Search results for: subject
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2451

Search results for: subject

2451 Correlating Musical Subject and Dialectical Subject to Develop a Critical Approach to Ideology in Musical Analysis and Composition

Authors: James Waide


In music, subject typically denotes the initial idea to which the entire composition refers—a concept congruous with Aristotle's notion of subject as primary substance, in the sense of an irreducible this particular. Gioseffo Zarlino, who established subject (soggetto) as a musical term, insisted the composer as “rediscovering” the subject within their music in order to “[bring] it to perfection” and, furthermore, that if the composer had not rediscovered the subject already, then one would simply take the first part of the composition to be the subject. Meanwhile, Žižek reads the Hegelian subject (as negativity set against positive object) through Lacanian Psychoanalysis (in which the subject is a kind of fictive entity of the clinic: a mere appearance which sits atop the objects of analysis) in the concept of Absolute Recoil. For Žižek, subject exists retroactively in Absolute Recoil from object, meaning subject is a void which only has meaning because of the object it is seen through. Following the work of theorists such as Adorno and Althusser, one can understand the ideological construction of such a subject. It may be argued that in Zarlino, musical subject can be similarly read as retroactively constructed, either by the composer or the listener. Furthermore, in recent work, Samuel Wilson identifies different kinds of subjects in music which can be psychoanalytically examined, including the fictive subject: a purely musical entity raised to the level of psychoanalytic subject. On which basis if, as Adorno insisted, 'authentic' music constitutes 'cognition without concepts', where and what is this subject without concept?.

Keywords: absolute recoil, critical theory, ideology, music analysis, psychoanalysis, retroactivity, subject

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2450 Some Theoretical Approaches on the Style of Lyrical Subject of the Confessional Poetry

Authors: Lemac Tin


This paper deals with the lyrical subject of the confessional poetry which is the main part of her stylistic strucuture. We concluded two types of this subject in the classical confessional poetic discourse; reflexive and authentic subject. We offer the model of their genesis, textual features and appeareance realisations. Genesis is related to the theories of deriving poetry from emotion and magic and their similar position in the primitive lyrics and lyrics of the ancient civilizations. Textual features are related to the emotive and semiotic analysis of each type. Appearance realisations of these two types are I-subject, We-subject, transvocal and objectified subject. We check this approaches on some of the poems from World literature.

Keywords: confessional poetry, confessional lyrical subject, magic, emotion, emotive analysis, semiotic analysis

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2449 The Active Subject and the Victim of Trafficking in Human Beings: Material and Procedural Criminal Law Approaches

Authors: Andrei Nastas, Sergiu Cernomopret


This research addresses trafficking in human beings, in terms of the active subject and the victim of this crime, through the prism of national and international regulations in material and procedural criminal matters. For the correlative approach of both mentioned aspects, the active subject and the victim of trafficking in human beings, the research addresses both its constituent elements and the way to prevent and combat this phenomenon through criminal proceedings. As follows, trafficking in human beings, from a material criminal point of view, involves two subjects of this crime (active subject - offender and passive subject - victim), while their procedural status differs depending on the case (victim or injured party). The result of the research highlights some clarifications, which find a theoretical-practical basis in the legal provisions, the specialized doctrine, and the judicial practice.

Keywords: victim, active subject, abuse, injured party, crime

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2448 An Approach from Fichte as a Response to the Kantian Dualism of Subject and Object: The Unity of the Subject and Object in Both Theoretical and Ethical Possibility

Authors: Mengjie Liu


This essay aims at responding to the Kant arguments on how to fit the self-caused subject into the deterministic object which follows the natural laws. This essay mainly adopts the approach abstracted from Fichte’s “Wissenshaftslehre” (Doctrine of Science) to picture a possible solution to the conciliation of Kantian dualism. The Fichte approach is based on the unity of the theoretical and practical reason, which can be understood as a philosophical abstraction from ordinary experience combining both subject and object. This essay will discuss the general Kantian dualism problem and Fichte’s unity approach in the first part. Then the essay will elaborate on the achievement of this unity of the subject and object through Fichte’s “the I posits itself” process in the second section. The following third section is related to the ethical unity of subject and object based on the Fichte approach. The essay will also discuss the limitation of Fichte’s approach from two perspectives: (1) the theoretical possibility of the existence of the pure I and (2) Schelling’s statement that the Absolute I is a result rather than the originating act. This essay demonstrates a possible approach to unifying the subject and object supported by Fichte’s “Absolute I” and ethical theories and also points out the limitations of Fichte’s theories.

