Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4084

Search results for: food choice

4084 The Effect of Fast Food Globalisation on Students’ Food Choice

Authors: Ijeoma Chinyere Ukonu

Abstract:

This research seeks to investigate how the globalisation of fast food has affected students’ food choice. A mixed method approach was used in this research; basically involving quantitative and qualitative methods. The quantitative method uses a self-completion questionnaire to randomly sample one hundred and four students; while the qualitative method uses a semi structured interview technique to survey four students on their knowledge and choice to consume fast food. A cross tabulation of variables and the Kruskal Wallis nonparametric test were used to analyse the quantitative data; while the qualitative data was analysed through deduction of themes, and trends from the interview transcribe. The findings revealed that globalisation has amplified the evolution of fast food, popularising it among students. Its global presence has affected students’ food choice and preference. Price, convenience, taste, and peer influence are some of the major factors affecting students’ choice of fast food. Though, students are familiar with the health effect of fast food and the significance of using food information labels for healthy choice making, their preference of fast food is more than homemade food.

Keywords: fast food, food choice, globalisation, students

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4083 Change in Food Choice Behavior: Trend and Challenges

Authors: Gargi S. Kumar, Mrinmoyi Kulkarni

Abstract:

Food choice behavior is complex and determined by biological, psychological, socio-cultural, and economic factors. The past two decades, have seen dramatic changes in food consumption patterns among urban Indian consumers. The objective of the current study was to evaluate perceptions about changes with respect to food choice behavior. Ten participants [urban men and women] ranging in age from 40 to 65 were selected and in-depth interviews were conducted with a set of open ended questions. The recorded interviews were transcribed and thematically analyzed using inductive, open and axial coding. The results identified themes that act as drivers and consequences of change in food choice behavior. Drivers such as globalization [sub themes of urbanization, education, income, and work environment], media and advertising, changing gender roles, women in the workforce, and change in family structure have influenced food choice, both at an individual and national level. The consequences of changes in food choice were health implications, processed food consumption, food decisions driven by children and eating out among others. The study reveals that, over time, food choices change and evolve. However it is interesting to note how market forces and culture interact to influence individual behavior and the overall food environment which subsequently affects food choice and the health of the people.

Keywords: change, consequences, drivers, food choice, globalization

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
4082 Consumer Choice Determinants in Context of Functional Food

Authors: E. Grochowska-Niedworok, K. Brukało, M. Kardas

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to analyze and evaluate the consumption of functional food by consumers by: age, sex, formal education level, place of residence and diagnosed diseases. The study employed an ad hoc questionnaire in a group of 300 inhabitants of Upper Silesia voivodship. Knowledge of functional food among the group covered in the study was far from satisfactory. The choice of functional food was of intuitive character. In addition, the group covered was more likely to choose pharmacotherapy instead of diet-related prevention then, which can be associated with presumption of too distant effects and a long period of treatment.

Keywords: consumer choice, functional food, healthy lifestyle, consumer knowledge

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4081 The Impact of the “Cold Ambient Color = Healthy” Intuition on Consumer Food Choice

Authors: Yining Yu, Bingjie Li, Miaolei Jia, Lei Wang

Abstract:

Ambient color temperature is one of the most ubiquitous factors in retailing. However, there is limited research regarding the effect of cold versus warm ambient color on consumers’ food consumption. This research investigates an unexplored lay belief named the “cold ambient color = healthy” intuition and its impact on food choice. We demonstrate that consumers have built the “cold ambient color = healthy” intuition, such that they infer that a restaurant with a cold-colored ambiance is more likely to sell healthy food than a warm-colored restaurant. This deep-seated intuition also guides consumers’ food choices. We find that using a cold (vs. warm) ambient color increases the choice of healthy food, which offers insights into healthy diet promotion for retailers and policymakers. Theoretically, our work contributes to the literature on color psychology, sensory marketing, and food consumption.

Keywords: ambient color temperature, cold ambient color, food choice, consumer wellbeing

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4080 Factors Influencing the Choice of Food Intake of Students of the Federal Polytechnic, Bida, Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: Adekunle Ayodeji Folorunso, Aisha S. Habeeb

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to determine the factors influencing the student’s choice of food intake, a case study of the Federal Polytechnic, Bida. A review of the past work was done, and many key points were noted. A sample population of 1000 students was selected randomly (i.e. 200 students from each school) who were in the 2011/2012 academic session. The factor influencing the students' foods intake ranges from economic factors (food cost, income, availability of food), physical factors (easy to cook, shortest time), social factors (cultural, family and meal pattern) attitudes, belief and knowledge about food were discovered. The data collected were tabulated in frequency and percentages. It was revealed that ‘easy method of cooking and preparation’ influenced students’ choice of food intake more (34%) and the food frequency questionnaire shows that the students eat more of carbohydrates foods compared to other classes of food. The cooking skills of students were low (1%) which may be responsible for the limitations in the food choices. It is, therefore, recommended that students should be equipped with sound cooking skills to increase their range of food intake. Variety is needed in diet/meal because the required nutrients are scattered among many different foods.

