compared to upstream sites. In contrast, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration in the peripheral blood of both fish species significantly increased from upstream to downstream river Nile. The leukocytes count was significantly decreased in contaminated sites compared to upstream area. Hematological variables in the peripheral blood of Oreochromis niloticus niloticus and Clarias gariepinus exhibited significant (p<0.05) correlation with nearly all the detected chemical and physical parameters along the Nile course. In the present study, lower cellular and nuclear areas and cellular and nuclear shape factor were recorded in the erythrocytes of fish collected from downstream compared to those caught from upstream sites. This was confirmed by higher immature ratios of red cells in the blood of fish sampled from downstream river Nile. Karyorrhetic and enucleated erythrocytes were significantly correlated with physiochemical parameters in water samples collected from the same sites is being higher in the blood of fish collected from downstream sites. To see if there was any correlation between fish altered physiological fitness and environmental stress, we measured serum biochemical variables namely; total protein, cholesterol, triglycerides, calcium, chlorides, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), uric acid activity, creatinine, and serum glucose. The level of all the selected biochemical variables in the blood of O. niloticus niloticus and C. gariepinus were recorded to be significantly higher (p<0.05) in downstream sites. According to the present results, nearly all the detected haematological and blood biochemical variables are suitable indicators of contaminant exposure in O. niloticus niloticus and C. gariepinus. Also the detected erythrocytes malformations in blood collected from Nile tilapia and African catfish were proven to be suitable for bio-monitoring aquatic pollution. The results revealed species-specific differences in sensitivities, suggesting that Nile tilapia may serve as a more sensitive test species compared to African catfish.

Keywords: biomarkers, water pollution, blood parameters, river nile, african catfish, nile tilapia

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2049 Phytoremediation-A Plant Based Cleansing Method to Obtain Quality Medicinal Plants and Natural Products

Authors: Hannah S. Elizabeth, D. Gnanasekaran, M. R. Manju Gowda, Antony George


Phytoremediation a new technology of remediating the contaminated soil, water and air using plants and serves as a green technology with environmental friendly approach. The main aim of this technique is cleansing and detoxifying of organic compounds, organo-phosphorous pesticides, heavy metals like arsenic, iron, cadmium, gold, radioactive elements which cause teratogenic and life threatening diseases to mankind and animal kingdom when consume the food crops, vegetables, fruits, cerals, and millets obtained from the contaminated soil. Also, directly they may damage the genetic materials thereby alters the biosynthetic pathways of secondary metabolites and other phytoconstituents which may have different pharmacological activities which lead to lost their efficacy and potency as well. It would reflect in mutagenicity, drug resistance and affect other antagonistic properties of normal metabolism. Is the technology for real clean-up of contaminated soils and the contaminants which are potentially toxic. It reduces the risks produced by a contaminated soil by decreasing contaminants using plants as a source. The advantages are cost-effectiveness and less ecosystem disruption. Plants may also help to stabilize contaminants by accumulating and precipitating toxic trace elements in the roots. Organic pollutants can potentially be chemically degraded and ultimately mineralized into harmless biological compounds. Hence, the use of plants to revitalize contaminated sites is gaining more attention and preferred for its cost-effective when compared to other chemical methods. The introduction of harmful substances into the environment has been shown to have many adverse effects on human health, agricultural productivity, and natural ecosystems. Because the costs of growing a crop are minimal compared to those of soil removal and replacement, the use of plants to remediate hazardous soils is seen as having great promise.

Keywords: cost effective, eco-friendly, phytoremediation, secondary metabolites

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2048 Stabilization of Spent Engine Oil Contaminated Lateritic Soil Admixed with Cement Kiln Dust for Use as Road Construction Materials

Authors: Johnson Rotimi Oluremi, A. Adedayo Adegbola, A. Samson Adediran, O. Solomon Oladapo


Spent engine oil contains heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons which contribute to chronic health hazards, poor soil aeration, immobilisation of nutrients and lowering of pH in soil. It affects geotechnical properties of lateritic soil thereby constituting geotechnical and foundation problems. This study is therefore based on the stabilization of spent engine oil (SEO) contaminated lateritic soil using cement kiln dust (CKD) as a mean of restoring it to its pristine state. Geotechnical tests which include sieve analysis, atterberg limit, compaction, California bearing ratio and unconfined compressive strength tests were carried out on the natural, SEO contaminated and CKD stabilized SEO contaminated lateritic soil samples. The natural soil classified as A-2-7 (2) by AASHTO classification and GC according to the Unified Soil Classification System changed to A-4 non-plastic soil due to SEO contaminated even under the influence of CKD it remained unchanged. However, the maximum dry density (MDD) of the SEO contaminated soil increased while the optimum moisture content (OMC) behaved vice versa with the increase in the percentages of CKD. Similarly, the bearing strength of the stabilized SEO contaminated soil measured by California Bearing Ratio (CBR) increased with percentage increment in CKD. In conclusion, spent engine oil has a detrimental effect on the geotechnical properties of the lateritic soil sample but which can be remediated using 10% CKD as a stand alone admixture in stabilizing spent engine oil contaminated soil.

