Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4020

Search results for: relative rates

4020 Comparing Spontaneous Hydrolysis Rates of Activated Models of DNA and RNA

Authors: Mohamed S. Sasi, Adel M. Mlitan, Abdulfattah M. Alkherraz

Abstract:

This research project aims to investigate difference in relative rates concerning phosphoryl transfer relevant to biological catalysis of DNA and RNA in the pH-independent reactions. Activated Models of DNA and RNA for alkyl-aryl phosphate diesters (with 4-nitrophenyl as a good leaving group) have successfully been prepared to gather kinetic parameters. Eyring plots for the pH–independent hydrolysis of 1 and 2 were established at different temperatures in the range 100–160 °C. These measurements have been used to provide a better estimate for the difference in relative rates between the reactivity of DNA and RNA cleavage. Eyring plot gave an extrapolated rate of kH2O = 1 × 10-10 s -1 for 1 (RNA model) and 2 (DNA model) at 25°C. Comparing the reactivity of RNA model and DNA model shows that the difference in relative rates in the pH-independent reactions is surprisingly very similar at 25°. This allows us to obtain chemical insights into how biological catalysts such as enzymes may have evolved to perform their current functions.

Keywords: DNA and RNA models, relative rates, reactivity, phosphoryl transfe

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4019 Political Determinants of Sovereign Spread: The Great East-West Divide

Authors: Maruska Vizek, Josip Glaurdic, Marina Tkalec, Goran Vuksic

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We empirically explore whether and how taxation affects bilateral real exchange rates in the euro area – relative unit labor costs and relative consumer price indices. We find that employers’ social security contributions and the value added tax changes have the expected effects put forward in the fiscal devaluation literature and simulations. Increases in employers’ contributions appreciate the relative unit labor costs in the short- and the long-run, while value added tax hike appreciates the relative consumer prices. Somewhat surprisingly, for personal income tax increases, we find a short-run depreciating impact on the relative unit labor costs, while increases in employees’ contributions depreciate both measures of real exchange rates in the short-run.

Keywords: sovereign bonds, European Union, developing countries, political determinants

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
4018 The IVAIRE Study: Relative Performance of Energy and Heat Recovery Ventilators in Cold Climates

Authors: D. Aubin, D. Won, H. Schleibinger, P. Lajoie, D. Gauvin, J.-M. Leclerc

Abstract:

This paper describes the results obtained in a two-year randomized intervention field study investigating the impact of ventilation rates on indoor air quality (IAQ) and the respiratory health of asthmatic children in Québec City, Canada. The focus of this article is on the comparative effectiveness of heat recovery ventilators (HRVs) and energy recovery ventilators (ERVs) at increasing ventilation rates, improving IAQ, and maintaining an acceptable indoor relative humidity (RH). In 14% of the homes, the RH was found to be too low in winter. Providing more cold and dry outside air to under-ventilated homes in winter further reduces indoor RH. Thus, low-RH homes in the intervention group were chosen to receive ERVs (instead of HRVs) to increase the ventilation rate. The installation of HRVs or ERVs led to a near doubling of the ventilation rates in the intervention group homes which led to a significant reduction in the concentration of several key of pollutants. The ERVs were also effective in maintaining an acceptable indoor RH since they avoided excessive dehumidification of the home by recovering moisture from the exhaust airstream through the enthalpy core, otherwise associated with increased cold supply air rates.

Keywords: asthma, field study, indoor air quality, ventilation

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4017 Application of Crude Palm Oil Liquid Sludge Sewage On Maize (Zea mays. L) as Re-Cycle Possibility to Fertilizer

Authors: Hasan Basri Jumin, Henni Rosneti, Agusnimar

Abstract:

Crude palm oil liquid sludge sewage was treated to maize with 400 cc/plant could be increased mean relative growth rates, net assimilation rate, leaf area and dry weight of seed. There are indicated that 400 cc / plant treated to maize significantly increase the average of mean relative growth rates into 0.32 g.day-1. Net assimilation rates increase from 13.5 mg.m-2.day-1 into 34.5 mg.m-2.day-1, leaf area at 50 days after planting increase from 1419 cm-2 into 2458 cm-2 and dry weight of seed from 38 g per plant into 43 g per plant. Crude palm oil liquid sludge waste chemical analysis indicated that, there are no exceed threshold content of dangerous metals and biology effects. Cadmium content as heavy metal is lower than threshold of human healthy tolerance. Therefore, it has no syndrome effect to human health. Biological oxygen demands and chemical oxygen demands as indicators for micro-organism activities, there are under the threshold of human healthy tolerance.

