Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2066

Search results for: Niraj Kumar Singh

2066 Isotherm Study for Phenol Removal onto GAC

Authors: Lallan Singh Yadav, Bijay Kumar Mishra, Manoj Kumar Mahapatra, Arvind Kumar

Abstract:

Adsorption data for phenol removal onto granular activated carbon were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption capacity of phenol was estimated to be 16.12 mg/g at initial pH=5.7. The thermodynamics of adsorption process has also been determined in the present work.

Keywords: adsorption, phenol, granular activated carbon, bioinformatics, biomedicine

Procedia PDF Downloads 399
2065 Protective Role of Phycobiliproteins in ROS-Associated Physiological Anomalies

Authors: Ravi Raghav Sonani, Niraj Kumar Singh, Jitendra Kumar, Datta Madamwar

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Phycobiliproteins (PBPs) are light harvesting proteins showing very strong absorbance and fluorescence in the visible range of the solar spectrum. Phycoerythrin (PE) and phycocyanin (PC) are majorly found PBPs in the cyanobacteria and red algae. In the present study, we have investigated the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-averting capacity of purified PE and PC of cyanobacterial origin. Furthermore, the possibility - whether the ROS-averting potential of PBPs can be explored in the therapeutics of oxidative stress associated physiological anomalies including aging and neurodegenerative diseases. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been used as model organism in this study. PE and PC treatment moderated normal aging and associated physiological functionalities like pharyngeal pumping and locomotion of C. elegans. Moreover, PE-treatment enhanced the stress (oxidative and heat) tolerance upon PE and PC treatment. Specifically, PE treatment was also noted to moderate the progression of Alzheimer’s disease in transgenic C. elegans CL4176. However, PC-treatment curtailed the polyQ aggregation mediated proteotoxicity in C. elegans AM141 (Huntington disease model) under stressed (paraquat stress) as well as normal conditions. The effectiveness of PE and PC in expanding the lifespan of mutant C. elegans knockout for some up- (daf 16) and down- (daf-2 and age-1) stream regulators of insulin/IGF-1 signalling (IIS) shows the independency of their effects from DAF-2–AGE-1–DAF-16 signalling pathway. In conclusion, the present report demonstrates the anti-aging and neuro-protective potential of cyanobacterial PE and PC.

Keywords: phycobiliproteins, aging, alzheimer, huntington, C. elegans

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
2064 Field Experience with Sweep Frequency Response Analysis for Power Transformer Diagnosis

Authors: Ambuj Kumar, Sunil Kumar Singh, Shrikant Singh, Zakir Husain, R. K. Jarial

Abstract:

Sweep frequency response analysis has been turning out a powerful tool for investigation of mechanical as well as electrical integration of transformers. In this paper various aspect of practical application of SFRA has been studied. Open circuit and short circuit measurement were done on different phases of high voltage and low voltage winding. A case study was presented for the transformer of rating 31.5 MVA for various frequency ranges. A clear picture was presented for sub- frequency ranges for HV as well as LV winding. The main motive of work is to investigate high voltage short circuit response. The theoretical concept about SFRA responses is validated with expert system software results.

Keywords: transformer winding, SFRA, OCT & SCT, frequency deviation

Procedia PDF Downloads 689
2063 Surface Roughness Effects in Pure Sliding EHL Line Contacts with Carreau-Type Shear-Thinning Lubricants

Authors: Punit Kumar, Niraj Kumar

Abstract:

The influence of transverse surface roughness on EHL characteristics has been investigated numerically using an extensive set of full EHL line contact simulations for shear-thinning lubricants under pure sliding condition. The shear-thinning behavior of lubricant is modeled using Carreau viscosity equation along with Doolittle-Tait equation for lubricant compressibility. The surface roughness is assumed to be sinusoidal and it is present on the stationary surface. It is found that surface roughness causes sharp pressure peaks along with reduction in central and minimum film thickness. With increasing amplitude of surface roughness, the minimum film thickness decreases much more rapidly as compared to the central film thickness.

Keywords: EHL, Carreau, shear-thinning, surface roughness, amplitude, wavelength

Procedia PDF Downloads 400
2062 Fractional Order Differentiator Using Chebyshev Polynomials

Authors: Koushlendra Kumar Singh, Manish Kumar Bajpai, Rajesh Kumar Pandey

Abstract:

A discrete time fractional orderdifferentiator has been modeled for estimating the fractional order derivatives of contaminated signal. The proposed approach is based on Chebyshev’s polynomials. We use the Riemann-Liouville fractional order derivative definition for designing the fractional order SG differentiator. In first step we calculate the window weight corresponding to the required fractional order. Then signal is convoluted with this calculated window’s weight for finding the fractional order derivatives of signals. Several signals are considered for evaluating the accuracy of the proposed method.

