Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6645

Search results for: surface dose

6645 Comparison of Breast Surface Doses for Full-Field Digital Mammography and Digital Breast Tomosynthesis Using Breast Phantoms

Authors: Chia-Hui Chen, Chien-Kuo Wang


Background: Full field digital mammography (FFDM) is widely used in diagnosis of breast cancer. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) has recently been introduced into the clinic and is being used for screening for breast cancer in the general population. Hence, the radiation dose delivered to the patients involved in an imaging protocol is of utmost concern. Aim: To compare the surface radiation dose (ESD) of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and full-field digital mammography (FFDM) by using breast phantoms. Method: We analyzed the average entrance surface dose (ESD) of FFDM and DBT by using breast phantoms. Optically Stimulated luminescent Dosimeters (OSLD) were placed in a tissue-equivalent Breast phantom at difference sites of interest. Absorbed dose measurements were obtained after digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and full-field digital mammography (FFDM) exposures. Results: An automatic exposure control (AEC) is proposed for surface dose measurement during DBT and FFDM. The mean ESD values for DBT and FFDM were 6.37 mGy and 3.51mGy, respectively. Using of OSLD measured for surface dose during DBT and FFDM. There were 19.87 mGy and 11.36 mGy, respectively. The surface exposure dose of DBT could possibly be increased by two times with FFDM. Conclusion: The radiation dose from DBT was higher than that of FFDM and the difference in dose between AEC and OSLD measurements at phantom surface.

Keywords: full-field digital mammography, digital breast tomosynthesis, optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters, surface dose

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6644 Design, Construction and Performance Evaluation of a HPGe Detector Shield

Authors: M. Sharifi, M. Mirzaii, F. Bolourinovin, H. Yousefnia, M. Akbari, K. Yousefi-Mojir


A multilayer passive shield composed of low-activity lead (Pb), copper (Cu), tin (Sn) and iron (Fe) was designed and manufactured for a coaxial HPGe detector placed at a surface laboratory for reducing background radiation and radiation dose to the personnel. The performance of the shield was evaluated and efficiency curves of the detector were plotted by using of the various standard sources in different distances. Monte Carlo simulations and a set of TLD chips were used for dose estimation in two distances of 20 and 40 cm. The results show that the shield reduced background spectrum and the personnel dose more than 95%.

Keywords: HPGe shield, background count, personnel dose, efficiency curve

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6643 The Use of the Matlab Software as the Best Way to Recognize Penumbra Region in Radiotherapy

Authors: Alireza Shayegan, Morteza Amirabadi


The y tool was developed to quantitatively compare dose distributions, either measured or calculated. Before computing ɣ, the dose and distance scales of the two distributions, referred to as evaluated and reference, are re-normalized by dose and distance criteria, respectively. The re-normalization allows the dose distribution comparison to be conducted simultaneously along dose and distance axes. Several two-dimensional images were acquired using a Scanning Liquid Ionization Chamber EPID and Extended Dose Range (EDR2) films for regular and irregular radiation fields. The raw images were then converted into two-dimensional dose maps. Transitional and rotational manipulations were performed for images using Matlab software. As evaluated dose distribution maps, they were then compared with the corresponding original dose maps as the reference dose maps.

Keywords: energetic electron, gamma function, penumbra, Matlab software

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6642 Comparative Study of Dose Calculation Accuracy in Bone Marrow Using Monte Carlo Method

Authors: Marzieh Jafarzadeh, Fatemeh Rezaee


Introduction: The effect of ionizing radiation on human health can be effective for genomic integrity and cell viability. It also increases the risk of cancer and malignancy. Therefore, X-ray behavior and absorption dose calculation are considered. One of the applicable tools for calculating and evaluating the absorption dose in human tissues is Monte Carlo simulation. Monte Carlo offers a straightforward way to simulate and integrate, and because it is simple and straightforward, Monte Carlo is easy to use. The Monte Carlo BEAMnrc code is one of the most common diagnostic X-ray simulation codes used in this study. Method: In one of the understudy hospitals, a certain number of CT scan images of patients who had previously been imaged were extracted from the hospital database. BEAMnrc software was used for simulation. The simulation of the head of the device with the energy of 0.09 MeV with 500 million particles was performed, and the output data obtained from the simulation was applied for phantom construction using CT CREATE software. The percentage of depth dose (PDD) was calculated using STATE DOSE was then compared with international standard values. Results and Discussion: The ratio of surface dose to depth dose (D/Ds) in the measured energy was estimated to be about 4% to 8% for bone and 3% to 7% for bone marrow. Conclusion: MC simulation is an efficient and accurate method for simulating bone marrow and calculating the absorbed dose.

Keywords: Monte Carlo, absorption dose, BEAMnrc, bone marrow

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6641 Estimation of Adult Patient Doses for Chest X-Ray Diagnostic Examinations in a Tertiary Institution Health Centre

Authors: G. E. Okungbowa, H. O. Adams, S. E. Eze


This study is on the estimation of adult patient doses for Chest X-ray diagnostic examinations of new admitted undergraduate students attending a tertiary institution health centre as part of their routine clearance and check up on admitted into the institution. A total of 531 newly admitted undergraduate students were recruited for this survey in the first quarter of 2016 (January to March, 2016). CALDOSE_X 5.0 software was used to compute the Entrance Surface Dose (ESD) and Effective Dose (ED); while the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.0 was used to carry out the statistical analyses. The basic patients' data and exposure parameters required for the software are age, sex, examination type, projection posture, tube potential and current-time product. The mean Entrance Surface Dose and Effective Doses of the undergraduate students were calculated using the software, and the values were compared with existing literature and internationally established diagnostic reference levels. The mean ESD calculated is 0.29 mGy, and the mean effective dose is 0.04 mSv. The values of ESD and ED obtained are below the internationally established diagnostic reference levels, which could be attributed to good radiographic techniques employed during the chest X-ray procedure for these students.