Keywords: crude-palm-oil, fertilizer, liquid-sludge, maize, pollutant, waste

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4016 Relative Navigation with Laser-Based Intermittent Measurement for Formation Flying Satellites

Authors: Jongwoo Lee, Dae-Eun Kang, Sang-Young Park

Abstract:

This study presents a precise relative navigational method for satellites flying in formation using laser-based intermittent measurement data. The measurement data for the relative navigation between two satellites consist of a relative distance measured by a laser instrument and relative attitude angles measured by attitude determination. The relative navigation solutions are estimated by both the Extended Kalman filter (EKF) and unscented Kalman filter (UKF). The solutions estimated by the EKF may become inaccurate or even diverge as measurement outage time gets longer because the EKF utilizes a linearization approach. However, this study shows that the UKF with the appropriate scaling parameters provides a stable and accurate relative navigation solutions despite the long measurement outage time and large initial error as compared to the relative navigation solutions of the EKF. Various navigation results have been analyzed by adjusting the scaling parameters of the UKF.

Keywords: satellite relative navigation, laser-based measurement, intermittent measurement, unscented Kalman filter

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4015 Laboratory Measurement of Relative Permeability of Immiscible Fluids in Sand

Authors: Khwaja Naweed Seddiqi, Shigeo Honma

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Relative permeability is the important parameter controlling the immiscible displacement of multiphase fluids flow in porous medium. The relative permeability for immiscible displacement of two-phase fluids flow (oil and water) in porous medium has been measured in this paper. As a result of the experiment, irreducible water saturation, Swi, residual oil saturation, Sor, and relative permeability curves for Kerosene, Heavy oil and Lubricant oil were determined successfully.

Keywords: relative permeability, two-phase flow, immiscible displacement, porous medium

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4014 Processing and Characterization of (Pb0.55Ca0.45) (Fe0.5Nb0.5)O3 and (Pb0.45Ca0.55) (Fe0.5Nb0.5) O3 Dielectric Ceramics

Authors: Shalini Bahel, Maalti Puri, Sukhleen Bindra Narang

Abstract:

Ceramic samples of (Pb0.55Ca0.45) (Fe0.5Nb0.5)O3 and (Pb0.45Ca0.55)(Fe0.5Nb0.5)O3 were synthesized by columbite precursor method and characterized for structural and dielectric properties. Both the synthesized samples have perovskite structure with tetragonal symmetry. The variations in relative permittivity and loss tangent were measured as a function of frequency at room temperature. Both the relative permittivity and loss tangent decreased with increase in frequency. A reasonably high value of relative permittivity of 63.46, loss tangent of 0.0067 at 15 MHz and temperature coefficient of relative permittivity of -82 ppm/˚C was obtained for (Pb0.45Ca0.55) (Fe0.5Nb0.5) O3.

Keywords: loss tangent, perovskite, relative permittivity, X-ray diffraction

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4013 Breast Cancer Risk Factors: A Big Data Analysis of Black and White Women in the USA

Authors: Tejasvi Parupudi, Mochen Li, Lakshya Mittal, Ignacio G. Camarillo, Raji Sundararajan

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With breast cancer becoming a global pandemic, it is very important to assess a woman’s risk profile accurately in a timely manner. Providing an estimate of the risk of developing breast cancer to a woman gives her an opportunity to consider options to decrease this risk. Women at low risk may be suggested yearly screenings whereas women with a high risk of developing breast cancer would be candidates for aggressive surveillance. Fortunately, there is a set of risk factors that are used to predict the probability of a woman being diagnosed with breast cancer in the future. Studying risk factors and understanding how they correlate to cancer is important for early diagnosis, prevention and reducing mortality rates. The effect of crucial risk factors among black and white women was compared in this study. The various risk factors analyzed include breast density, age, cancer in a first-degree relative, menopausal status, body mass index (BMI) and prior breast cancer diagnosis, etc. Breast density, age at first full-term birth and BMI were utilized in this study as important risk factors for the comparison of incidence rates between women of black and white races in the USA. Understanding the differences could lead to the development of solutions to reduce disparity in mortality rates among black women by improving overall access to care.

Keywords: big data, breast cancer, risk factors, incidence rates, mortality, race

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4012 Biodegradable Poly D,L-Lactide-Co-Glycolic Acid Microparticle Vaccine against Aeromonas hydrophila Infection

Authors: Saekil Yun, Sib Sankar Giri, Jin Woo Jun, Hyoun Joong Kim, Sang Guen Kim, Sang Wha Kim, Jung Woo Kang, Se Jin Han, Se Chang Park

Abstract:

In aquaculture, vaccination is important to control and prevent diseases. In the study, we utilized poly D,L-lactide-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microparticles (MPs) for encapsulating formalin-killed Aeromonas hydrophila cells. To assess the innate and adaptive immune responses, carps and loaches were used for the experiments. Fish were divided into three groups (A, B, C). Total antigen of 0.1 ml vaccine was adjusted by 2 x 108 CFU and injected via intraperitoneal route. Group A was vaccinated with 0.1 ml of PLGA vaccine, group B was with 0.1 ml of FKC vaccine and group C was with 0.1 ml of sterile PBS. All three groups were challenged with A. hydrophila and challenge dose was lethal dose (LD50). Loaches and carp were then challenged with A. hydrophila at 12 and 20 weeks post vaccination (wpv), and 10 and 14 wpv, respectively, and relative survival rates were calculated. For both fish species, the curve of antibody titer over time was shallower in the PLGA group than the FKC group and the PLGA groups demonstrated higher survival rates at all time-points. In the groups of PLGA-MP, relative mRNA levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, lysozyme C and IgM were significantly upregulated than FKC treated groups. Biodegradable PLGA microparticle vaccine could induce longer immune responses than original FKC vaccines to protect from A. hydrophila infection.