Keywords: fractional order derivative, chebyshev polynomials, signals, S-G differentiator

Procedia PDF Downloads 456
2061 Preparation and Characterization of Lanthanum Aluminate Electrolyte Material for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

Authors: Onkar Nath Verma, Nitish Kumar Singh, Raghvendra, Pravin Kumar, Prabhakar Singh

Abstract:

The perovskite type electrolyte material LaAlO3 was prepared by solution based auto-combustion method using Al (NO3)3.6H2O, La2O3 with dilute nitrate acid (HNO3) as precursors and citric acid (C6H8O7.H2O) as a fuel. The synthesis protocol gave an easy processing of the LaAlO3 nano-particles. The XRD measurement revealed that the material has single phase with space group R-3c (rhombohedral). Thermal behavior was measured by simultaneous differential thermal analysis and thermo gravimetric analysis (DTA-TGA). The compact pellet density was determined. Also, the surface morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The conductivity of LaAlO3 was measured employing LCR meter and found to increase with increasing temperature. This increase in conductivity may be attributed to increased mobility of oxide ion.

Keywords: perovskite, LaAlO3, XRD, SEM, DTA-TGA, SOFC

Procedia PDF Downloads 363
2060 Development of Monoclonal Antibodies against the Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease Toxins

Authors: Naveen Kumar B. T., Anuj Tyagi, Niraj Kumar Singh, Visanu Boonyawiwat, Shanthanagouda A. H., Orawan Boodde, Shankar K. M., Prakash Patil, Shubhkaramjeet Kaur

Abstract:

Since 2009, Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND) outbreaks have increased rapidly, and these have led to the major economic losses to the global shrimp industry. In comparison to other treatments, passive immunity and monoclonal antibody (MAb) based farmer level kit have proved their importance in controlling and treating the diseases in the shrimp industry. In the present study, MAbs were produced against the recombinant PirB protein Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain causing AHPND. Briefly, Balb/C mice were immunized with rPirB at 15 days interval, and antibody titer was determined by ELISA. Spleen cells from mice showing high antibody titer were fused with SP2O myeloma cells for hybridoma production. Among 130 hybridomas, four showed high antibody titer and positive reactivity in an immunoblot assay. In Western blot assay, three out of four MAbs (4C4, 2C2 and 4G3) showed reactivity to rPirB protein. However, in the natural host, only Mab clone 4G3 show strong reactivity (with a strain of V. parahemolyticus causing EMS/AHPND). These clones also showed reactivity with less than 20 kDa proteins in AHPND free V. parahaemolyticus (Thailand stain). Further, on from MAb 4G3 clone, four panels of single cell MAbs clones (G3F5, G3B8, G3H2, and G3D6) were produced of which three showed strong positive reactivity to rPirB protein in the Western blot. These MAbs have potential for controlling and prevention of the AHPND through passive immunity and development of filed level rapid diagnostic kits.

Keywords: shrimp, economic loss, AHPND, MAb

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
2059 Traction Behavior of Linear Piezo-Viscous Lubricants in Rough Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication Contacts

Authors: Punit Kumar, Niraj Kumar

Abstract:

The traction behavior of lubricants with the linear pressure-viscosity response in EHL line contacts is investigated numerically for smooth as well as rough surfaces. The analysis involves the simultaneous solution of Reynolds, elasticity and energy equations along with the computation of lubricant properties and surface temperatures. The temperature modified Doolittle-Tait equations are used to calculate viscosity and density as functions of fluid pressure and temperature, while Carreau model is used to describe the lubricant rheology. The surface roughness is assumed to be sinusoidal and it is present on the nearly stationary surface in near-pure sliding EHL conjunction. The linear P-V oil is found to yield much lower traction coefficients and slightly thicker EHL films as compared to the synthetic oil for a given set of dimensionless speed and load parameters. Besides, the increase in traction coefficient attributed to surface roughness is much lower for the former case. The present analysis emphasizes the importance of employing realistic pressure-viscosity response for accurate prediction of EHL traction.

