Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 573

Search results for: expectations

573 Customer Expectation on Service Quality in Bed and Breakfast Establishments in Johannesburg Metropolitan

Authors: Chiedza Lebogang Gutu, Nester Rufaro Manuwa, Jean-Marie Mbuya

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In Johannesburg, Metropolitan customer expectations in the hospitality industry have rapidly been increasing which has lead to the need of improving service quality to help satisfy customer expectations. Businesses need to make sure that customer expectations are met, or find ways to control customer expectations. Therefore the purpose of the study is to investigate how customer expectations of services in bed and breakfast establishments affect the perceived quality of service. A quantitative approach was used through random sampling to collect descriptive and correlation study between customer expectations and perceived quality. Findings of the study indicated that customers at bed and breakfast generally expect a clean, friendly and safe environment that has a homely feel, while they are away from home. In addition, findings of the study also emphasised that the age-groups between 20 and 35 are more likely to travel, for business and vacation purposes, staying for more or less 3, have high expectations towards modern facilities and extras in the room such as coffee machines, and are more concerned about the service being provided quickly and right, and taking extra care to deal with problems promptly.

Keywords: Customer satisfaction, Service quality, Bed and breakfast, Customer retention

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572 Parental Expectations and Student Performance in Secondary School Mathematics Education

Authors: Daya Weerasinghe

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Parental expectations often differ to that of their children and the influence and involvement of parents, at home, may affect the student performance in the classroom. This paper presents results from a survey of Asian and European background secondary school mathematics students (N=128) in Melbourne, Australia. Student responses to survey questions were analysed using confirmatory factor analysis, followed by t-tests and ANOVA. The aim of the analysis was to identify similarities and differences in parental expectations in relation to ethnicity, gender, and the year level of the students. The notable findings from the analysis showed no significant difference (at 0.05 level) in parental expectations and student performance, in relation to ethnicity or gender. Conversely, there was a significant difference in both parental expectations and student performance between year 7 and year 12 students. Further, whilst there was a significant difference in parental expectations between year 7 and year 11 students, the students’ performances were not significantly different. The results suggest further research may be needed to understand the parental expectations and student performance between the lower and upper secondary school mathematics students.

Keywords: ethnic background, gender, parental expectations, student performance, year level

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571 The Psychological Contract and the Readiness to Verbalize It in Financial Institutions in Poland

Authors: Anna Rogozińska-Pawełczyk

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A psychological contract is an agreement between the employer and an employee that covers the parties’ informal and frequently non-verbalized obligations and expectations towards each other. The contract is a cognitive pattern-governing employee’s behaviour in the organization. A gap between employee’s expectations and the organizational reality may lead to difficult-to-solve conflicts or cause the employee to modify their behaviour towards organizational values and goals, if they are willing and ready to verbalize their expectations. The article discusses psychological contracts in the financial institutions in Poland. Its theoretical part outlines the types of psychological contracts in organizations (relational, transactional, and balanced) and shows the process of their verbalization. The purpose of the article is to present how the type of the psychological contract relates to employee’s readiness to verbalize it. The article ends with conclusions arising from the study.

Keywords: customer contact staff in banks, employee expectations, financial institutions, mutual expectations, psychological contract, verbalization of the psychological contract

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570 Identifying Understanding Expectations of School Administrators Regarding School Assessment

Authors: Eftah Bte. Moh Hj Abdullah, Izazol Binti Idris, Abd Aziz Bin Abd Shukor

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This study aims to identify the understanding expectations of school administrators concerning school assessment. The researcher utilized a qualitative descriptive study on 19 administrators from three secondary schools in the North Kinta district. The respondents had been interviewed on their understanding expectations of school assessment using the focus group discussion method. Overall findings showed that the administrators’ understanding expectations of school assessment was weak; especially in terms of content focus, articulation across age and grade, transparency and fairness, as well as the pedagogical implications. Findings from interviews indicated that administrators explained their understanding expectations of school assessment from the aspect of school management, and not from the aspect of instructional leadership or specifically as assessment leaders. The study implications from the administrators’ understanding expectations may hint at the difficulty of the administrators to function as assessment leaders, in order to reduce their focus as manager, and move towards their primary role in the process of teaching and learning. The administrator, as assessment leaders, would be able to reach assessment goals via collaboration in identifying and listing teacher assessment competencies, how to construct assessment capacity, how to interpret assessment correctly, the use of assessment and how to use assessment information to communicate confidently and effectively to the public.

Keywords: assessment leaders, assessment goals, instructional leadership, understanding expectation of assessment

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569 Business Buyers’ Expectations in Buyer-Seller Encounters

Authors: Pia I. Hautamäki

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Sales has changed. Selling has taken on aspects of relationship marketing and sales force play a critical role in developing long-term relationships between buyers and sellers which is seen to serve the company’s targets and create success for a long run. The purpose of this study was to examine what really matters in buyer-seller encounters and determine what expectations business buyers have. We studied 17 business buyers by a qualitative interview. We found that buyers appreciate encounters where the salesperson face the buyer as a way he or she is as a person, identificate the real needs to improve buyers’ business and build up cooperation for long-term relationship. This study show that personality matters are a key elements when satisfying business buyers’ expectations.