Keywords: factors, food intake, influencing, choice, students

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
4079 The Impact of Ambient Temperature on Consumer Food Choice

Authors: Yining Yu, Miaolei Jia, Bingjie Li

Abstract:

While researchers have begun to investigate how ambient elements affect consumers’ choices between healthy and unhealthy food, the role of ambient temperature is relatively unknown. In this study, we find that ambient coldness increases consumers’ preference for unhealthy food. This effect is driven by the increased need for energy automatically activated in a cold ambiance. Consequently, consumers are more inclined to choose calorie-rich unhealthy food. This effect is diminished when the unhealthy food is cold because cold dish cannot provide the energy consumers need in the cold ambiance. We conclude with a discussion of our theoretical contributions to the literature of temperature effects and food consumption. We also offer practical takeaways for restaurant managers.

Keywords: ambient temperature, cold ambiance, food choice, need for energy

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4078 Chemical vs Visual Perception in Food Choice Ability of Octopus vulgaris (Cuvier, 1797)

Authors: Al Sayed Al Soudy, Valeria Maselli, Gianluca Polese, Anna Di Cosmo

Abstract:

Cephalopods are considered as a model organism with a rich behavioral repertoire. Sophisticated behaviors were widely studied and described in different species such as Octopus vulgaris, who has evolved the largest and more complex nervous system among invertebrates. In O. vulgaris, cognitive abilities in problem-solving tasks and learning abilities are associated with long-term memory and spatial memory, mediated by highly developed sensory organs. They are equipped with sophisticated eyes, able to discriminate colors even with a single photoreceptor type, vestibular system, ‘lateral line analogue’, primitive ‘hearing’ system and olfactory organs. They can recognize chemical cues either through direct contact with odors sources using suckers or by distance through the olfactory organs. Cephalopods are able to detect widespread waterborne molecules by the olfactory organs. However, many volatile odorant molecules are insoluble or have a very low solubility in water, and must be perceived by direct contact. O. vulgaris, equipped with many chemosensory neurons located in their suckers, exhibits a peculiar behavior that can be provocatively described as 'smell by touch'. The aim of this study is to establish the priority given to chemical vs. visual perception in food choice. Materials and methods: Three different types of food (anchovies, clams, and mussels) were used, and all sessions were recorded with a digital camera. During the acclimatization period, Octopuses were exposed to the three types of food to test their natural food preferences. Later, to verify if food preference is maintained, food was provided in transparent screw-jars with pierced lids to allow both visual and chemical recognition of the food inside. Subsequently, we tested alternatively octopuses with food in sealed transparent screw-jars and food in blind screw-jars with pierced lids. As a control, we used blind sealed jars with the same lid color to verify a random choice among food types. Results and discussion: During the acclimatization period, O. vulgaris shows a higher preference for anchovies (60%) followed by clams (30%), then mussels (10%). After acclimatization, using the transparent and pierced screw jars octopus’s food choices resulted in 50-50 between anchovies and clams, avoiding mussels. Later, guided by just visual sense, with transparent but not pierced jars, their food preferences resulted in 100% anchovies. With pierced but not transparent jars their food preference resulted in 100% anchovies as first food choice, the clams as a second food choice result (33.3%). With no possibility to select food, neither by vision nor by chemoreception, the results were 20% anchovies, 20% clams, and 60% mussels. We conclude that O. vulgaris uses both chemical and visual senses in an integrative way in food choice, but if we exclude one of them, it appears clear that its food preference relies on chemical sense more than on visual perception.

Keywords: food choice, Octopus vulgaris, olfaction, sensory organs, visual sense

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4077 Exploring the Food Environments and Their Influence on Food Choices of Working Adults

Authors: Deepa Shokeen, Bani Tamber Aeri

Abstract:

Food environments are believed to play a significant role in the obesity epidemic and robust research methods are required to establish which factors or aspects of the food environment are relevant to food choice and to adiposity. The relationship between the food environment and obesity is complex. While there is little research linking food access with obesity as an outcome measure in any age group, with the help of this article we will try to understand the relationship between what we eat and the environmental context in which these food choices are made. Methods: A literature search of studies published between January 2000 and December 2013 was undertaken on computerized medical, social science, health, nutrition and education databases including Google, PubMed etc. Reports of organisations such as World Health Organisation (WHO), Centre for Chronic Disease Control (CCDC) were studied to project the data. Results: Studies show that food environments play a significant role in the obesity epidemic and robust research methods are required to establish which factors or aspects of the food environment are relevant to food choice and to adiposity. Evidence indicates that the food environment may help explain the obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors among young adults. Conclusion: Cardiovascular disease is the ever growing chronic disease, the incidence of which will increase markedly in the coming decades. Therefore, it is the need of the hour to assess the prevalence of various risk factors that contribute to the incidence of cardiovascular diseases especially in the work environment. Research is required to establish how different environments affect different individuals as individuals interact with the environment on a number of levels. We need to ascertain the impact of selected food and nutrition environments (Information, organization, community, consumer) on food choice and dietary intake of the working adults as it is important to learn how these food environments influence the eating perceptions and health behaviour of the adults.

