Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 74

Search results for: mosquito

74 Mosquito Repellent Finishing of Cotton Using Pepper Tree (Schinus molle) Seed Oil Extract

Authors: Granch Berhe Tseghai, Tekalgn Gebremedhin Belay, Abrehaley Hagos Gebremariam


Mosquito repellent textiles are one of the most growing ways to advance the textile field by providing the needed characteristics of protecting against mosquitoes, especially in the tropical areas. These types of textiles ensure the protection of human beings from the mosquitoes and the mosquito-borne disease includes malaria, filariasis and dengue fever. In this work Schinus Molle oil (pepper tree oil) was used for mosquito repellent finish as a preformatted thing. This study focused on the penetration of mosquito repellent finish in textile applications as well as nature based alternatives to commercial chemical mosquito repellents in the market. Suitable techniques and materials to achieve mosquito repellency are discussed and pointed out according to our project. In this study textile, sample was treated with binder and schinus oil. The different property has been studied for effective mosquito repellency.

Keywords: cotton, Schinus molle seed oil, mosquito repellent, mosquito-borne diseases

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
73 Gravitrap for Surveillance of Mosquito Density in Kaohsiung

Authors: Meng-Yu Tsai, Jui-hun Chang, Wen-Feng Hung, Jing-Dong Chou


The objective of this paper was to use gravitrap to survey the mosquito density in Kaohsiung. Gravitrap is one of the tools for surveillance the mosquito density. Gravitrap not only monitor the mosquito density but also decrease the mosquito density. Kaohsiung Environment Protection Bureau (KEPB) used gravitrap to monitor the mosquito density in 2016. KEPB put gravitrap in five districts which had the more confirmed dengue cases in 2015. The results indicated that (1)the highest positive rate (PR) of gravitrap was in Gushan district, the PR of gravitrap in Gushan district was 19.25%. (2) the lowest PR of gravitrap was in Sanmin district, the PR of gravitrap in Sanmin district was 8.55%. (3) compared these two districts, the most important factor to influence of PR of gravitrap was the knowledge of dengue prevention. Therefore, the PR of gravitrap was one of the references for making dengue prevention policy.

Keywords: continuous assessment, course integration, curricular reform, student feedback

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72 Evaluation of Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) as Mosquito Repellent Extracted by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Assisted Process

Authors: Chia-Yu Lin, Chun-Ying Lee, Chih-Jer Lin


Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), grown in tropical and subtropical regions over the world, has many potential uses in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, food and flavor, and agriculture industries. In this study, because of its affinity to human body and friendliness to the environment, lemongrass extract was prepared from different processes to evaluate its effectiveness as mosquito repellent. Moreover, the supercritical fluid extraction method has been widely used as an effective and environmental friendly process in the preparation of a variety of compounds. Thus, both the extracts from lemongrass by the conventional hydrodistillation method and the supercritical CO₂ assisted method were compared. The effects of pressure, temperature and time duration on the supercritical CO₂ extraction were also investigated. The compositions of different extracts were examined using mass spectrometer. As for the experiment of mosquito repellence, the extract was placed inside a mosquito trap along with syrup. The mosquito counts in each trap with extracts prepared from different processes were employed in the quantitative evaluation. It was found that the extract from the supercritical CO₂ assisted process contained higher citronellol content than the conventional hydrodistillation method. The extract with higher citronellol content also demonstrated more effective as a mosquito repellent.

Keywords: lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), hydrodistillation, supercritical fluid extraction, mosquito repellent

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
71 Distribution and Densities of Anopheles Mosquito in El Obied Town, Sudan

Authors: Adam Musa Adam Eissa


Environmental and weather changes especially rainfall affects the distribution and densities of mosquitoes. This work was carried out to study the distribution and densities of mosquitoes adults and larvae in a total of five selected stations in El Obied Town. A cross-sectional survey of Anopheline mosquito larval habitats was conducted. The survey was conducted during the dry season (January 2013). Larvae were collected by using the standard dipping technique, while adult stages were collected by rearing larvae in cage, because the density of adults Anopheles mosquito per room was zero by using spray sheet method by using Permethrin pesticide 25%E.C, during the study period. The results revealed that (2347) Anopheline mosquito larvae were found and collected from only one station. All of which (2347) larvae (100%) were classified as probably Anopheles Squamosus. The study also showed that, a number of 81 adults (100%) Anopheline mosquito were classified as probably Anopheles Squamosus. Anopheles Squamosus were found only in the shallow pond water habitat in Alrahma west area of El Obied, the mean Anopheline density in the study area for larvae was 0.313 per dip while the mean density of adult was 0 per room. The high mosquito larval density in Alrahma west area indicated that, this part of El Obied Town is at risk of mosquito-borne diseases including malaria. This study recommended to apply the control program against mosquito at this part of the Town.

Keywords: anopheles, squamosus, Alrahma, distribution

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70 Alleviation of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Mosquito Cells to Survive Dengue 2 Virus Infection

Authors: Jiun-Nan Hou, Tien-Huang Chen, Wei-June Chen


Dengue viruses (DENVs) are naturally transmitted between humans by mosquito vectors. Mosquito cells usually survive DENV infection, allowing infected mosquitoes to retain an active status for virus transmission. In this study, we found that DENV2 virus infection in mosquito cells causes the unfolded protein response (UPR) that activates the protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) signal pathway, leading to shutdown of global protein translation in infected cells which was apparently regulated by the PERK signal pathway. According to observation in this study, the PERK signal pathway in DENV2-infected C6/36 cells alleviates ER stress, and reduces initiator and effector caspases, as well as the apoptosis rate via shutdown of cellular proteins. In fact, phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2ɑ (eIF2ɑ) by the PERK signal pathway may impair recruitment of ribosomes that bind to the mRNA 5’-cap structure, resulting in an inhibitory effect on canonical cap-dependent cellular protein translation. The resultant pro-survival “byproduct” of infected mosquito cells is undoubtedly advantageous for viral replication. This finding provides insights into elucidating the PERK-mediated modulating web that is actively involved in dynamic protein synthesis, cell survival, and viral replication in mosquito cells.