Keywords: EHL, linear pressure-viscosity, surface roughness, traction, water/glycol

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
2058 Hydro-Chemical Characterization of Glacial Melt Waters Draining from Shaune Garang Glacier, Himachal Himalaya

Authors: Ramesh Kumar, Rajesh Kumar, Shaktiman Singh, Atar Singh, Anshuman Bhardwaj, Ravindra Kumar Sinha, Anupma Kumari

Abstract:

A detailed study of the ion chemistry of the Shaune Garnag glacier meltwater has been carried out to assess the role of active glacier in the chemical denudation rate. The chemical compositions of various ions in meltwater of the Shaune Garang glacier were analyzed during the melting period 2015 and 2016. Total 112 of melt water samples twice in a day were collected during ablation season of 2015 and 2016. To identify various factors controlling the dissolved ionic strength of Shaune Garang Glacier meltwater statistical analysis such as correlation matrix, Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and factor analysis were applied to deduce the result. Cation concentration for Ca²⁺ > Mg²⁺ > Na⁺ > K⁺ in the meltwater for both the years can be arranged in the order as Ca²⁺ > Mg²⁺ > Na⁺ > K⁺. Study showed that Ca²⁺ and HCO₃⁻ found to be dominant on the both melting period. Carbonate weathering identified as the dominant process controlling the dissolved ion chemistry of meltwater due to the high ratios of (Ca²⁺ + Mg²⁺) versus TZ+ and (Ca²⁺ + Mg²⁺) versus (Na⁺ + K⁺) in the study area. The cation denudation rate of the Shaune Garnag catchment is 3412.2 m⁻² a⁻¹, i.e. higher than the other glacierised catchment in the Himalaya, indicating intense chemical erosion in this catchment.

Keywords: Shaune Garang glacier, Hydrochemistry, chemical composition, cation denudation rate, carbonate weathering

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
2057 A Problem in Microstretch Thermoelastic Diffusive Medium

Authors: Devinder Singh, Arvind Kumar, Rajneesh Kumar

Abstract:

The general solution of the equations for a homogeneous isotropic microstretch thermo elastic medium with mass diffusion for two dimensional problems is obtained due to normal and tangential forces. The integral transform technique is used to obtain the components of displacements, microrotation, stress and mass concentration, temperature change and mass concentration. A particular case of interest is deduced from the present investigation.

Keywords: normal force, tangential force, microstretch, thermoelastic, the integral transform technique, deforming force, microstress force, boundary value problem

Procedia PDF Downloads 423
2056 Development of a Model Based on Wavelets and Matrices for the Treatment of Weakly Singular Partial Integro-Differential Equations

Authors: Somveer Singh, Vineet Kumar Singh

Abstract:

We present a new model based on viscoelasticity for the Non-Newtonian fluids.We use a matrix formulated algorithm to approximate solutions of a class of partial integro-differential equations with the given initial and boundary conditions. Some numerical results are presented to simplify application of operational matrix formulation and reduce the computational cost. Convergence analysis, error estimation and numerical stability of the method are also investigated. Finally, some test examples are given to demonstrate accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method.

Keywords: Legendre Wavelets, operational matrices, partial integro-differential equation, viscoelasticity

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
2055 Heat Loss Control in Stave Cooled Blast Furnace by Optimizing Gas Flow Pattern through Burden Distribution

Authors: Basant Kumar Singh, S. Subhachandhar, Vineet Ranjan Tripathi, Amit Kumar Singh, Uttam Singh, Santosh Kumar Lal

Abstract:

Productivity of Blast Furnace is largely impacted by fuel efficiency and controlling heat loss is one of the enabling parameters for achieving lower fuel rate. 'I' Blast Furnace is the latest and largest Blast Furnace of Tata Steel Jamshedpur with working volume of 3230 m³ and with rated capacity of 3.055 million tons per annum. Optimizing heat losses in Belly and Bosh zone remained major challenge for blast furnace operators after its commissioning. 'I' Blast has installed Cast Iron & Copper Staves cooling members where copper staves are installed in Belly, Bosh & Lower Stack whereas cast iron staves are installed in upper stack area. Stave cooled Blast Furnaces are prone to higher heat losses in Belly and Bosh region with an increase in coal injection rate as Bosh gas volume increases. Under these conditions, managing gas flow pattern through proper burden distribution, casting techniques & by maintaining desired raw material qualities are of utmost importance for sustaining high injection rates. This study details, the burden distribution control by Ore & Coke ratio adjustment at wall and center of Blast Furnace as the coal injection rates increased from 140 kg/thm to 210 kg/thm. Control of blowing parameters, casting philosophy, specification for raw materials & devising operational practice for controlling heat losses is also elaborated with the model that is used to visualize heat loss pattern in different zones of Blast Furnace.

Keywords: blast furnace, staves, gas flow pattern, belly/bosh heat losses, ore/coke ratio, blowing parameters, casting, operation practice

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
2054 Edge Detection in Low Contrast Images

Authors: Koushlendra Kumar Singh, Manish Kumar Bajpai, Rajesh K. Pandey

Abstract:

The edges of low contrast images are not clearly distinguishable to the human eye. It is difficult to find the edges and boundaries in it. The present work encompasses a new approach for low contrast images. The Chebyshev polynomial based fractional order filter has been used for filtering operation on an image. The preprocessing has been performed by this filter on the input image. Laplacian of Gaussian method has been applied on preprocessed image for edge detection. The algorithm has been tested on two test images.