Keywords: PLGA, microparticles, Aeromonas hydrophila, vaccine

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
4011 The Impact of Syntactic Priming on Language Learners’ Perception of Relative Clauses

Authors: Kaine Gulozer

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Listening comprehension in a foreign language context has been a constant challenge for Turkish speakers of English. Syntactic priming (SP) of relative clauses might affect the perception of subsequent sentences of identical structure and this could have an impact on the listening comprehension of second or foreign language learners. There has been little attempt to investigate the syntactic priming of English subject relative clauses and object relative clauses in relation to perception for the learners of English in Turkish context. This study investigates SP effects on low-proficiency EFL learners’ production of English relative clauses. Both qualitative and quantitative method along with a pre-test and post-test tasks were adopted, recruiting 62 EFL learners to receive a six-week listening instruction on relative clauses. Testing instruments for language production included the two tasks: (1) the visual- cued presentation and recall and (2) the auditory-cued presentation and recall. Students’ listening comprehension in task 1 and 2 were recorded and transcribed. Fifteen of the participants were also interviewed. The results of the dependent samples t-test analyses revealed that SP had a significant effect on the overall perception of relative clauses.

Keywords: listening comprehension, relative clauses, structural priming, syntactic persistance, syntactic priming

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4010 Nutritional Indices and Biology of the Armyworm, Spodoptera litura on Five Cotton Varieties

Authors: Md. Ruhul Amin

Abstract:

The effects of CB1, CB3, CB5, CB8 and CB12 cotton varieties on the nutritional indices and biological parameters of armyworm Spodoptera litura were studied under laboratory conditions. The armyworm larvae showed the highest and lowest food consumption rates on CB8 and CB1 variety, respectively. The efficiency of the conversion of digested food, efficiency of conversion of ingested food, approximate digestibility rates were statistically higher and similar on CB5 and CB8, and lowest on CB1. The larvae reared on CB12 variety exerted the lowest feeding and growth indices, and the relative growth rate was highest on CB8. The survival rates of egg, larva, pupa and adult moths were found highest on CB8 and lowest on CB12. The development durations of the immature stages of the insect differed significantly and the time elapsed from egg-to-adult emergence, longevity of both male and female moths, and their lifecycle were shortest on CB12 variety. The nutritional indices and biological parameters of the armyworm indicated that the varieties CB5 and CB8 were suitable host plants for feeding and development of S. litura.

Keywords: gossypium hirsutum, spodoptera litura, food consumption, life history

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4009 A Redesigned Pedagogy in Introductory Programming Reduces Failure and Withdrawal Rates by Half

Authors: Said Fares, Mary Fares

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It is well documented that introductory computer programming courses are difficult and that failure rates are high. The aim of this project was to reduce the high failure and withdrawal rates in learning to program. This paper presents a number of changes in module organization and instructional delivery system in teaching CS1. Daily out of class help sessions and tutoring services were applied, interactive lectures and laboratories, online resources, and timely feedback were introduced. Five years of data of 563 students in 21 sections was collected and analyzed. The primary results show that the failure and withdrawal rates were cut by more than half. Student surveys indicate a positive evaluation of the modified instructional approach, overall satisfaction with the course and consequently, higher success and retention rates.

Keywords: failure rate, interactive learning, student engagement, CS1

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4008 The Benefits of a Totally Autologous Breast Reconstruction Technique Using Extended Latissimus Dorsi Flap with Lipo-Modelling: A Seven Years United Kingdom Tertiary Breast Unit Results

Authors: Wisam Ismail, Brendan Wooler, Penelope McManus

Abstract:

Introduction: The public perception of implants has been damaged in the wake of recent negative publicity and increasingly we are finding patients wanting to avoid them. Planned lipo-modelling to enhance the volume of a Latissimus dorsi flap is a viable alternative to silicone implants and maintains a Totally Autologous Technique (TAT). Here we demonstrate that when compared to an Implant Assisted Technique (IAT), a TAT offers patients many benefits that offset the requirement of more operations initially, with reduced short and long term complications, reduced symmetrisation surgery and reduced revision rates. Methods. Data was collected prospectively over 7 years. The minimum follows up was 3 years. The technique was generally standardized in the hand of one surgeon. All flaps were extended LD flaps (ELD). Lipo-modelling was performed using standard techniques. Outcome measures were unplanned secondary procedures, complication rates, and contralateral symmetrisation surgery rates. Key Results Were: Lower complication rates in the TAT group (18.5% vs. 33.3%), despite higher radiotherapy rates (TAT=49%, IAT=36.8%), TAT was associated with lower subsequent symmetrisation rates (30.6% vs. 50.9%), IAT had a relative risk of 3.1 for subsequent unplanned procedure, Autologous patients required an average of 1.76 sessions of lipo-modelling, Conclusions: Using lipo-modelling to enable totally autologous LD reconstruction offers significant advantages over an implant assisted technique. We have shown a lower subsequent unplanned procedure rate, lower revision surgery, and less contralateral symmetrisation surgery. We anticipate that a TAT will be supported by patient satisfaction surveys and long-term patient-reported cosmetic outcome data and intended to study this.