Keywords: cap-dependent protein translation, dengue virus, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mosquito cells, PERK signal pathway

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69 Update Mosquito Species Composition and Distribution in Qatar

Authors: Fatima Alkhayat, Abu Hassan Ahmed


Qatar as the one of Middle East and Gulf country is growing rapidly due to urbanization. Urbanization, population’s movement and goods transportation in addition to climatic change all together create suitable environments for remerging and/or introduction of new disease vectors species. Unfortunately, knowledge on mosquito species composition and their geographical distribution in Qatar is extremely limited. The objective of present study is to provide update information on species composition and distribution. Mosquito larval survey carried out in six sentinel sites in Qatar. The collection was made on monthly basis in period from October 2013 to May 2015 using dipping techniques and identified to species level using appropriate pictorial keys. In total about 3,085 mosquito larvae were collected and identified to species compromising three mosquito genera, Culex 87.4% (n=2697), Ochlerotatus 9.9% (n= 305) and Anopheles 2.6% (n= 81). Among Culex genera; Culex quinquefasciatus represent 87.8% (n= 2369), Cx. pipiens 8.7% (n=237), and Cx. mattinglyi 3.4% (n=91). Culex quinquefasciatus was the most commonly collected species, representing 93.5% in Alwakra (n= 2216) which was observed in November, December, March, April and May when reached the peak. 6.4% in Nuaija (n= 151) was found in February and March and reached the peak in March. 0.1% in Alkaraana (n=2) only observed in April. Cx. pipiens was observed 50.2% in Rwdat Alfaras (n=120) and 48.9% in Hazm Almurkhiya (n=117). While in Rowdat Alfaras it was observed in Oct-May and in Hazm Almurkhiya from Oct-April. Cx. mattinglyi (n= 91) was only found in Nuaija from October to December. Ochlerotatus genera account 1 species Oc. dorsalis (n=305). The majority of Oc. dorsalis were observed in March and May, 98% in Nuaija (n= 299), followed by 2% in Alkhor (n=6) which was observed in January and February. Anopheles was only represented by An. stephensi which was found 69% in Alwakra (n= 56) in November, December, April and May, while 25.9% in Hazm Almurkhiya (n=21) and found in May and November. 6.2% in Rwadat Alfaras and was observed only in November and 1.2% in Nuaija (n=1) and observed in October. Further investigation is required on the composition and distribution of mosquito for implementing a surveillance program and control of mosquito-borne diseases in Qatar.

Keywords: composition, distribution, mosquito, Qatar

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68 Integrated Finishing of Textiles

Authors: Geetal Mahajan, R. V. Adivarekar


In this research, an attempt has been made to develop integrated finish on textile fabrics. The demand for mosquito repellent, flame retardant, and water repellent finished fabric has increased. Integrated finishing was done using commercially available products. These finishing agents were first assessed individually for their functional properties and then used in combination with other agents. Dip-air dry and pad-dry-cure (PDC) were two different methods used for fabric finishing. The finished fabric was assessed using spray test, limiting oxygen index and mosquito repellence test. Integrated finished fabric is in great demand by the customers as it increases the aesthetic as well as the functional properties of the fabric with added benefit of water and energy conservation.

Keywords: flame retardant, integrated finishing, mosquito repellent, textiles, water repellent

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
67 The Correlation of Environmental Risk Factors with Malaria at Tasikmalaya District, 2013

Authors: Destriyanti Sugiarti, Ririn A Wulandari


Background: Malaria disease was widespread in many countries, both tropical and sub-tropical. Tasikmalaya is a region that experienced an increase in malaria cases over the last 5 years and highest in 2013, a total of 168 positive cases of malaria. Tasikmalaya region consists of coastal and mountain areas, it has a potential place for Anopheles mosquito breeding, i.e swamp, lagoon, andrice fields.The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation of environmental risk factors with the incidence of malaria in Tasikmalaya. Methods: The design of the study is case control study with 140 samples in 5 sub-district (Cineam, Cikatomas, Cipatujah, Salopa, and Jatiwaras). This study examines the environmental factors that influence the incidence of malaria in Tasikmalaya District in 2013. The research used 14 variables: individual characteristics (education, knowledge, occupation) and environmental risk factors (mobility to endemic areas, use mosquito nets, use of wire gauze at home, use mosquito repellent, repellent use, the presence of a large animal in a cage, breeding place, the presence of larvae, temperature and humidity chamber). Results: Results demonstrated an association between occupation (0.22; 0.10-0.47), the mobility of the population to the endemic areas (37.4; 14.29-98.18) ,the presence of larvae (5.26; 1.41-19.74), and the room temperature with optimum temperature for mosquito breeding is 25-30oC (3.25; 1.62- 6.50). Conclusion: The dominant factor affecting the spread of malaria in Tasikmalaya is the mobility of the population to endemic areas. The results of the study suggest migration survey conducted activity and health promotion for preventive efforts against malaria in malaria-endemic areas, and to encourage people to behave healthy life by freeing environment of mosquito larvae and protect themselves from mosquito bites.

Keywords: Environmental risk factors, malaria, correlation, Anopheles

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66 Effect of Acute Dose of Mobile Phone Radiation on Life Cycle ‎of the Mosquito, Culex univittatus

Authors: Fatma H. Galal, Alaaeddeen M. Seufi


Due to the increasing usage of mobile phone, experiments were designed to investigate ‎the effect of acute dose exposure on the mosquito life cycle. 50 tubes (5 ml size) ‎containing 3 ml water and a first instar larva of the mosquito, Culex univittatus were put ‎between two mobile cell phones switched on talking mode for 4 continuous hours. A ‎control group of tubes (unexposed to radiation) were used. Larval and pupal durations ‎were calculated. Furthermore, adult emergence and sex ratio were observed for both ‎treated and control larvae. Results indicated that the employed dose of radiation reduced ‎total larval duration to about half the value of control. 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th larval ‎durations were reduced significantly by mobile radiation when compared to controls. ‎Meanwhile pupal duration was elongated significantly by mobile radiation when ‎compared to control. Sex ratio was significantly shifted in favor of females in the case of ‎radiated mosquitoes. Successful adult emergence was decreased significantly in the case ‎of radiated insects when compared to controls. Molecular studies to investigate the ‎effects of mobile radiation on insects and other model organisms are going on.‎

Keywords: mosquito, mobilr radiation, larval and pupal durations, sex ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
65 A DNA-Based Nano-biosensor for the Rapid Detection of the Dengue Virus in Mosquito

Authors: Lilia M. Fernando, Matthew K. Vasher, Evangelyn C. Alocilja


This paper describes the development of a DNA-based nanobiosensor to detect the dengue virus in mosquito using electrically active magnetic (EAM) nanoparticles as the concentrator and electrochemical transducer. The biosensor detection encompasses two sets of oligonucleotide probes that are specific to the dengue virus: the detector probe labeled with the EAM nanoparticles and the biotinylated capture probe. The DNA targets are double hybridized to the detector and the capture probes and concentrated from nonspecific DNA fragments by applying a magnetic field. Subsequently, the DNA sandwiched targets (EAM-detector probe–DNA target–capture probe-biotin) are captured on streptavidin modified screen printed carbon electrodes through the biotinylated capture probes. Detection is achieved electrochemically by measuring the oxidation–reduction signal of the EAM nanoparticles. Results indicate that the biosensor is able to detect the redox signal of the EAM nanoparticles at dengue DNA concentrations as low as 10 ng/ul.

