Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: reducibility

13 Reduction Behavior of Some Low-Grade Iron Ores for Application in Blast Furnace

Authors: Heba Al-Kelesh

Abstract:

Day after day, high-grade iron ores are consumed. Because of the strong global demand for iron and steel, it has necessitated the utilization of various low-grade iron ores, which are not suitable for direct exploitation in the iron industry. The low-grade ores cannot be dressed using traditional mineral processing methods because of complicated mineral compositions. The present work is aimed to investigate the reducibility of some Egyptian iron ores and concentrates by conditions emulate different blast furnace areas. Representative specimens are collected from El-Gedida–Baharia oasis, Eastern South Aswan, and Eastern desert-wadi Kareem (EDC). Some mineralogical and morphological characterizations are executed. The reactivity arrangement of green samples is Baharia>Aswan>EDC. The presence of magnetite decreased reactivity of EDC. The reducibility of the Aswan sample is lower than Baharia due to the presence of agglomerated metallic grain surrounded by semi-melted phases. Specimens are annealed at 1000ᵒC for 3 hours. After firing, the reducibility of Aswan becomes the lowest due to the formation of fayalite and calcium phosphate phases. The relative attitude for green and fired samples reduced at different conditions are studied. For thermal and top areas, the reactivity of fired samples is greater than green ones, which were confirmed by morphological examinations.

Keywords: reducibility, low grade, iron industry, blast furnace

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12 Influence of Iron Ore Mineralogy on Cluster Formation inside the Shaft Furnace

Authors: M. Bahgat, H. A. Hanafy, S. Lakdawala

Abstract:

Clustering phenomenon of pellets was observed frequently in shaft processes operating at higher temperatures. Clustering is a result of the growth of fibrous iron precipitates (iron whiskers) that become hooked to each other and finally become crystallized during the initial stages of metallization. If the pellet clustering is pronounced, sometimes leads to blocking inside the furnace and forced shutdown takes place. This work clarifies further the relation between metallic iron whisker growth and iron ore mineralogy. Various pellet sizes (6 – 12.0 & +12.0 mm) from three different ores (A, B & C) were (completely and partially) reduced at 985 oC with H2/CO gas mixture using thermos-gravimetric technique. It was found that reducibility increases by decreasing the iron ore pellet’s size. Ore (A) has the highest reducibility than ore (B) and ore (C). Increasing the iron ore pellet’s size leads to increase the probability of metallic iron whisker formation. Ore (A) has the highest tendency for metallic iron whisker formation than ore (B) and ore (C). The reduction reactions for all iron ores A, B and C are mainly controlled by diffusion reaction mechanism.

Keywords: shaft furnace, cluster, metallic iron whisker, mineralogy, ferrous metallurgy

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11 Evaluation of Low-Reducible Sinter in Blast Furnace Technology by Mathematical Model Developed at Centre ENET, VSB: Technical University of Ostrava

Authors: S. Jursová, P. Pustějovská, S. Brožová, J. Bilík

Abstract:

The paper deals with possibilities of interpretation of iron ore reducibility tests. It presents a mathematical model developed at Centre ENET, VŠB–Technical University of Ostrava, Czech Republic for an evaluation of metallurgical material of blast furnace feedstock such as iron ore, sinter or pellets. According to the data from the test, the model predicts its usage in blast furnace technology and its effects on production parameters of shaft aggregate. At the beginning, the paper sums up the general concept and experience in mathematical modelling of iron ore reduction. It presents basic equation for the calculation and the main parts of the developed model. In the experimental part, there is an example of usage of the mathematical model. The paper describes the usage of data for some predictive calculation. There are presented material, method of carried test of iron ore reducibility. Then there are graphically interpreted effects of used material on carbon consumption, rate of direct reduction and the whole reduction process.