Keywords: food environment, prevalence, cardiovascular disease, India, worksite, risk factors

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4076 Linguistic Codes: Food as a Class Indicator

Authors: Elena Valeryevna Pozhidaeva

Abstract:

This linguistic case study is based on an interaction between the social position and foodways. In every culture there is a social hierarchical system in which there can be means to express and to identify the social status of a person. Food serves as a class indicator. The British being a verbal nation use the words as a preferred medium for signalling and recognising the social status. The linguistic analysis reflects a symbolic hierarchy determined by social groups in the UK. The linguistic class indicators of a British hierarchical system are detectable directly – in speech acts. They are articulated in every aspect of a national identity’s life from preferences of the food and the choice to call it to the names of the meals. The linguistic class indicators can as well be detected indirectly – through symbolic meaning or via the choice of the mealtime, its class (e.g the classes of tea or marmalade), the place to buy food (the class of the supermarket) and consume it (the places for eating out and the frequency of such practices). Under analysis of this study are not only food items and their names but also such categories as cutlery as a class indicator and the act of eating together as a practice of social significance and a class indicator. Current social changes and economic developments are considered and their influence on the class indicators appearance and transformation.

Keywords: linguistic, class, social indicator, English, food class

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4075 Food Preference of Monomorium Destructor

Authors: Ussawit Srisakrapikoop, Art-Ong Pradatsundarasar, Duangkhae Sitthicharoenchai

Abstract:

Monomorium destructor or Singapore ant is one of the common household pests. It causes nuisance and damage to household. Due to the fact that there are many queens in one colony (polygyny), so this ant can quickly increase its population in a short time in the urban environment. This study has been conducted at Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University in the field condition. Ant food preference was conducted for 3 replicates per month by using six food choices including 20% sucrose solution, 20% sucrose agar, pork liver, smashed pork liver, pork fat and lard. The number of ants of each bait choice was counted and the orders of ant accessing baits were also recorded. The results showed that the 20% sucrose agar was the most attractive significantly following by pork liver and pork fat. The ants also most accessed to the pork liver bait choice in the first place. It can be suggested that the ant control by baiting should consist of mixture of carbohydrate, protein and lipid in solid form with suitable ratios.

Keywords: baits, food preference, monomorium destructor, Singapore ant

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4074 Impact of Flavor on Food Product Quality, A Case Study of Vanillin Stability during Biscuit Preparation

Authors: N. Yang, R. Linforth, I. Fisk

Abstract:

The influence of food processing and choice of flavour solvent was investigated using biscuits prepared with vanillin flavour as an example. Powder vanillin either was added directly into the dough or dissolved into flavour solvent then mixed into the dough. The impact of two commonly used flavour solvents on food quality was compared: propylene glycol (PG) or triacetin (TA). The analytical approach for vanillin detection was developed by chromatography (HPLC-PDA), and the standard extraction method for vanillin was also established. The results indicated the impact of solvent choice on vanillin level during biscuit preparation. After baking, TA as a more heat resistant solvent retained more vanillin than PG, so TA is a better solvent for products that undergo a heating process. The results also illustrated the impact of mixing and baking on vanillin stability in the matrices. The average loss of vanillin was 33% during mixing and 13% during baking, which indicated that the binding of vanillin to fat or flour before baking might cause larger loss than evaporation loss during baking.

Keywords: biscuit, flavour stability, food quality, vanillin

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4073 Different Contexts Activate Different Frames: Deepening and Broadening Goal-Framing Theory for Sustainable Food Behaviour

Authors: Marleen Onwezen

Abstract:

It is often assumed that specific consumer groups do or do not have a sustainable lifestyle or that a specific context does or does not trigger sustainable choices. Based on goal-framing theory, this article aims to understand variation in sustainable choices across contexts. We add to the literature by showing the added value of including a moral goal frame (Study 1; N = 1,100) beyond the hedonic, gain, and normative goal frames. Moreover, we add to the literature by revealing how these goal frames are recalled in real-life consumption contexts (Study 2; N = 1,100) and how they can be activated (Study 3; N = 1,651). The results reveal that different goal frames result in different preferences and consumption choices, and that the normative frames showed the most consistent association with sustainable intentions. A contrast exists between frames currently activated in food choice contexts, mainly the gain and hedonic frames, and those associated with sustainable behaviours, the moral and social frames. This indicates the relevance of further understanding and adapting the environment to activate moral and social frames to further enforce sustainable food transitions.