Keywords: x-ray, dose, examination, chest

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6640 Effect of Gamma Radiation, Age of Paddy, Rice Variety and Packaging Materials on the Surface Free Fatty Acid Content of Brown Rice

Authors: Zenaida M. De Guzman, Davison T. Baldos, Gilberto T. Diano, Jeff Darren G. Valdez, Levelyn Mitos Tolentino, Gina B. Abrera, Ma. Lucia Cobar, Cristina Gragasin


One of the factors affecting the quality of brown rice is the free fatty acid produced from surface lipids. It is the purpose of the study to determine the effect of gamma radiation, packaging materials and age and variety of paddy on the surface free fatty acid content using two different brown rice variety, namely, RC-160 and SL-7, packed in two different packaging materials, namely, regular polyethylene bag and Super bag irradiated at 0.5 and 1.0 kGy. Brown rice was produced from 2-week old (Lot 1) and two months old paddy (Lot 2) and irradiated at the Co-60 Multipurpose Irradiation Facility, PNRI. The surface Free Fatty Acid (FFA) content was obtained following the AOCS Official Method (1982) with some modifications. The experiment was laid out using Split-Plot Randomized Control Block Design. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that the effects of variety, age of paddy and interactions of both were both significant. The surface FFA of SL-7 variety was found to be significantly higher than the RC-160 variety for all radiation doses. Likewise, Lot 2 was observed to have higher surface FFA than Lot 1 regardless of packaging material and radiation dose. It was observed that the surface FFA of both varieties packed in both packaging materials increased significantly up to the 2nd or 3rd month of storage and remains the same until the 5th month. On the other hand, radiation dose did not significantly affect the surface free fatty acid content for all storage/sampling time while the packaging material significantly interacts with the type of variety and radiation dose. Gamma radiation was proven to have no significant effect on the surface free fatty acid at 0.5 and 1.0 kGy and further analyses are needed to determine the action of gamma radiation to the activity of enzyme (lipase-induced and microbial) responsible for the production of other lipolytic products and the effect of gamma radiation on the integrity of the packaging materials.

Keywords: brown rice, free fatty acid, gamma radiation, polyethylene bag

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6639 Evaluation of Dynamic Log Files for Different Dose Rates in IMRT Plans

Authors: Saad Bin Saeed, Fayzan Ahmed, Shahbaz Ahmed, Amjad Hussain


The aim of this study is to evaluate dynamic log files (Dynalogs) at different dose rates by dose-volume histograms (DVH) and used as a (QA) procedure of IMRT. Seven patients of phase one head and neck cancer with similar OAR`s are selected randomly. Reference plans of dose rate 300 and 600 MU/Min with prescribed dose of 50Gy in 25 fractions for each patient is made. Dynalogs produced by delivery of reference plans processed by in-house MATLAB program which produces new field files contain actual positions of multi-leaf collimators (MLC`s) instead of planned positions in reference plans. Copies of reference plans are used to import new field files generated by MATLAB program and renamed as Dyn.plan. After dose calculations of Dyn.plans for different dose rates, DVH, and multiple linear regression tools are used to evaluate reference and Dyn.plans. The results indicate good agreement of correlation between different dose rate plans. The maximum dose difference among PTV and OAR`s are found to be less than 5% and 9% respectively. The study indicates the potential of dynalogs to be used as patient-specific QA of IMRT at different dose rate.

Keywords: IMRT, dynalogs, dose rate, DVH

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6638 Peruvian Diagnostic Reference Levels for Patients Undergoing Different X-Rays Procedures

Authors: Andres Portocarrero Bonifaz, Caterina Sandra Camarena Rodriguez, Ricardo Palma Esparza, Nicolas Antonio Romero Carlos


Reference levels for common X-rays procedures have been set in many protocols. In Peru, during quality control tests, the dose tolerance is set by these international recommendations. Nevertheless, further studies can be made to assess the national reality and relate dose levels with different parameters such as kV, mA/mAs, exposure time, type of processing (digital, digitalized or conventional), etc. In this paper three radiologic procedures were taken into account for study, general X-rays (fixed and mobile), intraoral X-rays (fixed, mobile and portable) and mammography. For this purpose, an Unfors Xi detector was used; the dose was measured at a focus - detector distance which varied depending on the procedure, and was corrected afterward to find the surface entry dose. The data used in this paper was gathered over a period of over 3 years (2015-2018). In addition, each X-ray machine was taken into consideration only once. The results hope to achieve a new standard which reflects the local practice, and address the issues of the ‘Bonn Call for Action’ in Peru. For this purpose, the 75% percentile of the dose of each radiologic procedure was calculated. In future quality control services, those machines with dose values higher than the selected threshold should be informed that they surpass the reference dose levels established in comparison other radiological centers in the country.