Keywords: blast furnace technology, iron ore reduction, mathematical model, prediction of iron ore reduction

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10 Graphene-Oxide-Supported Coal-Layered Double Hydroxides: Synthesis and Characterizations

Authors: Shaeel A. Al Thabaiti, Sulaiman N. Basahel, Salem M. Bawaked, Mohamed Mokhtar

Abstract:

Nanosheets for cobalt-layered double hydroxide (Co-Al-LDH)/GO were successfully synthesized with different Co:M g:Al ratios (0:3:1, 1.5:1.5:1, and 3:0:1). The layered double hydroxide structure and morphology were determined using x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Temperature prgrammed reduction (TPR) of Co-Al-LDH showed reduction peaks at lower temperature which indicates the ease reducibility of this particular sample. The thermal behaviour was studied using thermal graviemetric technique (TG), and the BET-surface area was determined using N2 physisorption at -196°C. The C-C coupling reaction was carried out over all the investigated catalysts. The Mg–Al LDH catalyst without Co ions is inactive, but the isomorphic substitution of Mg by Co ions (Co:Mg:Al = 1.5:1.5:1) in the cationic sheet resulted in 88% conversion of iodobenzene under reflux. LDH/GO hybrid is up to 2 times higher activity than for the unsupported LDH.

Keywords: adsorption, co-precipitation, graphene oxide, layer double hydroxide

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9 Propane Dehydrogenation with Better Stability by a Modified Pt-Based Catalyst

Authors: Napat Hataivichian

Abstract:

The effect of transition metal doping on Pt/Al2O3 catalyst used in propane dehydrogenation reaction at 500˚C was studied. The preparation methods investigated were sequential impregnation (Pt followed by the 2nd metal or the 2nd metal followed by Pt) and co-impregnation. The metal contents of these catalysts were fixed as the weight ratio of Pt per the 2nd metal of around 0.075. These catalysts were characterized by N2-physisorption, TPR, CO-chemisorption and NH3-TPD. It was found that the impregnated 2nd metal had an effect upon reducibility of Pt due to its interaction with transition metal-containing structure. This was in agreement with the CO-chemisorption result that the presence of Pt metal, which is a result from Pt species reduction, was decreased. The total acidity of bimetallic catalysts is decreased but the strong acidity is slightly increased. It was found that the stability of bimetallic catalysts prepared by co-impregnation and sequential impregnation where the 2nd metal was impregnated before Pt were better than that of monometallic catalyst (undoped Pt one) due to the forming of Pt sites located on the transition metal-oxide modified surface. Among all preparation methods, the sequential impregnation method- having Pt impregnated before the 2nd metal gave the worst stability because this catalyst lacked the modified Pt sites and some fraction of Pt sites was covered by the 2nd metal.

Keywords: alumina, dehydrogenation, platinum, transition metal

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8 Ultrasound Markers in Evaluation of Hernias

Authors: Aniruddha Kulkarni

Abstract:

In very few cases of external hernias we require imaging modalities as on most occasions clinical examination tests are good enough. Ultrasound will help in chronic abdominal or groin pain, equivocal clinical results & complicated hernias. Ultrasound is useful in assessment of cause of raised intrabdominal pressure. In certain cases will comment about etiology, complications and chronicicty of lesion. Screening of rest of abdominal organs too is important advantage being real time modality. Cost effectiveness, no radiation allows modality be used repeatedly in indicated cases. Sonography is better accepted by patients too as it is cost effective. Best advanced tissue harmonic equipment and increasing expertise making it popular. Ultrasound can define surgical anatomy, rent size, contents, etiological /recurrence factors in great detail and with authority hence accidental findings in a planned surgical procedure can be easily avoided. Clinical dynamic valselva and reducibility test can better documented by real time ultrasound study. In case of recurrence, Sonography will help in assessing the hernia details better as being dynamic real time investigation. Ultrasound signs in case of internal hernias are well comparable with CT findings.

Keywords: laparoscopic repair, Hernia, CT findings, chronic pain

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7 Steel Dust as a Coating Agent for Iron Ore Pellets at Ironmaking

Authors: M. Bahgat, H. Hanafy, H. Al-Tassan

Abstract:

Cluster formation is an essential phenomenon during direct reduction processes at shaft furnaces. Decreasing the reducing temperature to avoid this problem can cause a significant drop in throughput. In order to prevent sticking of pellets, a coating material basically inactive under the reducing conditions prevailing in the shaft furnace, should be applied to cover the outer layer of the pellets. In the present work, steel dust is used as coating material for iron ore pellets to explore dust coating effectiveness and determines the best coating conditions. Steel dust coating is applied for iron ore pellets in various concentrations. Dust slurry concentrations of 5.0-30% were used to have a coated steel dust amount of 1.0-5.0 kg per ton iron ore. Coated pellets with various concentrations were reduced isothermally in weight loss technique with simulated gas mixture to the composition of reducing gases at shaft furnaces. The influences of various coating conditions on the reduction behavior and the morphology were studied. The optimum reduced samples were comparatively applied for sticking index measurement. It was found that the optimized steel dust coating condition that achieve higher reducibility with lower sticking index was 30% steel dust slurry concentration with 3.0 kg steel dust/ton ore.