Keywords: Fichte, identity, Kantian dualism, Wissenshaftslehre

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2447 The Necessity of Neurolinguistics in Master’s Studies in the English Language Department

Authors: Dielleza Namani, Laureta Kadrijaj-Qerimi


Neurolinguistics studies the relationship between the brain and language. It is a subject not often found in the syllabus of universities in the Balkans but more spread in Europe and especially the United States of America. The purpose of this study is to see what importance this subject has for studies in the English language department. It contains an analysis of other research papers written regarding neurolinguistics, a questionnaire made for professors and deans at private and public universities in Kosovo, and an interview with a neurolinguistics professor in England. Since this subject is not found in the syllabus of any of the universities in Kosovo, the researchers wanted to find out why this happens but, at the same time, provide reasons why they should consider having it in the future. The results showed that for this subject, there had been researching made, but not enough so far, which gives more information and feedback on why it needs to be in the syllabus, and how linguists can use the knowledge they receive from this subject in their workplace. Also, the professors and deans see this subject as too medical for their students to learn and not necessary for their future jobs. Hopefully, in the near future, there will be more research done on why this is important and how English language students can benefit from it.

Keywords: English language department, neurolinguistics, second language acquisition, teaching methods

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2446 Development of an Image-Based Biomechanical Model for Assessment of Hip Fracture Risk

Authors: Masoud Nasiri Sarvi, Yunhua Luo


Low-trauma hip fracture, usually caused by fall from standing height, has become a main source of morbidity and mortality for the elderly. Factors affecting hip fracture include sex, race, age, body weight, height, body mass distribution, etc., and thus, hip fracture risk in fall differs widely from subject to subject. It is therefore necessary to develop a subject-specific biomechanical model to predict hip fracture risk. The objective of this study is to develop a two-level, image-based, subject-specific biomechanical model consisting of a whole-body dynamics model and a proximal-femur finite element (FE) model for more accurately assessing the risk of hip fracture in lateral falls. Required information for constructing the model is extracted from a whole-body and a hip DXA (Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry) image of the subject. The proposed model considers all parameters subject-specifically, which will provide a fast, accurate, and non-expensive method for predicting hip fracture risk.

Keywords: bone mineral density, hip fracture risk, impact force, sideways falls

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2445 Russian Spatial Impersonal Sentence Models in Translation Perspective

Authors: Marina Fomina


The paper focuses on the category of semantic subject within the framework of a functional approach to linguistics. The semantic subject is related to similar notions such as the grammatical subject and the bearer of predicative feature. It is the multifaceted nature of the category of subject that 1) triggers a number of issues that, syntax-wise, remain to be dealt with (cf. semantic vs. syntactic functions / sentence parts vs. parts of speech issues, etc.); 2) results in a variety of approaches to the category of subject, such as formal grammatical, semantic/syntactic (functional), communicative approaches, etc. Many linguists consider the prototypical approach to the category of subject to be the most instrumental as it reveals the integrity of denotative and linguistic components of the conceptual category. This approach relates to subject as a source of non-passive predicative feature, an element of subject-predicate-object situation that can take on a variety of semantic roles, cf.: 1) an agent (He carefully surveyed the valley stretching before him), 2) an experiencer (I feel very bitter about this), 3) a recipient (I received this book as a gift), 4) a causee (The plane broke into three pieces), 5) a patient (This stove cleans easily), etc. It is believed that the variety of roles stems from the radial (prototypical) structure of the category with some members more central than others. Translation-wise, the most “treacherous” subject types are the peripheral ones. The paper 1) features a peripheral status of spatial impersonal sentence models such as U menia v ukhe zvenit (lit. I-Gen. in ear buzzes) within the category of semantic subject, 2) makes a structural and semantic analysis of the models, 3) focuses on their Russian-English translation patterns, 4) reveals non-prototypical features of subjects in the English equivalents.