Keywords: business buyer-seller encounters, customer expectations, perceived similarity, personal selling, personality types

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568 Developing a Grading System for Restaurants

Authors: Joseph Roberson, Carina Kleynhans, Willie Coetzee

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The low entry barriers of the restaurant industry lead to an extremely competitive business environment. In this volatile business sector it is of the utmost importance to implement a strategy of quality differentiation. Vital aspects of a quality differentiation strategy are total quality management, benchmarking and service quality management. Ultimately, restaurant success depends on the continuous support of customers. Customers select restaurants based on their expectations of quality. If the customers' expectations are met, they perceive quality service and will re-patronize the restaurant. The restaurateur can manage perceptions of quality by influencing expectations while ensuring that those expectations are not inflated. The management of expectations can be done by communicating service quality to customers. The aim of this research paper is to describe the development of a grading process for restaurants. An assessment of the extensive body of literature on grading was conducted through content analysis. A standardized method for developing a grading system would assist in successful grading systems that could inform both customers and restaurateurs of restaurant quality.

Keywords: benchmarking, restaurants, grading, service quality, total quality management

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567 Investigation of Engineers` and Student Engineers` University Choices Effect over Professional Expectations

Authors: Alev Erenler, Yeliz Yazici

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It is undoubtful that the development in the technology has been increasing the importance of engineering day by day along with the interest of the profession also. Like in any other genre, the success in engineering career is directly related to the amount of the satisfaction from the profession. Having satisfaction is an important factor for both having psychological health and efficiency. In this concept, the engineers from all steps, like students from different grades, working in related professions and the candidates of engineering have been included in order to define the expectations of the profession and the levels if professional satisfaction. In the concept of the study, the factors such as; the graduated university, the university which has been attending at, the grades of the participants, the reasons behind the choosing the university, the order of the choices and demographic values have planned to examine. It is thought that these factors have a meaningful effect on the professional expectations. It is also aimed to find the similar participants from the working life, and the data is to be compared to candidates of engineering in terms if differentiation of expectations. The related data will be gathered by the help of the scale prepared and developed by the researchers special for this study, titled as ' the professional expectation scale for engineers'. The data is to be analyzed in SPSS program, and the results will be interpreted in relation with the literature.

Keywords: engineering education, engineers' professional expectations, engineering students' professional expectations, students’ university choices

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566 Moderators of the Relationship between Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy and Expected Firm Growth

Authors: Laszlo Szerb, Zsofia Voros

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In this article, we seek to answer why many attempts to empirically link entrepreneurial self-efficacy to growth expectations have failed. While doing so, we reconcile the literature on entrepreneurial self-efficacy and overconfidence. By analyzing GEM APS (Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Adult Population Survey) data, we show that early-stage entrepreneurs’ self-efficacy statements are systematically inflated. Our results also indicate that entrepreneurial overconfidence is fading and its form changes as business owners learn and gather experience. In addition, by using Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behavior (2006) as a modeling framework, we illustrate that early stage business owners’ overconfidence results in overly high firm growth expectations. However, the changes in the form of overconfidence and the adjustments of expectations on market conditions as a venture ages alter the relationship between overconfidence and growth expectations across the business life-cycle stages. Overall, our study empirically links young entrepreneurs’ overconfidence to their growth expectations at the firm level. This link is important to establish as expected growth was linked to realized growth both on micro and macro levels. Moreover, we detected several moderators of this relationship providing a potential answer to why many studies failed to link entrepreneurial self-efficacy to growth expectations.

Keywords: self-efficacy, overconfidence, entrepreneurship, expected growth

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565 Knowledge and Organisational Success: Developing a Scale of Knowledge Framework

Authors: Mohammed Almohammedali, David Edgar, Duncan Peter

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The aim of this exploratory research is to further understand how organisations can evaluate their activities, which generate knowledge creation, to meet changing stakeholder expectations. A Scale of Knowledge (SoK) Framework is proposed which links knowledge management and organisational activities to changing stakeholder expectations. The framework was informed by the knowledge management literature, as well as empirical work conducted via a single case study of a multi-site hospital organisation in Saudi Arabia. Eight in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with managers from across the organisation regarding current and future stakeholder expectations, organisational strategy/activities and knowledge management. Data were analysed using thematic analysis and a hierarchical value map technique to identify activities that can produce further knowledge and consequently impact on how stakeholder expectations are met. The SoK Framework developed may be useful to practitioners as an analytical aid to determine if current organisational activities produce organisational knowledge which helps them meet (increasingly higher levels of) stakeholder expectations. The limitations of the research and avenues for future development of the proposed framework are discussed.