Keywords: reduction, ironmaking, steel dust, coating

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6 Carbon Dioxide Hydrogenation to Methanol over Cu/ZnO-SBA-15 Catalyst: Effect of Metal Loading

Authors: S. F. H. Tasfy, N. A. M. Zabidi, M.-S. Shaharun

Abstract:

Utilization of CO2 as a carbon source to produce valuable chemicals is one of the important ways to reduce the global warming caused by increasing CO2 in the atmosphere. Supported metal catalysts are crucial for the production of clean and renewable fuels and chemicals from the stable CO2 molecules. The catalytic conversion of CO2 into methanol is recently under increased scrutiny as an opportunity to be used as a low-cost carbon source. Therefore, series of the bimetallic Cu/ZnO-based catalyst supported by SBA-15 were synthesized via impregnation technique with different total metal loading and tested in the catalytic hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol. The morphological and textural properties of the synthesized catalysts were determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), temperature programmed desorption, reduction, oxidation and pulse chemisorption (TPDRO), and N2-adsorption. The CO2 hydrogenation reaction was performed in microactivity fixed-bed system at 250 °C, 2.25 MPa, and H2/CO2 ratio of 3. Experimental results showed that the catalytic structure and performance was strongly affected by the loading of the active site. Where, the catalytic activity, methanol selectivity as well as the space-time yield increased with increasing the metal loading until it reaches the maximum values at a metal loading of 15 wt% while further addition of metal inhibits the catalytic performance. The higher catalytic activity of 14 % and methanol selectivity of 92 % were obtained over Cu/ZnO-SBA-15 catalyst with total bimetallic loading of 15 wt%. The excellent performance of 15 wt% Cu/ZnO-SBA-15 catalyst is attributed to the presence of well disperses active sites with small particle size, higher Cu surface area, and lower catalytic reducibility.

Keywords: hydrogenation of carbon dioxide, methanol synthesis, metal loading, Cu/ZnO-SBA-15 catalyst

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5 Improved Performance of Mn Substituted Ceria Nanospheres for Water Gas Shift Reaction: Influence of Preparation Conditions

Authors: Bhairi Lakshminarayana, Surajit Sarker, Ch. Subrahmanyam

Abstract:

The present study reports the development of noble metal free nano catalysts for low-temperature CO oxidation and water gas shift reaction. Mn-substituted CeO2 solid solution catalysts were synthesized by co-precipitation, combustion and hydrothermal methods. The formation of solid solution was confirmed by XRD with Rietveld refinement and the percentage of carbon and nitrogen doping was ensured by CHNS analyzer. Raman spectroscopic confirmed the oxygen vacancies. The surface area, pore volume and pore size distribution confirmed by N2 physisorption analysis, whereas, UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and XPS data confirmed the oxidation state of the Mn ion. The particle size and morphology (spherical shape) of the material was confirmed using FESEM and HRTEM analysis. Ce0.8Mn0.2O2-δ was calcined at 400 °C, 600 °C and 800 °C. Raman spectroscopy confirmed that the catalyst calcined at 400 °C has the best redox properties. The activity of the designed catalysts for CO oxidation (0.2 vol%), carried out with GHSV of 21,000 h-1 and it has been observed that co-precipitation favored the best active catalyst towards CO oxidation and water gas shift reaction, due to the high surface area, improved reducibility, oxygen mobility and highest quantity of surface oxygen species. The activation energy of low temperature CO oxidation on Ce0.8Mn0.2O2- δ (combustion) was 5.5 kcal.K-1.mole-1. The designed catalysts were tested for water gas shift reaction. The present study demonstrates that Mn ion substituted ceria at 400 °C calcination temperature prepared by co-precipitation method promise to revive a green sustainable energy production approach.