Keywords: goal frames, sustainable behaviour, food choice, moral

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4072 International Tourists’ Travel Motivation by Push-Pull Factors and Decision Making for Selecting Thailand as Destination Choice

Authors: Siripen Yiamjanya, Kevin Wongleedee

Abstract:

This research paper aims to identify travel motivation by push and pull factors that affected decision making of international tourists in selecting Thailand as their destination choice. A total of 200 international tourists who traveled to Thailand during January and February, 2014 were used as the sample in this study. A questionnaire was employed as a tool in collecting the data, conducted in Bangkok. The list consisted of 30 attributes representing both psychological factors as “push- based factors” and destination factors as “pull-based factors”. Mean and standard deviation were used in order to find the top ten travel motives that were important determinants in the respondents’ decision making process to select Thailand as their destination choice. The finding revealed the top ten travel motivations influencing international tourists to select Thailand as their destination choice included [i] getting experience in foreign land; [ii] Thai food; [iii] learning new culture; [iv] relaxing in foreign land; [v] wanting to learn new things; [vi] being interested in Thai culture, and traditional markets; [vii] escaping from same daily life; [viii] enjoying activities; [ix] adventure; and [x] good weather. Classification of push- based and pull- based motives suggested that getting experience in foreign land was the most important push motive for international tourists to travel, while Thai food portrayed its highest significance as pull motive. Discussion and suggestions were also made for tourism industry of Thailand.

Keywords: decision making, destination choice, international tourist, pull factor, push factor, Thailand, travel motivation

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4071 Impact on Cost of Equity of Accounting and Disclosures

Authors: Abhishek Ranga

Abstract:

The study examined the effect of accounting choice and level of disclosure on the firm’s implied cost of equity in Indian environment. For the study accounting choice was classified as aggressive or conservative depending upon the firm’s choice of accounting methods, accounting policies and accounting estimates. Level of disclosure is the quantum of financial and non-financial information disclosed in firm’s annual report, essentially in note to accounts section, schedules forming part of financial statements and Management Discussion and Analysis report. Regression models were developed with cost of equity as a dependent variable and accounting choice, level of disclosure as an independent variable along with selected control variables. Cost of equity was measured using Edward-Bell-Ohlson (EBO) valuation model, to measure accounting choice Modified-Jones-Model (MJM) was used and level of disclosure was measured using a disclosure index essentially drawn from Botosan study. Results indicated a negative association between the implied cost of equity and conservative accounting choice and also between level of disclosure and cost of equity.

Keywords: aggressive accounting choice, conservative accounting choice, disclosure, implied cost of equity

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4070 Modelling Mode Choice Behaviour Using Cloud Theory

Authors: Leah Wright, Trevor Townsend

Abstract:

Mode choice models are crucial instruments in the analysis of travel behaviour. These models show the relationship between an individual’s choice of transportation mode for a given O-D pair and the individual’s socioeconomic characteristics such as household size and income level, age and/or gender, and the features of the transportation system. The most popular functional forms of these models are based on Utility-Based Choice Theory, which addresses the uncertainty in the decision-making process with the use of an error term. However, with the development of artificial intelligence, many researchers have started to take a different approach to travel demand modelling. In recent times, researchers have looked at using neural networks, fuzzy logic and rough set theory to develop improved mode choice formulas. The concept of cloud theory has recently been introduced to model decision-making under uncertainty. Unlike the previously mentioned theories, cloud theory recognises a relationship between randomness and fuzziness, two of the most common types of uncertainty. This research aims to investigate the use of cloud theory in mode choice models. This paper highlights the conceptual framework of the mode choice model using cloud theory. Merging decision-making under uncertainty and mode choice models is state of the art. The cloud theory model is expected to address the issues and concerns with the nested logit and improve the design of mode choice models and their use in travel demand.

Keywords: Cloud theory, decision-making, mode choice models, travel behaviour, uncertainty

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4069 The Value of Store Choice Criteria on Perceived Patronage Intentions

Authors: Susana Marques

Abstract:

Research on how store environment cues influence consumers’ store choice decision criteria, such as store operations, product quality, monetary price, store image and sales promotion, is sparse. Especially absent research on the simultaneous impact of multiple store environment cues. The authors propose a comprehensive store choice model that includes: three types of store environment cues as exogenous constructs; various store choice criteria as possible mediating constructs, and store patronage intentions as an endogenous construct. On the basis of testing with a sample of 561 customers of hypermarkets, the model is partially supported. This study used structural equation modelling to test the proposed model.