Keywords: dengue, magnetic nanoparticles, mosquito, nanobiosensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
64 The Effect of Aromatherapy Candle as Insecticide from Citrus Extract of Lemongrass (Cymbopogon) to Increase Ae. aegypti Mortality

Authors: Nurul Hidayah, Farida Rahmatika, Fathimah Azzahra, Nesty Herennadia


Aromatherapy candles are one of the insecticide media that have not been much researched. The active ingredient that is proven to have the effect of insecticide is a citrus extract from lemongrass oil (Cymbopogon). Aromatherapy candles are added by citrus compounds to be insecticidal for Ae. aegypti mosquito that was related to the infectious disease such as dengue fever. This research aims to find out if aromatherapy candles of citrus compounds have an insecticidal effect on Ae. aegypti mosquito. We used true experimental design including posttest only with control group design. The samples are 20 male and female Ae. aegypti mosquitos with aged 1-7 days belong to the inclusion criteria. The subjects were divided into 6 groups, consisting of 1 negative control group and 5 treatment groups with variation concentration are 1%; 2%; 3%; 4%; 5%. Each group will be treated for 2 hours and observed death after 24 hours. Replication in each group is done 4 times. The results were then tested statistically using Kruskal-Wallis and probit test. Mean of death in negative control group, and treatment group 1%; 2%; 3%; 4%; 5% respectively 0; 1; 0.25; 0; 1 and 1 mosquito. The Kruskal-Wallis test in the study group found no significant difference (p = 0.178). The probit analysis showed that LC50 and LC90 were 20.069% and 31.557%. The aromatherapy candle of a citrus compound has an insecticidal effect on the Ae aegypti mosquito.

Keywords: Ae. aegypti insecticide, aromatherapy candle, citrus compound, lemongrass oil (Cymbopogon)

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
63 A Study for Area-level Mosquito Abundance Prediction by Using Supervised Machine Learning Point-level Predictor

Authors: Theoktisti Makridou, Konstantinos Tsaprailis, George Arvanitakis, Charalampos Kontoes


In the literature, the data-driven approaches for mosquito abundance prediction relaying on supervised machine learning models that get trained with historical in-situ measurements. The counterpart of this approach is once the model gets trained on pointlevel (specific x,y coordinates) measurements, the predictions of the model refer again to point-level. These point-level predictions reduce the applicability of those solutions once a lot of early warning and mitigation actions applications need predictions for an area level, such as a municipality, village, etc... In this study, we apply a data-driven predictive model, which relies on public-open satellite Earth Observation and geospatial data and gets trained with historical point-level in-Situ measurements of mosquito abundance. Then we propose a methodology to extract information from a point-level predictive model to a broader area-level prediction. Our methodology relies on the randomly spatial sampling of the area of interest (similar to the Poisson hardcore process), obtaining the EO and geomorphological information for each sample, doing the point-wise prediction for each sample, and aggregating the predictions to represent the average mosquito abundance of the area. We quantify the performance of the transformation from the pointlevel to the area-level predictions, and we analyze it in order to understand which parameters have a positive or negative impact on it. The goal of this study is to propose a methodology that predicts the mosquito abundance of a given area by relying on point-level prediction and to provide qualitative insights regarding the expected performance of the area-level prediction. We applied our methodology to historical data (of Culex pipiens) of two areas of interest (Veneto region of Italy and Central Macedonia of Greece). In both cases, the results were consistent. The mean mosquito abundance of a given area can be estimated with similar accuracy to the point-level predictor, sometimes even better. The density of the samples that we use to represent one area has a positive effect on the performance in contrast to the actual number of sampling points which is not informative at all regarding the performance without the size of the area. Additionally, we saw that the distance between the sampling points and the real in-situ measurements that were used for training did not strongly affect the performance.

Keywords: mosquito abundance, supervised machine learning, culex pipiens, spatial sampling, west nile virus, earth observation data

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62 Controlling the Growth and Development of Mosquito (Aedes aegypti) Using Testosterone

Authors: Brian F. Estidola, Alfredo A. Alcantara, Catherine del Cruz, Genelita S. Garcia


This study aimed to investigate the effects of testosterone in the development and growth of Aedes aegypti as a main vector of dengue virus. There were three concentrations of testosterone: (0µM), (10µM), and (15µM) arranged randomly in two blocks. Each concentration houses 10 mosquitoes and monitored their development. The results showed that there were no significant differences on the effects of testosterone in emergence of larvae, mortality of eggs and larvae. However, it was shown that adults emerged from 15µM had a lower sex ratio than 10µM leading to the conclusion that there could be an optimal concentration of testosterone close to 10µM that could led to a high possibility of sex reversal of adult mosquitoes from female to male.

Keywords: mosquito, sex reversal, testosterone, ecdysterone

Procedia PDF Downloads 413
61 Bioinsecticidal Activity and Phytochemical Study of the Crude Extract from the Plant Artemisia judaica

Authors: Fatma Acheuk, Idir Bitam, Leila Bendifallah, Malika Ramdani, Fethia Barika


Phytochemical study of the plant Artemisia judaica showed the presence of various groups of natural products: saponins, tannins, coumarins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and reducer compounds. However, alkaloids are present as traces. The crude ethanol extract of the test plant presented significant insecticidal activity on mosquito larvae in stage I, II and III. The LD50 highlighted the excellent insecticidal effect of the tested extract. Similarly, the LT50 are achieved early with high doses. The results obtained are encouraging and suggest the possibility of using the secondary metabolites of this plant such as bio-insecticide.