Keywords: Ce0.8Mn0.2O2-ð, CO oxidation, physicochemical characterization, water gas shift reaction (WGS)

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4 Ni Mixed Oxides Type-Spinel for Energy: Application in Dry Reforming of Methane for Syngas (H2 and CO) Production

Authors: Bedarnia Ishak

Abstract:

In the recent years, the dry reforming of methane has received considerable attention from an environmental view point because it consumes and eliminates two gases (CH4 and CO2) responsible for global warming by greenhouse effect. Many catalysts containing noble metal (Rh, Ru, Pd, Pt and Ir) or transition metal (Ni, Co and Fe) have been reported to be active in this reaction. Compared to noble metals, Ni-materials are cheap but very easily deactivated by coking. Ni-based mixed oxides structurally well-defined like perovskites and spinels are being studied because they possibly make solid solutions and allow to vary the composition and thus the performances properties. In this work, nano-sized nickel ferrite oxides are synthesized using three different methods: Co-precipitation (CP), hydrothermal (HT) and sol gel (SG) methods and characterized by XRD, Raman, XPS, BET, TPR, SEM-EDX and TEM-EDX. XRD patterns of all synthesized oxides showed the presence of NiFe2O4 spinel, confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. Hematite was present only in CP sample. Depending on the synthesis method, the surface area, particle size, as well as the surface Ni/Fe atomic ratio (XPS) and the behavior upon reduction varied. The materials were tested in methane dry reforming with CO2 at 1 atm and 650-800 °C. The catalytic activity of the spinel samples was not very high (XCH4 = 5-20 mol% and XCO2 = 25-40 mol %) when no pre-reduction step was carried out. A significant contribution of RWGS explained the low values of H2/CO ratio obtained. The reoxidation step of the catalyst carried out after reaction showed little amounts of coke deposition. The reducing pretreatment was particularly efficient in the case of SG (XCH4 = 80 mol% and XCO2 = 92 mol%, at 800 °C), with H2/CO > 1. In conclusion, the influence of preparation was strong for most samples and the catalytic behavior could be interpreted by considering the distribution of cations among octahedral (Oh) and tetrahedral (Td) sites as in (Ni2+1-xFe3+x) Td (Ni2+xFe3+2-x) OhO2-4 influenced the reducibility of materials and thus their catalytic performance.

Keywords: NiFe2O4, dry reforming of methane, spinel oxide, oxide zenc

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3 Ni Mixed Oxides Type-Spinel for Energy: Application in Dry Reforming of Methane for Syngas (H2 & Co) Production

Authors: Bouhenni Mohamed Saif El Islam

Abstract:

In the recent years, the dry reforming of methane has received considerable attention from an environmental view point because it consumes and eliminates two gases (CH4 and CO2) responsible for global warming by greenhouse effect. Many catalysts containing noble metal (Rh, Ru, Pd, Pt and Ir) or transition metal (Ni, Co and Fe) have been reported to be active in this reaction. Compared to noble metals, Ni-materials are cheap but very easily deactivated by coking. Ni-based mixed oxides structurally well-defined like perovskites and spinels are being studied because they possibly make solid solutions and allow to vary the composition and thus the performances properties. In this work, nano-sized nickel ferrite oxides are synthesized using three different methods: Co-precipitation (CP), hydrothermal (HT) and sol gel (SG) methods and characterized by XRD, Raman, XPS, BET, TPR, SEM-EDX and TEM-EDX. XRD patterns of all synthesized oxides showed the presence of NiFe2O4 spinel, confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. Hematite was present only in CP sample. Depending on the synthesis method, the surface area, particle size, as well as the surface Ni/Fe atomic ratio (XPS) and the behavior upon reduction varied. The materials were tested in methane dry reforming with CO2 at 1 atm and 650-800 °C. The catalytic activity of the spinel samples was not very high (XCH4 = 5-20 mol% and XCO2 = 25-40 mol %) when no pre-reduction step was carried out. A significant contribution of RWGS explained the low values of H2/CO ratio obtained. The reoxidation step of the catalyst carried out after reaction showed little amounts of coke deposition. The reducing pretreatment was particularly efficient in the case of SG (XCH4 = 80 mol% and XCO2 = 92 mol%, at 800 °C), with H2/CO > 1. In conclusion, the influence of preparation was strong for most samples and the catalytic behavior could be interpreted by considering the distribution of cations among octahedral (Oh) and tetrahedral (Td) sites as in (Ni2+1-xFe3+x)Td (Ni2+xFe3+2-x)OhO2-4 influenced the reducibility of materials and thus their catalytic performance.

