Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5087

Search results for: rating scale

5087 Development of a Rating Scale for Elementary EFL Writing

Authors: Mohammed S. Assiri


In EFL programs, rating scales used in writing assessment are often constructed by intuition. Intuition-based scales tend to provide inaccurate and divisive ratings of learners’ writing performance. Hence, following an empirical approach, this study attempted to develop a rating scale for elementary-level writing at an EFL program in Saudi Arabia. Towards this goal, 98 students’ essays were scored and then coded using comprehensive taxonomy of writing constructs and their measures. An automatic linear modeling was run to find out which measures would best predict essay scores. A nonparametric ANOVA, the Kruskal-Wallis test, was then used to determine which measures could best differentiate among scoring levels. Findings indicated that there were certain measures that could serve as either good predictors of essay scores or differentiators among scoring levels, or both. The main conclusion was that a rating scale can be empirically developed using predictive and discriminative statistical tests.

Keywords: analytic scoring, rating scales, writing assessment, writing constructs, writing performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 389
5086 The Correlation between Users’ Star Rating and Usability on Mobile Applications

Authors: Abdulmohsen A. AlBesher, Richard T. Stone


Star rating for mobile applications is a very useful way to differentiate between the best and worst rated applications. However, the question is whether the rating reflects the level of usability or not. The aim of this paper is to find out if the user’ star ratings on mobile apps correlate with the usability of those apps. Thus, we tested three mobile apps, which have different star ratings: low, medium, and high. Participating in the study, 15 mobile phone users were asked to do one single task for each of the three tested apps. After each task, the participant evaluated the app by answering a survey based on the System Usability Scale (SUS). The results found that there is no major correlation between the star rating and the usability. However, it was found that the task completion time and the numbers of errors that may happen while completing the task were significantly correlated to the usability.

Keywords: mobile applications, SUS, star rating, usability

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
5085 Correlates of Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Rating Scale and Psycho-Productive Multiple Choice Test for Assessing Students' Performance in Rice Production in Secondary Schools in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

Authors: Ogbonnaya Elom, Francis N. Azunku, Ogochukwu Onah


This study was carried out to determine the correlates of cost effectiveness analysis of rating scale and psycho-productive multiple choice test for assessing students’ performance in rice production. Four research questions were developed and answered, while one hypothesis was formulated and tested. Survey and correlation designs were adopted. The population of the study was 20,783 made up of 20,511 senior secondary (SSII) students and 272 teachers of agricultural science from 221 public secondary schools. Two schools with one intact class of 30 students each was purposely selected as sample based on certain criteria. Four sets of instruments were used for data collection. One of the instruments-the rating scale, was subjected to face and content validation while the other three were subjected to face validation only. Cronbach alpha technique was utilized to determine the internal consistency of the rating scale items which yielded a coefficient of 0.82 while the Kudder-Richardson (K-R 20) formula was involved in determining the stability of the psycho-productive multiple choice test items which yielded a coefficient of 0.80. Method of data collection involved a step-by-step approach in collecting data. Data collected were analyzed using percentage, weighted mean and sign test to answer the research questions while the hypothesis was tested using Spearman rank-order of correlation and t-test statistic. Findings of the study revealed among others, that psycho-productive multiple choice test is more effective than rating scale when the former is applied on the two groups of students. It was recommended among others, that the external examination bodies should integrate the use of psycho- productive multiple choice test into their examination policy and direct secondary schools to comply with it.

Keywords: correlates, cost-effectiveness, psycho-productive multiple-choice scale, rating scale

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5084 Validation of Global Ratings in Clinical Performance Assessment

Authors: S. J. Yune, S. Y. Lee, S. J. Im, B. S. Kam, S. Y. Baek


This study aimed to determine the reliability of clinical performance assessments, having been emphasized by ability-based education, and professors overall assessment methods. We addressed the following problems: First, we try to find out whether there is a difference in what we consider to be the main variables affecting the clinical performance test according to the evaluator’s working period and the number of evaluation experience. Second, we examined the relationship among the global rating score (G), analytic global rating score (Gc), and the sum of the analytical checklists (C). What are the main factors affecting clinical performance assessments in relation to the numbers of times the evaluator had administered evaluations and the length of their working period service? What is the relationship between overall assessment score and analytic checklist score? How does analytic global rating with 6 components in OSCE and 4 components in sub-domains (Gc) CPX: aseptic practice, precision, systemic approach, proficiency, successfulness, and attitude overall assessment score and task-specific analytic checklist score sum (C) affect the professor’s overall global rating assessment score (G)? We studied 75 professors who attended a 2016 Bugyeoung Consortium clinical skills performances test evaluating third and fourth year medical students at the Pusan National University Medical school in South Korea (39 prof. in OSCE, 36 prof. in CPX; all consented to participate in our study). Each evaluator used 3 forms; a task-specific analytic checklist, subsequent analytic global rating scale with sub-6 domains, and overall global scale. After the evaluation, the professors responded to the questionnaire on the important factors of clinical performance assessment. The data were analyzed by frequency analysis, correlation analysis, and hierarchical regression analysis using SPSS 21.0. Their understanding of overall assessment was analyzed by dividing the subjects into groups based on experiences. As a result, they considered ‘precision’ most important in overall OSCE assessment, and ‘precise accuracy physical examination’, ‘systemic approaches to taking patient history’, and ‘diagnostic skill capability’ in overall CPX assessment. For OSCE, there was no clear difference of opinion about the main factors, but there was for CPX. Analytic global rating scale score, overall rating scale score, and analytic checklist score had meaningful mutual correlations. According to the regression analysis results, task-specific checklist score sum had the greatest effect on overall global rating. professors regarded task-specific analytic checklist total score sum as best reflecting overall OSCE test score, followed by aseptic practice, precision, systemic approach, proficiency, successfulness, and attitude on a subsequent analytic global rating scale. For CPX, subsequent analytic global rating scale score, overall global rating scale score, and task-specific checklist score had meaningful mutual correlations. These findings support explanations for validity of professors’ global rating in clinical performance assessment.

