Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1151

Search results for: ecological footprint

1151 Methodologies for Management of Sustainable Tourism: A Case Study in Jalapão/to/Brazil

Authors: Mary L. G. S. Senna, Veruska C. Dutra, Afonso R. Aquino

Abstract:

The study is in application and analysis of two tourism management tools that can contribute to making public managers decision: the Barometer of Tourism Sustainability (BTS) and the Ecological Footprint (EF). The results have shown that BTS allows you to have an integrated view of the tourism system, awakening to the need for planning of appropriate actions so that it can achieve the positive scale proposed (potentially sustainable). Already the methodology of ecological tourism footprint is an important tool to measure potential impacts generated by tourism to tourist reality.

Keywords: barometer of tourism sustainability, ecological footprint of tourism, Jalapão/Brazil, sustainable tourism

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
1150 Quantifying Product Impacts on Biodiversity: The Product Biodiversity Footprint

Authors: Leveque Benjamin, Rabaud Suzanne, Anest Hugo, Catalan Caroline, Neveux Guillaume

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Human products consumption is one of the main drivers of biodiversity loss. However, few pertinent ecological indicators regarding product life cycle impact on species and ecosystems have been built. Life cycle assessment (LCA) methodologies are well under way to conceive standardized methods to assess this impact, by taking already partially into account three of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment pressures (land use, pollutions, climate change). Coupling LCA and ecological data and methods is an emerging challenge to develop a product biodiversity footprint. This approach was tested on three case studies from food processing, textile, and cosmetic industries. It allowed first to improve the environmental relevance of the Potential Disappeared Fraction of species, end-point indicator typically used in life cycle analysis methods, and second to introduce new indicators on overexploitation and invasive species. This type of footprint is a major step in helping companies to identify their impacts on biodiversity and to propose potential improvements.

Keywords: biodiversity, companies, footprint, life cycle assessment, products

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
1149 Carbon Footprint and Exergy Destruction Footprint in White Wine Production Line

Authors: Mahmut Genc, Seda Genc

Abstract:

Wine is the most popular alcoholic drink in the World with 274.4 million of hectoliter annual production in the year of 2015. The wine industry is very important for some regions as well as creating significant value in their economies. This industry is very sensitive to the global warming since viticulture highly depends on climate and geographical region. Sustainability concept is a crucial issue for the wine industry and sustainability performances of wine production processes should be determined. Although wine production industry is an energy intensive sector as a whole, the most energy intensive products are widely used both in the viti and vinicultural process. In this study, gate-to-gate LCA approach in energy resource utilization and global warming potential impacts for white wine production line were attempted and carbon footprint and exergy destruction footprint were calculated, accordingly. As a result, carbon footprint and exergy destruction footprint values were calculated to be 1.75 kg CO2eq and 365.3kW, respectively.

Keywords: carbon footprint, exergy analysis, exergy destruction footprint, white wine

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1148 The Carbon Footprint Model as a Plea for Cities towards Energy Transition: The Case of Algiers Algeria

Authors: Hachaichi Mohamed Nour El-Islem, Baouni Tahar

Abstract:

Environmental sustainability rather than a trans-disciplinary and a scientific issue, is the main problem that characterizes all modern cities nowadays. In developing countries, this concern is expressed in a plethora of critical urban ills: traffic congestion, air pollution, noise, urban decay, increase in energy consumption and CO2 emissions which blemish cities’ landscape and might threaten citizens’ health and welfare. As in the same manner as developing world cities, the rapid growth of Algiers’ human population and increasing in city scale phenomena lead eventually to increase in daily trips, energy consumption and CO2 emissions. In addition, the lack of proper and sustainable planning of the city’s infrastructure is one of the most relevant issues from which Algiers suffers. The aim of this contribution is to estimate the carbon deficit of the City of Algiers, Algeria, using the Ecological Footprint Model (carbon footprint). In order to achieve this goal, the amount of CO2 from fuel combustion has been calculated and aggregated into five sectors (agriculture, industry, residential, tertiary and transportation); as well, Algiers’ biocapacity (CO2 uptake land) has been calculated to determine the ecological overshoot. This study shows that Algiers’ transport system is not sustainable and is generating more than 50% of Algiers total carbon footprint which cannot be sequestered by the local forest land. The aim of this research is to show that the Carbon Footprint Assessment might be a relevant indicator to design sustainable strategies/policies striving to reduce CO2 by setting in motion the energy consumption in the transportation sector and reducing the use of fossil fuels as the main energy input.

Keywords: biocapacity, carbon footprint, ecological footprint assessment, energy consumption

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1147 Implementation of Environmental Sustainability into Event Management

Authors: Özlem Küçükakça

Abstract:

The world population is rapidly growing. In the last few decades, environmental protection and climate change have been remarked as a global concern. All events have their own ecological footprint. Therefore, all participants who take part in the events, from event organizer to audience should be responsible for reducing carbon emissions. Currently, there is a literature gap which investigates the relationship between events and environment. Hence, this study is conducted to investigate how to implement environmental sustainability in the event management. Therefore, a wide literature and also the UK festivals database have been investigated. Finally, environmental effects and the solution of reducing impacts at events were discussed.