Keywords: knowledge creation, knowledge management, organisational knowledge, analytical aid, stakeholders

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564 Gender Identity: Omani College Students Negotiate Their Cultural Expectations

Authors: Mohammed Alkharusi

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This study addresses issues of gender identity faced by female and male Omani students studying at educational higher institutions. The study interviewed 16 male and female students to understand how cultural expectations of gender influence these students’ communication, and as a result how these students negotiate their gender identity to facilitate communication practices (or not) with the opposite sex. The context, focus, and theoretical underpinnings of the study are presented. Given that the researcher is also an Omani Arab, methodological and ethical challenges (e.g., recruiting and engaging with participants, and conducting semi-structured face-to-face interviews) will be discussed reflexively. The analysis found that students continued to following cultural expectations. They kept minimum interaction with the opposite sex that was illustrated by preferring to work with the same sex in group assignments only, avoiding sitting alone with the opposite sex, and not participating in academic activities. In the social context, the students started negotiating their gender identity and adopted communication practices that facilitated their social communication with the opposite sex. For example, they accepted to work with the opposite sex in different social mixed activities. In conclusion, students desired to maintain their cultural expectations but adopted certain communication practices to interact with the opposite sex.

Keywords: communication, cultural expectations, gender, identity, negotiation

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563 Managing IT Departments in Higher Education Institutes: Coping with the Exponentially Growing Needs and Expectations

Authors: Balqees A. Al-Thuhli, Ali H. Al-Badi, Khamis Al-Gharbi

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Information technology is changing rapidly and the users’ expectations are also growing. Dealing with these changes in information technology, while satisfying the users’ needs and expectations is a big challenge. IT managers need to explore new mechanisms/strategies to enable them to cope with such challenges. The objectives of this research are to identify the significant challenges that might face IT managers in higher education institutes in the face of the high and ever growing customer expectations and to propose possible solutions to cope with such high-speed changes in information technology. To achieve these objectives, interviews with the IT professionals from different higher education institutes in Oman were conducted. In addition, documentation (printed and online) related to these institutions were studied and an intensive literature review of published work was examined. The findings of this research are expected to give a better understanding of the challenges that might face the IT managers at higher education institutes. This acquired understanding is expected to highlight the importance of being adaptable and fast in keeping up with the ever-growing technological changes. Moreover, adopting different tools and technologies could assist IT managers in developing their organisations’ IT policies and strategies.

Keywords: information technology, rapid change, CIO roles, challenges, IT managers, coping mechanisms, users' expectations

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562 The Effectiveness of Spouses' Communication Skills Training on Reducing Emotional Harassment and Adjusting Marital Expectations: Married Iranian Women

Authors: Seyed Ali Kimiaei, Reza Pishghadam, Fatemeh Hajizadeh, Marjan Entezari

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The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the Minnesota Spouses Communication Skills Program on reducing emotional harassment and adjusting the marital expectations of married women. The research method was quasi-experimental with pretest-posttest design with waiting list group and follow-up period. The statistical population of the study consisted of married women referring to counseling and psychology centers in Mashhad, from which 30 people were selected as a sample by examining the entry criteria and questionnaire scores, and randomly divided into two experimental groups (15 people) and the waiting list group (15 people) were replaced. The experimental group was given 8 sessions of communication skills program of spouses. The emotional harassment and marital expectations questionnaire was used to collect data. The results showed a significant difference between the experimental group and the waiting list group, so that the communication skills training of the spouses reduced emotional harassment and adjusted marital expectations, and these effects continued in the follow-up period. Therefore, we can conclude that teaching the husband's communication skills program in the Minnesota method reduces emotional harassment and modifies women's marital expectations.

Keywords: spouses communication skills program, emotional harassment, marital expectations, women

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561 Predicting Expectations of Non-Monogamy in Long-Term Romantic Relationships

Authors: Michelle R. Sullivan

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Positive romantic relationships and marriages offer a buffer against a host of physical and emotional difficulties. Conversely, poor relationship quality and marital discord can have deleterious consequences for individuals and families. Research has described non-monogamy, infidelity, and consensual non-monogamy, as both consequential and causal of relationship difficulty, or as a unique way a couple strives to make a relationship work. Much research on consensual non-monogamy has built on feminist theory and critique. To the author’s best knowledge, to date, no studies have examined the predictive relationship between individual and relationship characteristics and expectations of non-monogamy. The current longitudinal study: 1) estimated the prevalence of expectations of partner non-monogamy and 2) evaluated whether gender, sexual identity, age, education, how a couple met, and relationship quality were predictive expectations of partner non-monogamy. This study utilized the publically available longitudinal dataset, How Couples Meet and Stay Together. Adults aged 18- to 98-years old (n=4002) were surveyed by phone over 5 waves from 2009-2014. Demographics and how a couple met were gathered through self-report in Wave 1, and relationship quality and expectations of partner non-monogamy were gathered through self-report in Waves 4 and 5 (n=1047). The prevalence of expectations of partner non-monogamy (encompassing both infidelity and consensual non-monogamy) was 4.8%. Logistic regression models indicated that sexual identity, gender, education, and relationship quality were significantly predictive of expectations of partner non-monogamy. Specifically, male gender, lower education, identifying as lesbian, gay, or bisexual, and a lower relationship quality scores were predictive of expectations of partner non-monogamy. Male gender was not predictive of expectations of partner non-monogamy in the follow up logistic regression model. Age and whether a couple met online were not associated with expectations of partner non-monogamy. Clinical implications include awareness of the increased likelihood of lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals to have an expectation of non-monogamy and the sequelae of relationship dissatisfaction that may be related. Future research directions could differentiate between non-monogamy subtypes and the person and relationship variables that lead to the likelihood of consensual non-monogamy and infidelity as separate constructs, as well as explore the relationship between predicting partner behavior and actual partner behavioral outcomes.