Keywords: global rating, clinical performance assessment, medical education, analytic checklist

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
5083 Assessing an Instrument Usability: Response Interpolation and Scale Sensitivity

Authors: Betsy Ng, Seng Chee Tan, Choon Lang Quek, Peter Looker, Jaime Koh


The purpose of the present study was to determine the particular scale rating that stands out for an instrument. The instrument was designed to assess student perceptions of various learning environments, namely face-to-face, online and blended. The original instrument had a 5-point Likert items (1 = strongly disagree and 5 = strongly agree). Alternate versions were modified with a 6-point Likert scale and a bar scale rating. Participants consisted of undergraduates in a local university were involved in the usability testing of the instrument in an electronic setting. They were presented with the 5-point, 6-point and percentage-bar (100-point) scale ratings, in response to their perceptions of learning environments. The 5-point and 6-point Likert scales were presented in the form of radio button controls for each number, while the percentage-bar scale was presented with a sliding selection. Among these responses, 6-point Likert scale emerged to be the best overall. When participants were confronted with the 5-point items, they either chose 3 or 4, suggesting that data loss could occur due to the insensitivity of instrument. The insensitivity of instrument could be due to the discreet options, as evidenced by response interpolation. To avoid the constraint of discreet options, the percentage-bar scale rating was tested, but the participant responses were not well-interpolated. The bar scale might have provided a variety of responses without a constraint of a set of categorical options, but it seemed to reflect a lack of perceived and objective accuracy. The 6-point Likert scale was more likely to reflect a respondent’s perceived and objective accuracy as well as higher sensitivity. This finding supported the conclusion that 6-point Likert items provided a more accurate measure of the participant’s evaluation. The 5-point and bar scale ratings might not be accurately measuring the participants’ responses. This study highlighted the importance of the respondent’s perception of accuracy, respondent’s true evaluation, and the scale’s ease of use. Implications and limitations of this study were also discussed.

Keywords: usability, interpolation, sensitivity, Likert scales, accuracy

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
5082 Developing a Risk Rating Tool for Shopping Centres

Authors: Prandesha Govender, Chris Cloete


Purpose: The objective of the paper is to develop a tool for the evaluation of the financial risk of a shopping center. Methodology: Important factors that indicate the success of a shopping center were identified from the available literature. Weights were allocated to these factors and a risk rating was calculated for 505 shopping centers in the largest province in South Africa by taking the factor scores, factor weights, and category weights into account. The ratings for ten randomly selected shopping centers were correlated with consumer feedback and standardized against the ECAI (External Credit Assessment Institutions) data for the same centers. The ratings were also mapped to corporates with the same risk rating to provide a better intuitive assessment of the meaning of the inherent risk of each center. Results: The proposed risk tool shows a strong linear correlation with consumer views and can be compared to expert opinions, such as that of fund managers and REITs. Interpretation of the tool was also illustrated by correlating the risk rating of selected shopping centers to the risk rating of reputable and established entities. Conclusions: The proposed Shopping Centre Risk Tool, used in conjunction with financial inputs from the relevant center, should prove useful to an investor when the desirability of investment in or expansion, renovation, or purchase of a shopping center is being considered.

Keywords: risk, shopping centres, risk modelling, investment, rating tool, rating scale

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5081 Dissociation of CDS from CVA Valuation Under Notation Changes

Authors: R. Henry, J-B. Paulin, St. Fauchille, Ph. Delord, K. Benkirane, A. Brunel


In this paper, the CVA computation of interest rate swap is presented based on its rating. Rating and probability default given by Moody’s Investors Service are used to calculate our CVA for a specific swap with different maturities. With this computation, the influence of rating variation can be shown on CVA. The application is made to the analysis of Greek CDS variation during the period of Greek crisis between 2008 and 2011. The main point is the determination of correlation between the fluctuation of Greek CDS cumulative value and the variation of swap CVA due to change of rating

Keywords: CDS, computation, CVA, Greek crisis, interest rate swap, maturity, rating, swap

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
5080 The Modified WBS Based on LEED Rating System in Decreasing Energy Consumption and Cost of Buildings

Authors: Mehrab Gholami Zangalani, Siavash Rajabpour


In compliance with the Statistical Centre of Iran (SCI)’s results, construction and housing section in Iran is consuming 40% of energy, which is 5 times more than the world average consumption. By considering the climate in Iran, the solutions in terms of design, construction and exploitation of the buildings by utilizing the LEED rating system (LRS) is presented, regarding to the reasons for the high levels of energy consumption during construction and housing in Iran. As a solution, innovative Work Break Structure (WBS) in accordance with LRS and Iranian construction’s methods is unveiled in this research. Also, by amending laws pertaining to the construction in Iran, the huge amount of energy and cost can be saved. Furthermore, with a scale-up of these results to the scale of big cities such as Tehran (one of the largest metropolitan areas in the middle east) in which the license to build more than two hundred and fifty units each day is issued, the amount of energy and cost that can be saved is estimated.