Keywords: spent engine oil, lateritic soil, cement kiln dust, stabilization, compaction, unconfined compressive strength

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2047 Electrokinetic Remediation of Uranium Contaminated Soil by Ion Exchange Membranes

Authors: Z. H. Shi, T. J. Dou, H. Zhang, H. X. Huang, N. Zeng


The contamination of significant quantities of soils and sediments with uranium and other actinide elements as a result of nuclear activity poses many environmental risks. The electrokinetic process is one of the most promising remediation techniques for sludge, sediment, and saturated or unsaturated soils contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides. However, secondary waste is a major concern for soil contaminated with nuclides. To minimize the generation of secondary wastes, this study used the anion and cation exchange membranes to improve the performance of the experimental apparatus. Remediation experiments of uranium-contaminated soil were performed with different agents. The results show that using acetic acid and EDTA as chelating agents clearly enhances the migration ability of the uranium. The ion exchange membranes (IEMs) used in the experiments not only reduce secondary wastes, but also, keep the soil pH stable.

Keywords: electrokinetic remediation, ion exchange membranes, soil, uranium

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
2046 Performance Evaluation of Using Genetic Programming Based Surrogate Models for Approximating Simulation Complex Geochemical Transport Processes

Authors: Hamed K. Esfahani, Bithin Datta


Transport of reactive chemical contaminant species in groundwater aquifers is a complex and highly non-linear physical and geochemical process especially for real life scenarios. Simulating this transport process involves solving complex nonlinear equations and generally requires huge computational time for a given aquifer study area. Development of optimal remediation strategies in aquifers may require repeated solution of such complex numerical simulation models. To overcome this computational limitation and improve the computational feasibility of large number of repeated simulations, Genetic Programming based trained surrogate models are developed to approximately simulate such complex transport processes. Transport process of acid mine drainage, a hazardous pollutant is first simulated using a numerical simulated model: HYDROGEOCHEM 5.0 for a contaminated aquifer in a historic mine site. Simulation model solution results for an illustrative contaminated aquifer site is then approximated by training and testing a Genetic Programming (GP) based surrogate model. Performance evaluation of the ensemble GP models as surrogate models for the reactive species transport in groundwater demonstrates the feasibility of its use and the associated computational advantages. The results show the efficiency and feasibility of using ensemble GP surrogate models as approximate simulators of complex hydrogeologic and geochemical processes in a contaminated groundwater aquifer incorporating uncertainties in historic mine site.

Keywords: geochemical transport simulation, acid mine drainage, surrogate models, ensemble genetic programming, contaminated aquifers, mine sites

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
2045 Key Challenges Facing the Management of Archaeological and Tourism Sites in Jordan

Authors: Muna Slehat


Jordan is endowed with over 14,500 productive archaeological sites and also a wealth of heritage sites that need to be protected from the pressing threat of destruction and damage. Archaeological sites in Jordan face significant threats, including insensitive development, urbanization, pollution, tourism, and vandalism, therefore an effective management plan is a key element, not only for the conservation of this heritage, but also to address issues such as tourism and sustainable development. This study highlights the obstacles that confront the management of the archaeological and tourism sites in Jordan, prior to and after the launch of the Strategies for Management of Jordan’s Archaeological Heritage by the Department of Antiquities (DoA) 2007-2010 and 2014-2018, as well as the establishment of the Directorate of the Management of Archaeological Sites in 2010, and instructions for the proper use of tourism sites, 2014, by the Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities (MoTA). The study has revealed that the management of the archaeological and tourism sites under the pretext of improvement of services for tourists and visitors to Jordan would allow access to so-called polarization tourism and facilitate tourism development that would be sustainable economically and provide attractive returns. The data required have been collected through conducting interviews with 18 specialists. The main findings of the study are that management is new in Jordan, and has become a vital and dynamic force in Jordan after 2000 but that there have also been many mistakes, with sustainability of the sites being ignored and a lack of awareness among local communities surrounding these sites. Management of the sites has also suffered from a lack of organizational vision, with no instructions for practical application and no legislative provisions which cater for the efficient management of the sites. All of this needs to be amended to remove gaps, overlaps and ambiguities, so that the authorities responsible for the rehabilitation and promotion, development and management of these sites can overcome the problems, such as lack of human resources (specialists) and financial resources.