Keywords: ecological footprint, environmental sustainability, events, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
1146 Analysis of Ecological Footprint of Residents for Urban Spatial Restructuring

Authors: Taehyun Kim, Hyunjoo Park, Taehyun Kim

Abstract:

Since the rapid economic development, Korea has recently entered a period of low growth due to population decline and aging. Due to the urbanization around the metropolitan area and the hollowing of local cities, the ecological capacity of a city is decreasing while ecological footprints are increasing, requiring a compact space plan for maintaining urban functions. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between urban spatial structure and residents' ecological footprints for sustainable spatial planning. To do this, we try to analyze the relationship between intra-urban spatial structure, such as net/gross density and service accessibility, and resident ecological footprints of food, housing, transportation, goods and services through survey and structural equation modeling. The results of the study will be useful in establishing an implementation plan for sustainable development goals (SDGs), especially for sustainable cities and communities (SDG 11) and responsible consumption and production (SDG 12) in the future.

Keywords: ecological footprint, structural equation modeling, survey, sustainability, urban spatial structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
1145 Integrating Carbon Footprint into Supply Chain Management of Manufacturing Companies: Sri Lanka

Authors: Shirekha Layangani, Suneth Dharmaparakrama

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When the manufacturing industry is concerned the Environment Management System (EMS) is a common term. Currently most organizations have obtained the environmental standard certification, ISO 14001. In the Sri Lankan context even though the organizations adopt Environmental Management, a very limited number of companies tend to calculate their Carbon Footprints. This research discusses the demotivating factors of manufacturing organizations in Sri Lanka to integrate calculation of carbon footprint into their supply chains. Further it also identifies the benefits that manufacturing organizations can gain by implementing calculation of carbon footprint. The manufacturing companies listed under “ISO 14001” certification were considered in this study in order to investigate the problems mentioned above. 100% enumeration was used when the surveys were carried out. In order to gather essential data two surveys were designed to be done among manufacturing organizations that are currently engaged in calculating their carbon footprint and the organizations that have not. The survey among the first set of manufacturing organizations revealed the benefits the organizations were able to gain by implementing calculation of carbon footprint. The latter set organizations revealed the demotivating factors that have influenced not to integrate calculation of carbon footprint into their supply chains. This paper has summarized the results obtained by the surveys and segregated depending on the market share of the manufacturing organizations. Further it has indicated the benefits that can be obtained by implementing carbon footprint calculation, depending on the market share of the manufacturing entity. Finally the research gives suggestions to manufacturing organizations on applicability of adopting carbon footprint calculation depending on the benefits that can be obtained.

Keywords: carbon footprint, environmental management systems (EMS), benefits of carbon footprint, ISO14001

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
1144 The Ecological Footprint of Tourism in Jalapão/TO/Brazil

Authors: Mary L. G. S. Senna, Afonso R. Aquino

Abstract:

The development of tourism causes negative impacts on the environment. It is in this context, through the Ecological Footprint (EF) method that this study aimed to characterize the impacts of ecotourism on the community of Mateiros, Jalapão, Brazil. The EF, which consisted in its original a method to construct a land use matrix, considering some major categories of human consumption such as food, housing, transportation, consumer goods and services, and six other categories from the main land use which are divided into the topics: land use, degraded environment, gardens, fertile land, pasture and forests protected by the government. The main objective of this index is to calculate the land area required for the production and maintenance of goods and services consumed by a community. The field research was conducted throughout the year of 2014 until July 2015. After the calculations of each category, these components were added according to the presented method in order to determine the annual EF of the tourism sector in Mateiros. The results show that the EF resulting from tourism in Mateiros is 2,194.22 hectares of land required for tourism activities in the region. The EF of tourism was considered high, nevertheless, if it is added the total of hectares needed annually for tourism activities, the result found would be 2,194.22 hectares needed to absorb the CO2 emissions generated in the region directly from the tourism sector.

Keywords: sustainable tourism, tourism ecological footprint, Jalapão/TO/Brazil

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
1143 Measuring Ecological Footprint: Life Cycle Assessment Approach

Authors: Binita Shah, Seema Unnikrishnan

Abstract:

In the recent time, an increasing interest in the analysis and efforts to reduce the environmental impacts generated by man-made activities has been seen widely being discussed and implemented by the society. The industrial processes are expressing their concern and showing keen interest in redesigning and amending the operation process leading to better environmental performance by upgrading technologies and adjusting the financial inputs. There are various tools available for the assessment of process and production of goods on the environment. Most methods look at a particular impact on the ecosystem. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is one of the most widely accepted and scientifically founded methodologies to assess the overall environmental impacts of products and processes. This paper looks at the tools used in India for environmental impact assessment.

Keywords: life cycle assessment, ecological footprint, measuring sustainability, India

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1142 Carbon Footprint of Blowmoulded Plastic Parts-Case Study on Automotive Industry

Authors: Mădălina Elena Mavrodin, Gabriela Andreea Despescu, Gheorghe Lăzăroiu

Abstract:

Long term trend of global warming has brought a very deep interest in climate change, which is due most likely to increasing concentrations of anthropogenic greenhouse gases. 0f these, particular attention is paid to carbon dioxide, which has led in desire for obtaining carbon footprint products. Automotive industry is one of the world’s most important economic sectors with a great impact over the environment through all range of activities. Its impact over the environment has been studied, researcher trying as much as possible to reduce it and to offer environmental friendly solution for the using, but also manufacturing cars. In the global endeavour to meet the international commitments in order to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions, many companies integrate environmental issues into their management systems, with potential effects in their entire production chains. Several tools and calculators have been developed to measure the environmental impact of a product in the life cycle perspective of the whole product chain. There were a lot of ways to obtain the carbon footprint of driving a car, but the total carbon footprint of a car includes also the carbon footprint of all the components and accessories. In the automotive industry, one of the challenges is to calculate the carbon footprint of a car from ‘cradle to grave’; this meaning not only for driving the car, but also manufacturing it, so there can be an overview over the entire process of production.