Keywords: open relationship, polyamory, infidelity, relationship satisfaction

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560 A Literature Review on Successful Implementation of Online Education in Higher Education Institutions

Authors: Desiree Wieser

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Online education can be one way to differentiate for higher education institutions (HEI). Nevertheless, it is often not that clear how to successfully implement online education and what it actually means. Literature reveals that it is often linked to student success and satisfaction. However, while researchers succeeded in identifying the determinants impacting on student success and satisfaction, they often ignored expectations. In fact, learning success and satisfaction alone often fall short to explain if and why online education has been implemented successfully and why students perceive the study experience as positive or negative. The present study reveals that considering expectations can contribute to a better understanding of the overall study experience.

Keywords: expectations, online education, student satisfaction, student success

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559 Barriers to Marital Expectation among Individuals with Hearing Impairment in Oyo State

Authors: Adebomi M. Oyewumi, Sunday Amaize

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The study was designed to examine the barriers to marital expectations among unmarried persons with hearing impairment in Oyo State, Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design was adopted. Purposive sampling technique was used to select one hundred participants made up forty-four (44) males and fifty-six (56) females, all with varying degrees of hearing impairment. Eight research questions were raised and answered. The instrument used was Marital Expectations Scale with reliability coefficient of 0.86. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics tools of frequency count and simple percentage as well as inferential statistics tools of T-TEST and ANOVA. The findings revealed that there was a significant relationship existing among the main identified barriers (environmental barrier, communication barrier, hearing loss, unemployment and poor sexuality education) to the marital expectations of unmarried persons with hearing impairment. The joint contribution of the independent variables (identified barriers) to the dependent variable (marital expectations) was significant, F = 5.842, P < 0.05, accounting for about 89% of the variance. The relative contribution of the identified barriers to marital expectations of unmarried persons with hearing impairment is as follows: environmental barrier (β = 0.808, t = 5.176, P < 0.05), communication barrier (β = 0.533, t = 3.305, P < 0.05), hearing loss (β = 0.550, t = 2.233, P < 0.05), unemployment (β = 0.431, t = 2.102, P < 0.05), poor sexuality education (β = 0.361, t = 1.985, P < 0.05). Environmental barrier proved to be the most potent contributor to the poor marital expectations among unmarried persons with hearing impairment. Therefore, it is recommended that society dismantles the nagging environmental barrier through positive identification with individuals suffering from hearing impairment. In this connection, members of society should change their negative attitudes and do away with all the wrong notions about the marital ability of individuals with hearing impairment.

Keywords: environmental barrier, hearing impairment, marriage, marital expectations

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558 Parent’s Expectations and School Achievement: Longitudinal Perspective among Chilean Pupils

Authors: Marine Hascoet, Valentina Giaconi, Ludivine Jamain

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The aim of our study is to examine if the family socio-economic status (SES) has an influence on students’ academic achievement. We first make the hypothesis that the more their families have financial and social resources, the more students succeed at school. We second make the hypothesis that this family SES has also an impact on parents’ expectations about their children educational outcomes. Moreover, we want to study if that parents’ expectations play the role of mediator between parents’ socio-economic status and the student’ self-concept and academic outcome. We test this model with a longitudinal design thanks to the census-based assessment from the System of Measurement of the Quality of Education (SIMCE). The SIMCE tests aim to assess all the students attending to regular education in a defined level. The sample used in this study came from the SIMCE assessments done three times: in 4th, 8th and 11th grade during the years 2007, 2011 and 2014 respectively. It includes 156.619 students (75.084 boys and 81.535 girls) that had valid responses for the three years. The family socio-economic status was measured at the first assessment (in 4th grade). The parents’ educational expectations and the students’ self-concept were measured at the second assessment (in 8th grade). The achievement score was measured twice; once when children were in 4th grade and a second time when they were in 11th grade. To test our hypothesis, we have defined a structural equation model. We found that our model fit well the data (CFI = 0.96, TLI = 0.95, RMSEA = 0.05, SRMR = 0.05). Both family SES and prior achievements predict parents’ educational expectations and effect of SES is important in comparison to the other coefficients. These expectations predict students’ achievement three years later (with prior achievement controlled) but not their self-concept. Our model explains 51.9% of the achievement in the 11th grade. Our results confirm the importance of the parents’ expectations and the significant role of socio-economic status in students’ academic achievement in Chile.