Keywords: costs reduction, energy statistics, leed rating system (LRS), work brake structure (WBS)

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5079 Analyzing the Effect of Ambient Temperature and Loads Power Factor on Electric Generator Power Rating

Authors: Ahmed Elsebaay, Maged A. Abu Adma, Mahmoud Ramadan


This study presents a technique clarifying the effect of ambient air temperature and loads power factor changing from standard values on electric generator power rating. The study introduces an optimized technique for selecting the correct electric generator power rating for certain application and operating site ambient temperature. The de-rating factors due to the previous effects will be calculated to be applied on a generator to select its power rating accurately to avoid unsafe operation and save its lifetime. The information in this paper provides a simple, accurate, and general method for synchronous generator selection and eliminates common errors.

Keywords: ambient temperature, de-rating factor, electric generator, power factor

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
5078 A Comparative Analysis of Green Buildings Rating Systems

Authors: Shadi Motamedighazvini, Roohollah Taherkhani, Mahdi Mahdikhani, Najme Hashempour


Nowadays, green building rating systems are an inevitable necessity for managing environmental considerations to achieve green buildings. The aim of this paper is to deliver a detailed recognition of what has been the focus of green building policymakers around the world; It is important to conduct this study in a way that can provide a context for researchers who intend to establish or upgrade existing rating systems. In this paper, fifteen rating systems including four worldwide well-known plus eleven local rating systems which have been selected based on the answers to the questionnaires were examined. Their similarities and differences in mandatory and prerequisite clauses, highest and lowest scores for each criterion, the most frequent criteria, and most frequent sub-criteria are determined. The research findings indicated that although the criteria of energy, water, indoor quality (except Homestar), site and materials (except GRIHA) were common core criteria for all rating systems, their sub-criteria were different. This research, as a roadmap, eliminates the lack of a comprehensive reference that encompasses the key criteria of different rating systems. It shows the local systems need to be revised to be more comprehensive and adaptable to their own country’s conditions such as climate.

Keywords: environmental assessment, green buildings, green building criteria, green building rating systems, sustainability, rating tools

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5077 Strengthening Evaluation of Steel Girder Bridge under Load Rating Analysis: Case Study

Authors: Qudama Albu-Jasim, Majdi Kanaan


A case study about the load rating and strengthening evaluation of the six-span of steel girders bridge in Colton city of State of California is investigated. To simulate the load rating strengthening assessment for the Colton Overhead bridge, a three-dimensional finite element model built in the CSiBridge program is simulated. Three-dimensional finite-element models of the bridge are established considering the nonlinear behavior of critical bridge components to determine the feasibility and strengthening capacity under load rating analysis. The bridge was evaluated according to Caltrans Bridge Load Rating Manual 1st edition for rating the superstructure using the Load and Resistance Factor Rating (LRFR) method. The analysis for the bridge was based on load rating to determine the largest loads that can be safely placed on existing I-girder steel members and permitted to pass over the bridge. Through extensive numerical simulations, the bridge is identified to be deficient in flexural and shear capacities, and therefore strengthening for reducing the risk is needed. An in-depth parametric study is considered to evaluate the sensitivity of the bridge’s load rating response to variations in its structural parameters. The parametric analysis has exhibited that uncertainties associated with the steel’s yield strength, the superstructure’s weight, and the diaphragm configurations should be considered during the fragility analysis of the bridge system.

Keywords: load rating, CSIBridge, strengthening, uncertainties, case study

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5076 Influential Factors of Employees’ Work Motivation: Case Study of Siam Thai Co., Ltd

Authors: Pitsanu Poonpetpun, Witthaya Mekhum, Warangkana Kongsil


This research was an attempt to study work motivation of employees in Siam Thai Co., Ltd. The study took place in Rayong with 59 employees as participants. The research tool was questionnaires which consisted of sets of questions about company’s policy, management, executives and good relationship within the firm. The questionnaires style was rating scale with 5 score bands. The questionnaires were analyzed by percentage, frequency, mean and standard deviation. From the study, the result showed that policy and management were in moderate scale, executive and managers were in moderate scale and relationship within the firm were in high scale.