Keywords: general X-rays, intraoral X-rays, mammography, reference dose levels

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6637 Absorbed Dose Estimation of 68Ga-EDTMP in Human Organs

Authors: S. Zolghadri, H. Yousefnia, A. R. Jalilian


Bone metastases are observed in a wide range of cancers leading to intolerable pain. While early detection can help the physicians in the decision of the type of treatment, various radiopharmaceuticals using phosphonates like 68Ga-EDTMP have been developed. In this work, due to the importance of absorbed dose, human absorbed dose of this new agent was calculated for the first time based on biodistribution data in Wild-type rats. 68Ga was obtained from 68Ge/68Ga generator with radionuclidic purity and radiochemical purity of higher than 99%. The radiolabeled complex was prepared in the optimized conditions. Radiochemical purity of the radiolabeled complex was checked by instant thin layer chromatography (ITLC) method using Whatman No. 2 paper and saline. The results indicated the radiochemical purity of higher than 99%. The radiolabelled complex was injected into the Wild-type rats and its biodistribution was studied up to 120 min. As expected, major accumulation was observed in the bone. Absorbed dose of each human organ was calculated based on biodistribution in the rats using RADAR method. Bone surface and bone marrow with 0.112 and 0.053 mSv/MBq, respectively, received the highest absorbed dose. According to these results, the radiolabeled complex is a suitable and safe option for PET bone imaging.

Keywords: absorbed dose, EDTMP, ⁶⁸Ga, rats

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6636 Comparative Study between the Absorbed Dose of 67ga-Ecc and 68ga-Ecc

Authors: H. Yousefnia, S. Zolghadri, S. Shanesazzadeh, A.Lahooti, A. R. Jalilian


In this study, 68Ga-ECC and 67Ga-ECC were both prepared with the radiochemical purity of higher than 97% in less than 30 min. The biodistribution data for 68Ga-ECC showed the extraction of the most of the activity from the urinary tract. The absorbed dose was estimated based on biodistribution data in mice by the medical internal radiation dose (MIRD) method. Comparison between human absorbed dose estimation for these two agents indicated the values of approximately ten-fold higher after injection of 67Ga-ECC than 68Ga-ECC in the most organs. The results showed that 68Ga-ECC can be considered as a more potential agent for renal imaging compared to 67Ga-ECC.

Keywords: effective absorbed dose, ethylenecysteamine cysteine, Ga-67, Ga-68

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6635 A Varicella Outbreak in a Highly Vaccinated School Population in Voluntary 2-Dose Era in Beijing, China

Authors: Chengbin Wang, Li Lu, Luodan Suo, Qinghai Wang, Fan Yang, Xu Wang, Mona Marin


Background: Two-dose varicella vaccination has been recommended in Beijing since November 2012. We investigated a varicella outbreak in a highly vaccinated elementary school population to examine transmission patterns and risk factors for vaccine failure. Methods: A varicella case was defined as an acute generalized maculopapulovesicular rash without other apparent cause in a student attending the school from March 28 to May 17, 2015. Breakthrough varicella was defined as varicella >42 days after last vaccine dose. Vaccination information was collected from immunization records. Information on prior disease and clinical presentation was collected via survey of students’ parents. Results: Of the 1056 school students, 1028 (97.3%) reported no varicella history, of whom 364 (35.4%) had received 1-dose and 650 (63.2%) had received 2-dose varicella vaccine, for 98.6% school-wide vaccination coverage with ≥ 1 dose before the outbreak. A total of 20 cases were identified for an overall attack rate of 1.9%. The index case was in a 2-dose vaccinated student who was not isolated. The majority of cases were breakthrough (19/20, 95%) with attack rates of 7.1% (1/14), 1.6% (6/364) and 2.0% (13/650) among unvaccinated, 1-dose, and 2-dose students, respectively. Most cases had < 50 lesions (18/20, 90%). No difference was found between 1-dose and 2-dose breakthrough cases in disease severity or sociodemographic factors. Conclusion: Moderate 2-dose varicella vaccine coverage was insufficient to prevent a varicella outbreak. Two-dose breakthrough varicella is still contagious. High 2-dose varicella vaccine coverage and timely isolation of ill persons might be needed for varicella outbreak control in the 2-dose era.

Keywords: varicella, outbreak, breakthrough varicella, vaccination

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6634 Investigation of Factors Affecting the Total Ionizing Dose Threshold of Electrically Erasable Read Only Memories for Use in Dose Rate Measurement

Authors: Liqian Li, Yu Liu, Karen Colins


The dose rate present in a seriously contaminated area can be indirectly determined by monitoring radiation damage to inexpensive commercial electronics, instead of deploying expensive radiation hardened sensors. EEPROMs (Electrically Erasable Read Only Memories) are a good candidate for this purpose because they are inexpensive and are sensitive to radiation exposure. When the total ionizing dose threshold is reached, an EEPROM chip will show signs of damage that can be monitored and transmitted by less susceptible electronics. The dose rate can then be determined from the known threshold dose and the exposure time, assuming the radiation field remains constant with time. Therefore, the threshold dose needs to be well understood before this method can be used. There are many factors affecting the threshold dose, such as the gamma ray energy spectrum, the operating voltage, etc. The purpose of this study was to experimentally determine how the threshold dose depends on dose rate, temperature, voltage, and duty factor. It was found that the duty factor has the strongest effect on the total ionizing dose threshold, while the effect of the other three factors that were investigated is less significant. The effect of temperature was found to be opposite to that expected to result from annealing and is yet to be understood.