Keywords: bearer of predicative feature, grammatical subject, impersonal sentence model, semantic subject

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2444 In Search of Lost Subject: Marx's Historical Materialism, Subject and Existentialism

Authors: Doruk Atahan Erbas


This paper concerns the early writings of Karl Marx, specifically The Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844, The German Ideology and Theses on Feuerbach. The two crucial themes of these early writings are the doctrine called historical materialism and, as a worker, the worker's resistance towards the current condition of society out of the division of labor. After Marx, including his closest friend Friedrich Engels, some of the philosophers, activists, and politicians have considered the historical materialism as a rigorous science which includes the explanation of historical causality manifested in the social, political sphere. However, this consideration, by its description as a science, is completely alienated from the concept of subject (as the suffering worker) nothing other than one of the abovementioned themes. Therefore, from this perspective, Marx's early doctrine seems to be self contradictory. The alternative approach which will be introduced in this essay offers a new basis for a correlation between the concept of subject and historical materiality by means of investigating materiality as phenomenality and ultimately rereading Marx as a creator of an existential subject surrounded by phenomenality. So that, it provides an opportunity to rethink the concept of historical materiality from an existential point of view.

Keywords: existentialism, Karl Marx, materiality, phenomenality, subject

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2443 Educational Plan and Program of the Subject: Maintenance of Electric Power Equipment

Authors: Rade M. Ciric, Sasa Mandic


Students of Higher Education Technical School of Professional Studies, in Novi Sad follow the subject Maintenance of electric power equipment at the Electrotechnical Department. This paper presents educational plan and program of the subject Maintenance of electric power equipment. The course deals with the problems of preventive and investing maintenance of transformer stations (TS), performing and maintenance of grounding of TS and pillars, as well as tracing and detection the location of the cables failure. There is a special elaborated subject concerning the safe work conditions for the electrician during network maintenance, as well as the basics of making and keeping technical documentation of the equipment.

Keywords: educational plan and program, electric power equipment, maintenance, technical documentation, safe work

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2442 The Interleaving Effect of Subject Matter and Perceptual Modality on Students’ Attention and Learning: A Portable EEG Study

Authors: Wen Chen


To investigate the interleaving effect of subject matter (mathematics vs. history) and perceptual modality (visual vs. auditory materials) on student’s attention and learning outcomes, the present study collected self-reported data on subjective cognitive load (SCL) and attention level, EEG data, and learning outcomes from micro-lectures. Eighty-one 7th grade students were randomly assigned to four learning conditions: blocked (by subject matter) micro-lectures with auditory textual information (B-A condition), blocked (by subject matter) micro-lectures with visual textual information (B-V condition), interleaved (by subject matter) micro-lectures with auditory textual information (I-A condition), and interleaved micro-lectures by both perceptual modality and subject matter (I-all condition). The results showed that although interleaved conditions may show advantages in certain indices, the I-all condition showed the best overall outcomes (best performance, low SCL, and high attention). This study suggests that interleaving by both subject matter and perceptual modality should be preferred in scheduling and planning classes.

Keywords: cognitive load, interleaving effect, micro-lectures, sustained attention

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2441 Merits and Demerits of Participation of Fellow Examinee as Subjects in Observed Structured Practical Examination in Physiology

Authors: Mohammad U. A. Khan, Md. D. Hossain


Background: Department of Physiology finds difficulty in managing ‘subjects’ in practical procedure. To avoid this difficulty fellow examinees of other group may be used as subjects. Objective: To find out the merits and demerits of using fellow examinees as subjects in the practical procedure. Method: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, Noakhali Medical College, Bangladesh during May-June’14. Forty-two 1st year undergraduate medical students from a selected public medical college of Bangladesh were enrolled for the study purposively. Consent of students and authority was taken. Eighteen of them were selected as subjects and designated as subject-examinees. Other fellow examinees (non-subject) examined their blood pressure and pulse as part of ‘observed structured practical examination’ (OSPE). The opinion of all examinees regarding the merits and demerits of using fellow examinee as subjects in the practical procedure was recorded. Result: Examinees stated that they could perform their practical procedure without nervousness (24/42, 57.14%), accurately and comfortably (14/42, 33.33%) and subjects were made available without wasting time (2/42, 4.76%). Nineteen students (45.24%) found no disadvantage and 2 (4.76%) felt embracing when the subject was of opposite sex. The subject-examinees narrated that they could learn from the errors done by their fellow examinee (11/18, 61.1%). 75% non-subject examinees expressed their willingness to be subject so that they can learn from their fellows’ error. Conclusion: Using fellow examinees as subjects is beneficial for both the non-subject and subject examinees. Funding sources: Navana, Beximco, Unihealth, Square & Acme Pharma, Bangladesh Ltd.