Keywords: Atamisia judaica, crud extract, mosquito, insecticidal activity

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60 Phytochemical Study and Bioinsecticidal Effect of the Crude Extract from the Plant Artemisia Judaica

Authors: Fatma Acheuk, Idir Bitam, Leila Bendifallah, Malika Ramdani, Fethia Barika


Phytochemical study of the plant Artemisia judaica showed the presence of various groups of natural products: saponins, tannins, coumarins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, and reducer compounds. However alkaloids are present as traces. The crude ethanol extract of the test plant presented significant insecticidal activity on mosquito larvae in stage I, II, and III. The LD50 highlighted the excellent insecticidal effect of the tested extract. Similarly, the LT50 are achieved early with high doses. The results obtained are encouraging and suggest the possibility of using the secondary metabolites of this plant such as bio-insecticide.

Keywords: Atamisia judaica, crud extract, mosquito, insecticidal activity

Procedia PDF Downloads 448
59 Study on the Incidence of Chikungunya Infection in Swat Region

Authors: Nasib Zaman, Maneesha Kour, Muhammad Rizwan, Fazal Akbar


Abstract: Chikungunya fever is a re-emerging rapidly spreading mosquito-borne disease cause by Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti mosquito vectors. Currently, it is affecting millions of people globally. Objective: This study's main objective was to find the incidence of chikungunya fever in the Swat region and the factors associated with the spread of this infection. Method: This study was carried out in different areas of Swat. Blood samples and data were collected from selected patients, and a questionnaire was filled for each patient. 3-5ml of the specimen was taken from the patient's vein and serum, or plasma was separated by centrifugation. Chikungunya tests were performed for IgG and IgM antibodies. The data was analyzed by SPSS and Graph Paid Prism 5. Results: A total of 169 patients were included in this study, out of which 103 (60.9%) having age less than 30 years were positive for chikungunya infection and 66 (39.1%) having more than 30 years were negative for this infection. Only 1 (0.6%) were positive for both IgG and IgM antibody. About 15 (8.9%) patients have diagnosed with positive IgG antibodies, and 25 (26.6%) patients were positive for IgM positive antibodies. The infection rate was significantly higher in males compared to females 71 (59.6%) vs. 14 (38%) P value=0.088, OR=1.7. Conclusion: This study concludes clinical knowledge and awareness that are necessary for a diagnosis of chikungunya infection properly. Therefore it is important to educate people for the eradication of this infection. Recommendation: This study also recommends investigating the other risk factors associated with this infection.

Keywords: Chikungunya, risk factor, Incidence, antibodies, mosquito

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58 In vitro Control of Aedes aegypti Larvae Using Beauveria bassiana

Authors: R. O. B. Bitencourt, F. S. Farias, M. C. Freitas, C. J. R. Balduino, E.S. Mesquita, A. R. C. Corval, P. S. Gôlo, E. G. Pontes, V. R. E. P. Bittencourt, I. C. Angelo


Aedes aegypti larval survival rate was assessed after exposure to blastopores or conidia (mineral oil-in-water formulation or aqueous suspension) of Beauveria bassiana CG 479 propagules (blastospores or conidia). Here, mineral oil was used in the fungal formulation to control Aedes aegypti larvae. 1%, 0.5% or 0.1% mineral oil-in-water solutions were used to evaluate mineral oil toxicity for mosquito larvae. In the oil toxicity test, 0.1% mineral oil solution reduced only 4.5% larval survival; accordingly, this concentration was chosen for fungal oil-in-water formulations. Aqueous suspensions were prepared using 0.01% Tween 80® in sterile dechlorinated water. A. aegypti larvae (L2) were exposed in aqueous suspensions or mineral oil-in-water fungal formulations at 1×107 propagules mL-1; the survival rate (assessed daily, for 7 days) and the median survival time (S50) were calculated. Seven days after the treatment, mosquito larvae survival rates were 8.56%, 16.22%, 58%, and 42.56% after exposure to oil-in-water blastospores, oil-in-water conidia, blastospores aqueous suspension and conidia aqueous suspension (respectively). Larvae exposed to 0.01% Tween 80® had 100% survival rate and the ones treated with 0.1% mineral oil-in-water had 95.11% survival rate. Larvae treated with conidia (regardless the presence of oil) or treated with blastospores formulation had survival median time (S50) ranging from one to two days. S50 was not determined (ND) when larvae were exposed to blastospores aqueous suspension, 0.01% Tween 80® (aqueous control) or 0.1% mineral oil-in-water formulation (oil control). B. bassiana conidia and blastospores (mineral oil-in-water formulated or suspended in water) had potential to control A. aegypti mosquito larvae, despite mineral oil-in-water formulation yielded better results in comparison to aqueous suspensions. Here, B. bassiana CG 479 isolate is suggested as a potential biocontrol agent of A. aegypti mosquito larvae.

Keywords: blastospores, formulation, mosquitoes, conidia

Procedia PDF Downloads 120
57 A Review on Biological Control of Mosquito Vectors

Authors: Asim Abbasi, Muhammad Sufyan, Iqra, Hafiza Javaria Ashraf


The share of vector-borne diseases (VBDs) in the global burden of infectious diseases is almost 17%. The advent of new drugs and latest research in medical science helped mankind to compete with these lethal diseases but still diseases transmitted by different mosquito species, including filariasis, malaria, viral encephalitis and dengue are serious threats for people living in disease endemic areas. Injudicious and repeated use of pesticides posed selection pressure on mosquitoes leading to development of resistance. Hence biological control agents are under serious consideration of scientific community to be used in vector control programmes. Fish have a history of predating immature stages of different aquatic insects including mosquitoes. The noteworthy examples in Africa and Asia includes, Aphanius discolour and a fish in the Panchax group. Moreover, common mosquito fish, Gambusia affinis predates mostly on temporary water mosquitoes like anopheline as compared to permanent water breeders like culicines. Mosquitoes belonging to genus Toxorhynchites have a worldwide distribution and are mostly associated with the predation of other mosquito larvae habituating with them in natural and artificial water containers. These species are harmless to humans as their adults do not suck human blood but feeds on floral nectar. However, their activity is mostly temperature dependent as Toxorhynchites brevipalpis consume 359 Aedes aegypti larvae at 30-32 ºC in contrast to 154 larvae at 20-26 ºC. Although many bacterial species were isolated from mosquito cadavers but those belonging to genus Bacillus are found highly pathogenic against them. The successful species of this genus include Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus sphaericus. The prime targets of B. thuringiensis are mostly the immatures of genus Aedes, Culex, Anopheles and Psorophora while B. sphaericus is specifically toxic against species of Culex, Psorophora and Culiseta. The entomopathogenic nematodes belonging to family, mermithidae are also pathogenic to different mosquito species. Eighty different species of mosquitoes including Anopheles, Aedes and Culex proved to be highly vulnerable to the attack of two mermithid species, Romanomermis culicivorax and R. iyengari. Cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus was the first described pathogenic virus, isolated from the cadavers of mosquito specie, Culex tarsalis. Other viruses which are pathogenic to culicine includes, iridoviruses, cytopolyhedrosis viruses, entomopoxviruses and parvoviruses. Protozoa species belonging to division microsporidia are the common pathogenic protozoans in mosquito populations which kill their host by the chronic effects of parasitism. Moreover, due to their wide prevalence in anopheline mosquitoes and transversal and horizontal transmission from infected to healthy host, microsporidia of the genera Nosema and Amblyospora have received much attention in various mosquito control programmes. Fungal based mycopesticides are used in biological control of insect pests with 47 species reported virulent against different stages of mosquitoes. These include both aquatic fungi i.e. species of Coelomomyces, Lagenidium giganteum and Culicinomyces clavosporus, and the terrestrial fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana. Hence, it was concluded that the integrated use of all these biological control agents can be a healthy contribution in mosquito control programmes and become a dire need of the time to avoid repeated use of pesticides.