Keywords: Chilean context, parent’s expectations, school achievement, self-concept, socio-economic status

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557 Relationship Between Expectation (Before) and Satisfaction (After) Receiving Services of Thai Consumers from Domestic Low-Cost Airlines

Authors: Sittichai Charoensettasilp, Chong Wu

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This study employs sampling of 400 Thai people who live in Bangkok and have used air transportation to travel. A random convenience sampling technique is used to collect data. The results found that at 0.05 significance level the differences of means of Thai consumers’ expectations (before) and satisfaction (after) receiving services in the service marketing mix, the results of all aspects are different both in general and for each aspect of the service marketing mix. Average levels of expectations before receiving services are higher than satisfaction after receiving services in all aspects, as well. When analyzing further to the correlation between average means, the means of expectations before receiving services are higher than those of satisfaction after receiving services in general. As in all aspects of the service marketing mix, any aspect that has a big difference between expectations before receiving services and satisfaction after receiving services has low correlation.

Keywords: domestic low-cost airlines, Thai consumers, relationship, expectation before receiving services, satisfaction after receiving services

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556 Marketing Mixed Factors Affecting on Commercial Transactions Expectations through Social Networks

Authors: Ladaporn Pithuk

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This study aims to investigate the marketing mixed factors that affecting on expectations about commercial transactions through social networks. The research method will using quantitative research, data was collected by questionnaires to person have experience access to trading over the internet for 400 sample by purposive sampling method. Data was analyzed by descriptive statistic including percentage, mean, standard deviation and using quality function deployment for hypothesis testing. Finding the most significant interrelationship between marketing mixed factors and commercial transactions expectations through social networks are product and place the relationship of five ties product and place (location) is involved in almost all will make the site a model that meets the needs of the user visit. In terms of price, the promotion, privacy, personalization and providing a process technical. This will make operations more efficient, reduce confusion, duplication, delays in data transmission, including the creation of different elements in products and services.

Keywords: commercial transactions expectations, marketing mixed factors, social networks, consumer behavior

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555 Demographic Factors Influencing Employees’ Salary Expectations and Labor Turnover

Authors: M. Osipova

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Thanks to informational technologies development every sphere of economics is becoming more and more data-centralized as people are generating huge datasets containing information on any aspect of their life. Applying research of such data to human resources management allows getting scarce statistics on labor market state including salary expectations and potential employees’ typical career behavior, and this information can become a reliable basis for management decisions. The following article presents results of career behavior research based on freely accessible resume data. Information used for study is much wider than one usually uses in human resources surveys. That is why there is enough data for statistically significant results even for subgroups analysis.

Keywords: human resources management, salary expectations, statistics, turnover

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554 The Customer Expectations of Service Provided in a Banpaew Hospital Samutsakorn

Authors: Chanpen Meenakorn

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This research aimed to examine the relationships between customer expectations and service quality management of Banpaew Hospital Samutsakorn in Thailand. The study sample consisted of 360 customers in patient unit. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics used were percentage, mean, and standard deviation. The analytical statistics comprised Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient analysis. The result showed that service quality of nurses was very good with sustainable development trend. Physical evidence was at a high level, and the process and personal were rated at a high level. Additional, the study suggested that head nurse should be encouraged to improve service quality management, management training. Nurse administrators should create an appropriate nursing department climate, and provide necessary resources in the department. In addition, the nurse administrators should continuously follow up the results of customer expectations and focus on patients/customers, process management, information and knowledge management, and evaluation of service quality also.

Keywords: Banpaew Hospital, Customer Expectations, Service Provided, Samutsakorn

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553 Optimistic Expectations and Satisfaction with Life as Antecedents of Emigration Attitudes among Bulgarian Millennials and Zoomers

Authors: Diana Ivanova Bakalova, Ekaterina Evtimova Dimitrova

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The purpose of this paper is to examine the predictive power of optimistic expectations and satisfaction with life in the country of origin and residence – Bulgaria, over the attitudes towards emigration among young Bulgarians with regard to their generational belonging and differences (i.e. Generation Y or Millennials, born between 1981-1995/6, and Generation Z or Zoomers, born between 1996/7-2012). Although the correlation between satisfaction with life and migration (attitudes) has been studied in some countries, it has neither been examined to date in Bulgaria – a sending rather than receiving Eastern European country, nor scrutinized in the light of generational differences. Within a national survey(N=1200), representative of young Bulgarians aged 18-35 years – Zoomers aged 18-25years (N=444) and Millennials aged 26-35 years (N=756), carried out in September-October 2021, optimistic expectations and satisfaction with life in Bulgaria were respectively measured by a 5-item and4-item scales. The scales were designed to measure optimistic expectations and satisfaction with life in the country, as both general constructs and in terms of specific areas of life (education, profession, career, and income). The findings suggest that the higher satisfaction with life in Bulgaria is associated with more optimistic expectations about one’s further professional, financial, and career growth in the country and reasonably, with more negative attitudes towards emigration of young Bulgarians. Although no significant differences were found between Millennials and Zoomers in their optimistic expectations and satisfaction with life in Bulgaria, Millennials are still significantly less likely to emigrate than Zoomers. Positively, the population of young Bulgarians demonstrates higher than average satisfaction with life and optimism for their prospects in the country combined with neutral to negative overall attitudes towards emigration. These findings have some important interdisciplinary psychological and demographic theoretical, applied, and policy implications. The survey is carried out under Project КП-06-Н35/4 “Psychological determinants of young people's attitudes to emigration and life planning in the context of demographic challenges in Bulgaria,” funded by the NSF - MES, Bulgaria.