Keywords: carbon footprint, global warming potential, greenhouse gases, manufacture, plastic air ducts

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
1141 Calculate Product Carbon Footprint through the Internet of Things from Network Science

Authors: Jing Zhang

Abstract:

To reduce the carbon footprint of mankind and become more sustainable is one of the major challenges in our era. Internet of Things (IoT) mainly resolves three problems: Things to Things (T2T), Human to Things, H2T), and Human to Human (H2H). Borrowing the classification of IoT, we can find carbon prints of industries also can be divided in these three ways. Therefore, monitoring the routes of generation and circulation of products may help calculate product carbon print. This paper does not consider any technique used by IoT itself, but the ideas of it look at the connection of products. Carbon prints are like a gene or mark of a product from raw materials to the final products, which never leave the products. The contribution of this paper is to combine the characteristics of IoT and the methodology of network science to find a way to calculate the product's carbon footprint. Life cycle assessment, LCA is a traditional and main tool to calculate the carbon print of products. LCA is a traditional but main tool, which includes three kinds.

Keywords: product carbon footprint, Internet of Things, network science, life cycle assessment

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1140 Carbon Footprint Assessment and Application in Urban Planning and Geography

Authors: Hyunjoo Park, Taehyun Kim, Taehyun Kim

Abstract:

Human life, activity, and culture depend on the wider environment. Cities offer economic opportunities for goods and services, but cannot exist in environments without food, energy, and water supply. Technological innovation in energy supply and transport speeds up the expansion of urban areas and the physical separation from agricultural land. As a result, division of urban agricultural areas causes more energy demand for food and goods transport between the regions. As the energy resources are leaking all over the world, the impact on the environment crossing the boundaries of cities is also growing. While advances in energy and other technologies can reduce the environmental impact of consumption, there is still a gap between energy supply and demand by current technology, even in technically advanced countries. Therefore, reducing energy demand is more realistic than relying solely on the development of technology for sustainable development. The purpose of this study is to introduce the application of carbon footprint assessment in fields of urban planning and geography. In urban studies, carbon footprint has been assessed at different geographical scales, such as nation, city, region, household, and individual. Carbon footprint assessment for a nation and a city is available by using national or city level statistics of energy consumption categories. By means of carbon footprint calculation, it is possible to compare the ecological capacity and deficit among nations and cities. Carbon footprint also offers great insight on the geographical distribution of carbon intensity at a regional level in the agricultural field. The study shows the background of carbon footprint applications in urban planning and geography by case studies such as figuring out sustainable land-use measures in urban planning and geography. For micro level, footprint quiz or survey can be adapted to measure household and individual carbon footprint. For example, first case study collected carbon footprint data from the survey measuring home energy use and travel behavior of 2,064 households in eight cities in Gyeonggi-do, Korea. Second case study analyzed the effects of the net and gross population densities on carbon footprint of residents at an intra-urban scale in the capital city of Seoul, Korea. In this study, the individual carbon footprint of residents was calculated by converting the carbon intensities of home and travel fossil fuel use of respondents to the unit of metric ton of carbon dioxide (tCO₂) by multiplying the conversion factors equivalent to the carbon intensities of each energy source, such as electricity, natural gas, and gasoline. Carbon footprint is an important concept not only for reducing climate change but also for sustainable development. As seen in case studies carbon footprint may be measured and applied in various spatial units, including but not limited to countries and regions. These examples may provide new perspectives on carbon footprint application in planning and geography. In addition, additional concerns for consumption of food, goods, and services can be included in carbon footprint calculation in the area of urban planning and geography.

Keywords: carbon footprint, case study, geography, urban planning

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
1139 Approaches to Eco-Friendly Architecture: Modules Assembled Specially to Conserve

Authors: Arshleen Kaur, Sarang Barbarwar, Madhusudan Hamirwasia

Abstract:

Sustainable architecture is going to be the soul of construction in the near future, with building material as a vital link connecting sustainability to construction. The priority in Architecture has shifted from having a lesser negative footprint to having a positive footprint on Earth. The design has to be eco-centric as well as anthro-centric so as to attain its true purpose. Brick holds the same importance like a cell holds in one’s body. The study focuses on this basic building block with an experimental material and technique known as Module Assembled Specially to Conserve (MASC). The study explores the usage and construction of these modules in the construction of buildings. It also shows the impact assessment of the modules on the environment and its significance in reducing the carbon footprint of the construction industry. The aspects like cost-effectiveness, ease of working and reusability of MASC have been studied as well.