Keywords: entomopathogenic nematodes, protozoa, Toxorhynchites, vector-borne

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
56 Stability Analysis of a Human-Mosquito Model of Malaria with Infective Immigrants

Authors: Nisha Budhwar, Sunita Daniel


In this paper, we analyse the stability of the SEIR model of malaria with infective immigrants which was recently formulated by the authors. The model consists of an SEIR model for the human population and SI Model for the mosquitoes. Susceptible humans become infected after they are bitten by infectious mosquitoes and move on to the Exposed, Infected and Recovered classes respectively. The susceptible mosquito becomes infected after biting an infected person and remains infected till death. We calculate the reproduction number R0 using the next generation method and then discuss about the stability of the equilibrium points. We use the Lyapunov function to show the global stability of the equilibrium points.

Keywords: equilibrium points, exposed, global stability, infective immigrants, Lyapunov function, recovered, reproduction number, susceptible

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
55 Sol-Gel Coated Fabric for Controlled Release of Mosquito Repellent

Authors: Bhaskar M. Murai, Neeraj Banchor, Ishveen Chabbra, Madhusudhan Nadgir, S. Vidhya


Sol-gel technology combined with electronics and biochemistry helps to overcome the problems caused by mosquitoes by developing a portable, low-cost device which enables controlled release of trapped compound inside it. It is a wet-chemical technique which is used primarily for fabrication of silicate gel which is usually allowed to dry as per requirement. The outcome is solid rock hard material which is porous and has lots of applications in different fields. Taking porosity as a key factor, allethrin a naturally occurring synthetic compound with molecular mass 302.40 was entrapped inside the sol-gel matrix as a dopant. Allethrin is commonly used as an insecticide and is a key ingredient in commercially available mosquitoes repellent in Asian and subtropical countries. It has low toxicity for humans and birds, and are used in many household insecticides such as RAID as well as mosquito coils. They are however highly toxic to fish and bees. Insects subject to its exposure become paralyzed (nervous system effect) before dying. They are also used as an ultra-low volume spray for outdoor mosquito control. Therefore, there is a need for controlled release of allethrin in the environment. For controlled release of allethrin from sol-gel matrix, its (allethrin) we utilized temperature based controlled evaporation through porous sol-gel. Different types of fabric like cotton, Terri-cotton, polyester, surgical cap, knee-cap etc are studied and the best with maximum absorption capacity is selected to hold the sol-gel matrix with maximum quantity. For sol-gel coating 2 x 2cm cloth pieces are dipped in sol-gel solution for 10 minutes and by calculating the weight difference we concluded that Terri cotton is best suitable for our project. An electronic circuit with heating plate is developed in to test the controlled release of compound. An oscillatory circuit is used to produce the required heat.

Keywords: sol-gel, allethrin, TEOS, biochemistry

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54 The Effect of Extensive Mosquito Migration on Dengue Control as Revealed by Phylogeny of Dengue Vector Aedes aegypti

Authors: M. D. Nirmani, K. L. N. Perera, G. H. Galhena


Dengue has become one of the most important arbo-viral disease in all tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Aedes aegypti, is the principal vector of the virus, vary in both epidemiological and behavioral characteristics, which could be finely measured through DNA sequence comparison at their population level. Such knowledge in the population differences can assist in implementation of effective vector control strategies allowing to make estimates of the gene flow and adaptive genomic changes, which are important predictors of the spread of Wolbachia infection or insecticide resistance. As such, this study was undertaken to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of Ae. aegypti from Galle and Colombo, Sri Lanka, based on the ribosomal protein region which spans between two exons, in order to understand the geographical distribution of genetically distinct mosquito clades and its impact on mosquito control measures. A 320bp DNA region spanning from 681-930 bp, corresponding to the ribosomal protein, was sequenced in 62 Ae. aegypti larvae collected from Galle (N=30) and Colombo (N=32), Sri Lanka. The sequences were aligned using ClustalW and the haplotypes were determined with DnaSP 5.10. Phylogenetic relationships among haplotypes were constructed using the maximum likelihood method under Tamura 3 parameter model in MEGA 7.0.14 including three previously reported sequences of Australian (N=2) and Brazilian (N=1) Ae. aegypti. The bootstrap support was calculated using 1000 replicates and the tree was rooted using Aedes notoscriptus (GenBank accession No. KJ194101). Among all sequences, nineteen different haplotypes were found among which five haplotypes were shared between 80% of mosquitoes in the two populations. Seven haplotypes were unique to each of the population. Phylogenetic tree revealed two basal clades and a single derived clade. All observed haplotypes of the two Ae. aegypti populations were distributed in all the three clades, indicating a lack of genetic differentiation between populations. The Brazilian Ae. aegypti haplotype and one of the Australian haplotypes were grouped together with the Sri Lankan basal haplotype in the same basal clade, whereas the other Australian haplotype was found in the derived clade. Phylogram showed that Galle and Colombo Ae. aegypti populations are highly related to each other despite the large geographic distance (129 Km) indicating a substantial genetic similarity between them. This may have probably arisen from passive migration assisted by human travelling and trade through both land and water as the two areas are bordered by the sea. In addition, studied Sri Lankan mosquito populations were closely related to Australian and Brazilian samples. Probably this might have caused by shipping industry between the three countries as all of them are fully or partially enclosed by sea. For example, illegal fishing boats migrating to Australia by sea is perhaps a good mean of transportation of all life stages of mosquitoes from Sri Lanka. These findings indicate that extensive mosquito migrations occur between populations not only within the country, but also among other countries in the world which might be a main barrier to the successful vector control measures.