Keywords: motivation, job, performance, employees

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
5075 The Effects of Music Therapy on Positive Negative Syndrome Scale, Cognitive Function, and Quality of Life in Female Schizophrenic Patients

Authors: Elmeida Effendy, Mustafa M. Amin, Nauli Aulia Lubis, P. J. Sirait


Music therapy may have an effect on mental illnesses. This is a comparative, quasi-experimental study to examine the effect of music therapy added to standard care on Positive Negative Syndrome Scale, Cognitive Function and Quality of Life in female schizophrenic patients. 50 schizophrenic participants who were diagnosed with semistructured MINI ICD-X, were assigned into two groups received pharmacotherapy. Participants were assigned into each group of therapy by using matched allocation method. Music therapy added on to the first group. They received music therapy, using Mozart Sonata four times a week, over a period of six week. Positive and negative symptoms were measured by using Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Cognitive function were measured by using Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA). All rating scale were administrated by certified skill residents every week after music therapy session. The participants who were received pharmaco-and-music therapy significantly showed greater response than who received pharmacotherapy only. The mean difference of response were -6,6164 (p=0,001) for PANNS, 2,911 (p=0,004) for MMSE, 3,618 (p=0,001) for MOCA, 4,599 (p=0,001) for SF-36. Music therapy have beneficial effects on PANSS, Cognitive Function and Quality of Life in schizophrenic patients.

Keywords: music therapy, rating scale, schizophrenia, symptoms

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
5074 An Exploratory Study of Reliability of Ranking vs. Rating in Peer Assessment

Authors: Yang Song, Yifan Guo, Edward F. Gehringer


Fifty years of research has found great potential for peer assessment as a pedagogical approach. With peer assessment, not only do students receive more copious assessments; they also learn to become assessors. In recent decades, more educational peer assessments have been facilitated by online systems. Those online systems are designed differently to suit different class settings and student groups, but they basically fall into two categories: rating-based and ranking-based. The rating-based systems ask assessors to rate the artifacts one by one following some review rubrics. The ranking-based systems allow assessors to review a set of artifacts and give a rank for each of them. Though there are different systems and a large number of users of each category, there is no comprehensive comparison on which design leads to higher reliability. In this paper, we designed algorithms to evaluate assessors' reliabilities based on their rating/ranking against the global ranks of the artifacts they have reviewed. These algorithms are suitable for data from both rating-based and ranking-based peer assessment systems. The experiments were done based on more than 15,000 peer assessments from multiple peer assessment systems. We found that the assessors in ranking-based peer assessments are at least 10% more reliable than the assessors in rating-based peer assessments. Further analysis also demonstrated that the assessors in ranking-based assessments tend to assess the more differentiable artifacts correctly, but there is no such pattern for rating-based assessors.

Keywords: peer assessment, peer rating, peer ranking, reliability

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5073 Impact of Teacher Qualifications on the Pedagogical Competencies of University Lecturers in Northwest Nigeria: A Pilot Study Report

Authors: Collins Ekpiwre Augustine


Taking into account the impact of teacher training on primary and secondary teachers’ classroom competencies and practices, as revealed by many empirical studies, this study investigated the impact of teacher qualifications on the pedagogical competencies of university teachers in Northwest Nigeria.Four research questions were answered while four hypotheses were tested. Both descriptive statistic of frequencies/arithmetic mean and inferential statistic oft-test were used to analyze the data collected. In order to provide a focus to the study,an observational rating scale titled “University Teachers’ Pedagogical Competency Observation Rating Scale” (UTPCORS) was used to collect data for the study. The population for the study comprised all the university teachers in the three Federal Universities in Northwest Nigeria totaling about 3,401. However, this pilot study was administered on 8 teachers - with 4 participants in each comparison group in Bayero University, Kano.The findings of the study revealed that there was no significant difference in the four hypotheses postulated for the study.

Keywords: impact, university teachers, teachers' qualifications, competencies

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5072 Corporate Governance and Share Prices: Firm Level Review in Turkey

Authors: Raif Parlakkaya, Ahmet Diken, Erkan Kara


This paper examines the relationship between corporate governance rating and stock prices of 26 Turkish firms listed in Turkish stock exchange (Borsa Istanbul) by using panel data analysis over five-year period. The paper also investigates the stock performance of firms with governance rating with regards to the market portfolio (i.e. BIST 100 Index) both prior and after governance scoring began. The empirical results show that there is no relation between corporate governance rating and stock prices when using panel data for annual variation in both rating score and stock prices. Further analysis indicates surprising results that while the selected firms outperform the market significantly prior to rating, the same performance does not continue afterwards.

Keywords: corporate governance, stock price, performance, panel data analysis

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5071 Correlation of Spirometry with Six Minute Walk Test and Grading of Dyspnoea in COPD Patients

Authors: Anand K. Patel


Background: Patients with COPD have decreased pulmonary functions, which in turn reflect on their day-to-day activities. Objectives: To assess the correlation between functional vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) with 6 minutes walk test (6MWT). To correlate the Borg rating for perceived exertion scale (Borg scale) and Modified medical research council (MMRC) dyspnea scale with the 6MWT, FVC and FEV1. Method: In this prospective study total 72 patients with COPD diagnosed by the GOLD guidelines were enrolled after taking written consent. They were first asked to rate physical exertion on the Borg scale as well as the modified medical research council dyspnea scale and then were subjected to perform pre and post bronchodilator spirometry followed by 6 minute walk test. The findings were correlated by calculating the Pearson coefficient for each set and obtaining the p-values, with a p < 0.05 being clinically significant. Result: There was a significant correlation between spirometry and 6MWT suggesting that patients with lower measurements were unable to walk for longer distances. However, FVC had the stronger correlation than FEV1. MMRC scale had a stronger correlation with 6MWT as compared to the Borg scale. Conclusion: The study suggests that 6MWT is a better test for monitoring the patients of COPD. In spirometry, FVC should be used in monitoring patients with COPD, instead of FEV1. MMRC scale shows a stronger correlation than the Borg scale, and we should use it more often.