Keywords: breast, Latissimus dorsi, lipomodelling, reconstruction

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4007 Comparison of the Positive and Indeterminate Rates of QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube and T-SPOT. TB According to Age-group

Authors: Kina Kim

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Background: There are two types of interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) in use for the detection of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-tube (QFT-GIT) and T-SPOT.TB. There are some reports that IGRA results are affected by the patient's age. This study aims to compare the results of both IGRA tests according to age groups. Methods: We reviewed 54,882 samples referred to an independent reference laboratory (Seegene Medical Foundation, Seoul, Korea) for the diagnosis of LTBI from January 1, 2021, to December 31, 2021. This retrospective study enrolled 955 patients tested using QFT-GIT and 53,927 patients tested using T-SPOT.TB. The results of both IGRAs were divided in three age groups (0-9, 10-17, and ≥18-year old). The positive rates and the indeterminate rates between QFT-GIT and T-SPOT.TB were compared. We also evaluated the differences in positive and indeterminate rates by age-group. Results: The positive rate of QFT-GIT was 20.1% (192/955) and that of T-SPOT.TB was 8.7% (4704/53927) in overall patients. The positive rates of QFT-GIT in individuals aged 0-9, 10-17, and over 18-year old were 15.4%, 13.3%, and 22.0%, respectively. The positive rates of T-SPOT.TB were 8.9%, 2.0% and 8.8%,in each agegroup, respectively.The overall prevalence of indeterminate results was 2.1% (20/955) of QFT-GIT and 0.5% (270/53927) of T-SPOT.TB. The indeterminate rates of QFT-GIT in individuals aged 0-9, 10-17, and over 18 years were 0.4%, 6.7%, and 2.6%, respectively. The indeterminate rate of T-SPOT.TB were 0.5%, 0.7% and 0.5%,in each age group, respectively. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that T-SPOT.TB has a lower rate of positive results in overall patients and a lower rate of indeterminate results than those of QFT-GIT. The highest positive rate was found in the over 18 years group for QFT-GIT, but the positive rates of T-SPOT.TB was not significantly different among groups by age. QFT-GIT showed variable and higher indeterminate rates according to age group, but T-SPOT.TB showed lower rates in all age groups(<1%).

Keywords: LTBI, IGRA, QFT-GIT, T-SPOT. TB

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4006 Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Single and Twin Offshore Rubble Mound Breakwaters under Regular and Random Waves

Authors: M. Alkhalidi, S. Neelamani, Z. Al-Zaqah

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This paper investigates the interaction of single and twin offshore rubble mound breakwaters with regular and random water waves through physical modeling to assess their reflection, transmission and energy dissipation characteristics. Various combinations of wave heights and wave periods were utilized in a series of experiments, along with three different water depths. The single and twin permeable breakwater models were both constructed with one layer of rubbles. Both models had the same total volume; however, the single breakwater was of trapezoidal type while the twin breakwaters were of triangular type. Physical modeling experiments were carried out in the wave flume of the coastal engineering laboratory of Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research (KISR). Measurements of the six wave probes which were fixed in the two-dimensional wave flume were collected and used to determine the generated incident wave heights, as well as the reflected and transmitted wave heights resulting from the wave-breakwater interaction. The possible factors affecting the wave attenuation efficiency of the breakwater models are the relative water depth (d/L), wave steepness (H/L), relative wave height ((h-d)/Hi), relative height of the breakwater (h/d), and relative clear spacing between the twin breakwaters (S/h). The results indicated that the single and double breakwaters show different responds to the change in their relative height as well as the relative wave height which demonstrates that the effect of the relative water depth on wave reflection, transmission, and energy dissipation is highly influenced by the change in the relative breakwater height, the relative wave height and the relative breakwater spacing. In general, within the range of the relative water depth tested in this study, and under both regular and random waves, it is found that the single breakwater allows for lower wave transmission and shows higher energy dissipation effect than both of the tested twin breakwaters, and hence has the best overall performance.