Keywords: Aedes aegypti, dengue control, extensive mosquito migration, haplotypes, phylogeny, ribosomal protein

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53 The Culex Pipiens Niche: Assessment with Climatic and Physiographic Variables via a Geographic Information System

Authors: Maria C. Proença, Maria T. Rebelo, Marília Antunes, Maria J. Alves, Hugo Osório, Sofia Cunha, João Casaca


Using a geographic information system (GIS), the relations between a georeferenced data set of Culex pipiens sl. mosquitoes collected in Portugal mainland during seven years (2006-2012) and meteorological and physiographic parameters such as: air relative humidity, air temperature (minima, maxima and mean daily temperatures), daily total rainfall, altitude, land use/land cover and proximity to water bodies are evaluated. Focus is on the mosquito females; the characterization of its habitat is the key for the planning of chirurgical non-aggressive prophylactic countermeasures to avoid ambient degradation. The GIS allow for the spatial determination of the zones were the mosquito mean captures has been above average; using the meteorological values at these coordinates, the limits of each parameter are identified/computed. The meteorological parameters measured at the net of weather stations all over the country are averaged by month and interpolated to produce raster maps that can be segmented according to the thresholds obtained for each parameter. The intersection of the maps obtained for each month show the evolution of the area favorable to the species through the mosquito season, which is from May to October at these latitudes. In parallel, mean and above average captures were related to the physiographic parameters. Three levels of risk could be identified for each parameter, using above average captures as an index. The results were applied to the suitability meteorological maps of each month. The Culex pipiens critical niche is delimited, reflecting the critical areas and the level of risk for transmission of the pathogens to which they are competent vectors (West Nile virus, iridoviruses, rheoviruses and parvoviruses).

Keywords: Culex pipiens, ecological niche, risk assessment, risk management

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52 Investigation and Monitoring Method of Vector Density in Kaohsiung City

Authors: Chiu-Wen Chang, I-Yun Chang, Wei-Ting Chen, Hui-Ping Ho, Chao-Ying Pan, Joh-Jong Huang


Dengue is a ‘community disease’ or ‘environmental disease’, as long as the environment exist suitable container (including natural and artificial) for mosquito breeding, once the virus invade will lead to the dengue epidemic. Surveillance of vector density is critical to effective infectious disease control and play an important role in monitoring the dynamics of mosquitoes in community, such as mosquito species, density, distribution area. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship in vector density survey (Breteau index, Adult index, House index, Container index, and Larvae index) form 2014 to 2016 in Kaohsiung City and evaluate the effects of introducing the Breeding Elimination and Appraisal Team (hereinafter referred to as BEAT) as an intervention measure on eliminating dengue vector breeding site started from May 2016. BEAT were performed on people who were suspected of contracting dengue fever, a surrounding area measuring 50 meters by 50 meters was demarcated as the emergency prevention and treatment zone. BEAT would perform weekly vector mosquito inspections and vector mosquito inspections in regions with a high Gravitrap index and assign a risk assessment index to each region. These indices as well as the prevention and treatment results were immediately reported to epidemic prevention-related units every week. The results indicated that, vector indices from 2014 to 2016 showed no statistically significant differences in the Breteau index, adult index, and house index (p > 0.05) but statistically significant differences in the container index and larvae index (p <0.05). After executing the integrated elimination work, container index and larvae index are statistically significant different from 2014 to 2016 in the (p < 0.05). A post hoc test indicated that the container index of 2014 (M = 12.793) was significantly higher than that of 2016 (M = 7.631), and that the larvae index of 2015 (M = 34.065) was significantly lower than that of 2014 (M = 66.867). The results revealed that effective vector density surveillance could highlight the focus breeding site and then implement the immediate control action (BEAT), which successfully decreased the vector density and the risk of dengue epidemic.

Keywords: Breteau index, dengue control, monitoring method, vector density

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51 Bioefficiency of Cinnamomum verum Loaded Niosomes and Its Microbicidal and Mosquito Larvicidal Activity against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus

Authors: Aasaithambi Kalaiselvi, Michael Gabriel Paulraj, Ekambaram Nakkeeran


Emergences of mosquito vector-borne diseases are considered as a perpetual problem globally in tropical countries. The outbreak of several diseases such as chikungunya, zika virus infection and dengue fever has created a massive threat towards the living population. Frequent usage of synthetic insecticides like Dichloro Diphenyl Trichloroethane (DDT) eventually had its adverse harmful effects on humans as well as the environment. Since there are no perennial vaccines, prevention, treatment or drugs available for these pathogenic vectors, WHO is more concerned in eradicating their breeding sites effectively without any side effects on humans and environment by approaching plant-derived natural eco-friendly bio-insecticides. The aim of this study is to investigate the larvicidal potency of Cinnamomum verum essential oil (CEO) loaded niosomes. Cholesterol and surfactant variants of Span 20, 60 and 80 were used in synthesizing CEO loaded niosomes using Transmembrane pH gradient method. The synthesized CEO loaded niosomes were characterized by Zeta potential, particle size, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), GC-MS and SEM analysis to evaluate charge, size, functional properties, the composition of secondary metabolites and morphology. The Z-average size of the formed niosomes was 1870.84 nm and had good stability with zeta potential -85.3 meV. The entrapment efficiency of the CEO loaded niosomes was determined by UV-Visible Spectrophotometry. The bio-potency of CEO loaded niosomes was treated and assessed against gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria and fungi (Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans) at various concentrations. The larvicidal activity was evaluated against II to IV instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus at various concentrations for 24 h. The mortality rate of LC₅₀ and LC₉₀ values were calculated. The results exhibited that CEO loaded niosomes have greater efficiency against mosquito larvicidal activity. The results suggest that niosomes could be used in various applications of biotechnology and drug delivery systems with greater stability by altering the drug of interest.