Keywords: spirometry, 6 minute walk test, MMRC, Borg scale

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5070 The Predictors of Head and Neck Cancer-Head and Neck Cancer-Related Lymphedema in Patients with Resected Advanced Head and Neck Cancer

Authors: Shu-Ching Chen, Li-Yun Lee


The purpose of the study was to identify the factors associated with head and neck cancer-related lymphoedema (HNCRL)-related symptoms, body image, and HNCRL-related functional outcomes among patients with resected advanced head and neck cancer. A cross-sectional correlational design was conducted to examine the predictors of HNCRL-related functional outcomes in patients with resected advanced head and neck cancer. Eligible patients were recruited from a single medical center in northern Taiwan. Consecutive patients were approached and recruited from the Radiation Head and Neck Outpatient Department of this medical center. Eligible subjects were assessed for the Symptom Distress Scale–Modified for Head and Neck Cancer (SDS-mhnc), Brief International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Set for Head and Neck Cancer (BCSQ-H&N), Body Image Scale–Modified (BIS-m), The MD Anderson Head and Neck Lymphedema Rating Scale (MDAHNLRS), The Foldi’s Stages of Lymphedema (Foldi’s Scale), Patterson’s Scale, UCLA Shoulder Rating Scale (UCLA SRS), and Karnofsky’s Performance Status Index (KPS). The results showed that the worst problems with body HNCRL functional outcomes. Patients’ HNCRL symptom distress and performance status are robust predictors across over for overall HNCRL functional outcomes, problems with body HNCRL functional outcomes, and activity and social functioning HNCRL functional outcomes. Based on the results of this period research program, we will develop a Cancer Rehabilitation and Lymphedema Care Program (CRLCP) to use in the care of patients with resected advanced head and neck cancer.

Keywords: head and neck cancer, resected, lymphedema, symptom, body image, functional outcome

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5069 The Impact of the Enron Scandal on the Reputation of Corporate Social Responsibility Rating Agencies

Authors: Jaballah Jamil


KLD (Peter Kinder, Steve Lydenberg and Amy Domini) research & analytics is an independent intermediary of social performance information that adopts an investor-pay model. KLD rating agency does not have an explicit monitoring on the rated firm which suggests that KLD ratings may not include private informations. Moreover, the incapacity of KLD to predict accurately the extra-financial rating of Enron casts doubt on the reliability of KLD ratings. Therefore, we first investigate whether KLD ratings affect investors' perception by studying the effect of KLD rating changes on firms' financial performances. Second, we study the impact of the Enron scandal on investors' perception of KLD rating changes by comparing the effect of KLD rating changes on firms' financial performances before and after the failure of Enron. We propose an empirical study that relates a number of equally-weighted portfolios returns, excess stock returns and book-to-market ratio to different dimensions of KLD social responsibility ratings. We first find that over the last two decades KLD rating changes influence significantly and negatively stock returns and book-to-market ratio of rated firms. This finding suggests that a raise in corporate social responsibility rating lowers the firm's risk. Second, to assess the Enron scandal's effect on the perception of KLD ratings, we compare the effect of KLD rating changes before and after the Enron scandal. We find that after the Enron scandal this significant effect disappears. This finding supports the view that the Enron scandal annihilates the KLD's effect on Socially Responsible Investors. Therefore, our findings may question results of recent studies that use KLD ratings as a proxy for Corporate Social Responsibility behavior.

Keywords: KLD social rating agency, investors' perception, investment decision, financial performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
5068 Effects of Cognitive Reframe on Depression among Secondary School Adolescents: The Moderating Role of Self-Esteem

Authors: Olayinka M. Ayannuga


This study explored the effect of cognitive reframe in reducing depression among Senior Secondary School Adolescents. It adopted a pre-test, post-test, control quasi-experimental research design with a 2x2 factorial matrix. Participants included 120 depressed adolescents randomly drawn from public Senior Secondary School Two (SSS.II) students in Lagos State, Nigeria. Sixty participants were randomly selected and assigned to the treatment and control groups. Participants in the Cognitive Reframe (CR) group were trained for 8 weeks, while those in the Control group were given a placebo. Two instruments were used for data collection namely: Self – Esteem Scale (SES: Rosenberg 1965: α = 0.85), and The Self Rating Depression Scale (SDS: Zung, 1972; α 0 = 0.87) were administered at pretest level. However, only the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) was re-administered at post-test to measure the effect of the intervention. The results revealed that there was a significant effect of cognitive reframe training programmes on secondary school adolescents’ depression, also there were significant effects of self-esteem on secondary school adolescents’ depression. The study showed that the technique is capable of reducing depression among adolescents. It was recommended, amongst others, that Counselling psychologists, Curriculum planners and Teachers could explore incorporating the contents of cognitive reframe into the secondary school curriculum for students’ capacity building to reduce depression tendencies.