Keywords: EEPROM, ionizing radiation, radiation effects on electronics, total ionizing dose, wireless sensor networks

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6633 Human Absorbed Dose Assessment of 68Ga-Dotatoc Based on Biodistribution Data in Syrian Rats

Authors: S. Zolghadri, M. Naderi, H. Yousefnia, A. Ramazani, A. R. Jalilian


The aim of this work was to evaluate the values of absorbed dose of 68Ga-DOTATOC in numerous human organs. 68Ga-DOTATOC was prepared with the radiochemical purity of higher than 98% and by specific activity of 39.6 MBq/nmol. The complex demonstrated great stability at room temperature and in human serum at 37° C at least 2 h after preparation. Significant uptake was observed in somatostatin receptor-positive tissues such as pancreas and adrenal. The absorbed dose received by human organs was evaluated based on biodistribution studies in Syrian rats by the radiation absorbed dose assessment resource (RADAR) method. Maximum absorbed dose was obtained in the pancreas, kidneys, and adrenal with 0.105, 0.074, and 0.010 mGy/MBq, respectively. The effective absorbed dose was 0.026 mSv/MBq for 68Ga-DOTATOC. The results showed that 68Ga-DOTATOC can be considered as a safe and effective agent for clinically PET imaging applications.

Keywords: effective absorbed dose, Ga-68, octreotide, MIRD

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6632 Absorbed Dose Estimation of 177Lu-DOTATOC in Adenocarcinoma Breast Cancer Bearing Mice

Authors: S. Zolghadri, M. Mousavi-Daramoroudi, H. Yousefnia, F. Abbasi-Davani


In this study, the absorbed dose of human organs after injection of 177Lu-DOTATOC was studied based on the biodistribution of the complex in adenocarcinoma breast cancer bearing mice. For this purpose, the biodistribution of the radiolabelled complex was studied and compartmental modeling was applied to calculate the absorbed dose with high precision. As expected, 177Lu-DOTATOC illustrated a notable specific uptake in tumor and pancreas, organs with high level of somatostatin receptor on their surface and the effectiveness of the radio-conjugate for targeting of the breast adenocarcinoma tumors was indicated. The elicited results of modeling were the exponential equations, and those are utilized for obtaining the cumulated activity data by taking their integral. The results also exemplified that non-target absorbed-doses such as the liver, spleen and pancreas were approximately 0.008, 0.004, and 0.039, respectively. While these values were so much lower than target (tumor) absorbed-dose, it seems due to this low toxicity, this complex is a good agent for therapy.

Keywords: ¹⁷⁷Lu, breast cancer, compartmental modeling, dosimetry

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6631 Comparison of the Response of TLD-100 and TLD-100H Dosimeters in Diagnostic Radiology

Authors: S. Sina, B. Zeinali, M. Karimipourfard, F. Lotfalizadeh, M. Sadeghi, E. Zamani, M. Zehtabian, R. Faghihi


Proper dosimetery is very essential in diagnostic radiology. The goal of this study is to verify the application of LiF:Mg, Cu, P (TLD100H) in obtaining the entrance skin dose (ESD) of patients undergoing diagnostic radiology. The results of dosimetry performed by TLD-100H were compared with those obtained by TLD100, which is a common dosimeter in diagnostic radiology. The results show a close agreement between the dose measured by the two dosimeters. According to the results of this study, the TLD-100H dosimeters have higher sensitivities (i.e. signal(nc)/dose) than TLD-100. Therefore, it is suggested that the TLD-100H are effective dosimeters for dosimetry in low dose fields.

Keywords: entrance skin dose, TLD, diagnostic radiology, dosimeter

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6630 Comparison of Titanium and Aluminum Functions as Spoilers for Dose Uniformity Achievement in Abutting Oblique Electron Fields: A Monte Carlo Simulation Study