Keywords: anthro-centric, carbon footprint, eco-centric, sustainable

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1138 The Impact of Economic Growth on Carbon Footprints of High-Income and Non-High-Income Countries: A Comparative Analysis

Authors: Ghunchq Khan

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The increase in greenhouse gas (GHGs) emissions is a main environmental problem. Diverse human activities and inappropriate economic growth have stimulated a trade-off between economic growth and environmental deterioration all over the world. The impact of economic growth on the environment has received attention as global warming and environmental problems have become more serious. The focus of this study is on carbon footprints (production and consumption) and analyses the impact of GDP per capita on carbon footprints. A balanced panel of 99 countries from 2000 to 2016 is estimated by employing autoregressive distributed lags (ARDL) model – mean group (MG) and pooled mean group (PMG) estimators. The empirical results indicate that GDP per capita has a significant and positive impact in the short run but a negative effect in the long run on the carbon footprint of production in high-income countries by controlling trade openness, industry share, biological capacity, and population density. At the same time, GDP per capita has a significant and positive impact in both the short and long run on the carbon footprint of the production of non-high-income countries. The results also indicate that GDP per capita negatively impacts the carbon footprint of consumption for high-income countries; on the other hand, the carbon footprint of consumption increases as GDP per capita grows in non-high-income countries.

Keywords: ARDL, carbon footprint, economic growth, industry share, trade openness

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1137 Case Study of Ground Improvement Solution for a Power Plant

Authors: Eleonora Di Mario

Abstract:

This paper describes the application of ground improvement to replace a typical piled foundation scheme in a power plant in Singapore. Several buildings within the plant were founded on vibro-compacted sand, including a turbine unit which had extremely stringent requirements on the allowable settlement. The achieved savings in terms of cost and schedule are presented. The monitoring data collected during the operation of the turbine are compared to the design predictions to validate the design approach, and the quality of the ground improvement works. In addition, the calculated carbon footprint of the ground improvement works are compared to the piled solution, showing that the vibro-compaction has a significantly lower carbon footprint.

Keywords: ground improvement, vibro-compaction, case study, sustainability, carbon footprint

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1136 Embodied Carbon Footprint of Existing Malaysian Green Homes

Authors: Fahanim Abdul Rashid, Muhammad Azzam Ismail

Abstract:

Part and parcel of building green homes (GHs) with favorable thermal comfort (TC) is to design and build with reduced carbon footprint (CF) from embodied energy in the building envelope and reduced operational CF overall. Together, the environmental impact of GHs can be reduced significantly. Nevertheless, there is still a need to identify the base CF value for Malaysian GHs and this can be done by assessing existing ones which can then be compared to conventional and vernacular houses which are built differently with different building materials. This paper underlines the research design and introduces the case studies. For now, the operational CF of the case studies is beyond the scope of this study. Findings from this research could identify the best building material and construction technique combination to build GHs depending on the available skills, financial constraints and the condition of the immediate environment.

Keywords: embodied carbon footprint, Malaysian green homes

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
1135 Impact of Proposed Modal Shift from Private Users to Bus Rapid Transit System: An Indian City Case Study

Authors: Rakesh Kumar, Fatima Electricwala

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One of the major thrusts of the Bus Rapid Transit System is to reduce the commuter’s dependency on private vehicles and increase the shares of public transport to make urban transportation system environmentally sustainable. In this study, commuter mode choice analysis is performed that examines behavioral responses to the proposed Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) in Surat, with estimation of the probable shift from private mode to public mode. Further, evaluation of the BRTS scenarios, using Surat’s transportation ecological footprint was done. A multi-modal simulation model was developed in Biogeme environment to explicitly consider private users behaviors and non-linear environmental impact. The data of the different factors (variables) and its impact that might cause modal shift of private mode users to proposed BRTS were collected through home-interview survey using revealed and stated preference approach. A multi modal logit model of mode-choice was then calibrated using the collected data and validated using proposed sample. From this study, a set of perception factors, with reliable and predictable data base, to explain the variation in modal shift behaviour and their impact on Surat’s ecological environment has been identified. A case study of the proposed BRTS connecting the Surat Industrial Hub to the coastal area is provided to illustrate the approach.

Keywords: BRTS, private modes, mode choice models, ecological footprint

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1134 Termite Mound Floors: Ready-to-Use Ecological Materials

Authors: Yanné Etienne

Abstract:

The current climatic conditions necessarily impose the development and use of construction materials with low or no carbon footprint. The Far North Region of Cameroon has huge deposits of termite mounds. Various tests in this work have been carried out on these soils with the aim of using them as construction materials. They are mainly geotechnical tests, physical and mechanical tests. The different tests gave the following values: uniformity coefficient (4.95), curvature coefficient (1.80), plasticity index (12.85%), optimum moisture content (6.70%), maximum dry density (2.05 g.cm-³), friction angles (14.07°), and cohesion of 100.29 kN.m2. The results obtained show that termite mound soils, which are ecological materials, are plastic and water-stable can be used for the production of load-bearing elements in construction.

Keywords: termite mound soil, ecological materials, building materials, geotechnical tests, physical and mechanical tests

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1133 Role of Sequestration of CO2 Due to the Carbonation in Total CO2 Emission Balance in Concrete Life

Authors: P. P. Woyciechowski

Abstract:

Calculation of the carbon footprint of cement concrete is a complex process including consideration of the phase of primary life (components and concrete production processes, transportation, construction works, maintenance of concrete structures) and secondary life, including demolition and recycling. Taking into consideration the effect of concrete carbonation can lead to a reduction in the calculated carbon footprint of concrete. In this paper, an example of CO2 balance for small bridge elements made of Portland cement reinforced concrete was done. The results include the effect of carbonation of concrete in a structure and of concrete rubble after demolition. It was shown that important impact of carbonation on the balance is possible only when rubble carbonation is possible. It was related to the fact that only the sequestration potential in the secondary phase of concrete life has significant value.