Keywords: optimistic expectations, life satisfaction, emigration attitudes, young bulgerians

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552 Parents' Expectations from Compulsory Pre-School Education in the Slovak Republic

Authors: Sona Lorencova, Beata Hornickova

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The study deals with the presentation of the results of qualitatively oriented research, the aim of which was to find out the attitudes of parents to the planned compulsory pre-school education in the Slovak Republic. The research was conceived as an entry into the field of the researched issue and its aim was to support the validity and effectiveness of items in the questionnaire, which was created based on the statements of parents. The research method was an interview with 15 parents whose children attended kindergarten. The main question of the interviews was to find out what are the parents' expectations from compulsory pre-school education, which will be compulsory in the Slovak Republic from 2021 for all 5-year-old children. From the introduction of compulsory pre-school education, the professional public expects in particular greater participation of children from marginalized Roma communities in pre-school education, as well as children from socially disadvantaged backgrounds, better preparation of children for primary school and better results in international testing. The research found that the expectations of parents are different and depend on their socio-economic status, in accordance with which they place greater importance on the upbringing and education of children. The findings from interviews with parents contributed to the formulation of items in the questionnaire, which will be distributed to parents whose children will attend compulsory pre-school education in the Slovak Republic from 2021.

Keywords: compulsory pre-school education, kindergarten, education of pre-school children, parental expectations from pre-school education

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551 Ceramic Employees’ Occupational Health and Safety Training Expectations in Turkey

Authors: Erol Karaca

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This study aims to analyze ceramic employees’ occupational health and safety training expectations. To that general objective, the study tries to examine whether occupational health and safety training expectations of ceramic employees meaningfully differentiate depending on demographic features and professional, social and economic conditions. For this purpose, the research data was collected through “Questionnaire of Occupational Health and Safety Training Expectation” (QSOHSTE) consisting of 25 open and close-ended questions developed by the researcher on the base of the literature review. QSOHSTE was applied to 125 ceramic employees working in Kutahya, Turkey. Data obtained from questionnaires were analyzed via SPSS 21. The findings, obtained from the study, revealed that employees’ agreement level to occupational health and safety training expectation statements is generally high-level. These findings also reveals that employees have various expectations about occupational health and safety training. These expectations are increasing sensitivity towards occupational health and safety training about the prevention of occupational accidents and diseases, contributing occupational health and safety training in establishing healthy and safe working environment, requiring occupational health and safety training before starting work, in case of changing working equipment and new technological applications, necessity of measurement and evaluation after occupational health and safety training. Besides these findings, employees’ agreement level to occupational health and safety training expectation statements also varies in terms of educational level, professional seniority, income level and perception of economic condition.

Keywords: occupational health and safety, occupational training, occupational expectation, professional seniority

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550 Evidence of Conditional and Unconditional Cooperation in a Public Goods Game: Experimental Evidence from Mali

Authors: Maria Laura Alzua, Maria Adelaida Lopera

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This paper measures the relative importance of conditional cooperation and unconditional cooperation in a large public goods experiment conducted in Mali. We use expectations about total public goods provision to estimate a structural choice model with heterogeneous preferences. While unconditional cooperation can be captured by common preferences shared by all participants, conditional cooperation is much more heterogeneous and depends on unobserved individual factors. This structural model, in combination with two experimental treatments, suggests that leadership and group communication incentivize public goods provision through different channels. First, We find that participation of local leaders effectively changes individual choices through unconditional cooperation. A simulation exercise predicts that even in the most pessimistic scenario in which all participants expect zero public good provision, 60% would still choose to cooperate. Second, allowing participants to communicate fosters conditional cooperation. The simulations suggest that expectations are responsible for around 24% of the observed public good provision and that group communication does not necessarily ameliorate public good provision. In fact, communication may even worsen the outcome when expectations are low.