Keywords: store choice, store patronage, structural equation modelling, retailing

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4068 Understanding Retail Benefits Trade-offs of Dynamic Expiration Dates (DED) Associated with Food Waste

Authors: Junzhang Wu, Yifeng Zou, Alessandro Manzardo, Antonio Scipioni

Abstract:

Dynamic expiration dates (DEDs) play an essential role in reducing food waste in the context of the sustainable cold chain and food system. However, it is unknown for the trades-off in retail benefits when setting an expiration date on fresh food products. This study aims to develop a multi-dimensional decision-making model that integrates DEDs with food waste based on wireless sensor network technology. The model considers the initial quality of fresh food and the change rate of food quality with the storage temperature as cross-independent variables to identify the potential impacts of food waste in retail by applying s DEDs system. The results show that retail benefits from the DEDs system depend on each scenario despite its advanced technology. In the DEDs, the storage temperature of the retail shelf leads to the food waste rate, followed by the change rate of food quality and the initial quality of food products. We found that the DEDs system could reduce food waste when food products are stored at lower temperature areas. Besides, the potential of food savings in an extended replenishment cycle is significantly more advantageous than the fixed expiration dates (FEDs). On the other hand, the information-sharing approach of the DEDs system is relatively limited in improving sustainable assessment performance of food waste in retail and even misleads consumers’ choices. The research provides a comprehensive understanding to support the techno-economic choice of the DEDs associated with food waste in retail.

Keywords: dynamic expiry dates (DEDs), food waste, retail benefits, fixed expiration dates (FEDs)

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4067 A Study of Food Safety Perception of Undergraduate Students in Taiwan

Authors: K. Y. Shih, H. M. Lin, S. Y. Lee, T. L. Hong

Abstract:

Recently a number of food safety scandals have been on the news. In view of the fact that in Taiwan the majority of undergraduate college students reside in the dorms and dine out, the problem of restaurant sanitation is of utmost importance in their lives. The purpose of this study is to analyze students' dining habit and their perception of food safety. Four universities in the city of Tainan were randomly selected, and from each selected university a class was then chosen to receive 50 questionnaires. The total of 200 questionnaires yielded 144 usable returns. Students were asked to respond to questions, and each question was graded on a scale from 1 to 5 according to the importance. There were 32 questions ranging over various aspects: cleanliness of surroundings, washroom, food sanitation, serving temperature, kitchen sanitation, and service personnel cleanliness. It is found that the food sanitation received the highest score, while the service personnel ranked the lowest. An incidental finding is that the students tend to dine out in groups and as such their choice of restaurants are mostly dictated by consensus.

Keywords: food safety, restaurant, risk perception, sanitation

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4066 Label Survey in Romania: A Study on How Consumers Use Food Labeling

Authors: Gabriela Iordachescu, Mariana Cretu Stuparu, Mirela Praisler, Camelia Busila, Doina Voinescu, Camelia Vizireanu

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to evaluate the consumers’ degree of confidence in food labeling, how they use and understand the label and respectively food labeling elements. The label is a bridge between producers, suppliers, and consumers. It has to offer enough information in terms of public health and food safety, statement of ingredients, nutritional information, warnings and advisory statements, producing date and shelf-life, instructions for storage and preparation (if required). The survey was conducted on 500 consumers group in Romania, aged 15+, males and females, from urban and rural areas and with different graduation levels. The questionnaire was distributed face to face and online. It had single or multiple choices questions and label images for the efficiency and best understanding of the question. The law 1169/2011 applied to food products from 13 of December 2016 improved and adapted the requirements for labeling in a clear manner. The questions were divided on following topics: interest and general trust in labeling, use and understanding of label elements, understanding of the ingredient list and safety information, nutrition information, advisory statements, serving sizes, best before/use by meanings, intelligent labeling, and demographic data. Three choice selection exercises were also included. In this case, the consumers had to choose between two similar products and evaluate which label element is most important in product choice. The data were analysed using MINITAB 17 and PCA analysis. Most of the respondents trust the food label, taking into account some elements especially when they buy the first time the product. They usually check the sugar content and type of sugar, saturated fat and use the mandatory label elements and nutrition information panel. Also, the consumers pay attention to advisory statements, especially if one of the items is relevant to them or the family. Intelligent labeling is a challenging option. In addition, the paper underlines that the consumer is more careful and selective with the food consumption and the label is the main helper for these.