Keywords: physiology, teaching, practical, OSPE

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2440 Effectiveness of Powerpoint Presentations in Teaching Anatomy: A Student's Perspective

Authors: Vrinda Hari Ankolekar


Introduction: The advancement of various audio-visual aids in the present era has led to progressive changes in education. Use of powerpoint presentations play a key role in anatomy to learn and understand a particular topic. As the subject of anatomy involves more of illustrations and demonstrations, powerpoint presentations become essential in conveying the necessary information. Objectives: To assess the students’ perspective about the use of powerpoint presentations in teaching anatomy.Method: A questionnaire was constructed and 55 students were asked to put forth their preferences for the powerpoint presentations or blackboard that would help them to understand the subject better. Results and conclusion: 30 voted PPT as better and effective tool to explain the subject efficiently. 35 chose PPT as more creative than Blackboard to create interest in the subject. 20 wanted to retain chalk and talk for teaching their subject instead of replacing it with PowerPoint. 36 felt chalk and talk as more useful and appropriate tool for teaching than PowerPoint. Only 25 felt chalk and talk relatively more boring than PowerPoint. 23 experienced more involvement and active participation in the class when chalk and talk is used as the teaching tool. 26 stated that chalk and talk has most of the features needed for teaching.One of the limitations of this study is that the sample size is drawn from one institution only and deals with the experience of one particular group of individuals.

Keywords: chalk and board, powerpoint presentation, presentation skills, teaching technologies

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2439 Research on Construction of Subject Knowledge Base Based on Literature Knowledge Extraction

Authors: Yumeng Ma, Fang Wang, Jinxia Huang


Researchers put forward higher requirements for efficient acquisition and utilization of domain knowledge in the big data era. As literature is an effective way for researchers to quickly and accurately understand the research situation in their field, the knowledge discovery based on literature has become a new research method. As a tool to organize and manage knowledge in a specific domain, the subject knowledge base can be used to mine and present the knowledge behind the literature to meet the users' personalized needs. This study designs the construction route of the subject knowledge base for specific research problems. Information extraction method based on knowledge engineering is adopted. Firstly, the subject knowledge model is built through the abstraction of the research elements. Then under the guidance of the knowledge model, extraction rules of knowledge points are compiled to analyze, extract and correlate entities, relations, and attributes in literature. Finally, a database platform based on this structured knowledge is developed that can provide a variety of services such as knowledge retrieval, knowledge browsing, knowledge q&a, and visualization correlation. Taking the construction practices in the field of activating blood circulation and removing stasis as an example, this study analyzes how to construct subject knowledge base based on literature knowledge extraction. As the system functional test shows, this subject knowledge base can realize the expected service scenarios such as a quick query of knowledge, related discovery of knowledge and literature, knowledge organization. As this study enables subject knowledge base to help researchers locate and acquire deep domain knowledge quickly and accurately, it provides a transformation mode of knowledge resource construction and personalized precision knowledge services in the data-intensive research environment.

Keywords: knowledge model, literature knowledge extraction, precision knowledge services, subject knowledge base

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2438 The Design of the Blended Learning System via E-Media and Online Learning for the Asynchronous Learning: Case Study of Process Management Subject

Authors: Pimploi Tirastittam, Suppara Charoenpoom


Nowadays the asynchronous learning has granted the permission to the anywhere and anything learning via the technology and E-media which give the learner more convenient. This research is about the design of the blended and online learning for the asynchronous learning of the process management subject in order to create the prototype of this subject asynchronous learning which will create the easiness and increase capability in the learning. The pattern of learning is the integration between the in-class learning and online learning via the internet. This research is mainly focused on the online learning and the online learning can be divided into 5 parts which are virtual classroom, online content, collaboration, assessment and reference material. After the system design was finished, it was evaluated and tested by 5 experts in blended learning design and 10 students which the user’s satisfaction level is good. The result is as good as the assumption so the system can be used in the process management subject for a real usage.

Keywords: blended learning, asynchronous learning, design, process management

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2437 Acquisition of Overt Pronoun Constraint in L2 Turkish by Adult Korean Speakers