Keywords: conditional cooperation, discrete choice model, expectations, public goods game, random coefficients model

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549 Creating Legitimate Expectations in International Energy Investments: Role of the Stability Provisions

Authors: Rahmi Kopar

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Legitimate expectations principle is considered one of the most dominant elements of the Fair and Equitable Treatment Standard which is today’s most relied upon treaty standard. Since its utilization by arbitral tribunals is relatively new, the contours of the legitimate expectations concept under investment treaty law have not been precisely defined yet. There are various fragmented views arising both from arbitral tribunals and scholarly writings with respect to its limits and use even though the principle is ‘firmly rooted in arbitral practice.’ International energy investments, due to their characteristics, are more prone to certain types of risks, especially the political risks. Thus, there are several mechanisms to protect an energy investment against those risks. Stabilisation is one of these investment protection methods. Stability provisions can be found under domestic legislations, as a contractual clause, or as a separate legal stability agreement. This paper will start by examining the roots of the contentious concept of legitimate expectations with reference to its application in domestic legal systems from where the doctrine under investment treaty law context was transplanted. Then the paper will turn to the investment treaty law and analyse the main contours of the doctrine as understood and applied by arbitral tribunals. 'What gives rise to the investor’s legitimate expectations?' question is answered mainly by three categories of sources: the general legal framework prevalent in a host state, the representations made by the officials or organs of a host state, and the contractual commitments. However, there is no unanimity among the arbitral tribunals and the scholars with respect to the form these sources should take. At this point, the study will discuss the sources of a stability provision and the effect of these stability provisions found in various legal sources in creating a legitimate expectation for the investor. The main questions to be discussed in this paper are as follows: a) Do the stability provisions found under different legal sources create a legitimate expectation on the investor side? b) If yes, what levels of legitimate expectations do they create? These questions will be answered mainly by reference to investment treaty jurisprudence.

Keywords: fair and equitable treatment standard, international energy investments, investment protection, legitimate expectations, stabilization

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548 Construction Quality Perception of Construction Professionals and Their Expectations from a Quality Improvement Technique in Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Yousaf Sadiq

Abstract:

The complexity arises in defining the construction quality due to its perception, based on inherent market conditions and their requirements, the diversified stakeholders itself and their desired output. An quantitative survey based approach was adopted in this constructive study. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted for the assessment of construction Quality perception and expectations in the context of quality improvement technique. The survey feedback of professionals of the leading construction organizations/companies of Pakistan construction industry were analyzed. The financial capacity, organizational structure, and construction experience of the construction firms formed basis for their selection. The quality perception was found to be project-scope-oriented and considered as an excess cost for a construction project. Any quality improvement technique was expected to maximize the profit for the employer, by improving the productivity in a construction project. The study is beneficial for the construction professionals to assess the prevailing construction quality perception and the expectations from implementation of any quality improvement technique in construction projects.

Keywords: construction quality, expectation, improvement, perception

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547 Are Some Languages Harder to Learn and Teach Than Others?

Authors: David S. Rosenstein

Abstract:

The author believes that modern spoken languages should be equally difficult (or easy) to learn, since all normal children learning their native languages do so at approximately the same rate and with the same competence, progressing from easy to more complex grammar and syntax in the same way. Why then, do some languages seem more difficult than others? Perhaps people are referring to the written language, where it may be true that mastering Chinese requires more time than French, which in turn requires more time than Spanish. But this may be marginal, since Chinese and French children quickly catch up to their Spanish peers in reading comprehension. Rather, the real differences in difficulty derive from two sources: hardened L1 language habits trying to cope with contrasting L2 habits; and unfamiliarity with unique L2 characteristics causing faulty expectations. It would seem that effective L2 teaching and learning must take these two sources of difficulty into consideration. The author feels that the latter (faulty expectations) causes the greatest difficulty, making effective teaching and learning somewhat different for each given foreign language. Examples from Chinese and other languages are presented.

Keywords: learning different languages, language learning difficulties, faulty language expectations

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546 Critical Reading Achievement of Rural Migrant Children in China: The Roles of Educational Expectation

Authors: Liman Zhao, Jianlong Zhang, Mingman Ren, Chuang Wang, Jian Liu

Abstract:

Rural migrant children have become a fast-growing population in China as a consequence of the large-scale population flow from rural to urban areas in the context of urbanization. In China, the socioeconomic status of migrant children is relatively low in comparison to non-migrant children. Parents of migrant children often work in occupations with long working hours, high labor intensity, and low pay due to their poor academic qualifications. Most migrant children's parents have not received higher education and have no time to read with their children. The family of migrant children usually does not have a good collection of books either, which leads to these children’s insufficient reading and low reading levels. Moreover, migrant children frequently relocate with their parents, and their needs for knowledge and reading are often neglected by schools, which puts migrant children at risk of academic failure in China. Therefore, the academic achievement of rural migrant children has become a focus of education in China. This study explores the relationship between the educational expectation of rural migrant children and their critical reading competence in general and the moderating effect of the difference between parental educational expectation to their children and the children’s own educational expectation. The responses to a survey from 5113 seventh-grade children in a district of the capital city in China revealed that children who moved to cities in grades 4-6 of primary school performed the best in critical reading, and children who moved to cities after middle school showed the worst performance in critical reading. In addition, parents’ educational expectations of their children and their own educational expectations were both significant predictors of rural migrant children’s reading competence. The higher a child's expectations of a degree and the smaller the gap between parents' expectations of a child's education and the child's own education expectations, the better the child's performance in critical reading.