Keywords: consumers, food safety information, labeling, labeling nutritional information

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4065 Effect Of Selected Food And Nutrition Environments On Prevalence Of Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors With Emphasis On Worksite Environment In Urban Delhi

Authors: Deepa Shokeen, Bani Tamber Aeri

Abstract:

Food choice is a complex process influenced by the interplay of multiple factors, including physical, socio-cultural and economic factors comprising macro or micro level food environments. While a clear understanding of the relationship between what we eat and the environmental context in which these food choices are made is still needed; it has however now been shown that food environments do play a significant role in the obesity epidemic and increasing cardio-metabolic risk factors. Evidence in other countries indicates that the food environment may strongly influence the prevalence of obesity and cardio-metabolic risk factors among young adults. Although in the Indian context, data does indicate the associations between sedentary lifestyle, stress, faulty diets but very little evidence supports the role of food environment in influencing cardio-metabolic health among employed adults. Thus, this research is required to establish how different environments affect different individuals as individuals interact with the environment on a number of levels. Methodology: The objective of the present study is to assess the effect of selected food and nutrition environments with emphasis on worksite environment and to analyse its impact on the food choices and dietary behaviour of the employees (25-45 years of age) of the organizations under study. In the proposed study an attempt will be made to randomly select various worksite environments from Delhi and NCR. The study will be conducted in two phases. In phase I, Information will be obtained on their socio-demographic profile and various factors influencing their food choices including most commonly consumed foods and most frequently visited eating outlets in and around the work place. Data will also be gathered on anthropometry (height, weight, waist circumference), biochemical parameters (lipid profile and fasting glucose), blood pressure and dietary intake. Based on the findings of phase I, a list of the most frequently visited eating outlets in and around the workplace will be prepared in Phase II. These outlets will then be subjected to nutrition environment assessment survey (NEMS). On the basis of the information gathered from phase I and phase II, influence of selected food and nutrition environments on food choice, dietary behaviour and prevalence of cardio-metabolic risk factors among employed adults will be assessed. Expected outcomes: The proposed study will try to ascertain the impact of selected food and nutrition environments on food choice and dietary intake of the working adults as it is important to learn how these food environments influence the eating perceptions and health behavior of the adults. In addition to this, anthropometry blood pressure and biochemical assessment of the subjects will be done to assess the prevalence of cardio-metabolic risk factors. If the findings indicate that the work environment, where most of these young adults spend their productive hours of the day, influence their health, than perhaps steps maybe needed to make these environments more conducive to health.

Keywords: food and nutrition environment, cardio-metabolic risk factors, India, worksite environment

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4064 Modeling Route Selection Using Real-Time Information and GPS Data

Authors: William Albeiro Alvarez, Gloria Patricia Jaramillo, Ivan Reinaldo Sarmiento

Abstract:

Understanding the behavior of individuals and the different human factors that influence the choice when faced with a complex system such as transportation is one of the most complicated aspects of measuring in the components that constitute the modeling of route choice due to that various behaviors and driving mode directly or indirectly affect the choice. During the last two decades, with the development of information and communications technologies, new data collection techniques have emerged such as GPS, geolocation with mobile phones, apps for choosing the route between origin and destination, individual service transport applications among others, where an interest has been generated to improve discrete choice models when considering the incorporation of these developments as well as psychological factors that affect decision making. This paper implements a discrete choice model that proposes and estimates a hybrid model that integrates route choice models and latent variables based on the observation on the route of a sample of public taxi drivers from the city of Medellín, Colombia in relation to its behavior, personality, socioeconomic characteristics, and driving mode. The set of choice options includes the routes generated by the individual service transport applications versus the driver's choice. The hybrid model consists of measurement equations that relate latent variables with measurement indicators and utilities with choice indicators along with structural equations that link the observable characteristics of drivers with latent variables and explanatory variables with utilities.

Keywords: behavior choice model, human factors, hybrid model, real time data

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4063 A Comparative Study of School Choice: China and the United States

Authors: Huizi Zeng

Abstract:

This paper delineates the historical retrospective and current status of school choice in China. Focusing on analyzing the similarities and differences in origin, evolution, public dispute, policy dynamics between China and the United States, the article depicts a panorama and explores possible causes. Both China and the United States continue to learn from historical legacy and invent new programs to perfect school choice policy but the outcomes are so different. On the one hand, the percentage of public schools in China remains high all along, while there is a considerably significant reduction in the United States. On the other hand, there is more governmental intervention in the United States with continuous and constant policy updates and adjustment. Finally, this article adopts public-private partnerships (PPP) to seek to provide insights into differences between the two countries and argue that school choice is not only the production of education marketization and corporation but also driven by political mechanism.