Keywords: Jordan, management, archaeological sites, tourism, challenges

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
2044 An Evaluation of Edible Plants for Remediation of Contaminated Soil- Can Edible Plants Be Used to Remove Heavy Metals on Soil?

Authors: Celia Marilia Martins, Sonia I. V. Guilundo, Iris M. Victorino, Antonio O. Quilambo


In Mozambique rapid industrialization (mining, aluminium and cement activities) and urbanization processes has led to the incorporation of heavy metals on soil, thus degrading not only the quality of the environment, but also affecting plants, animals and human healthy. Several methods have been used to remediate contaminated soils, but most of them are costly and difficult to get optimum results. Currently, phytoremediation is an effective and affordable technological solution used to extract or remove inactive metals from contaminated soil. Phytoremediation is the use of plants to clean up a contamination from soils, sediments, and water. This technology is environmental friendly and potentially cost effective. The present investigation summarised the potential of edible vegetable to grow under the high level of heavy metals such as lead and zinc. The plants used in these studies include Tomatoes, lettuce and Soya beans. The studies have shown that edible plants can be grown under the high level of heavy metals on the soil. Further investigations are identifying mechanisms used by plants to ensure a safe and sustainable use for remediation of contaminated soils by heavy metals.

Keywords: contaminated soil, edible plants, heavy metals, phytoremediation

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
2043 Biodegradation Ability of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAHs) Degrading Bacillus cereus Strain JMG-01 Isolated from PAHs Contaminated Soil

Authors: Momita Das, Sofia Banu, Jibon Kotoky


Environmental contamination of natural resources with persistent organic pollutants is of great world-wide apprehension. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are among the organic pollutants, released due to various anthropogenic activities. Due to their toxic, carcinogenic and mutagenic properties, PAHs are of environmental and human concern. Presently, bioremediation has evolved as the most promising biotechnology for cleanup of such contaminants because of its economical and less cost effectiveness. In the present study, distribution of 16 USEPA priority PAHs was determined in the soil samples collected from fifteen different sites of Guwahati City, the Gateway of the North East Region of India. The total concentrations of 16 PAHs (Σ16 PAHs) ranged from 42.7-742.3 µg/g. Higher concentration of total PAHs was found more in the Industrial areas compared to all the sites (742.3 µg/g and 628 µg/g). It is noted that among all the PAHs, Naphthalene, Acenaphthylene, Anthracene, Fluoranthene, Chrysene and Benzo(a)Pyrene were the most available and contain the higher concentration of all the PAHs. Since microbial activity has been deemed the most influential and significant cause of PAH removal; further, twenty-three bacteria were isolated from the most contaminated sites using the enrichment process. These strains were acclimatized to utilize naphthalene and anthracene, each at 100 µg/g concentration as sole carbon source. Among them, one Gram-positive strain (JMG-01) was selected, and biodegradation ability and initial catabolic genes of PAHs degradation were investigated. Based on 16S rDNA analysis, the isolate was identified as Bacillus cereus strain JMG-01. Topographic images obtained using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) at scheduled time intervals of 7, 14 and 21 days, determined the variation in cell morphology during the period of degradation. AFM and SEM micrograph of biomass showed high filamentous growth leading to aggregation of cells in the form of biofilm with reference to the incubation period. The percentage degradation analysis using gas chromatography and mass analyses (GC-MS) suggested that more than 95% of the PAHs degraded when the concentration was at 500 µg/g. Naphthalene, naphthalene-2-methy, benzaldehyde-4-propyl, 1, 2, benzene di-carboxylic acid and benzene acetic acid were the major metabolites produced after degradation. Moreover, PCR experiments with specific primers for catabolic genes, ndo B and Cat A suggested that JMG-01 possess genes for PAHs degradation. Thus, the study concludes that Bacillus cereus strain JMG-01 has efficient biodegrading ability and can trigger the clean-up of PAHs contaminated soil.