Keywords: educational expectation, critical reading competence, rural migrant children, moderating effect

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545 Marital Expectations, Marital Infidelity and Neuroticism as Predictors of Marital Conflict: Case Study of Igbo Spouses in Imo State, Nigeria

Authors: Ann Ukachi Madukwe, Juliana Chinwendu Njoku

Abstract:

Marital conflict, conceptualized in this study as the ongoing lack of peace and satisfaction in a marital union which threatens marital stability, has become quite prevalent in modern Igbo communities. The frequent incidences of spousal battery, spousal sexual abuse, domestic violence, long term separation and in some cases outright divorce are worrisome indicators of the endemic challenge marital conflict poses in most Igbo communities. This study examined marital expectations, marital infidelity (self and spouse), and neuroticism as predictors of marital conflict. Marital expectation was described as a married person’s appraisal of how well their pre-marital desires were being met by their spouses and within the marriage relationship. It assessed different aspects of personal and interpersonal positive outcomes in a marital union. Marital infidelity referred to the likelihood that married individuals or their spouses could have indulged in intimate activities like passionate kisses and romantic dates with someone other than their spouses. Participants reported on themselves as well as their spouses. The last predictor variable neuroticism was measured as a personality trait that addresses issues of emotional instability especially as it relates to a person’s interactions. Neurotic persons were considered to have high emotional reactivity; they would have strong emotional response to issues that emotionally stable persons might overlook. Participants comprised of Igbo male and female spouses selected from Imo state using randomized cluster sampling method. The study utilized the cross sectional survey design and Stepwise linear multiple regression for data analyses. Findings showed that though marital infidelity by spouse was generally below average and spouses marital expectations were being fulfilled; marital expectations followed by marital infidelity – spouse proved to be significant predictors of marital conflict. Marital conflict reduced as marital expectations got fulfilled and increased as the level of likelihood of marital infidelity by the spouse increased. Spouses in this study also reported an increased level of neuroticism, with males being more neurotic than females. Neuroticism was found to be the least significant predictor of marital conflict compared to marital expectations and marital infidelity – spouse. Finally, the article made recommendations to spouses and marital counsellors regarding especially the need to manage the neurotic tendencies of Igbo spouses.

Keywords: Igbo spouses, marital conflict, marital expectations, Nigeria

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544 A Pilot Study on the Development and Validation of an Instrument to Evaluate Inpatient Beliefs, Expectations and Attitudes toward Reflexology (IBEAR)-16

Authors: Samuel Attias, Elad Schiff, Zahi Arnon, Eran Ben-Arye, Yael Keshet, Ibrahim Matter, Boker Lital Keinan

Abstract:

Background: Despite the extensive use of manual therapies, reflexology in particular, no validated tools have been developed to evaluate patients' beliefs, attitudes and expectations regarding reflexology. Such tools however are essential to improve the results of the reflexology treatment, by better adjusting it to the patients' attitudes and expectations. The tool also enables assessing correlations with clinical results of interventional studies using reflexology. Methods: The IBEAR (Inpatient Beliefs, Expectations and Attitudes toward Reflexology) tool contains 25 questions (8 demographic and 17 specifically addressing reflexology), and was constructed in several stages: brainstorming by a multidisciplinary team of experts; evaluation of each of the proposed questions by the experts' team; and assessment of the experts' degree of agreement per each question, based on a Likert 1-7 scale (1 – don't agree at all; 7 – agree completely). Cronbach's Alpha was computed to evaluate the questionnaire's reliability while the Factor analysis test was used for further validation (228 patients). The questionnaire was tested and re-tested (48h) on a group of 199 patients to assure clarity and reliability, using the Pearson coefficient and the Kappa test. It was modified based on these results into its final form. Results: After its construction, the IBEAR questionnaire passed the expert group's preliminary consensus, evaluation of the questions' clarity (from 5.1 to 7.0), inner validation (from 5.5 to 7) and structural validation (from 5.5 to 6.75). Factor analysis pointed to two content worlds in a division into 4 questions discussing attitudes and expectations versus 5 questions on belief and attitudes. Of the 221 questionnaires collected, a Cronbach's Alpha coefficient was calculated on nine questions relating to beliefs, expectations, and attitudes regarding reflexology. This measure stood at 0.716 (satisfactory reliability). At the Test-Retest stage, 199 research participants filled in the questionnaire a second time. The Pearson coefficient for all questions ranged between 0.73 and 0.94 (good to excellent reliability). As for dichotomic answers, Kappa scores ranged between 0.66 and 1.0 (mediocre to high). One of the questions was removed from the IBEAR following questionnaire validation. Conclusions: The present study provides evidence that the proposed IBEAR-16 questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool for the characterization of potential reflexology patients and may be effectively used in settings which include the evaluation of inpatients' beliefs, expectations, and attitudes toward reflexology.

Keywords: reflexology, attitude, expectation, belief, CAM, inpatient

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