Keywords: low contrast image, fractional order differentiator, Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) method, chebyshev polynomial

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2053 Design, Synthesis and Evaluation of 4-(Phenylsulfonamido)Benzamide Derivatives as Selective Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibitors

Authors: Sushil Kumar Singh, Ashok Kumar, Ankit Ganeshpurkar, Ravi Singh, Devendra Kumar

Abstract:

In spectrum of neurodegenerative diseases, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by the presence of amyloid β plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. It results in cognitive and memory impairment due to loss of cholinergic neurons, which is considered to be one of the contributing factors. Donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor which also inhibits butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) and improves the memory and brain’s cognitive functions, is the most successful and prescribed drug to treat the symptoms of AD. The present work is based on designing of the selective BuChE inhibitors using computational techniques. In this work, machine learning models were trained using classification algorithms followed by screening of diverse chemical library of compounds. The various molecular modelling and simulation techniques were used to obtain the virtual hits. The amide derivatives of 4-(phenylsulfonamido) benzoic acid were synthesized and characterized using 1H & 13C NMR, FTIR and mass spectrometry. The enzyme inhibition assays were performed on equine plasma BuChE and electric eel’s AChE by method developed by Ellman et al. Compounds 31, 34, 37, 42, 49, 52 and 54 were found to be active against equine BuChE. N-(2-chlorophenyl)-4-(phenylsulfonamido)benzamide and N-(2-bromophenyl)-4-(phenylsulfonamido)benzamide (compounds 34 and 37) displayed IC50 of 61.32 ± 7.21 and 42.64 ± 2.17 nM against equine plasma BuChE. Ortho-substituted derivatives were more active against BuChE. Further, the ortho-halogen and ortho-alkyl substituted derivatives were found to be most active among all with minimal AChE inhibition. The compounds were selective toward BuChE.

Keywords: Alzheimer disease, butyrylcholinesterase, machine learning, sulfonamides

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2052 Application of Wavelet Based Approximation for the Solution of Partial Integro-Differential Equation Arising from Viscoelasticity

Authors: Somveer Singh, Vineet Kumar Singh

Abstract:

This work contributes a numerical method based on Legendre wavelet approximation for the treatment of partial integro-differential equation (PIDE). Operational matrices of Legendre wavelets reduce the solution of PIDE into the system of algebraic equations. Some useful results concerning the computational order of convergence and error estimates associated to the suggested scheme are presented. Illustrative examples are provided to show the effectiveness and accuracy of proposed numerical method.

Keywords: legendre wavelets, operational matrices, partial integro-differential equation, viscoelasticity

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
2051 Improving Equipment Life and Overall Equipment Effectiveness (O.E.E.) through Proper Maintenance Strategy Using Value Engineering

Authors: Malay Niraj, Praveen Kumar

Abstract:

The present study is a new approach for improving equipment life and Overall Equipment Efficiency (O.E.E.) through suitable maintenance practice with the help of value engineering. Value engineering is a one of the most powerful decision-making techniques which depend on many factors. The improvements are the result of recommendations made by multidisciplinary teams representing all parties involved. VE is a rigorous, systematic effort to improve the OEE and optimize the life cycle cost of a facility. The study describes problems in maintenance arising due to the absence of having clear criteria and strong decision constrain how to maintain failing equipment. Using factor comparisons, the study has been made between different maintenance practices and finally best maintenance practice based on value engineering technique has been selected.

Keywords: maintenance strategy, overall equipment efficiency, value engineering, decision-making

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2050 Performance Analysis and Energy Consumption of Routing Protocol in Manet Using Grid Topology

Authors: Vivek Kumar Singh, Tripti Singh

Abstract:

An ad hoc wireless network consists of mobile networks which creates an underlying architecture for communication without the help of traditional fixed-position routers. Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) is a routing protocol used for Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET). Nevertheless, the architecture must maintain communication routes although the hosts are mobile and they have limited transmission range. There are different protocols for handling the routing in the mobile environment. Routing protocols used in fixed infrastructure networks cannot be efficiently used for mobile ad-hoc networks, so that MANET requires different protocols. This paper presents the performance analysis of the routing protocols used various parameter-patterns with Two-ray model.

Keywords: AODV, packet transmission rate, pause time, ZRP, QualNet 6.1

Procedia PDF Downloads 441
2049 Challenges in Multi-Cloud Storage Systems for Mobile Devices

Authors: Rajeev Kumar Bedi, Jaswinder Singh, Sunil Kumar Gupta

Abstract:

The demand for cloud storage is increasing because users want continuous access their data. Cloud Storage revolutionized the way how users access their data. A lot of cloud storage service providers are available as DropBox, G Drive, and providing limited free storage and for extra storage; users have to pay money, which will act as a burden on users. To avoid the issue of limited free storage, the concept of Multi Cloud Storage introduced. In this paper, we will discuss the limitations of existing Multi Cloud Storage systems for mobile devices.