Keywords: random waves, regular waves, relative water depth, relative wave height, single breakwater, twin breakwater, wave steepness

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4005 Estimation of Relative Permeabilities and Capillary Pressures in Shale Using Simulation Method

Authors: F. C. Amadi, G. C. Enyi, G. Nasr

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Relative permeabilities are practical factors that are used to correct the single phase Darcy’s law for application to multiphase flow. For effective characterisation of large-scale multiphase flow in hydrocarbon recovery, relative permeability and capillary pressures are used. These parameters are acquired via special core flooding experiments. Special core analysis (SCAL) module of reservoir simulation is applied by engineers for the evaluation of these parameters. But, core flooding experiments in shale core sample are expensive and time consuming before various flow assumptions are achieved for instance Darcy’s law. This makes it imperative for the application of coreflooding simulations in which various analysis of relative permeabilities and capillary pressures of multiphase flow can be carried out efficiently and effectively at a relative pace. This paper presents a Sendra software simulation of core flooding to achieve to relative permeabilities and capillary pressures using different correlations. The approach used in this study was three steps. The first step, the basic petrophysical parameters of Marcellus shale sample such as porosity was determined using laboratory techniques. Secondly, core flooding was simulated for particular scenario of injection using different correlations. And thirdly the best fit correlations for the estimation of relative permeability and capillary pressure was obtained. This research approach saves cost and time and very reliable in the computation of relative permeability and capillary pressures at steady or unsteady state, drainage or imbibition processes in oil and gas industry when compared to other methods.

Keywords: relative permeabilty, porosity, 1-D black oil simulator, capillary pressures

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4004 Characterization of 3D-MRP for Analyzing of Brain Balancing Index (BBI) Pattern

Authors: N. Fuad, M. N. Taib, R. Jailani, M. E. Marwan

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This paper discusses on power spectral density (PSD) characteristics which are extracted from three-dimensional (3D) electroencephalogram (EEG) models. The EEG signal recording was conducted on 150 healthy subjects. Development of 3D EEG models involves pre-processing of raw EEG signals and construction of spectrogram images. Then, the values of maximum PSD were extracted as features from the model. These features are analysed using mean relative power (MRP) and different mean relative power (DMRP) technique to observe the pattern among different brain balancing indexes. The results showed that by implementing these techniques, the pattern of brain balancing indexes can be clearly observed. Some patterns are indicates between index 1 to index 5 for left frontal (LF) and right frontal (RF).

Keywords: power spectral density, 3D EEG model, brain balancing, mean relative power, different mean relative power

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4003 Influence of Agroforestry Trees Leafy Biomass and Nitrogen Fertilizer on Crop Growth Rate and Relative Growth Rate of Maize

Authors: A. B. Alarape, O. D. Aba

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The use of legume tree pruning as mulch in agroforestry system is a common practice to maintain soil organic matter and improve soil fertility in the tropics. The study was conducted to determine the influence of agroforestry trees leafy biomass and nitrogen fertilizer on crop growth rate and relative growth rate of maize. The experiments were laid out as 3 x 4 x 2 factorial in a split-split plot design with three replicates. Control, biomass species (Parkia biglobosa and Albizia lebbeck) as main plots were considered, rates of nitrogen considered include (0, 40, 80, 120 kg N ha⁻¹) as sub-plots, and maize varieties (DMR-ESR-7 and 2009 EVAT) were used as sub-sub plots. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics (ANOVA) at α = 0.05. Incorporation of leafy biomass was significant in 2015 on Relative Growth Rate (RGR), while nitrogen application was significant on Crop Growth Rate (CGR). 2009 EVAT had higher CGR in 2015 at 4-6 and 6-8 WAP. Incorporation of Albizia leaves enhanced the growth of maize than Parkia leaves. Farmers are, therefore, encouraged to use Albizia leaves as mulch to enrich their soil for maize production and most especially, in case of availability of inorganic fertilizers. Though, production of maize with biomass and application of 120 kg N ha⁻¹ will bring better growth of maize.

Keywords: agroforestry trees, fertilizer, growth, incorporation, leafy biomass

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4002 Oil Displacement by Water in Hauterivian Sandstone Reservoir of Kashkari Oil Field

Authors: A. J. Nazari, S. Honma

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This paper evaluates oil displacement by water in Hauterivian sandstone reservoir of Kashkari oil field in North of Afghanistan. The core samples of this oil field were taken out from well No-21st, and the relative permeability and fractional flow are analyzed. Steady state flow laboratory experiments are performed to empirically obtain the fractional flow curves and relative permeability in different water saturation ratio. The relative permeability represents the simultaneous flow behavior in the reservoir. The fractional flow approach describes the individual phases as fractional of the total flow. The fractional flow curve interprets oil displacement by water, and from the tangent of fractional flow curve can find out the average saturation behind the water front flow saturation. Therefore, relative permeability and fractional flow curves are suitable for describing the displacement of oil by water in a petroleum reservoir. The effects of irreducible water saturation, residual oil saturation on the displaceable amount of oil are investigated through Buckley-Leveret analysis.