Keywords: Cinnamomum verum, niosomes, entrapment efficiency, bactericidal and fungicidal, mosquito larvicidal activity

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50 Current Status of Mosquitoes Vector Research and Control in Iran

Authors: Seyed Hassan Moosa-kazemi, Hassan Vatandoost


Malaria, Dirofilaria immitis (dog heart worm), and D. repens (dirofilariasis), which are transmitted by mosquitoes, have been reported in Iran. The Iranian mosquito fauna includes seven genera, 65 species, and three subspecies. Aedes albopictus has been reported since. West Nile, Sindbis, Dengue, Japanese encephalitis viruses, and the nematode Setaria (setariasis) has been reported in the country but there are no information about their vectors in Iran. Iran is malaria elimination phase. Insecticides residual spraying (IRS), distributed of insecticides long lasting treated nets (ITNs), fogging, release of larvivours fishes and Bacillus thuringiensis, chemical larviciding, as well as case finding and manipulation and modification of breeding places carried out thought the IVM program in the country. Prolonged exposure to insecticides over several generations of the vectors, develop resistance, a capacity to survive contact with insecticides. However, use of insecticides in agriculture has often been implicated as contributing to resistance in mosquito’s vectors. Resistance of mosquitoes to some insecticides has been documented just within a few years after the insecticides were introduced. Some enzymes such as monooxygenases, esterases and glutathione S-transferases have been considered as a reason for resistance to pyrethroid insecticides. In conclusion, regarding to documented resistance and tolerance of mosquitoes vectors to some insecticides, resistance management is suggested by using new insecticide with novel mode of action.

Keywords: control, Iran, resistance, vector

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49 An Ecofriendly Approach for the Management of Aedes aegypti L (Diptera: Culicidae) by Ocimum sanctum

Authors: Mohd Shazad, Kamal Kumar Gupta


Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae), commonly known as tiger mosquito is the vector of dengue fever, yellow fever, chikungunya and zika virus. In the absence of any effective vaccine against these diseases, control the mosquito population is the only promising mean to prevent the diseases. Currently used chemical insecticides cause environmental contamination, high mammalian toxicity and hazards to non-target organisms, insecticide resistance and vector resurgence. Present research work aimed to explore the potentials of phytochemicals present in the Ocimum sanctum in management of mosquito population. The leaves of Ocimum were extracted with ethanol by ‘cold extraction method’. 0-24h old fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti were treated with the extract of concentrations 50ppm, 100ppm, 200ppm and 400ppm for 24h. Survival, growth and development of the treated larvae were evaluated. The adults emerged from the treated larvae were used for the reproductive fitness studies. Our results indicate 77.2% mortality in the larvae exposed to 400 ppm. At lower doses, although there was no significant reduction in the survival after 24h however, it decreased during subsequent days of observations. In control experiments, no mortality was observed. It was also observed that the larvae survived after treatment showed severe growth and developmental abnormalities. There was significant increase in larval duration. In control, fourth instar moulted into pupa after 3 days while larvae treated with 400 ppm extract were moulted after 4.6 days. Larva-pupa intermediates and the pupa-adult intermediates were observed in many cases. The adults emerged from the treated larvae showed impaired mating and oviposition behaviour. The females exhibited longer preoviposition period, reduced oviposition rate and decreased egg output. GCMS analysis of the ethanol extract revealed presence of JH mimics and intermediates of JH biosynthetic pathway. Potentials of Ocimum sanctum in integrated vector management programme of Aedes aegypti were discussed.

Keywords: Aedes aegypti, Ocimum sanctum, oviposition, survival

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48 Oviposition Responses of the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto to Hay Infusion Volatiles in Laboratory Bioassays and Investigation of Volatile Detection Methods

Authors: Lynda K. Eneh, Okal N. Mike, Anna-Karin Borg-Karlson, Ulrike Fillinger, Jenny M. Lindh


The responses of individual gravid Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.) to hay infusion volatiles were evaluated under laboratory conditions. Such infusions have long been known to be effective baits for monitoring mosquitoes that vector arboviral and filarial diseases but have previously not been tested for malaria vectors. Hay infusions were prepared by adding sun-dried Bermuda grass to lake water and leaving the mixture in a covered bucket for three days. The proportions of eggs laid by gravid An. gambiae s.s. in diluted (10%) and concentrated infusions ( ≥ 25%) was compared to that laid in lake water in two-choice egg-count bioassays. Furthermore, with the aim to develop a method that can be used to collect volatiles that influence the egg-laying behavior of malaria mosquitoes, different volatile trapping methods were investigated. Two different polymer-traps eluted using two different desorption methods and three parameters were investigated. Porapak®-Q traps and solvent desorption was compared to Tenax®-TA traps and thermal desorption. The parameters investigated were: collection time (1h vs. 20h), addition of salt (0.15 g/ml sodium chloride (NaCl) vs. no NaCl), and stirring the infusion (0 vs. 300 rpm). Sample analysis was with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). An. gambiae s.s was ten times less likely to lay eggs in concentrated hay infusion than in lake water. The volatiles were best characterized by thermally desorbed Tenax traps, collected for 20 hours from infusion aliquots with sodium chloride added. Ten volatiles identified from headspace and previously indicated as putative oviposition semiochemicals for An. gambiae s.s. or confirmed semiochemicals for other mosquito species were tested in egg-count bioassays. Six of these (3-methylbutanol, phenol, 4-methylphenol, nonanal, indole and 3-methylindole), when added to lake water, were avoided for egg-laying when lake water was offered as the alternative in dual-choice egg count bioassays. These compounds likely contribute to the unfavorable oviposition responses towards hay infusions. This difference in oviposition response of different mosquito species should be considered when designing control measures.