Keywords: adolescents, cognitive reframe, depression, self – esteem

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5067 Analyzing the Shearing-Layer Concept Applied to Urban Green System

Authors: S. Pushkar, O. Verbitsky


Currently, green rating systems are mainly utilized for correctly sizing mechanical and electrical systems, which have short lifetime expectancies. In these systems, passive solar and bio-climatic architecture, which have long lifetime expectancies, are neglected. Urban rating systems consider buildings and services in addition to neighborhoods and public transportation as integral parts of the built environment. The main goal of this study was to develop a more consistent point allocation system for urban building standards by using six different lifetime shearing layers: Site, Structure, Skin, Services, Space, and Stuff, each reflecting distinct environmental damages. This shearing-layer concept was applied to internationally well-known rating systems: Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) for Neighborhood Development, BRE Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM) for Communities, and Comprehensive Assessment System for Building Environmental Efficiency (CASBEE) for Urban Development. The results showed that LEED for Neighborhood Development and BREEAM for Communities focused on long-lifetime-expectancy building designs, whereas CASBEE for Urban Development gave equal importance to the Building and Service Layers. Moreover, although this rating system was applied using a building-scale assessment, “Urban Area + Buildings” focuses on a short-lifetime-expectancy system design, neglecting to improve the architectural design by considering bio-climatic and passive solar aspects.

Keywords: green rating system, urban community, sustainable design, standardization, shearing-layer concept, passive solar architecture

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5066 Factor Structure of the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Loneliness Scale: Gender, Age, and Marital Status Differences

Authors: Hamzeh Dodeen


This study aims at examining the effects of item wording effects on the factor structure of the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Loneliness Scale: gender, age, and marital status differences. A total of 2374 persons from the UAE participated, representing six different populations (teenagers/elderly, males/females, and married/unmarried). The results of the exploratory factor analysis using principal axis factoring with (oblique) rotation revealed that two factors were extracted from the 20 items of the scale. The nine positively worded items were highly loaded on the first factor, while 10 out of the 11 negatively worded items were highly loaded on the second factor. The two-factor solution was confirmed on the six different populations based on age, gender, and marital status. It has been concluded that the rating of the UCLA scale is affected by a response style related to the item wording.

Keywords: UCLA Loneliness Scale, loneliness, positively worded items, factor structure, negatively worded items

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5065 Use of a Symptom Scale Based on Degree of Functional Impairment for Acute Concussion

Authors: Matthew T. McCarthy, Sarah Janse, Natalie M. Pizzimenti, Anthony K. Savino, Brian Crosser, Sean C. Rose


Concussion is diagnosed clinically using a comprehensive history and exam, supported by ancillary testing. Frequently, symptom checklists are used as part of the evaluation of concussion. Existing symptom scales are based on a subjective Likert scale, without relation of symptoms to clinical or functional impairment. This is a retrospective review of 133 patients under age 30 seen in an outpatient neurology practice within 30 days of a probable or definite concussion. Each patient completed 2 symptom checklists at the initial visit – the SCAT-3 symptom evaluation (22 symptoms, 0-6 scale) and a scale based on the degree of clinical impairment for each symptom (22 symptoms, 0-3 scale related to functional impact of the symptom). Final clearance date was determined by the treating physician. 60.9% of patients were male with mean age 15.7 years (SD 2.3). Mean time from concussion to first visit was 6.9 days (SD 6.2), and 101 patients had definite concussions (75.9%), while 32 were diagnosed as probable (24.1%). 94 patients had a known clearance date (70.7%) with mean clearance time of 20.6 days (SD 18.6) and median clearance time of 19 days (95% CI 16-21). Mean total symptom score was 27.2 (SD 22.9) on the SCAT-3 and 14.7 (SD 11.9) for the functional impairment scale. Pearson’s correlation between the two scales was 0.98 (p < 0.001). After adjusting for patient and injury characteristics, an equivalent increase in score on each scale was associated with longer time to clearance (SCAT-3 hazard ratio 0.885, 95%CI 0.835-0.938, p < 0.001; functional impairment scale hazard ratio 0.851, 95%CI 0.802-0.902, p < 0.001). A concussion symptom scale based on degree of functional impairment correlates strongly with the SCAT-3 scale and demonstrates a similar association with time to clearance. By assessing the degree of impact on clinical functioning, this symptom scale reflects a more intuitive approach to rating symptoms and can be used in the management of concussion.

Keywords: checklist, concussion, neurology, scale, sports, symptoms

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5064 Anxiety and Depression in Chronic Headache Patients: Major Concern for Community Mental Health

Authors: Neeti Sharma, Harshika Pareek, Prerna Puri, Manika Mohan


The present study is aimed at studying the significant relationship between anxiety and depression in chronic headache patients. Chronic Headache patients coming to the Neurology Unit-1 Outpatient Department of the Sawai Mansingh Hospital (SMS) Jaipur, Rajasthan, were included in this study. The sample consisted of 100 patients (N=100). Initially patients were examined by a physician and then they were assessed for Anxiety and Depression using the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. The relevant information was recorded on a Performa designed for this purpose comprising of socio-demographic variables like age, gender and triggering factors. The correlation-coefficient indicated a significant positive relationship between the anxiety and depression in chronic headache patients. These findings implicate high prevalence of anxiety and depression in the general population, and also indicate an association between headache and psychological disorders. Many evidences support the anxiety-headache-depression syndrome as a distinct disorder, and the association of co-morbid psychiatric illness with headache intractability. This study highlights the importance of prospective research for studying the developmental course and consequences of headache syndromes. Also, various psychotherapies should be applied to the headache patients so as to treat them, at the onset level of anxiety and depression, with the help of medication.