Keywords: carbon footprint, balance of carbon dioxide in nature, concrete carbonation, the sequestration potential of concrete

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1132 An Analysis of Eco-efficiency and GHG Emission of Olive Oil Production in Northeast of Portugal

Authors: M. Feliciano, F. Maia, A. Gonçalves

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Olive oil production sector plays an important role in Portuguese economy. It had a major growth over the last decade, increasing its weight in the overall national exports. International market penetration for Mediterranean traditional products is increasingly more demanding, especially in the Northern European markets, where consumers are looking for more sustainable products. Trying to support this growing demand this study addresses olive oil production under the environmental and eco-efficiency perspectives. The analysis considers two consecutive product life cycle stages: olive trees farming; and olive oil extraction in mills. Addressing olive farming, data collection covered two different organizations: a middle-size farm (~12ha) (F1) and a large-size farm (~100ha) (F2). Results from both farms show that olive collection activities are responsible for the largest amounts of Green House Gases (GHG) emissions. In this activities, estimate for the Carbon Footprint per olive was higher in F2 (188g CO2e/kgolive) than in F1 (148g CO2e/kgolive). Considering olive oil extraction, two different mills were considered: one using a two-phase system (2P) and other with a three-phase system (3P). Results from the study of two mills show that there is a much higher use of water in 3P. Energy intensity (EI) is similar in both mills. When evaluating the GHG generated, two conditions are evaluated: a biomass neutral condition resulting on a carbon footprint higher in 3P (184g CO2e/Lolive oil) than in 2P (92g CO2e/Lolive oil); and a non-neutral biomass condition in which 2P increase its carbon footprint to 273g CO2e/Lolive oil. When addressing the carbon footprint of possible combinations among studied subsystems, results suggest that olive harvesting is the major source for GHG.

Keywords: carbon footprint, environmental indicators, farming subsystem, industrial subsystem, olive oil

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1131 Building Information Modeling Applied for the Measurement of Water Footprint of Construction Supplies

Authors: Julio Franco

Abstract:

Water is used, directly and indirectly, in all activities of the construction productive chain, making it a subject of worldwide relevance for sustainable development. The ongoing expansion of urban areas leads to a high demand for natural resources, which in turn cause significant environmental impacts. The present work proposes the application of BIM tools to assist the measurement of the water footprint (WF) of civil construction supplies. Data was inserted into the model as element properties, allowing them to be analyzed by element or in the whole model. The WF calculation was automated using parameterization in Autodesk Revit software. Parameterization was associated to the materials of each element in the model so that any changes in these elements directly alter the results of WF calculations. As a case study, we applied into a building project model to test the parameterized calculus of WF. Results show that the proposed parameterization successfully automated WF calculations according to design changes. We envision this tool to assist the measurement and rationalization of the environmental impact in terms of WF of construction projects.

Keywords: building information modeling, BIM, sustainable development, water footprint

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1130 Biogas from Cover Crops and Field Residues: Effects on Soil, Water, Climate and Ecological Footprint

Authors: Manfred Szerencsits, Christine Weinberger, Maximilian Kuderna, Franz Feichtinger, Eva Erhart, Stephan Maier

Abstract:

Cover or catch crops have beneficial effects for soil, water, erosion, etc. If harvested, they also provide feedstock for biogas without competition for arable land in regions, where only one main crop can be produced per year. On average gross energy yields of approx. 1300 m³ methane (CH4) ha-1 can be expected from 4.5 tonnes (t) of cover crop dry matter (DM) in Austria. Considering the total energy invested from cultivation to compression for biofuel use a net energy yield of about 1000 m³ CH4 ha-1 is remaining. With the straw of grain maize or Corn Cob Mix (CCM) similar energy yields can be achieved. In comparison to catch crops remaining on the field as green manure or to complete fallow between main crops the effects on soil, water and climate can be improved if cover crops are harvested without soil compaction and digestate is returned to the field in an amount equivalent to cover crop removal. In this way, the risk of nitrate leaching can be reduced approx. by 25% in comparison to full fallow. The risk of nitrous oxide emissions may be reduced up to 50% by contrast with cover crops serving as green manure. The effects on humus content and erosion are similar or better than those of cover crops used as green manure when the same amount of biomass was produced. With higher biomass production the positive effects increase even if cover crops are harvested and the only digestate is brought back to the fields. The ecological footprint of arable farming can be reduced by approx. 50% considering the substitution of natural gas with CH4 produced from cover crops.