Keywords: AFM, Bacillus cereus strain JMG-01, degradation, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, SEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
2042 Electrokinetic Remediation of Nickel Contaminated Clayey Soils

Authors: Waddah S. Abdullah, Saleh M. Al-Sarem


Electrokinetic remediation of contaminated soils has undoubtedly proven to be one of the most efficient techniques used to clean up soils contaminated with polar contaminants (such as heavy metals) and nonpolar organic contaminants. It can efficiently be used to clean up low permeability mud, wastewater, electroplating wastes, sludge, and marine dredging. EK processes have proved to be superior to other conventional methods, such as the pump and treat, and soil washing, since these methods are ineffective in such cases. This paper describes the use of electrokinetic remediation to clean up soils contaminated with nickel. Open cells, as well as advanced cylindrical cells, were used to perform electrokinetic experiments. Azraq green clay (low permeability soil, taken from the east part of Jordan) was used for the experiments. The clayey soil was spiked with 500 ppm of nickel. The EK experiments were conducted under direct current of 80 mA and 50 mA. Chelating agents (NaEDTA), disodium ethylene diamine-tetra-ascetic acid was used to enhance the electroremediation processes. The effect of carbonates presence in soils was, also, investigated by use of sodium carbonate. pH changes in the anode and the cathode compartments were controlled by using buffer solutions. The results showed that the average removal efficiency was 64%, for the Nickel spiked saturated clayey soil.Experiment results have shown that carbonates retarded the remediation process of nickel contaminated soils. Na-EDTA effectively enhanced the decontamination process, with removal efficiency increased from 64% without using the NaEDTA to over 90% after using Na-EDTA.

Keywords: buffer solution, contaminated soils, EDTA enhancement, electrokinetic processes, Nickel contaminated soil, soil remediation

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
2041 Biosorption of Lead (II) from Lead Acid Battery Industry Wastewater by Immobilized Dead Isolated Bacterial Biomass

Authors: Harikrishna Yadav Nanganuru, Narasimhulu Korrapati


Over the past many years, many sites in the world have been contaminated with heavy metals, which are the largest class of contaminants. Lead is one of the toxic heavy metals contaminated in the environment. Lead is not biodegradable, that’s why it is accumulated in the human body and impacts all the systems of the human body when it has been taken by humans. The accumulation of lead in the water environment has been showing adverse effects on the public health. So the removal of lead from the water environment by the biosorption process, which is emerged as a potential method for the lead removal, is an efficient approach. This work was focused to examine the removal of Lead [Pb (II)] ions from aqueous solution and effluent from battery industry. Lead contamination in water is a widespread problem throughout the world and mainly results from lead acid battery manufacturing effluent. In this work, isolated bacteria from wastewater of lead acid battery industry has been utilized for the removal of lead. First effluent from the lead acid battery industry was characterized by the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP – AES). Then the bacteria was isolated from the effluent and used it’s immobilized dead mass for the biosorption of lead. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and Atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies clearly suggested that the Lead (Pb) was adsorbed efficiently. The adsorbed percentage of lead (II) from waste was 97.40 the concentration of lead (II) is measured by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). From the result of AAS it can be concluded that immobilized isolated dead mass was well efficient and useful for biosorption of lead contaminated waste water.

Keywords: biosorption, ICP-AES, lead (Pb), SEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
2040 Potential of Salvia sclarea L. for Phytoremediation of Soils Contaminated with Heavy Metals

Authors: Violina R. Angelova, Radka V. Ivanova, Givko M. Todorov, Krasimir I. Ivanov


A field study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Salvia sclarea L. for phytoremediation of contaminated soils. The experiment was performed on an agricultural fields contaminated by the Non-Ferrous-Metal Works near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The content of heavy metals in different parts of Salvia sclarea L. (roots, stems, leaves and inflorescences) was determined by ICP. The essential oil of the Salvia sclarea L. was obtained by steam distillation in laboratory conditions and was analyzed for heavy metals and its chemical composition was determined. Salvia sclarea L. is a plant which is tolerant to heavy metals and can be grown on contaminated soils. Based on the obtained results and using the most common criteria, Salvia sclarea L. can be classified as Pb hyperaccumulator and Cd and Zn accumulators, therefore, this plant has suitable potential for the phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. Favorable is also the fact that heavy metals do not influence the development of the Salvia sclarea L., as well as on the quality and quantity of the essential oil. For clary sage oil obtained from the processing of clary sage grown on highly contaminated soils, its key odour-determining ingredients meet the quality requirements of the European Pharmacopoeia and BS ISO 7609 regarding Bulgarian clary sage oil and/or have values that are close to the limits of these standards. The possibility of further industrial processing will make Salvia sclarea L. an economically interesting crop for farmers of phytoextraction technology.