Keywords: anxiety, chronic headaches, depression, HAM-A, HAM

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5063 Preoperative Anxiety Evaluation: Comparing the Visual Facial Anxiety Scale/Yumul Faces Anxiety Scale, Numerical Verbal Rating Scale, Categorization Scale, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory

Authors: Roya Yumul, Chse, Ofelia Loani Elvir Lazo, David Chernobylsky, Omar Durra


Background: Preoperative anxiety has been shown to be caused by the fear associated with surgical and anesthetic complications. However, the current gold standard for assessing patient anxiety, the STAI, is problematic to use in the preoperative setting, given the duration and concentration required to complete the 40-item extensive questionnaire. Our primary aim in the study is to investigate the correlation of the Visual Facial Anxiety Scale (VFAS) and Numerical Verbal Rating Scale (NVRS) to State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) to determine the optimal anxiety scale to use in the perioperative setting. Methods: A clinical study of patients undergoing various surgeries was conducted utilizing each of the preoperative anxiety scales. Inclusion criteria included patients undergoing elective surgeries, while exclusion criteria included patients with anesthesia contraindications, inability to comprehend instructions, impaired judgment, substance abuse history, and those pregnant or lactating. 293 patients were analyzed in terms of demographics, anxiety scale survey results, and anesthesia data via Spearman Coefficients, Chi-Squared Analysis, and Fischer’s exact test utilized for comparative analysis. Results: Statistical analysis showed that VFAS had a higher correlation to STAI than NVRS (rs=0.66, p<0.0001 vs rs=0.64, p<0.0001). The combined VFAS-Categorization Scores showed the highest correlation with the gold standard (rs=0.72, p<0.0001). Subgroup analysis showed similar results. STAI evaluation time (247.7 ± 54.81 sec) far exceeds VFAS (7.29 ± 1.61 sec), NVRS (7.23 ± 1.60 sec), and Categorization scales (7.29 ± 1.99 sec). Patients preferred VFAS (54.4%), Categorization (11.6%), and NVRS (8.8%). Anesthesiologists preferred VFAS (63.9%), NVRS (22.1%) and Categorization Scales (14.0%). Of note, the top five causes of preoperative anxiety where determine to be waiting (56.5%), pain (42.5%), family concerns (40.5%), no information about surgery (40.1%), or anesthesia (31.6%). Conclusions: Combined VFAS-Categorization Score (VCS) demonstrates the highest correlation to the gold standard, STAI. Both VFAS and Categorization tests also take significantly less time than STAI, which is critical in the preoperative setting. Among both patients and anesthesiologists, VFAS was the most preferred scale. This forms the basis of the Yumul FACES Anxiety Scale, designed for quick quantization and assessment in the preoperative setting while maintaining a high correlation to the golden standard. Additional studies using the formulated Yumul FACES Anxiety Scale are merited.

Keywords: preoperative anxiety, visual facial anxiety scale, numerical verbal anxiety scale, state-trait anxiety inventory

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
5062 NABERS Indoor Environment - a Rating Tool to Benchmark the IEQ of Australian Office Commercial Buildings

Authors: Kazi Hossain


The National Australian Built Environment Rating System (NABERS) is the key industry standard for measuring and benchmarking environmental performance of existing buildings in Australia. Developed and run by the New South Wales government, NABERS measures the operational efficiency of different types of buildings by using a set of tools that provide an easy to understand graphical rating outcome ranged from 0 to 6 stars. This set of tools also include a tool called NABERS IE which enables tenants or building managers to benchmark their buildings indoor environment quality against the national market. Launched in 2009, the number NABERS IE ratings have steadily increased from 10 certified ratings in 2011 to 43 in 2013. However there is a massive uptake of over 50 ratings alone in 2014 making the number of ratings to reach over 100. This paper outlines the methodology used to create this tool, a statistical overview of the tool, and the driving factor that motivates the building owners and managers to use this tool every year to rate their buildings.

Keywords: Acoustic comfort, Indoor air quality, Indoor Environment, NABERS, National Australian Built Environment Rating System, Performance rating, Rating System, Thermal comfort, Ventilation effectiveness, Visual comfort.

Procedia PDF Downloads 479
5061 The Effect of Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) Disclosure on Firms’ Credit Rating and Capital Structure

Authors: Heba Abdelmotaal


This paper explores the impact of the extent of a company's environmental, social, and governance (ESG) disclosure on credit rating and capital structure. The analysis is based on a sample of 202 firms from the 350 FTSE firms over the period of 2008-2013. ESG disclosure score is measured using Proprietary Bloomberg score based on the extent of a company's Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) disclosure. The credit rating is measured by The QuiScore, which is a measure of the likelihood that a company will become bankrupt in the twelve months following the date of calculation. The Capital Structure is measured by long term debt ratio. Two hypotheses are test using panel data regression. The results suggested that the higher degree of ESG disclosure leads to better credit rating. There is significant negative relationship between ESG disclosure and the long term debit percentage. The paper includes implications for the transparency which is resulting of the ESG disclosure could support the Monitoring Function. The monitoring role of disclosure is the increasing in the transparency of the credit rating agencies, also it could affect on managers’ actions. This study provides empirical evidence on the material of ESG disclosure on credit ratings changes and the firms’ capital decision making.