Authors: Faranak Felfeliyan, Parvaneh Shokrani, Maryam Atarod


Introduction Using electron beam is widespread in radiotherapy. The main criteria in radiation therapy is to irradiate the tumor volume with maximum prescribed dose and minimum dose to vital organs around it. Using abutting fields is common in radiotherapy. The main problem in using abutting fields is dose inhomogeneity in the junction region. Electron beam divergence and lateral scattering may lead to hot and cold spots in the junction region. One solution for this problem is using of a spoiler to broaden the penumbra and uniform dose in the junction region. The goal of this research was to compare titanium and aluminum effects as a spoiler for dose uniformity achievement in the junction region of oblique electron fields with Monte Carlo simulation. Dose uniformity in the junction region depends on density, scattering power, thickness of the spoiler and the angle between two fields. Materials and Methods In this study, Monte Carlo model of Siemens Primus linear accelerator was simulated for a 5 MeV nominal energy electron beam using manufacture provided specifications. BEAMnrc and EGSnrc user code were used to simulate the treatment head in electron mode (simulation of beam model). The resulting phase space file was used as a source for dose calculations for 10×10 cm2 field size at SSD=100 cm in a 30×30×45 cm3 water phantom using DOSXYZnrc user code (dose calculations). An automatic MP3-M water phantom tank, MEPHYSTO mc2 software platform and a Semi-Flex Chamber-31010 with sensitive vol­ume of 0.125 cm3 (PTW, Freiburg, Germany) were used for dose distribution measurements. Moreover, the electron field size was 10×10 cm2 and SSD=100 cm. Validation of devel­oped beam model was done by comparing the measured and calculated depth and lateral dose distributions (verification of electron beam model). Simulation of spoilers (using SLAB compo­nent module) placed at the end of the electron applicator, was done using previously vali­dated phase space file for a 5 MeV nominal energy and 10×10 cm2 field size (simulation of spoiler). An in-house routine was developed in order to calculate the combined isodose curves re­sulting from the two simulated abutting fields (calculation of dose distribution in abutting electron fields). Results Verification of the developed 5.9 MeV elec­tron beam model was done by comparing the calculated and measured dose distributions. The maximum percentage difference between calculated and measured PDD was 1%, except for the build-up region in which the difference was 2%. The difference between calculated and measured profile was 2% at the edges of the field and less than 1% in other regions. The effect of PMMA, aluminum, titanium and chromium in dose uniformity achievement in abutting normal electron fields with equivalent thicknesses to 5mm PMMA was evaluated. Comparing R90 and uniformity index of different materials, aluminum was chosen as the optimum spoiler. Titanium has the maximum surface dose. Thus, aluminum and titanium had been chosen to use for dose uniformity achievement in oblique electron fields. Using the optimum beam spoiler, junction dose decreased from 160% to 110% for 15 degrees, from 180% to 120% for 30 degrees, from 160% to 120% for 45 degrees and from 180% to 100% for 60 degrees oblique abutting fields. Using Titanium spoiler, junction dose decreased from 160% to 120% for 15 degrees, 180% to 120% for 30 degrees, 160% to 120% for 45 degrees and 180% to 110% for 60 degrees. In addition, penumbra width for 15 degrees, without spoiler in the surface was 10 mm and was increased to 15.5 mm with titanium spoiler. For 30 degrees, from 9 mm to 15 mm, for 45 degrees from 4 mm to 6 mm and for 60 degrees, from 5 mm to 8 mm. Conclusion Using spoilers, penumbra width at the surface increased, size and depth of hot spots was decreased and dose homogeneity improved at the junc­tion of abutting electron fields. Dose at the junction region of abutting oblique fields was improved significantly by using spoiler. Maximum dose at the junction region for 15⁰, 30⁰, 45⁰ and 60⁰ was decreased about 40%, 60%, 40% and 70% respectively for Titanium and about 50%, 60%, 40% and 80% for Aluminum. Considering significantly decrease in maximum dose using titanium spoiler, unfortunately, dose distribution in the junction region was not decreased less than 110%.

Keywords: abutting fields, electron beam, radiation therapy, spoilers

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6629 Photo-Fenton Decolorization of Methylene Blue Adsolubilized on Co2+ -Embedded Alumina Surface: Comparison of Process Modeling through Response Surface Methodology and Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Prateeksha Mahamallik, Anjali Pal


In the present study, Co(II)-adsolubilized surfactant modified alumina (SMA) was prepared, and methylene blue (MB) degradation was carried out on Co-SMA surface by visible light photo-Fenton process. The entire reaction proceeded on solid surface as MB was embedded on Co-SMA surface. The reaction followed zero order kinetics. Response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN) were used for modeling the decolorization of MB by photo-Fenton process as a function of dose of Co-SMA (10, 20 and 30 g/L), initial concentration of MB (10, 20 and 30 mg/L), concentration of H2O2 (174.4, 348.8 and 523.2 mM) and reaction time (30, 45 and 60 min). The prediction capabilities of both the methodologies (RSM and ANN) were compared on the basis of correlation coefficient (R2), root mean square error (RMSE), standard error of prediction (SEP), relative percent deviation (RPD). Due to lower value of RMSE (1.27), SEP (2.06) and RPD (1.17) and higher value of R2 (0.9966), ANN was proved to be more accurate than RSM in order to predict decolorization efficiency.

Keywords: adsolubilization, artificial neural network, methylene blue, photo-fenton process, response surface methodology

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6628 Assessment of Dose: Area Product of Common Radiographic Examinations in Selected Southern Nigerian Hospitals

Authors: Lateef Bamidele


Over the years, radiographic examinations are the most used diagnostic tools in the Nigerian health care system, but most diagnostic examinations carried out do not have records of patient doses. Lack of adequate information on patient doses has been a major hindrance in quantifying the radiological risk associated with radiographic examinations. This study aimed at estimating dose–area product (DAP) of patient examined in X-Ray units in selected hospitals in Southern Nigeria. The standard projections selected are chest posterior-anterior (PA), abdomen anterior-posterior (AP), pelvis AP, pelvis lateral (LAT), skull AP/PA, skull LAT, lumbar spine AP, lumbar spine, LAT. Measurement of entrance surface dose (ESD) was carried out using thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD). Measured ESDs were converted into DAP using the beam area of patients. The results show that the mean DAP ranged from 0.17 to 18.35 Gycm². The results obtained in this study when compared with those of NRPB-HPE were found to be higher. These are an indication of non optimization of operational conditions.