Keywords: biogas, cover crops, catch crops, land use competition, sustainable agriculture

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1129 Developing a Roadmap by Integrating of Environmental Indicators with the Nitrogen Footprint in an Agriculture Region, Hualien, Taiwan

Authors: Ming-Chien Su, Yi-Zih Chen, Nien-Hsin Kao, Hideaki Shibata

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The major component of the atmosphere is nitrogen, yet atmospheric nitrogen has limited availability for biological use. Human activities have produced different types of nitrogen related compounds such as nitrogen oxides from combustion, nitrogen fertilizers from farming, and the nitrogen compounds from waste and wastewater, all of which have impacted the environment. Many studies have indicated the N-footprint is dominated by food, followed by housing, transportation, and goods and services sectors. To solve the impact issues from agricultural land, nitrogen cycle research is one of the key solutions. The study site is located in Hualien County, Taiwan, a major rice and food production area of Taiwan. Importantly, environmentally friendly farming has been promoted for years, and an environmental indicator system has been established by previous authors based on the concept of resilience capacity index (RCI) and environmental performance index (EPI). Nitrogen management is required for food production, as excess N causes environmental pollution. Therefore it is very important to develop a roadmap of the nitrogen footprint, and to integrate it with environmental indicators. The key focus of the study thus addresses (1) understanding the environmental impact caused by the nitrogen cycle of food products and (2) uncovering the trend of the N-footprint of agricultural products in Hualien, Taiwan. The N-footprint model was applied, which included both crops and energy consumption in the area. All data were adapted from government statistics databases and crosschecked for consistency before modeling. The actions involved with agricultural production were evaluated and analyzed for nitrogen loss to the environment, as well as measuring the impacts to humans and the environment. The results showed that rice makes up the largest share of agricultural production by weight, at 80%. The dominant meat production is pork (52%) and poultry (40%); fish and seafood were at similar levels to pork production. The average per capita food consumption in Taiwan is 2643.38 kcal capita−1 d−1, primarily from rice (430.58 kcal), meats (184.93 kcal) and wheat (ca. 356.44 kcal). The average protein uptake is 87.34 g capita−1 d−1, and 51% is mainly from meat, milk, and eggs. The preliminary results showed that the nitrogen footprint of food production is 34 kg N per capita per year, congruent with the results of Shibata et al. (2014) for Japan. These results provide a better understanding of the nitrogen demand and loss in the environment, and the roadmap can furthermore support the establishment of nitrogen policy and strategy. Additionally, the results serve to develop a roadmap of the nitrogen cycle of an environmentally friendly farming area, thus illuminating the nitrogen demand and loss of such areas.

Keywords: agriculture productions, energy consumption, environmental indicator, nitrogen footprint

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1128 Carbon Footprint of Road Project for Sustainable Development: Lessons Learnt from Traffic Management of a Developing Urban Centre

Authors: Sajjad Shukur Ullah, Syed Shujaa Safdar Gardezi

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Road infrastructure plays a vital role in the economic activities of any economy. Besides derived benefits from these facilities, the utilization of extensive energy resources, fuels, and materials results in a negative impact on the environment in terms of carbon footprint; carbon footprint is the overall amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) generated from any action. However, this aspect of environmental impact from road structure is not seriously considered during such developments, thus undermining a critical factor of sustainable development, which usually remains unaddressed, especially in developing countries. The current work investigates the carbon footprint impact of a small road project (0.8 km, dual carriageway) initiated for traffic management in an urban centre. Life cycle assessment (LCA) with boundary conditions of cradle to the site has been adopted. The only construction phase of the life cycle has been assessed at this stage. An impact of 10 ktons-CO2 (6260 ton-CO2/km) has been assessed. The rigid pavement dominated the contributions as compared to a flexible component. Among the structural elements, the underpass works shared the major portion. Among the materials, the concrete and steel utilized for various structural elements resulted in more than 90% of the impact. The earth-moving equipment was dominant in operational carbon. The results have highlighted that road infrastructure projects pose serious threats to the environment during their construction and which need to be considered during the approval stages. This work provides a guideline for supporting sustainable development that could only be ensured when such endeavours are properly assessed by industry professionals and decide various alternative environmental conscious solutions for the future.

Keywords: construction waste management, kiloton, life cycle assessment, rigid pavement

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1127 Container Chaos: The Impact of a Casual Game on Learning and Behavior

Authors: Lori L. Scarlatos, Ryan Courtney

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This paper explores the impact that playing a casual game can have on a player's learning and subsequent behavior. A casual mobile game, Container Chaos, was created to teach undergraduate students about the carbon footprint of various disposable beverage containers. Learning was tested with a short quiz, and behavior was tested by observing which beverage containers players choose when offered a drink and a snack. The game was tested multiple times, under a variety of different circumstances. Findings of these tests indicate that, with extended play over time, players can learn new information and sometimes even change their behavior as a result. This has implications for how other casual games can be used to teach concepts and possibly modify behavior.

Keywords: behavior, carbon footprint, casual games, environmental impact, material sciences

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1126 An Engineer-Oriented Life Cycle Assessment Tool for Building Carbon Footprint: The Building Carbon Footprint Evaluation System in Taiwan