Keywords: NiFe2O4, dry reforming of methane, spinel oxide, XCO2

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2 Optimization of Sintering Process with Deteriorating Quality of Iron Ore Fines

Authors: Chandra Shekhar Verma, Umesh Chandra Mishra

Abstract:

Blast Furnace performance mainly depends on the quality of sinter as a major portion of iron-bearing material occupies by it hence its quality w.r.t. Tumbler Index (TI), Reducibility Index (RI) and Reduction Degradation Index (RDI) are the key performance indicators of sinter plant. Now it became very tough to maintain the desired quality with the increasing alumina (Al₂O₃) content in iron fines and study is focused on it. Alumina is a refractory material and required more heat input to fuse thereby affecting the desired sintering temperature, i.e. 1300°C. It goes in between the grain boundaries of the bond and makes it weaker. Sinter strength decreases with increasing alumina content, and weak sinter generates more fines thereby reduces the net sinter production as well as plant productivity. Presence of impurities beyond the acceptable norm: such as LOI, Al₂O₃, MnO, TiO₂, K₂O, Na₂O, Hydrates (Goethite & Limonite), SiO₂, phosphorous and zinc, has led to greater challenges in the thrust areas such as productivity, quality and cost. The ultimate aim of this study is maintaining the sinter strength even with high Al₂O without hampering the plant productivity. This study includes mineralogy test of iron fines to find out the fraction of different phases present in the ore and phase analysis of product sinter to know the distribution of different phases. Corrections were done focusing majorly on varying Al₂O₃/SiO₂ ratio, basicity: B2 (CaO/SiO₂), B3 (CaO+MgO/SiO₂) and B4 (CaO+MgO/SiO₂+Al₂O₃). The concept of Alumina / Silica ratio, B3 & B4 found to be useful. We used to vary MgO, Al₂O₃/SiO₂, B2, B3 and B4 to get the desired sinter strength even at high alumina (4.2 - 4.5%) in sinter. The study concludes with the establishment of B4, and Al₂O₃/SiO₂ ratio in between 1.53-1.60 and 0.63- 0.70 respectively and have achieved tumbler index (Drum Index) 76 plus with the plant productivity of 1.58-1.6 t/m2/hr. at JSPL, Raigarh. Study shows that despite of high alumina in sinter, its physical quality can be controlled by maintaining the above-mentioned parameters.

Keywords: Basicity-2, Basicity-3, Basicity-4, Sinter

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1 Towards an Eastern Philosophy of Religion: on the Contradictory Identity of Philosophy and Religion

Authors: Carlo Cogliati

Abstract:

The study of the relationship of philosophical reason with the religious domain has been very much a concern for many of the Western philosophical and theological traditions. In this essay, I will suggest a proposal for an Eastern philosophy of religion based on Nishida’s contradictory identity of the two: philosophy soku hi (is, and yes is not) religion. This will pose a challenge to the traditional Western contents and methods of the discipline. This paper aims to serve three purposes. First, I will critically assess Charlesworth’s typology of the relation between philosophy and religion in the West: philosophy as/for/against/about/after religion. I will also engage Harrison’s call for a global philosophy of religion(s) and argue that, although it expands the scope and the range of the questions to address, it is still Western in its method. Second, I will present Nishida’s logic of absolutely contradictory self-identity as the instrument to transcend the dichotomous pair of identity and contradiction: ‘A is A’ and ‘A is not A’. I will then explain how this ‘concrete’ logic of the East, as opposed to the ‘formal’ logic of the West, exhibits at best the bilateral dynamic relation between philosophy and religion. Even as Nishida argues for the non-separability of the two, he is also aware and committed to their mutual non-reducibility. Finally, I will outline the resulting new relation between God and creatures. Nishida in his philosophy soku hi religion replaces the traditional Western dualistic concept of God with the Eastern non-dualistic understanding of God as “neither transcendent nor immanent, and at the same time both transcendent and immanent.” God is therefore a self-identity of contradiction, nowhere and yet everywhere present in the world of creatures. God as absolute being is also absolute nothingness: the world of creatures is the expression of God’s absolute self-negation. The overreaching goal of this essay is to offer an alternative to traditional Western approaches to philosophy of religion based on Nishida’s logic of absolutely contradictory self-identity, as an example of philosophical and religious counter(influence). The resulting relationship between philosophy and religion calls for a revision of traditional concepts and methods. The outcome is not to reformulate the Eastern predilection to not sharply distinguish philosophical thought from religious enlightenment rather to bring together philosophy and religion in the place of identity and difference.

Keywords: basho, Nishida Kitaro, shukyotetsugaku, soku hi, zettai mujunteki jikodoitsu no ronri

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