Keywords: dose–area product, radiographic examinations, patient doses, optimization

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6627 Optical Properties of N-(Hydroxymethyl) Acrylamide Polymer Gel Dosimeters for Radiation Therapy

Authors: Khalid A. Rabaeh, Belal Moftah, Ahmed A. Basfar, Akram A. Almousa


Polymer gel dosimeters are tissue equivalent martial that fabricated from radiation sensitive chemicals which, upon irradiation, polymerize as a function of absorbed radiation dose. Polymer gel dosimeters can uniquely record the radiation dose distribution in three-dimensions (3D). A novel composition of normoxic polymer gel dosimeters based on radiation-induced polymerization of N-(Hydroxymethyl)acrylamide (NHMA) is introduced in this study for radiotherapy treatment planning. The dosimeters were irradiated by 10 MV photon beam of a medical linear accelerator at a constant dose rate of 600 cGy/min with doses up to 30 Gy. The polymerization degree is directly proportional to absorbed dose received by the polymer gel. UV/Vis spectrophotometer was used to investigate the degree of white color of irradiated NHMA gel which is associated to the degree of polymerization of polymer gel dosimeters. The absorbance increases with absorbed dose for all gel dosimeters in the dose range between 0 and 30 Gy. Dose rate , energy of radiation and the stability of the polymerization after irradiation were investigated. No appreciable effects of these parameters on the performance of the novel gel dosimeters were observed.

Keywords: dosimeter, gel, spectrophotometer, N-(Hydroxymethyl)acrylamide

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6626 Application of Nonlinear Model to Optimize the Coagulant Dose in Drinking Water Treatment

Authors: M. Derraz, M.Farhaoui


In the water treatment processes, the determination of the optimal dose of the coagulant is an issue of particular concern. Coagulant dosing is correlated to raw water quality which depends on some parameters (turbidity, ph, temperature, conductivity…). The objective of this study is to provide water treatment operators with a tool that enables to predict and replace, sometimes, the manual method (jar testing) used in this plant to predict the optimum coagulant dose. The model is constructed using actual process data for a water treatment plant located in the middle of Morocco (Meknes).

Keywords: coagulation process, aluminum sulfate, model, coagulant dose

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6625 Estimation of Effective Radiation Dose Following Computed Tomography Urography at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano Nigeria

Authors: Idris Garba, Aisha Rabiu Abdullahi, Mansur Yahuza, Akintade Dare


Background: CT urography (CTU) is efficient radiological examination for the evaluation of the urinary system disorders. However, patients are exposed to a significant radiation dose which is in a way associated with increased cancer risks. Objectives: To determine Computed Tomography Dose Index following CTU, and to evaluate organs equivalent doses. Materials and Methods: A prospective cohort study was carried at a tertiary institution located in Kano northwestern. Ethical clearance was sought and obtained from the research ethics board of the institution. Demographic, scan parameters and CT radiation dose data were obtained from patients that had CTU procedure. Effective dose, organ equivalent doses, and cancer risks were estimated using SPSS statistical software version 16 and CT dose calculator software. Result: A total of 56 patients were included in the study, consisting of 29 males and 27 females. The common indication for CTU examination was found to be renal cyst seen commonly among young adults (15-44yrs). CT radiation dose values in DLP, CTDI and effective dose for CTU were 2320 mGy cm, CTDIw 9.67 mGy and 35.04 mSv respectively. The probability of cancer risks was estimated to be 600 per a million CTU examinations. Conclusion: In this study, the radiation dose for CTU is considered significantly high, with increase in cancer risks probability. Wide radiation dose variations between patient doses suggest that optimization is not fulfilled yet. Patient radiation dose estimate should be taken into consideration when imaging protocols are established for CT urography.

Keywords: CT urography, cancer risks, effective dose, radiation exposure

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6624 Electronic Properties Study of Ni/MgO Nanoparticles by X-Ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS)

Authors: Ouafek Nora, Keghouche Nassira, Dehdouh Heider, Untidt Carlos


A lot of knowledge has been accumulated on the metal clusters supported on oxide surfaces because of their multiple applications in microelectronics, heterogeneous catalysis, and magnetic devices. In this work, the surface state of Ni / MgO has been studied by XPS (X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy). The samples were prepared by impregnation with ion exchange Ni²⁺ / MgO, followed by either a thermal treatment in air (T = 100 -350 ° C) or a gamma irradiation (dose 100 kGy, 25 kGy dose rate h -1). The obtained samples are named after impregnation NMI, NMR after irradiation, and finally NMC(T) after calcination at the temperature T (T = 100-600 °C). A structural study by XRD and HRTEM reveals the presence of nanoscaled Ni-Mg intermetallic phases (Mg₂Ni, MgNi₂, and Mg₆Ni) and magnesium hydroxide. Mg(OH)₂ in nanometric range (2- 4 nm). Mg-Ni compounds are of great interest in energy fields (hydrogen storage…). XPS spectra show two Ni2p peaks at energies of about 856.1 and 861.9 eV, indicating that the nickel is primarily in an oxidized state on the surface. The shift of the main peak relative to the pure NiO (856.1 instead of 854.0 eV) suggests that in addition to oxygen, nickel is engaged in another link with magnesium. This is in agreement with the O1s spectra which present an overlap of peaks corresponds to NiO and MgO, at a calcination temperature T ≤ 300 °C.

Keywords: XPS, XRD, nanoparticules, Ni-MgO

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6623 Using SNAP and RADTRAD to Establish the Analysis Model for Maanshan PWR Plant

Authors: J. R. Wang, H. C. Chen, C. Shih, S. W. Chen, J. H. Yang, Y. Chiang


In this study, we focus on the establishment of the analysis model for Maanshan PWR nuclear power plant (NPP) by using RADTRAD and SNAP codes with the FSAR, manuals, and other data. In order to evaluate the cumulative dose at the Exclusion Area Boundary (EAB) and Low Population Zone (LPZ) outer boundary, Maanshan NPP RADTRAD/SNAP model was used to perform the analysis of the DBA LOCA case. The analysis results of RADTRAD were similar to FSAR data. These analysis results were lower than the failure criteria of 10 CFR 100.11 (a total radiation dose to the whole body, 250 mSv; a total radiation dose to the thyroid from iodine exposure, 3000 mSv).