Keywords: China, United States, school choice, comparative analysis, policy, public private partnerships

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4062 Food Package Design To Preserve The Food Temperature

Authors: Sugiono, Wuwus Ardiatna, Himma Firdaus, Nanang Kusnandar, Bayu Utomo, Jimmy Abdel Kadar

Abstract:

This study was aimed to explore the best design of single-used hot food packaging through various package designs. It examined how designed packages keep some local hot food reasonably longer than standard packages. The food packages were realized to consist of the outer and the inner layers of food-grade materials. The packages were evaluated to keep the hot food decreased to the minimum temperature of safe food. This study revealed a significant finding that the transparent plastic box with thin film aluminum foil is the best package.

Keywords: hot food, local food, one used, packaging, aluminum foil

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4061 Modeling User Departure Time Choice for Trips in Urban Streets

Authors: Saeed Sayyad Hagh Shomar

Abstract:

Modeling users’ decisions on departure time choice is the main motivation for this research. In particular, it examines the impact of social-demographic features, household, job characteristics and trip qualities on individuals’ departure time choice. Departure time alternatives are presented as adjacent discrete time periods. The choice between these alternatives is done using a discrete choice model. Since a great deal of early morning trips and traffic congestion at that time of the day comprise work trips, the focus of this study is on the work trip over the entire day. Therefore, this study by using questionnaire of stated preference models users’ departure time choice affected by congestion pricing plan in downtown Tehran. Experimental results demonstrate efficient social-demographic impact on work trips’ departure time. These findings have substantial outcomes for the analysis of transportation planning. Particularly, the analysis shows that ignoring the effects of these variables could result in erroneous information and consequently decisions in the field of transportation planning and air quality would fail and cause financial resources loss.

Keywords: modeling, departure time, travel timing, time of the day, congestion pricing, transportation planning

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4060 E-Consumers’ Attribute Non-Attendance Switching Behavior: Effect of Providing Information on Attributes

Authors: Leonard Maaya, Michel Meulders, Martina Vandebroek

Abstract:

Discrete Choice Experiments (DCE) are used to investigate how product attributes affect decision-makers’ choices. In DCEs, choice situations consisting of several alternatives are presented from which choice-makers select the preferred alternative. Standard multinomial logit models based on random utility theory can be used to estimate the utilities for the attributes. The overarching principle in these models is that respondents understand and use all the attributes when making choices. However, studies suggest that respondents sometimes ignore some attributes (commonly referred to as Attribute Non-Attendance/ANA). The choice modeling literature presents ANA as a static process, i.e., respondents’ ANA behavior does not change throughout the experiment. However, respondents may ignore attributes due to changing factors like availability of information on attributes, learning/fatigue in experiments, etc. We develop a dynamic mixture latent Markov model to model changes in ANA when information on attributes is provided. The model is illustrated on e-consumers’ webshop choices. The results indicate that the dynamic ANA model describes the behavioral changes better than modeling the impact of information using changes in parameters. Further, we find that providing information on attributes leads to an increase in the attendance probabilities for the investigated attributes.

Keywords: choice models, discrete choice experiments, dynamic models, e-commerce, statistical modeling

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4059 Examining the Acceptability of Destination Local Food by Domestic Tourist Visiting Northern Nigeria

Authors: Eldah Ephraim Buba, Jamila Mohammed Waziri

Abstract:

There are challenges faced by tourist in respect of choosing food while in tourism destination. Food is very important in the choice of holiday of tourist. Many tourists choose a destination not only because of physical attraction but they choose destination where they will not encounter challenges in respect to food. The study is aimed at examining the acceptability of northern delicacies by tourists from other parts of Nigeria. Six delicacies were produced and presented to 50 tourists who are randomly picked from the south-east, south-west, south-south and the middle belt of Nigeria. The study found out that Danwake, Masa, and Kwadon zogale were generally accepted by majority of the respondents. Although, the respondents were not comfortable with the appearance of danwake, other aspect of the checklist was accepted. Tuwon shinkafa miyan taushe was accepted in terms of appearance but rejected in terms of taste and texture. ‘Yar Tsame and dindikolo were generally rejected. The study recommended that caterers, attraction owners and hoteliers should include such meals in their menu so that tourist will enjoy the gastronomy of the northern part of Nigeria.

Keywords: acceptability, examination, food, tourism

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4058 Sustainable Food Systems and the Importance of Food Safety in Ensuring Sustainability

Authors: Özlem Turan, Şule Turhan

Abstract:

About 1 billion people in the world are suffering from hunger. Approximately 1.3 billion tons of produced food is wasted each year as well. While the waste of industrialized countries is 670 million tons per year, the waste per year in developing countries is estimated as 630 million tons. When evaluated in this respect, the importance of sustainability and food security can be seen clearly. Food safety is defined as taking the necessary measures and eliminating all risk arising from food. The goal of sustainable food security is, protection of consumer health, development of safe food and beverages trade nationally and internationally and to ensure reliable fair trade schemes. In this study, this study will focus on sustainable food systems and food security, by examining the food wastage and losses from environmental and economic point of views and the precautions that need to be taken will be discussed.