Keywords: cloud storage, data privacy, data security, multi cloud storage, mobile devices

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2048 Modeling and Simulation of Underwater Flexible Manipulator as Raleigh Beam Using Bond Graph

Authors: Sumit Kumar, Sunil Kumar, Chandan Deep Singh

Abstract:

This paper presents modeling and simulation of flexible robot in an underwater environment. The underwater environment completely contrasts with ground or space environment. The robot in an underwater situation is subjected to various dynamic forces like buoyancy forces, hydrostatic and hydrodynamic forces. The underwater robot is modeled as Rayleigh beam. The developed model further allows estimating the deflection of tip in two directions. The complete dynamics of the underwater robot is analyzed, which is the main focus of this investigation. The control of robot trajectory is not discussed in this paper. Simulation is performed using Symbol Shakti software.

Keywords: bond graph modeling, dynamics. modeling, rayleigh beam, underwater robot

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
2047 Morphological Processing of Punjabi Text for Sentiment Analysis of Farmer Suicides

Authors: Jaspreet Singh, Gurvinder Singh, Prabhsimran Singh, Rajinder Singh, Prithvipal Singh, Karanjeet Singh Kahlon, Ravinder Singh Sawhney

Abstract:

Morphological evaluation of Indian languages is one of the burgeoning fields in the area of Natural Language Processing (NLP). The evaluation of a language is an eminent task in the era of information retrieval and text mining. The extraction and classification of knowledge from text can be exploited for sentiment analysis and morphological evaluation. This study coalesce morphological evaluation and sentiment analysis for the task of classification of farmer suicide cases reported in Punjab state of India. The pre-processing of Punjabi text involves morphological evaluation and normalization of Punjabi word tokens followed by the training of proposed model using deep learning classification on Punjabi language text extracted from online Punjabi news reports. The class-wise accuracies of sentiment prediction for four negatively oriented classes of farmer suicide cases are 93.85%, 88.53%, 83.3%, and 95.45% respectively. The overall accuracy of sentiment classification obtained using proposed framework on 275 Punjabi text documents is found to be 90.29%.

Keywords: deep neural network, farmer suicides, morphological processing, punjabi text, sentiment analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
2046 Pond Site Diagnosis: Monoclonal Antibody-Based Farmer Level Tests to Detect the Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease in Shrimp

Authors: B. T. Naveen Kumar, Anuj Tyagi, Niraj Kumar Singh, Visanu Boonyawiwat, A. H. Shanthanagouda, Orawan Boodde, K. M. Shankar, Prakash Patil, Shubhkaramjeet Kaur

Abstract:

Early mortality syndrome (EMS)/Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND) has emerged as a major obstacle for the shrimp farming around the world. It is caused by a strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The possible preventive and control measure is, early and rapid detection of the pathogen in the broodstock, post-larvae and monitoring the shrimp during the culture period. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based early detection methods are good, but they are costly, time taking and requires a sophisticated laboratory. The present study was conducted to develop a simple, sensitive and rapid diagnostic farmer level kit for the reliable detection of AHPND in shrimp. A panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were raised against the recombinant Pir B protein (rPirB). First, an immunodot was developed by using MAbs G3B8 and Mab G3H2 which showed specific reactivity to purified r-PirB protein with no cross-reactivity to other shrimp bacterial pathogens (AHPND free Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Indian strains), V. anguillarum, WSSV, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Aphanomyces invadans). Immunodot developed using Mab G3B8 is more sensitive than that with the Mab G3H2. However, immunodot takes almost 2.5 hours to complete with several hands-on steps. Therefore, the flow-through assay (FTA) was developed by using a plastic cassette containing the nitrocellulose membrane with absorbing pads below. The sample was dotted in the test zone on the nitrocellulose membrane followed by continuos addition of five solutions in the order of i) blocking buffer (BSA) ii) primary antibody (MAb) iii) washing Solution iv) secondary antibody and v) chromogen substrate (TMB) clear purple dots against a white background were considered as positive reactions. The FTA developed using MAbG3B8 is more sensitive than that with MAb G3H2. In FTA the two MAbs showed specific reactivity to purified r-PirB protein and not to other shrimp bacterial pathogens. The FTA is simple to farmer/field level, sensitive and rapid requiring only 8-10 min for completion. Tests can be developed to kits, which will be ideal for use in biosecurity, for the first line of screening (at the port or pond site) and during monitoring and surveillance programmes overall for the good management practices to reduce the risk of the disease.