Keywords: RADionuclide, transport, removal, and dose estimation (RADTRAD), symbolic nuclear analysis package (SNAP), dose, PWR

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
6622 Results of EPR Dosimetry Study of Population Residing in the Vicinity of the Uranium Mines and Uranium Processing Plant

Authors: K. Zhumadilov, P. Kazymbet, A. Ivannikov, M. Bakhtin, A. Akylbekov, K. Kadyrzhanov, A. Morzabayev, M. Hoshi


The aim of the study is to evaluate the possible excess of dose received by uranium processing plant workers. The possible excess of dose of workers was evaluated with comparison with population pool (Stepnogorsk) and control pool (Astana city). The measured teeth samples were extracted according to medical indications. In total, twenty-seven tooth enamel samples were analyzed from the residents of Stepnogorsk city (180 km from Astana city, Kazakhstan). About 6 tooth samples were collected from the workers of uranium processing plant. The results of tooth enamel dose estimation show us small influence of working conditions to workers, the maximum excess dose is less than 100 mGy. This is pilot study of EPR dose estimation and for a final conclusion additional sample is required.

Keywords: EPR dose, workers, uranium mines, tooth samples

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
6621 Calculation of Organs Radiation Dose in Cervical Carcinoma External Irradiation Beam Using Day’s Methods

Authors: Yousif M. Yousif Abdallah, Mohamed E. Gar-Elnabi, Abdoelrahman H. A. Bakary, Alaa M. H. Eltoum, Abdelazeem K. M. Ali


The study was established to measure the amount of radiation outside the treatment field in external beam radiation therapy using day method of dose calculation, the data was collected from 89 patients of cervical carcinoma in order to determine if the dose outside side the irradiation treatment field for spleen, liver, both kidneys, small bowel, large colon, skin within the acceptable limit or not. The cervical field included mainly 4 organs which are bladder, rectum part of small bowel and hip joint these organ received mean dose of (4781.987±281.321), (4736.91±331.8), (4647.64±387.1) and (4745.91±321.11) respectively. The mean dose received by outfield organs was (77.69±15.24cGy) to large colon, (93.079±12.31cGy) to right kidney (80.688±12.644cGy) to skin, (155.86±17.69cGy) to small bowel. This was more significant value noted.

Keywords: radiation dose, cervical carcinoma, day’s methods, radiation medicine

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
6620 The Dose to Organs in Lumbar-Abdominal Computed Tomography Imaging Using TLD

Authors: M. Zehtabian, Z. Molaiemanesh, Z. Shafahi, M. Papie, M. Zahraie Moghaddam, M. Mehralizadeh, M. R. Vahidi, S. Sina


The introduction of CT scans has been a great improvement in diagnosis of different diseases. However, this imaging modality can expose the patients to cumulative radiation doses which may increase the risks of some health problems like cancer. In this study, the dose delivered to different organs in lumbar-abdominal imaging was measured by putting the TLD-100, and TLD-100H chips inside the Alderson Rando phantom. The lumbar-abdominal image of the phantom was obtained, while TLD chips were inside the holes of the phantom. According to the results obtained in this study using TLD-100 chips, the average dose received by liver, bladder, rectum, kidneys, and uterus were found to be 12.9 mSv, 8.9 mSv, 10.1 mSv, 11.0 mSv, 11.2 mSv, and 10.5 mSv respectively, while the measurements performed by TLD-100H show that the average dose to liver, bladder, rectum, kidneys, and uterus were found to be 12.4 mSv, 9.2 mSv, 9.5 mSv, 10.5 mSv, 10.7 mSv, and 9.9 mSv respectively. The results of this study indicates that the dose measured by the TLD-100H chips are in close agreement with those obtained by TLD-100.

Keywords: CT scan, dose, TLD-100, diagnosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 525
6619 Characterization of the MOSkin Dosimeter for Accumulated Dose Assessment in Computed Tomography

Authors: Lenon M. Pereira, Helen J. Khoury, Marcos E. A. Andrade, Dean L. Cutajar, Vinicius S. M. Barros, Anatoly B. Rozenfeld