Keywords: food, food safety, food systems, sustainability

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4057 Impact of Ethiopia's Productive Safety Net Program on Household Dietary Diversity and Child Nutrition in Rural Ethiopia

Authors: Tagel Gebrehiwot, Carolina Castilla

Abstract:

Food insecurity and child malnutrition are among the most critical issues in Ethiopia. Accordingly, different reform programs have been carried to improve household food security. The Food Security Program (FSP) (among others) was introduced to combat the persistent food insecurity problem in the country. The FSP combines a safety net component called the Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP) started in 2005. The goal of PSNP is to offer multi-annual transfers, such as food, cash or a combination of both to chronically food insecure households to break the cycle of food aid. Food or cash transfers are the main elements of PSNP. The case for cash transfers builds on the Sen’s analysis of ‘entitlement to food’, where he argues that restoring access to food by improving demand is a more effective and sustainable response to food insecurity than food aid. Cash-based schemes offer a greater choice of use of the transfer and can allow a greater diversity of food choice. It has been proven that dietary diversity is positively associated with the key pillars of food security. Thus, dietary diversity is considered as a measure of household’s capacity to access a variety of food groups. Studies of dietary diversity among Ethiopian rural households are somewhat rare and there is still a dearth of evidence on the impact of PSNP on household dietary diversity. In this paper, we examine the impact of the Ethiopia’s PSNP on household dietary diversity and child nutrition using panel household surveys. We employed different methodologies for identification. We exploit the exogenous increase in kebeles’ PSNP budget to identify the effect of the change in the amount of money households received in transfers between 2012 and 2014 on the change in dietary diversity. We use three different approaches to identify this effect: two-stage least squares, reduced form IV, and generalized propensity score matching using a continuous treatment. The results indicate the increase in PSNP transfers between 2012 and 2014 had no effect on household dietary diversity. Estimates for different household dietary indicators reveal that the effect of the change in the cash transfer received by the household is statistically and economically insignificant. This finding is robust to different identification strategies and the inclusion of control variables that determine eligibility to become a PSNP beneficiary. To identify the effect of PSNP participation on children height-for-age and stunting we use a difference-in-difference approach. We use children between 2 and 5 in 2012 as a baseline because by then they have achieved long-term failure to grow. The treatment group comprises children ages 2 to 5 in 2014 in PSNP participant households. While changes in height-for-age take time, two years of additional transfers among children who were not born or under the age of 2-3 in 2012 have the potential to make a considerable impact on reducing the prevalence of stunting. The results indicate that participation in PSNP had no effect on child nutrition measured as height-for-age or probability of beings stunted, suggesting that PSNP should be designed in a more nutrition-sensitive way.

Keywords: continuous treatment, dietary diversity, impact, nutrition security

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4056 The Effects of Early Maternal Separation on Risky Choice in Rats

Authors: Osvaldo Collazo, Cristiano Valerio Dos Santos

Abstract:

Early maternal separation has been shown to bring about many negative effects on behavior in rats. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of early maternal separation on risky choice in rats. One group of male and female Wistar rats was exposed to an early maternal separation protocol while a control group was left undisturbed. Then both groups were exposed to a series of behavioral tests, including a test of risky choice, where one alternative offered a constant reward while the other offered a variable reward. There was a difference between groups when they chose between a variable and a constant reward delay, but no other difference was significant. These results suggest that early maternal separation may be related to a greater preference for shorter delays, which is characteristic of more impulsive choices.

Keywords: early maternal separation, impulsivity, risky choice, variability

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4055 Modeling User Departure Time Choice for Work Trips in High Traffic Suburban Roads

Authors: Saeed Sayyad Hagh Shomar

Abstract:

Modeling users’ decisions on departure time choice is the main motivation for this research. In particular, it examines the impact of social-demographic features, household, job characteristics and trip qualities on individuals’ departure time choice. Departure time alternatives are presented as adjacent discrete time periods. The choice between these alternatives is done using a discrete choice model. Since a great deal of early morning trips and traffic congestion at that time of the day comprise work trips, the focus of this study is on the work trip over the entire day. Therefore, this study by using the users’ stated preference in questionnaire models users’ departure time choice affected by congestion pricing schemes in high traffic suburban entrance roads of Tehran. The results demonstrate efficient social-demographic impact on work trips’ departure time. These findings have substantial outcomes for the analysis of transportation planning. Particularly, the analysis shows that ignoring the effects of these variables could result in erroneous information and consequently decisions in the field of transportation planning and air quality would fail and cause financial resources loss.

Keywords: congestion pricing, departure time, modeling, travel timing, time of the day, transportation planning

Procedia PDF Downloads 216