Authors: Hsien-Te Lin

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the BCFES (building carbon footprint evaluation system), which is a LCA (life cycle assessment) tool developed by the Low Carbon Building Alliance (LCBA) in Taiwan. A qualified BCFES for the building industry should fulfill the function of evaluating carbon footprint throughout all stages in the life cycle of building projects, including the production, transportation and manufacturing of materials, construction, daily energy usage, renovation and demolition. However, many existing BCFESs are too complicated and not very designer-friendly, creating obstacles in the implementation of carbon reduction policies. One of the greatest obstacle is the misapplication of the carbon footprint inventory standards of PAS2050 or ISO14067, which are designed for mass-produced goods rather than building projects. When these product-oriented rules are applied to building projects, one must compute a tremendous amount of data for raw materials and the transportation of construction equipment throughout the construction period based on purchasing lists and construction logs. This verification method is very cumbersome by nature and unhelpful to the promotion of low carbon design. With a view to provide an engineer-oriented BCFE with pre-diagnosis functions, a component input/output (I/O) database system and a scenario simulation method for building energy are proposed herein. Most existing BCFESs base their calculations on a product-oriented carbon database for raw materials like cement, steel, glass, and wood. However, data on raw materials is meaningless for the purpose of encouraging carbon reduction design without a feedback mechanism, because an engineering project is not designed based on raw materials but rather on building components, such as flooring, walls, roofs, ceilings, roads or cabinets. The LCBA Database has been composited from existing carbon footprint databases for raw materials and architectural graphic standards. Project designers can now use the LCBA Database to conduct low carbon design in a much more simple and efficient way. Daily energy usage throughout a building's life cycle, including air conditioning, lighting, and electric equipment, is very difficult for the building designer to predict. A good BCFES should provide a simplified and designer-friendly method to overcome this obstacle in predicting energy consumption. In this paper, the author has developed a simplified tool, the dynamic Energy Use Intensity (EUI) method, to accurately predict energy usage with simple multiplications and additions using EUI data and the designed efficiency levels for the building envelope, AC, lighting and electrical equipment. Remarkably simple to use, it can help designers pre-diagnose hotspots in building carbon footprint and further enhance low carbon designs. The BCFES-LCBA offers the advantages of an engineer-friendly component I/O database, simplified energy prediction methods, pre-diagnosis of carbon hotspots and sensitivity to good low carbon designs, making it an increasingly popular carbon management tool in Taiwan. To date, about thirty projects have been awarded BCFES-LCBA certification and the assessment has become mandatory in some cities.

Keywords: building carbon footprint, life cycle assessment, energy use intensity, building energy

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1125 A Study of the Carbon Footprint from a Liquid Silicone Rubber Compounding Facility in Malaysia

Authors: Q. R. Cheah, Y. F. Tan

Abstract:

In modern times, the push for a low carbon footprint entails achieving carbon neutrality as a goal for future generations. One possible step towards carbon footprint reduction is the use of more durable materials with longer lifespans, for example, silicone data cableswhich show at least double the lifespan of similar plastic products. By having greater durability and longer lifespans, silicone data cables can reduce the amount of trash produced as compared to plastics. Furthermore, silicone products don’t produce micro contamination harmful to the ocean. Every year the electronics industry produces an estimated 5 billion data cables for USB type C and lightning data cables for tablets and mobile phone devices. Material usage for outer jacketing is 6 to 12 grams per meter. Tests show that the product lifespan of a silicone data cable over plastic can be doubled due to greater durability. This can save at least 40,000 tonnes of material a year just on the outer jacketing of the data cable. The facility in this study specialises in compounding of liquid silicone rubber (LSR) material for the extrusion process in jacketing for the silicone data cable. This study analyses the carbon emissions from the facility, which is presently capable of producing more than 1,000 tonnes of LSR annually. This study uses guidelines from the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) and World Resources Institute (WRI) to define the boundaries of the scope. The scope of emissions is defined as 1. Emissions from operations owned or controlled by the reporting company, 2. Emissions from the generation of purchased or acquired energy such as electricity, steam, heating, or cooling consumed by the reporting company, and 3. All other indirect emissions occurring in the value chain of the reporting company, including both upstream and downstream emissions. As the study is limited to the compounding facility, the system boundaries definition according to GHG protocol is cradle-to-gate instead of cradle-to-grave exercises. Malaysia’s present electricity generation scenario was also used, where natural gas and coal constitute the bulk of emissions. Calculations show the LSR produced for the silicone data cable with high fire retardant capability has scope 1 emissions of 0.82kg CO2/kg, scope 2 emissions of 0.87kg CO2/kg, and scope 3 emissions of 2.76kg CO2/kg, with a total product carbon footprint of 4.45kg CO2/kg. This total product carbon footprint (Cradle-to-gate) is comparable to the industry and to plastic materials per tonne of material. Although per tonne emission is comparable to plastic material, due to greater durability and longer lifespan, there can be significantly reduced use of LSR material. Suggestions to reduce the calculated product carbon footprint in the scope of emissions involve 1. Incorporating the recycling of factory silicone waste into operations, 2. Using green renewable energy for external electricity sources and 3. Sourcing eco-friendly raw materials with low GHG emissions.

Keywords: carbon footprint, liquid silicone rubber, silicone data cable, Malaysia facility

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1124 Dynamic Modeling of the Green Building Movement in the U.S.: Strategies to Reduce Carbon Footprint of Residential Building Stock

Authors: Nuri Onat, Omer Tatari, Gokhan Egilmez

Abstract:

The U.S. buildings consume significant amount of energy and natural resources and they are responsible for approximately 40 % of the greenhouse gases emitted in the United States. Awareness of these environmental impacts paved the way for the adoption of green building movement. The green building movement is a rapidly increasing trend. Green Construction market has generated $173 billion dollars in GDP, supported over 2.4 million jobs, and provided $123 billion dollars in labor earnings. The number of LEED certified buildings is projected to be almost half of the all new, nonresidential buildings by 2015. National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) aims to increase number of net-zero energy buildings (NZB). The ultimate goal is to have all commercial NZB by 2050 in the US (NSTC 2008). Green Building Initiative (GBI) became the first green building organization that is accredited by American National Standards Institute (ANSI), which will also boost number of green buildings certified by Green Globes. However, there is much less focus on greening the residential buildings, although the environmental impacts of existing residential buildings are more than that of commercial buildings. In this regard, current research aims to model the residential green building movement with a dynamic model approach and assess the possible strategies to stabilize the carbon footprint of the U.S. residential building stock. Three aspects of sustainable development are considered in policy making, namely: high performance green building (HPGB) construction, NZB construction and building retrofitting. 19 different policy options are proposed and analyzed. Results of this study explored that increasing the construction rate of HPGBs or NZBs is not a sufficient policy to stabilize the carbon footprint of the residential buildings. Energy efficient building retrofitting options are found to be more effective strategies then increasing HPGBs and NZBs construction. Also, significance of shifting to renewable energy sources for electricity generation is stressed.