Keywords: fractional flow, oil displacement, relative permeability, simultaneously flow

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4001 Symbiotic Functioning, Photosynthetic Induction and Characterisation of Rhizobia Associated with Groundnut, Jack Bean and Soybean from Eswatini

Authors: Zanele D. Ngwenya, Mustapha Mohammed, Felix D. Dakora

Abstract:

Legumes are a major source of biological nitrogen, and therefore play a crucial role in maintaining soil productivity in smallholder agriculture in southern Africa. Through their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen in root nodules, legumes are a better option for sustainable nitrogen supply in cropping systems than chemical fertilisers. For decades, farmers have been highly receptive to the use of rhizobial inoculants as a source of nitrogen due mainly to the availability of elite rhizobial strains at a much lower compared to chemical fertilisers. To improve the efficiency of the legume-rhizobia symbiosis in African soils would require the use of highly effective rhizobia capable of nodulating a wide range of host plants. This study assessed the morphogenetic diversity, photosynthetic functioning and relative symbiotic effectiveness (RSE) of groundnut, jack bean and soybean microsymbionts in Eswatini soils as a first step to identifying superior isolates for inoculant production. According to the manufacturer's instructions, rhizobial isolates were cultured in yeast-mannitol (YM) broth until the late log phase and the bacterial genomic DNA was extracted using GenElute bacterial genomic DNA kit. The extracted DNA was subjected to enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR (ERIC-PCR) and a dendrogram constructed from the band patterns to assess rhizobial diversity. To assess the N2-fixing efficiency of the authenticated rhizobia, photosynthetic rates (A), stomatal conductance (gs), and transpiration rates (E) were measured at flowering for plants inoculated with the test isolates. The plants were then harvested for nodulation assessment and measurement of plant growth as shoot biomass. The results of ERIC-PCR fingerprinting revealed the presence of high genetic diversity among the microsymbionts nodulating each of the three test legumes, with many of them showing less than 70% ERIC-PCR relatedness. The dendrogram generated from ERIC-PCR profiles grouped the groundnut isolates into 5 major clusters, while the jack bean and soybean isolates were grouped into 6 and 7 major clusters, respectively. Furthermore, the isolates also elicited variable nodule number per plant, nodule dry matter, shoot biomass and photosynthetic rates in their respective host plants under glasshouse conditions. Of the groundnut isolates tested, 38% recorded high relative symbiotic effectiveness (RSE >80), while 55% of the jack bean isolates and 93% of the soybean isolates recorded high RSE (>80) compared to the commercial Bradyrhizobium strains. About 13%, 27% and 83% of the top N₂-fixing groundnut, jack bean and soybean isolates, respectively, elicited much higher relative symbiotic efficiency (RSE) than the commercial strain, suggesting their potential for use in inoculant production after field testing. There was a tendency for both low and high N₂-fixing isolates to group together in the dendrogram from ERIC-PCR profiles, which suggests that RSE can differ significantly among closely related microsymbionts.

Keywords: genetic diversity, relative symbiotic effectiveness, inoculant, N₂-fixing

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4000 Effect of Relative Humidity on Corrosion Behavior of SN-0.7Cu Solder under Polyvinyl Chloride Fire Smoke Atmosphere

Authors: Qian Li, Shouxiang Lu

Abstract:

With the rapid increase in electric power use, wire and cable fire occur more and more frequent. The fire smoke has a corrosive effect on the solders, which seriously affects the function of electronic equipment. In this research, the effect of environment relative humidity on corrosion behavior of Sn-0.7Cu solder has been researched under 140 g·m⁻³ polyvinyl chloride (PVC) fire smoke atmosphere. The mass loss of Sn-0.7Cu solder increased with the relative humidity. Furthermore, the microstructures and corrosion mechanism were analyzed by using SEM, EDS, XRD, and XPS. The result shows that Sn₂₁Cl₁₆(OH)₁₄O₆ is the main corrosion products and the corrosion process is an electrochemical reaction. The present work could provide guidance to the risk assessment for electronic equipment rescue after a fire.

Keywords: corrosion, fire smoke, relative humidity, Sn-0.7Cu solder

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3999 The Effect of Visual Fluency and Cognitive Fluency on Access Rates of Web Pages

Authors: Xiaoying Guo, Xiangyun Wang

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Access rates is a key indicator of reflecting the popularity of web pages. Having high access rates are very important for web pages, especially for news web pages, online shopping sites and searching engines. In this paper, we analyzed the influences of visual fluency and cognitive fluency on access rates of Chinese web pages. Firstly, we conducted an experiment of scoring the web pages. Twenty-five subjects were invited to view top 50 web pages of China, and they were asked to give a score in a 5-point Likert-scale from four aspects, including complexity, comfortability, familiarity and usability. Secondly, the obtained results was analyzed by correlation analysis and factor analysis in R. By factor analysis; we analyzed the contributions of visual fluency and cognitive fluency to the access rates. The results showed that both visual fluency and cognitive fluency affect the access rate of web pages. Compared to cognitive fluency, visual fluency play a more important role in user’s accessing of web pages.

Keywords: visual fluency, cognitive fluency, visual complexity, usability

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3998 Net Interest Margin of Cooperative Banks in Low Interest Rate Environment

Authors: Karolína Vozková, Matěj Kuc

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This paper deals with the impact of decrease in interest rates on the performance of commercial and cooperative banks in the Eurozone measured by net interest margin. The analysis was performed on balanced dataset of 268 commercial and 726 cooperative banks spanning the 2008-2015 period. We employed Fixed Effects estimation panel method. As expected, we found a negative relationship between market rates and net interest margin. Our results suggest that the impact of negative interest income differs across individual banking business models. More precisely, those cooperative banks were much more hit by the decrease of market interest rates which might be due to their ownership structure and more restrictive business regulation.