Keywords: acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease, AHPND, flow-through assay, FTA, farmer level, immunodot, pond site, shrimp

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
2045 Review on Wear Behavior of Magnesium Matrix Composites

Authors: Amandeep Singh, Niraj Bala

Abstract:

In the last decades, light-weight materials such as magnesium matrix composites have become hot topic for material research due to their excellent mechanical and physical properties. However, relatively very less work has been done related to the wear behavior of these composites. Magnesium matrix composites have wide applications in automobile and aerospace sector. In this review, attempt has been done to collect the literature related to wear behavior of magnesium matrix composites fabricated through various processing techniques such as stir casting, powder metallurgy, friction stir processing etc. Effect of different reinforcements, reinforcement content, reinforcement size, wear load, sliding speed and time have been studied by different researchers in detail. Wear mechanism under different experimental condition has been reviewed in detail. The wear resistance of magnesium and its alloys can be enhanced with the addition of different reinforcements. Wear resistance can further be enhanced by increasing the percentage of added reinforcements. Increase in applied load during wear test leads to increase in wear rate of magnesium composites.

Keywords: hardness, magnesium matrix composites, reinforcement, wear

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2044 Performance and Emissions Analysis of Diesel Engine with Bio-Diesel of Waste Cooking Oils

Authors: Mukesh Kumar, Onkar Singh, Naveen Kumar, Amar Deep

Abstract:

The waste cooking oil is taken as feedstock for biodiesel production. For this research, waste cooking oil is collected from many hotels and restaurants, and then biodiesel is prepared for experimentation purpose. The prepared biodiesel is mixed with mineral diesel in the proportion of 10%, 20%, and 30% to perform tests on a diesel engine. The experimental analysis is carried out at different load conditions to analyze the impact of the blending ratio on the performance and emission parameters. When the blending proportion of biodiesel is increased, then the highest pressure reduces due to the fall in the calorific value of the blended mixture. Experimental analysis shows a promising decrease in nitrogen oxides (NOx). A mixture of 20% biodiesel and mineral diesel is the best negotiation, mixing ratio, and beyond that, a remarkable reduction in the outcome of the performance has been observed.

Keywords: alternative sources, diesel engine, emissions, performance

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2043 Extraction of Cellulose Nanofibrils from Pulp Using Enzymatic Pretreatment and Evaluation of Their Papermaking Potential

Authors: Ajay Kumar Singh, Arvind Kumar, S. P. Singh

Abstract:

Cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) have shown potential of their extensive use in various fields, including papermaking, due to their unique characteristics. In this study, CNF’s were prepared by fibrillating the pulp obtained from raw materials e.g. bagasse, hardwood and softwood using enzymatic pretreatment followed by mechanical refining. These nanofibrils, when examined under FE-SEM, show that partial fibrillation on fiber surface has resulted in production of nanofibers. Mixing these nanofibers with the unrefined and normally refined fibers show their reinforcing effect. This effect is manifested in observing the improvement in the physical and mechanical properties e.g. tensile index and burst index of paper. Tear index, however, was observed to decrease on blending with nanofibers. The optical properties of paper sheets made from blended fibers showed no significant change in comparison to those made from only mechanically refined pulp. Mixing of normal pulp fibers with nanofibers show increase in ºSR and consequent decrease in drainage rate. These changes observed in mechanical, optical and other physical properties of the paper sheets made from nanofibrils blended pulp have been tried to explain considering the distribution of the nanofibrils alongside microfibrils in the fibrous network. Since usually, paper/boards with higher strength are observed to have diminished optical properties which is a drawback in their quality, the present work has the potential for developing paper/boards having improved strength alongwith undiminished optical properties utilising the concepts of nanoscience and nanotechnology.

Keywords: enzymatic pretreatment, mechanical refining, nanofibrils, paper properties

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2042 A Problem on Homogeneous Isotropic Microstretch Thermoelastic Half Space with Mass Diffusion Medium under Different Theories

Authors: Devinder Singh, Rajneesh Kumar, Arvind Kumar

Abstract:

The present investigation deals with generalized model of the equations for a homogeneous isotropic microstretch thermoelastic half space with mass diffusion medium. Theories of generalized thermoelasticity Lord-Shulman (LS) Green-Lindsay (GL) and Coupled Theory (CT) theories are applied to investigate the problem. The stresses in the considered medium have been studied due to normal force and tangential force. The normal mode analysis technique is used to calculate the normal stress, shear stress, couple stresses and microstress. A numerical computation has been performed on the resulting quantity. The computed numerical results are shown graphically.