Keywords: capital structure, credit rating agencies, ESG disclosure, panel data regression

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
5060 Developing Fire Risk Factors for Existing Small-Scale Hospitals

Authors: C. L. Wu, W. W. Tseng


From the National Health Insurance (NHI) system was introduced in Taiwan in 2000, there have been some problems in transformed small-scale hospitals, such as mobility of patients, shortage of nursing staff, medical pipelines breaking fire compartments and insufficient fire protection systems. Due to shrinking of the funding scale and the aging society, fire safety in small-scale hospitals has recently given cause for concern. The aim of this study is to determine fire risk index for small-scale hospital through a systematic approach The selection of fire safety mitigation methods can be regarded as a multi-attribute decision making process which must be guaranteed by expert groups. First of all, identify and select safety related factors and identify evaluation criteria through literature reviews and experts group. Secondly, application of the Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process method is used to ascertain a weighted value which enables rating of the importance each of the selected factors. Overall, Sprinkler type and Compartmentation are the most crucial indices in mitigating fire, that is to say, structural approach play an important role to decrease losses in fire events.

Keywords: Fuzzy Delphi Method, fuzzy analytic hierarchy, process risk assessment, fire events

Procedia PDF Downloads 370
5059 Comparison of the Yumul Faces Anxiety Scale to the Categorization Scale, the Numerical Verbal Rating Scale (NVRS), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) for Preoperative Anxiety Evaluation

Authors: Ofelia Loani Elvir Lazo, Roya Yumul, David Chernobylsky, Omar Durra


Background:It is crucial to detect the patient’s existing anxiety to assist patients in perioperative setting which isto be cause by fear associated with surgical and anesthetic complications. However, the current gold standard for assessing patient anxiety, the STAI, is problematic to use in the preoperative setting given the duration and concentration required to complete the 40-item questionnaire. Our primary aim in the study is to investigate the correlation of the Yumul Visual Facial Anxiety Scale (VFAS) and Numerical Verbal Rating Scale (NVRS) to State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) to determine the optimal anxiety scale to use in the perioperative setting. Methods: A clinical study of patients undergoing various surgeries was conducted utilizing each of the preoperative anxiety scales. Inclusion criteria included patients undergoing elective surgeries, while exclusion criteria included patients with anesthesia contraindications, inability to comprehend instructions, impaired judgement, substance abuse history, and those pregnant or lactating. 293 patients were analyzed in terms of demographics, anxiety scale survey results, and anesthesia data via Spearman Coefficients, Chi-Squared Analysis, and Fischer’s exact test utilized for comparison analysis. Results: Statistical analysis showed that VFAS had a higher correlation to STAI than NVRS (rs=0.66, p<0.0001 vs rs=0.64, p<0.0001). The combined VFAS-Categorization Scores showed the highest correlation with the gold standard (rs=0.72, p<0.0001). Subgroup analysis showed similar results. STAI evaluation time (247.7 ± 54.81 sec) far exceed VFAS (7.29 ± 1.61 sec), NVRS (7.23 ± 1.60 sec), and Categorization scales (7.29 ± 1.99 sec). Patients preferred VFAS (54.4%), Categorization (11.6%), and NVRS (8.8%). Anesthesiologists preferred VFAS (63.9%), NVRS (22.1%) and Categorization Scales (14.0%). Of note, the top five causes of preoperative anxiety where determine to be waiting (56.5%), pain (42.5%), family concerns (40.5%), no information about surgery (40.1%) or anesthesia (31.6%). Conclusion:Both VFAS and Categorization tests also take significantly less time than STAI, which is critical in the preoperative setting. Combined VFAS-Categorization Score (VCS) demonstrates the highest correlation to the gold standard, STAI. Among both patients and anesthesiologists, VFAS was the most preferred scale. This forms the basis of the Yumul Faces Anxiety Scale, designed for quick quantization and assessment in the preoperative setting while maintaining a high correlation to the golden standard. Additional studies using the formulated Yumul Faces Anxiety Scale are merited.

Keywords: numerical verbal anxiety scale, preoperative anxiety, state-trait anxiety inventory, visual facial anxiety scale

Procedia PDF Downloads 23
5058 Calculating Ventricle’s Area Based on Clinical Dementia Rating Values on Coronal MRI Image

Authors: Retno Supriyanti, Ays Rahmadian Subhi, Yogi Ramadhani, Haris B. Widodo


Alzheimer is one type of disease in the elderly that may occur in the world. The severity of the Alzheimer can be measured using a scale called Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) based on a doctor's diagnosis of the patient's condition. Currently, diagnosis of Alzheimer often uses MRI machine, to know the condition of part of the brain called Hippocampus and Ventricle. MRI image itself consists of 3 slices, namely Coronal, Sagittal and Axial. In this paper, we discussed the measurement of the area of the ventricle especially in the Coronal slice based on the severity level referring to the CDR value. We use Active Contour method to segment the ventricle’s region, therefore that ventricle’s area can be calculated automatically. The results show that this method can be used for further development in the automatic diagnosis of Alzheimer.

Keywords: Alzheimer, CDR, coronal, ventricle, active contour

Procedia PDF Downloads 185