Keywords: clary sage, heavy metals, phytoremediation, polluted soils

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
2039 Mass Flux and Forensic Assessment: Informed Remediation Decision Making at One of Canada’s Most Polluted Sites

Authors: Tony R. Walker, N. Devin MacAskill, Andrew Thalhiemer


Sydney Harbour, Nova Scotia, Canada has long been subject to effluent and atmospheric inputs of contaminants, including thousands of tons of PAHs from a large coking and steel plant which operated in Sydney for nearly a century. Contaminants comprised of coal tar residues which were discharged from coking ovens into a small tidal tributary, which became known as the Sydney Tar Ponds (STPs), and subsequently discharged into Sydney Harbour. An Environmental Impact Statement concluded that mobilization of contaminated sediments posed unacceptable ecological risks, therefore immobilizing contaminants in the STPs using solidification and stabilization was identified as a primary source control remediation option to mitigate against continued transport of contaminated sediments from the STPs into Sydney Harbour. Recent developments in contaminant mass flux techniques focus on understanding “mobile” vs. “immobile” contaminants at remediation sites. Forensic source evaluations are also increasingly used for understanding origins of PAH contaminants in soils or sediments. Flux and forensic source evaluation-informed remediation decision-making uses this information to develop remediation end point goals aimed at reducing off-site exposure and managing potential ecological risk. This study included reviews of previous flux studies, calculating current mass flux estimates and a forensic assessment using PAH fingerprint techniques, during remediation of one of Canada’s most polluted sites at the STPs. Historically, the STPs was thought to be the major source of PAH contamination in Sydney Harbour with estimated discharges of nearly 800 kg/year of PAHs. However, during three years of remediation monitoring only 17-97 kg/year of PAHs were discharged from the STPs, which was also corroborated by an independent PAH flux study during the first year of remediation which estimated 119 kg/year. The estimated mass efflux of PAHs from the STPs during remediation was in stark contrast to ~2000 kg loading thought necessary to cause a short term increase in harbour sediment PAH concentrations. These mass flux estimates during remediation were also between three to eight times lower than PAHs discharged from the STPs a decade prior to remediation, when at the same time, government studies demonstrated on-going reduction in PAH concentrations in harbour sediments. Flux results were also corroborated using forensic source evaluations using PAH fingerprint techniques which found a common source of PAHs for urban soils, marine and aquatic sediments in and around Sydney. Coal combustion (from historical coking) and coal dust transshipment (from current coal transshipment facilities), are likely the principal source of PAHs in these media and not migration of PAH laden sediments from the STPs during a large scale remediation project.

Keywords: contaminated sediment, mass flux, forensic source evaluations, remediation

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
2038 Websites for Hypothesis Testing

Authors: Frantisek Mosna


E-learning has become an efficient and widespread means in process of education at all branches of human activities. Statistics is not an exception. Unfortunately the main focus in the statistics teaching is usually paid to the substitution to formulas. Suitable web-sites can simplify and automate calculation and provide more attention and time to the basic principles of statistics, mathematization of real-life situations and following interpretation of results. We introduce our own web-sites for hypothesis testing. Their didactic aspects, technical possibilities of individual tools for their creating, experience and advantages or disadvantages of them are discussed in this paper. These web-sites do not substitute common statistical software but significantly improve the teaching of the statistics at universities.

Keywords: e-learning, hypothesis testing, PHP, web-sites

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
2037 Community Development and Preservation of Heritage in Igbo Area of Nigeria

Authors: Elochukwu A. Nwankwo, Matthias U. Agboeze


Many heritage sites abound in the shores of Nigeria with enormous tourism potentials. Heritage sites do not only depict the cultural and historical transmutation of people but also functions in the image design and promotion of a locality. This reveals the unique role of heritage sites to structural development of an area. Heritage sites have of recent been a victim of degradation and social abuse arising from seasonal ignorance; hence minimizing its potentials to the socio-economic development of an area. This paper is emphasizing on the adoption of community development approaches in heritage preservation in Igbo area. Its modalities, applications, challenges and prospect were discussed. Such understanding will serve as a catalyst in aiding general restoration and preservation of heritage sites in Nigeria and other African states.

Keywords: heritage resources, community development, preservation, sustainable development, approaches

Procedia PDF Downloads 219