Keywords: microstretch, thermoelastic, normal mode analysis, normal and tangential force, microstress force

Procedia PDF Downloads 423
2041 Quantifying Temporal Variation of Volatile Organic Compounds and Their Ozone Forming Potential at Rural Atmosphere in Delhi

Authors: Amit Kumar, Bhupendra Pratap Singh, Manoj Singh, Monika Punia, Krishan Kumar, V. K. Jain

Abstract:

Ambient concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were investigated in order to find out temporal variations and their ozone forming potentials (OFP) at rural site in Delhi National Capital Region during summer 2013. Sampling was performed for continuous five days, to identify the differences in working days and weekend VOCs concentration levels. Sampling and analytical procedure for VOCs were done using National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) standard method. On each sampling day, VOCs samples were collected for 3-hours in the morning, afternoon and evening. There has been observed a noticeable contrast in the concentration of VOCs levels between working days and weekend. However, most of the VOCs showed diurnal fluctuations with higher concentrations in the morning and evening as compared to afternoon which might be due to change in meteorology. The results showed that mean toluene/benzene and m-/p-xylene/benzene ratios were higher in the afternoon while it was lower during morning and evening. The relative contribution of the VOCs to ozone formation, total propylene equivalent concentrations and OFP were calculated. Toluene was the most contributing organic contaminant to ozone formation as well as ambient VOCs concentrations. Results obtained in current study demonstrate that ozone formation at rural site in Delhi is probably limited by the emissions of VOCs.

Keywords: VOCs, rural, NIOSH, ozone forming potential, propylene equivalent concentration

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2040 Investigation on Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in Candidate Genes and Their Association with Occurrence of Mycobacterium avium Subspecies Paratuberculosis Infection in Cattle

Authors: Ran Vir Singh, Anuj Chauhan, Subhodh Kumar, Rajesh Rathore, Satish Kumar, B Gopi, Sushil Kumar, Tarun Kumar, Ramji Yadav, Donna Phangchopi, Shoor Vir Singh

Abstract:

Paratuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is a chronic granulomatous enteritis affecting ruminants. It is responsible for significant economic losses in livestock industry worldwide. This organism is also of public health concern due to an unconfirmed link to Crohn’s disease. Susceptibility to paratuberculosis has been suggested to have genetic component with low to moderate heritability. Number of SNPs in various candidates genes have been observed to be affecting the susceptibility toward paratuberculosis. The objective of this study was to explore the association of various SNPs in the candidate genes and QTL region with MAP. A total of 117 SNPs from SLC11A1, IFNG, CARD15, TLR2, TLR4, CLEC7A, CD209, SP110, ANKARA2, PGLYRP1 and one QTL were selected for study. A total of 1222 cattle from various organized herds, gauhsalas and farmer herds were screened for MAP infection by Johnin intradermal skin test, AGID, serum ELISA, fecal microscopy, fecal culture and IS900 blood PCR. Based on the results of these tests, a case and control population of 200 and 183 respectively was established for study. A total of 117 SNPs from 10 candidate genes and one QTL were selected and validated/tested in our case and control population by PCR-RFLP technique. Data was analyzed using SAS 9.3 software. Statistical analysis revealed that, 107 out of 117 SNPs were not significantly associated with occurrence of MAP. Only SNP rs55617172 of TLR2, rs8193046 and rs8193060 of TLR4, rs110353594 and rs41654445 of CLEC7A, rs208814257of CD209, rs41933863 of ANKRA2, two loci {SLC11A1(53C/G)} and {IFNG (185 G/r) } and SNP rs41945014 in QTL region was significantly associated with MAP. Six SNP from 10 significant SNPs viz., rs110353594 and rs41654445 from CLEC7A, rs8193046 and rs8193060 from TLR4, rs109453173 from SLC11A1 rs208814257 from CD209 were validated in new case and control population. Out of these only one SNP rs8193046 of TLR4 gene was found significantly associated with occurrence of MAP in cattle. ODD ratio indicates that animals with AG genotype were more susceptible to MAP and this finding is in accordance with the earlier report. Hence it reaffirms that AG genotype can serve as a reliable genetic marker for indentifying more susceptible cattle in future selection against MAP infection in cattle.

Keywords: SNP, candidate genes, paratuberculosis, cattle

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2039 Analysis of Taxonomic Compositions, Metabolic Pathways and Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Fish Gut Microbiome by Shotgun Metagenomics

Authors: Anuj Tyagi, Balwinder Singh, Naveen Kumar B. T., Niraj K. Singh

Abstract:

Characterization of diverse microbial communities in specific environment plays a crucial role in the better understanding of their functional relationship with the ecosystem. It is now well established that gut microbiome of fish is not the simple replication of microbiota of surrounding local habitat, and extensive species, dietary, physiological and metabolic variations in fishes may have a significant impact on its composition. Moreover, overuse of antibiotics in human, veterinary and aquaculture medicine has led to rapid emergence and propagation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the aquatic environment. Microbial communities harboring specific ARGs not only get a preferential edge during selective antibiotic exposure but also possess the significant risk of ARGs transfer to other non-resistance bacteria within the confined environments. This phenomenon may lead to the emergence of habitat-specific microbial resistomes and subsequent emergence of virulent antibiotic-resistant pathogens with severe fish and consumer health consequences. In this study, gut microbiota of freshwater carp (Labeo rohita) was investigated by shotgun metagenomics to understand its taxonomic composition and functional capabilities. Metagenomic DNA, extracted from the fish gut, was subjected to sequencing on Illumina NextSeq to generate paired-end (PE) 2 x 150 bp sequencing reads. After the QC of raw sequencing data by Trimmomatic, taxonomic analysis by Kraken2 taxonomic sequence classification system revealed the presence of 36 phyla, 326 families and 985 genera in the fish gut microbiome. At phylum level, Proteobacteria accounted for more than three-fourths of total bacterial populations followed by Actinobacteria (14%) and Cyanobacteria (3%). Commonly used probiotic bacteria (Bacillus, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, and Lactococcus) were found to be very less prevalent in fish gut. After sequencing data assembly by MEGAHIT v1.1.2 assembler and PROKKA automated analysis pipeline, pathway analysis revealed the presence of 1,608 Metacyc pathways in the fish gut microbiome. Biosynthesis pathways were found to be the most dominant (51%) followed by degradation (39%), energy-metabolism (4%) and fermentation (2%). Almost one-third (33%) of biosynthesis pathways were involved in the synthesis of secondary metabolites. Metabolic pathways for the biosynthesis of 35 antibiotic types were also present, and these accounted for 5% of overall metabolic pathways in the fish gut microbiome. Fifty-one different types of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) belonging to 15 antimicrobial resistance (AMR) gene families and conferring resistance against 24 antibiotic types were detected in fish gut. More than 90% ARGs in fish gut microbiome were against beta-lactams (penicillins, cephalosporins, penems, and monobactams). Resistance against tetracycline, macrolides, fluoroquinolones, and phenicols ranged from 0.7% to 1.3%. Some of the ARGs for multi-drug resistance were also found to be located on sequences of plasmid origin. The presence of pathogenic bacteria and ARGs on plasmid sequences suggested the potential risk due to horizontal gene transfer in the confined gut environment.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance, fish gut, metabolic pathways, microbial diversity

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2038 Implementation of MPPT Algorithm for Grid Connected PV Module with IC and P&O Method

Authors: Arvind Kumar, Manoj Kumar, Dattatraya H. Nagaraj, Amanpreet Singh, Jayanthi Prattapati

Abstract:

In recent years, the use of renewable energy resources instead of pollutant fossil fuels and other forms has increased. Photovoltaic generation is becoming increasingly important as a renewable resource since it does not cause in fuel costs, pollution, maintenance, and emitting noise compared with other alternatives used in power applications. In this paper, Perturb and Observe and Incremental Conductance methods are used to improve energy conversion efficiency under different environmental conditions. PI controllers are used to control easily DC-link voltage, active and reactive currents. The whole system is simulated under standard climatic conditions (1000 W/m2, 250C) in MATLAB and the irradiance is varied from 1000 W/m2 to 300 W/m2. The use of PI controller makes it easy to directly control the power of the grid connected PV system. Finally the validity of the system will be verified through the simulations in MATLAB/Simulink environment.

Keywords: incremental conductance algorithm, modeling of PV panel, perturb and observe algorithm, photovoltaic system and simulation results

Procedia PDF Downloads 380
2037 Wear Performance of Stellite 21 Cladded Overlay on Aisi 304L

Authors: Sandeep Singh Sandhua, Karanvir Singh Ghuman, Arun Kumar

Abstract:

Stellite 21 is cobalt based super alloy used in improving the wear performance of stainless steel engineering components subjected to harsh environmental conditions. This piece of research focuses on the wear analysis of satellite 21 cladded on AISI 304 L substrate using SMAW process. Bead on plate experiments were carried out by varying current and electrode manipulation techniques to optimize the dilution and microhardness. 80 Amp current and weaving technique was found to be optimum set of parameters for overlaying which were further used for multipass multilayer cladding of AISI 304 L substrate. The wear performance was examined on pin on dics wear testing machine under room temperature conditions. The results from this study show that Stellite 21 overlays show a significant improvement in the frictional wear resistance after TIG remelting. It is also established that low dilution procedures are important in controlling the metallurgical composition of these overlays which has a consequent effect in enhancing hardness and wear resistance of these overlays.

Keywords: surfacing, stellite 21, dilution, SMAW, frictional wear, micro-hardness

Procedia PDF Downloads 146