Keywords: cooperative banks, performance, negative interest rates, risk management

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3997 Mapping Social and Natural Hazards: A Survey of Potential for Managed Retreat in the United States

Authors: Karim Ahmed

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate how factoring the impact of natural disasters beyond flooding would affect managed retreat policy eligibility in the United States. For the study design, a correlation analysis method compared weighted measures of flooding and other natural disasters (e.g., wildfires, tornadoes, heatwaves, etc.) to CBSA Populated areas, the prevalence of cropland, and relative poverty on a county level. The study found that the vast majority of CBSAs eligible for managed retreat programs under a policy inclusive of non-flooding events would have already been covered by flood-only managed retreat policies. However, it is noteworthy that a majority of those counties that are not covered by a flood-only managed retreat policy have high rates of poverty and are either heavily populated and/or agriculturally active. The correlation is particularly strong between counties that are subject to multiple natural hazards and those that have both high rates of relative poverty and cropland prevalence. There is currently no managed retreat policy for agricultural land in the United States despite the environmental implications and food supply chain vulnerabilities related to at-risk cropland. The findings of this study suggest both that such a policy should be created and, when it is, that special attention should be paid to non-flood natural disasters affecting agricultural areas. These findings also reveal that, while current flood-based policies in the United States serve many areas that do need access to managed retreat funding and implementation, other vulnerable areas are overlooked by this approach. These areas are often deeply impoverished and are therefore particularly vulnerable to natural disaster; if and when those disasters do occur, these areas are often less financially prepared to recover or retreat from the disaster’s advance and, due to the limitations of the current policies discussed above, are less able to take the precautionary measures necessary to mitigate their risk.

Keywords: flood, hazard, land use, managed retreat, wildfire

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3996 Effects of Using Super-Absorbent Polymers on Physiological Indexes of Maize

Authors: Shoaei Shahram, Rafiei Felora

Abstract:

To study the effects of using superabsorbent polymers on physiological of maize in deficit Irrigation condition .an experiment carried out in split plot factorial based on completely Randomized Block design (RCBD) with three replication in 2012years. Deficit Irrigation was applied by three different Irrigation amount. Super absorbent polymers in 3 levels were and two veriety of maize allocated in sub plots. there was significant difference between Irrigation levels in all experimental Traits by increasing in deficit irrigation. Results of this research showed water stress significantly decreased relative water content (RWC) LAI,Ash percentage in both hybrids, and increased Cell membrane percentage and SPAD,ADF percent.whereas the application of super absorbent polymer compensated the negative effect of drought stress, especially in high rates of polymer application .These mentioned rates of polymer had the best effect to all of the studied traits. These findings can be suggested that the irrigation intervals of corn could be increased by application of super absorbent polymer.

Keywords: super absorbent, p hysiological, water stress, zea maize

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3995 The Cost of Solar-Centric Renewable Portfolio

Authors: Timothy J. Considine, Edward J. M. Manderson

Abstract:

This paper develops an econometric forecasting system of energy demand coupled with engineering-economic models of energy supply. The framework is used to quantify the impact of state-level renewable portfolio standards (RPSs) achieved predominately with solar generation on electricity rates, electricity consumption, and environmental quality. We perform the analysis using Arizona’s RPS as a case study. We forecast energy demand in Arizona out to 2035, and find by this time the state will require an additional 35 million MWh of electricity generation. If Arizona implements its RPS when supplying this electricity demand, we find there will be a substantial increase in electricity rates (relative to a business-as-usual scenario of reliance on gas-fired generation). Extending the current regime of tax credits can greatly reduce this increase, at the taxpayers’ expense. We find that by 2025 Arizona’s RPS will implicitly abate carbon dioxide emissions at a cost between $101 and $135 per metric ton, and by 2035 abatement costs are between $64 and $112 per metric ton (depending on the future evolution of nature gas prices).

Keywords: electricity demand, renewable portfolio standard, solar, carbon dioxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 399
3994 Risk of Mortality and Spectrum of Second Primary Malignancies in Mantle Cell Lymphoma before and after Ibrutinib Approval: A Population-Based Study

Authors: Karthik Chamari, Vasudha Rudraraju, Gaurav Chaudhari

Abstract:

Background: Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is one of the mature B cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). The course of MCL is moderately aggressive and variable, and it has median overall survival of 8 to 10 years. Ibrutinib, a Bruton’s tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was approved by the United States (US) Food and Drug Administration in November of 2013 for the treatment of MCL patients who have received at least one prior therapy. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether there has been a change in survival and patterns of second primary malignancies (SPMs) among the MCL population in the US after ibrutinib approval. Methods: Using the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-18, we conducted a retrospective study with patients diagnosed with MCL (ICD-0-3 code 9673/3) between 2007 and 2018. We divided patients into two six-year cohorts, pre-ibrutinib approval (2007-2012) and post-ibrutinib approval (2013-2018), and compared relative survival rates (RSRs) and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of SPMs between cohorts. Results: We included 9,257 patients diagnosed with MCL between 2007 and 2018 in the SEER-18 survival and SIR registries. Of these, 4,205 (45%) patients were included in the pre-ibrutinib cohort, and 5052 (55%) patients were included in the post-ibrutinib cohort. The median follow-up duration for the pre-ibrutinib cohort was 54 months (range 0 to 143 months), and the post-ibrutinib cohort was 20 months (range 0 to 71 months). There was a significant difference in the five-year RSRs between pre-ibrutinib and post-ibrutinib cohorts (57.5% vs. 62.6%, p < 0.005). Out of the 9,257 patients diagnosed with MCL, 920 developed SPMs. A higher proportion of SPMs occurred in the post-ibrutinib cohort (63%) when compared with the pre-ibrutinib cohort (37%). Non-hematological malignancies comprised most of all SPMs. A higher incidence of non-hematological malignancies occurred in the post-ibrutinib cohort (SIR 1.42, 95% CI 1.29 to 1.56) when compared with the pre-ibrutinib cohort (SIR 1.14, 95% CI 1 to 1.3). There was a statistically significant increase in the incidence of cancers of the respiratory tract (SIR 1.77, 95% CI 1.43 to 2.18), urinary tract (SIR 1.61, 95% CI 1.23 to 2.06) when compared with other non-hematological malignancies in post-ibrutinib cohort. Conclusions: Our study results suggest the relative survival rates have increased since the approval of ibrutinib for mantle cell lymphoma patients. Additionally, for some unclear reasons, the incidence of SPM’s (non-hematological malignancies), mainly cancers of the respiratory tract, urinary tract, have increased in the six years following the approval of ibrutinib. Further studies should be conducted to determine the cause of these findings.

Keywords: mantle cell lymphoma, Ibrutinib, relative survival analysis, secondary primary cancers

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
3993 Valuation of Caps and Floors in a LIBOR Market Model with Markov Jump Risks

Authors: Shih-Kuei Lin

Abstract:

The characterization of the arbitrage-free dynamics of interest rates is developed in this study under the presence of Markov jump risks, when the term structure of the interest rates is modeled through simple forward rates. We consider Markov jump risks by allowing randomness in jump sizes, independence between jump sizes and jump times. The Markov jump diffusion model is used to capture empirical phenomena and to accurately describe interest jump risks in a financial market. We derive the arbitrage-free model of simple forward rates under the spot measure. Moreover, the analytical pricing formulas for a cap and a floor are derived under the forward measure when the jump size follows a lognormal distribution. In our empirical analysis, we find that the LIBOR market model with Markov jump risk better accounts for changes from/to different states and different rates.

Keywords: arbitrage-free, cap and floor, Markov jump diffusion model, simple forward rate model, volatility smile, EM algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
3992 Comparison of Two-Phase Critical Flow Models for Estimation of Leak Flow Rate through Cracks

Authors: Tadashi Watanabe, Jinya Katsuyama, Akihiro Mano

Abstract:

The estimation of leak flow rates through narrow cracks in structures is of importance for nuclear reactor safety, since the leak flow could be detected before occurrence of loss-of-coolant accidents. The two-phase critical leak flow rates are calculated using the system analysis code, and two representative non-homogeneous critical flow models, Henry-Fauske model and Ransom-Trapp model, are compared. The pressure decrease and vapor generation in the crack, and the leak flow rates are found to be larger for the Henry-Fauske model. It is shown that the leak flow rates are not affected by the structural temperature, but affected largely by the roughness of crack surface.

Keywords: crack, critical flow, leak, roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
3991 Risk Aversion and Dynamic Games between Hydroelectric Operators under Uncertainty

Authors: Abdessalem Abbassi, Ahlem Dakhlaoui, Lota D. Tamini

Abstract:

This article analyses management of hydropower dams within two different industrial structures: monopolistic and oligopolistic; when hydroelectricity producers are risk averse and face demand uncertainty. In each type of market structure we determine the water release path in closed-loop equilibrium. We show how a monopoly can manage its hydropower dams by additional pumping or storage depending on the relative abundance of water between different regions to smooth the effect of uncertainty on electricity prices. In the oligopolistic case with symmetric rates of risk aversion, we determine the conditions under which the relative scarcity (abundance) of water in the dam of a hydroelectric operator can favor additional strategic pumping (storage) in its competitor’s dams. When there is asymmetry of the risk aversion coefficient, the firm’s hydroelectricity production increases as its competitor’s risk aversion increases, if and only if the average recharge speed of the competitor’s dam exceeds a certain threshold, which is an increasing function of its average water inflows.

Keywords: asymmetric risk aversion, closed-loop Cournot competition, electricity wholesale market, hydropower dams

Procedia PDF Downloads 286