Keywords: green building movement, residential buildings, carbon footprint, system dynamics

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1123 Water Footprint for the Palm Oil Industry in Malaysia

Authors: Vijaya Subramaniam, Loh Soh Kheang, Astimar Abdul Aziz

Abstract:

Water footprint (WFP) has gained importance due to the increase in water scarcity in the world. This study analyses the WFP for an agriculture sector, i.e., the oil palm supply chain, which produces oil palm fresh fruit bunch (FFB), crude palm oil, palm kernel, and crude palm kernel oil. The water accounting and vulnerability evaluation (WAVE) method was used. This method analyses the water depletion index (WDI) based on the local blue water scarcity. The main contribution towards the WFP at the plantation was the production of FFB from the crop itself at 0.23m³/tonne FFB. At the mill, the burden shifts to the water added during the process, which consists of the boiler and process water, which accounted for 6.91m³/tonne crude palm oil. There was a 33% reduction in the WFP when there was no dilution or water addition after the screw press at the mill. When allocation was performed, the WFP reduced by 42% as the burden was shared with the palm kernel and palm kernel shell. At the kernel crushing plant (KCP), the main contributor towards the WFP 4.96 m³/tonne crude palm kernel oil which came from the palm kernel which carried the burden from upstream followed by electricity, 0.33 m³/tonne crude palm kernel oil used for the process and 0.08 m³/tonne crude palm kernel oil for transportation of the palm kernel. A comparison was carried out for mills with biogas capture versus no biogas capture, and the WFP had no difference for both scenarios. The comparison when the KCPs operate in the proximity of mills as compared to those operating in the proximity of ports only gave a reduction of 6% for the WFP. Both these scenarios showed no difference and insignificant difference, which differed from previous life cycle assessment studies on the carbon footprint, which showed significant differences. This shows that findings change when only certain impact categories are focused on. It can be concluded that the impact from the water used by the oil palm tree is low due to the practice of no irrigation at the plantations and the high availability of water from rainfall in Malaysia. This reiterates the importance of planting oil palm trees in regions with high rainfall all year long, like the tropics. The milling stage had the most significant impact on the WFP. Mills should avoid dilution to reduce this impact.

Keywords: life cycle assessment, water footprint, crude palm oil, crude palm kernel oil, WAVE method

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1122 Case Study of Migrants, Cultures and Environmental Crisis

Authors: Christina Y. P. Ting

Abstract:

Migration is a global phenomenon with movements of migrants from developed and developing countries to the host societies. Migrants have changed the host countries’ demography – its population structure and also its ethnic cultural diversity. Acculturation of migrants in terms of their adoption of the host culture is seen as important to ensure that they ‘fit into’ their adopted country so as to participate in everyday public life. However, this research found that the increase of the China-born migrants’ post-migration consumption level had impact on Australia’s environment reflected not only because of their adoption of elements of the host culture, but also retention of aspects of Chinese culture – indicating that the influence of bi-culturalism was in operation. This research, which was based on the face-to-face interview with 61 China-born migrants in the suburb of Box Hill, Melbourne, investigated the pattern of change in the migrants’ consumption upon their settlement in Australia. Using an ecological footprint calculator, their post-migration footprints were found to be larger than pre-migration footprint. The uniquely-derived CALD (Culturally and Linguistically Diverse) Index was used to measure individuals’ strength of connectedness to ethnic culture. Multi-variant analysis was carried out to understand which independent factors that influence consumption best explain the change in footprint (which is the difference between pre-and post-migration footprints, as a dependent factor). These independent factors ranged from socio-economic and demographics to the cultural context, that is, the CALD Index and indicators of acculturation. The major findings from the analysis were: Chinese culture (as measured by the CALD Index) and indicators of acculturation such as length of residency and using English in communications besides the traditional factors such as age, income and education level made significant contributions to the large increase in the China-born group’s post-migration consumption level. This paper as part of a larger study found that younger migrants’ large change in their footprint were related to high income and low level of education. This group of migrants also practiced bi-cultural consumption in retaining ethnic culture and adopting the host culture. These findings have importantly highlighted that for a host society to tackle environmental crisis, governments need not only to understand the relationship between age and consumption behaviour, but also to understand and embrace the migrants’ ethnic cultures, which may act as bridges and/or fences in relationships. In conclusion, for governments to deal with national issues such as environmental crisis within a cultural diverse population, it necessitates an understanding of age and aspects of ethnic culture that may act as bridges and fences. This understanding can aid in putting in place policies that enable the co-existence of a hybrid of the ethnic and host cultures in order to create and maintain a harmonious and secured living environment for population groups.

Keywords: bicultural consumer, CALD index, consumption, ethnic culture, migrants

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