With the increase of beam widths and the advent of multiple-slice and helical scanners, concerns related to the current dose measurement protocols and instrumentation in computed tomography (CT) have arisen. The current methodology of dose evaluation, which is based on the measurement of the integral of a single slice dose profile using a 100 mm long cylinder ionization chamber (Ca,100 and CPPMA, 100), has been shown to be inadequate for wide beams as it does not collect enough of the scatter-tails to make an accurate measurement. In addition, a long ionization chamber does not offer a good representation of the dose profile when tube current modulation is used. An alternative approach has been suggested by translating smaller detectors through the beam plane and assessing the accumulated dose trough the integral of the dose profile, which can be done for any arbitrary length in phantoms or in the air. For this purpose, a MOSFET dosimeter of small dosimetric volume was used. One of its recently designed versions is known as the MOSkin, which is developed by the Centre for Medical Radiation Physics at the University of Wollongong, and measures the radiation dose at a water equivalent depth of 0.07 mm, allowing the evaluation of skin dose when placed at the surface, or internal point doses when placed within a phantom. Thus, the aim of this research was to characterize the response of the MOSkin dosimeter for X-ray CT beams and to evaluate its application for the accumulated dose assessment. Initially, tests using an industrial x-ray unit were carried out at the Laboratory of Ionization Radiation Metrology (LMRI) of Federal University of Pernambuco, in order to investigate the sensitivity, energy dependence, angular dependence, and reproducibility of the dose response for the device for the standard radiation qualities RQT 8, RQT 9 and RQT 10. Finally, the MOSkin was used for the accumulated dose evaluation of scans using a Philips Brilliance 6 CT unit, with comparisons made between the CPPMA,100 value assessed with a pencil ionization chamber (PTW Freiburg TW 30009). Both dosimeters were placed in the center of a PMMA head phantom (diameter of 16 cm) and exposed in the axial mode with collimation of 9 mm, 250 mAs and 120 kV. The results have shown that the MOSkin response was linear with doses in the CT range and reproducible (98.52%). The sensitivity for a single MOSkin in mV/cGy was as follows: 9.208, 7.691 and 6.723 for the RQT 8, RQT 9 and RQT 10 beams qualities respectively. The energy dependence varied up to a factor of ±1.19 among those energies and angular dependence was not greater than 7.78% within the angle range from 0 to 90 degrees. The accumulated dose and the CPMMA, 100 value were 3,97 and 3,79 cGy respectively, which were statistically equivalent within the 95% confidence level. The MOSkin was shown to be a good alternative for CT dose profile measurements and more than adequate to provide accumulated dose assessments for CT procedures.

Keywords: computed tomography dosimetry, MOSFET, MOSkin, semiconductor dosimetry

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
6618 Investigation of Polymer Composite for High Dose Dosimetry

Authors: Esther Lorrayne M. Pereira, Adriana S. M. Batista, Fabíola A. S. Ribeiro, Adelina P. Santos, Luiz O. Faria


In this work we have prepared nanocomposites made by mixing Poli (vinilidene fluoride) (PVDF), zirconium oxide (ZrO₂) and multi–walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) aiming to find dosimetric properties for applications in high dose dosimetry. The samples were irradiated with a Co-60 source at constant dose rate (16.7 kGy/h), with doses ranging from 100 to 2750 kGy. The UV-Vis and FTIR spectrophotometry have been used to monitor the appearing of C=C conjugated bonds and radio-oxidation of carbon (C=O). FTIR spectrometry has that the absorbance intensities at 1715 cm⁻¹ and 1730 cm⁻¹ can be used for high dosimetry purposes for gamma doses ranging from 500 to 2750 kGy. In this range, it is possible to observe a linear relationship between Abs & Dose. Fading of signal was evaluated for one month and reproducibility in 2000 kGy dose. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) was used for evaluated the dispersion ZrO₂ and MWCNT in the matrix of the PVDF.

Keywords: polymer, composite, high dose dosimetry, PVDF/ZrO₂/MWCNT

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
6617 Preliminary Dosimetric Evaluation of Two New 153Sm Bone Pain Palliative Agents

Authors: H. Yousefnia, S. Zolghadri, N. Amraee, Z. Naseri, Ar. Jalilian


The purpose of this study was to calculate the absorbed dose to each human organ for two new Sm-153 bone-seeking agents in order to evaluate their effectiveness in bone pain palliation therapy. In this work, the absorbed dose of 153Sm-TTHMP and 153Sm-PDTMP to each human organ was evaluated based on biodistribution studies in rats by radiation dose assessment resource (RADAR) method. The highest absorbed dose for 153Sm-TTHMP and 153Sm-PDTMP is observed in trabecular bone with 1.844 and 3.167 mGy/MBq, respectively. Bone/red marrow dose ratio, as the target/critical organ dose ratio, for 153Sm-PDTMP is greater than 153Sm-TTHMP and is compatible with 153Sm-EDTMP. The results showed that these bone-seeking agents, specially 153Sm-PDTMP, have considerable characteristics compared to the most clinically used bone pain palliative radiopharmaceutical, and therefore, can be good candidates for bone pain palliation in patients with bone metastasis; however, further biological studies in other mammals are still needed.

Keywords: internal dosimetry, PDTMP, 153Sm, TTHMP

Procedia PDF Downloads 433
6616 Experimental and Analytical Dose Assessment of Patient's Family Members Treated with I-131

Authors: Marzieh Ebrahimi, Vahid Changizi, Mohammad Reza Kardan, Seyed Mahdi Hosseini Pooya, Parham Geramifar


Radiation exposure to the patient's family members is one of the major concerns during thyroid cancer radionuclide therapy. The aim of this study was to measure the total effective dose of the family members by means of thermoluminescence personal dosimeter, and compare with those calculated by analytical methods. Eighty-five adult family members of fifty-one patients volunteered to participate in this research study. Considering the minimum and maximum range of dose rate from 15 µsv/h to 120 µsv/h at patients' release time, the calculated mean and median dose values of family members were 0.45 mSv and 0.28 mSv, respectively. Moreover, almost all family members’ doses were measured to be less than the dose constraint of 5 mSv recommended by Basic Safety Standards. Considering the influence parameters such as patient dose rate and administrated activity, the total effective doses of family members were calculated by TEDE and NRC formulas and compared with those of experimental results. The results indicated that, it is fruitful to use the quantitative calculations for releasing patients treated with I-131 and correct estimation of patients' family doses.

Keywords: effective dose, thermoluminescence, I-131, thyroid cancer

Procedia PDF Downloads 270