Keywords: Anopheles gambiae, oviposition behaviour, egg-count cage bioassays, hay infusions, volatile detection, semiochemicals

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47 Effectiveness Assessment of a Brazilian Larvicide on Aedes Control

Authors: Josiane N. Muller, Allan K. R. Galardo, Tatiane A. Barbosa, Evan P. Ferro, Wellington M. Dos Santos, Ana Paula S. A. Correa, Edinaldo C. Rego, Jose B. P. Lima


The susceptibility status of an insect population to any larvicide depends on several factors such includes genetic constitution, environmental conditions and others. The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of three important viral diseases, Zika, Dengue, and Chikungunya. The frequent outbreaks of those diseases in different parts of Brazil demonstrate the importance of testing the susceptibility of vectors in different environments. Since the control of this mosquito leads to the control of disease, alternatives for vector control that value the different Brazilian environmental conditions are needed for effective actions. The aim of this study was to evaluate a new commercial formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis israelenses (DengueTech: Brazilian innovative technology) in the Brazilian Legal Amazon considering the climate conditions. Semi-field tests were conducted in the Institute of Scientific and Technological Research of the State of Amapa in two different environments, one in a shaded area and the other exposed to sunlight. The mosquito larvae were exposed to larvicide concentration and a control; each group was tested in three containers of 40 liters each. To assess persistence 50 third instar larvae of Aedes aegypti laboratory lineages (Rockefeller) and 50 larvae of Aedes aegypti collected in the municipality of Macapa, Brazil’s Amapa state, were added weekly and after 24 hours the mortality was assessed. In total 16 tests were performed, where 12 were done with replacement of water (1/5 of the volume, three times per week). The effectiveness of the product was determined through mortality of ≥ 80%, as recommend by the World Health Organization. The results demonstrated that high-water temperatures (26-35 °C) on the containers influenced the residual time of the product, where the maximum effect achieved was 21 days in the shaded area; and no effectiveness of 60 days was found in any of the tests, as expected according to the larvicide company. The test with and without water replacement did not present significant differences in the mortality rate. Considering the different environments and climate, these results stimulate the need to test larvicide and its effectiveness in specific environmental settings in order to identify the parameters required for better results. Thus, we see the importance of semi-field researches considering the local climate conditions for a successful control of Aedes aegypti.

Keywords: Aedes aegypti, bioassay, larvicida, vector control

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46 DNA Barcoding for Identification of Dengue Vectors from Assam and Arunachal Pradesh: North-Eastern States in India

Authors: Monika Soni, Shovonlal Bhowmick, Chandra Bhattacharya, Jitendra Sharma, Prafulla Dutta, Jagadish Mahanta


Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are considered as two major vectors to transmit dengue virus. In North-east India, two states viz. Assam and Arunachal Pradesh are known to be high endemic zone for dengue and Chikungunya viral infection. The taxonomical classification of medically important vectors are important for mapping of actual evolutionary trends and epidemiological studies. However, misidentification of mosquito species in field-collected mosquito specimens could have a negative impact which may affect vector-borne disease control policy. DNA barcoding is a prominent method to record available species, differentiate from new addition and change of population structure. In this study, a combined approach of a morphological and molecular technique of DNA barcoding was adopted to explore sequence variation in mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene within dengue vectors. The study has revealed the map distribution of the dengue vector from two states i.e. Assam and Arunachal Pradesh, India. Approximate five hundred mosquito specimens were collected from different parts of two states, and their morphological features were compared with the taxonomic keys. The analysis of detailed taxonomic study revealed identification of two species Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. The species aegypti comprised of 66.6% of the specimen and represented as dominant dengue vector species. The sequences obtained through standard DNA barcoding protocol were compared with public databases, viz. GenBank and BOLD. The sequences of all Aedes albopictus have shown 100% similarity whereas sequence of Aedes aegypti has shown 99.77 - 100% similarity of COI gene with that of different geographically located same species based on BOLD database search. From dengue prevalent different geographical regions fifty-nine sequences were retrieved from NCBI and BOLD databases of the same and related taxa to determine the evolutionary distance model based on the phylogenetic analysis. Neighbor-Joining (NJ) and Maximum Likelihood (ML) phylogenetic tree was constructed in MEGA6.06 software with 1000 bootstrap replicates using Kimura-2-Parameter model. Data were analyzed for sequence divergence and found that intraspecific divergence ranged from 0.0 to 2.0% and interspecific divergence ranged from 11.0 to 12.0%. The transitional and transversional substitutions were tested individually. The sequences were deposited in NCBI: GenBank database. This observation claimed the first DNA barcoding analysis of Aedes mosquitoes from North-eastern states in India and also confirmed the range expansion of two important mosquito species. Overall, this study insight into the molecular ecology of the dengue vectors from North-eastern India which will enhance the understanding to improve the existing entomological surveillance and vector incrimination program.

Keywords: COI, dengue vectors, DNA barcoding, molecular identification, North-east India, phylogenetics

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45 Multiple Insecticide Resistance in Culex quinquefasciatus Say, from Siliguri, West Bengal, India

Authors: Minu Bharati, Priyanka Rai, Satarupa Dutta, Dhiraj Saha


Culex quinquefasciatus Say, is a mosquito of immense public health concern due to its role in transmission of filariasis, which is an endemic disease in 20 states and union territories of India, putting about 600 million people at the risk of infection. The main strategies to control filaria in India include anti-larval measures in urban areas, Indoor Residual Spray (IRS) in rural areas and mass diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC) administration. Larval destruction measures and IRS are done with the use of insecticides. In this study, Susceptibility/ Resistance to insecticides were assessed in Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes collected from eight densely populated areas of Siliguri subdivision, which has a high rate of filarial infection. To unveil the insecticide susceptibility status of Culex quinquefasciatus, bioassays were performed on field-caught mosquitoes against two major groups of insecticides, i.e. Synthetic Pyrethroids (SPs): 0.05% deltamethrin and 0.05% lambda-cyhalothrin and Organophosphates (OPs): 5% malathion and temephos using World Health Organisation (WHO) discriminating doses. The knockdown rates and knockdown times (KDT50) were also noted against deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and malathion. Also, activities of major detoxifying enzymes, i.e. α-carboxylesterases, β-carboxylesterases and cytochrome P450 (CYP450) monooxygenases were determined to find the involvement of biochemical mechanisms in resistance phenomenon (if any). The results obtained showed that, majority of the mosquito populations were moderately to severely resistant against both the SPs and one OP, i.e. temephos. Whereas, most of the populations showed 100% susceptibility to malathion. The knockdown rates and KDT50 in response to above-mentioned insecticides showed significant variation among different populations. Variability in activities of carboxylesterases and CYP450 monooxygenases were also observed with hints of their involvement in contribution towards insecticide resistance in some of the tested populations. It may be concluded that, Culex quinquefasciatus has started developing resistance against deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and temephos in Siliguri subdivision. Malathion seems to hold the greatest potentiality for control of these mosquitoes in this area as revealed through this study. Adoption of Integrated mosquito management (IMM) strategy should be the prime objective of the concerned authorities to delimit the insecticide resistance phenomenon and filariasis infections.

Keywords: Culex quinquefasciatus, detoxifying enzymes, insecticide resistance, knockdown rate

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