Authors: Oktay Cinar


The aim of this study is to investigate the acquisition of Overt Pronoun Constraint (OPC) by adult Korean L2 Turkish speakers in order to find out how constraints regulating the syntax of null and overt subjects are acquired. OPC is claimed to be a universal feature of all null subject languages restricting the co-indexation between overt embedded pronoun and quantified or wh-question antecedents. However, there is no such restriction when the embedded subject is null or the antecedent is a referential subject. Considered as a principle of Universal Grammar (UG), OPC knowledge of L2 speakers has been widely tested with different language pairs. In the light of previous studies on OPC, it can be argued that L2 learners display early sensitivity to OPC constraints during their interlanguage grammar development. Concerning this, the co-indexation between overt embedded pronoun o (third person pronoun) and referential matrix subject is claimed to be controversial in Turkish, which poses problems with the universality of OPC. However, the current study argues against this claim by providing evidence from advanced Korean speakers that OPC is universal to all null subject languages and OPC knowledge can be accessed with direct access to UG. In other words, the performances of adult Korean speakers on the syntax of null and overt subjects are tested to support this claim. In order to test this, OPC task is used. 15 advanced speakers and a control group of adult native Turkish participants are instructed to determine the co-reference relationship between the subject of embedded clause, either overt pronominal o or null, and the subject of the matrix clause, either quantified pronoun and wh-question or referential antecedent. They are asked to select the interpretation of the embedded subject, either as the same person as in the matrix subject or another person who is not the same person in the matrix subject. These relations are represented with four conditions, and each condition has four questions (16 questions in total). The results claim that both control group and Korean L2 Turkish speakers display sensitivity to all constraints that OPC has, which suggests that OPC works in Turkish as well.

Keywords: adult Korean speakers, binding theory, generative second language acquisition, overt pronoun constraint

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2436 Application of Single Subject Experimental Designs in Adapted Physical Activity Research: A Descriptive Analysis

Authors: Jiabei Zhang, Ying Qi


The purpose of this study was to develop a descriptive profile of the adapted physical activity research using single subject experimental designs. All research articles using single subject experimental designs published in the journal of Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly from 1984 to 2013 were employed as the data source. Each of the articles was coded in a subcategory of seven categories: (a) the size of sample; (b) the age of participants; (c) the type of disabilities; (d) the type of data analysis; (e) the type of designs, (f) the independent variable, and (g) the dependent variable. Frequencies, percentages, and trend inspection were used to analyze the data and develop a profile. The profile developed characterizes a small portion of research articles used single subject designs, in which most researchers used a small sample size, recruited children as subjects, emphasized learning and behavior impairments, selected visual inspection with descriptive statistics, preferred a multiple baseline design, focused on effects of therapy, inclusion, and strategy, and measured desired behaviors more often, with a decreasing trend over years.

Keywords: adapted physical activity research, single subject experimental designs, physical education, sport science

Procedia PDF Downloads 454
2435 Elvis Improved Method for Solving Simultaneous Equations in Two Variables with Some Applications

Authors: Elvis Adam Alhassan, Kaiyu Tian, Akos Konadu, Ernest Zamanah, Michael Jackson Adjabui, Ibrahim Justice Musah, Esther Agyeiwaa Owusu, Emmanuel K. A. Agyeman


In this paper, how to solve simultaneous equations using the Elvis improved method is shown. The Elvis improved method says; to make one variable in the first equation the subject; make the same variable in the second equation the subject; equate the results and simplify to obtain the value of the unknown variable; put the value of the variable found into one equation from the first or second steps and simplify for the remaining unknown variable. The difference between our Elvis improved method and the substitution method is that: with Elvis improved method, the same variable is made the subject in both equations, and the two resulting equations equated, unlike the substitution method where one variable is made the subject of only one equation and substituted into the other equation. After describing the Elvis improved method, findings from 100 secondary students and the views of 5 secondary tutors to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method are presented. The study's purpose is proved by hypothetical examples.

Keywords: simultaneous equations, substitution method, elimination method, graphical method, Elvis improved method

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2434 Teaching Contemporary Power Distribution and Industrial Networks in Higher Education Vocational Studies

Authors: Rade M. Ciric


The paper shows the development and implementation of the syllabus of the subject 'Distribution and Industrial Networks', attended by the vocational specialist Year 4 students of the Electric Power Engineering study programme at the Higher Education Technical School of Vocational Studies in Novi Sad. The aim of the subject is to equip students with the knowledge necessary for planning, exploitation and management of distributive and industrial electric power networks in an open electricity market environment. The results of the evaluation of educational outcomes on the subject are presented and discussed.

Keywords: engineering education, power distribution network, syllabus implementation, outcome evaluation

Procedia PDF Downloads 384
2433 Residual Life Prediction for a System Subject to Condition Monitoring and Two Failure Modes

Authors: Akram Khaleghei, Ghosheh Balagh, Viliam Makis


In this paper, we investigate the residual life prediction problem for a partially observable system subject to two failure modes, namely a catastrophic failure and a failure due to the system degradation. The system is subject to condition monitoring and the degradation process is described by a hidden Markov model with unknown parameters. The parameter estimation procedure based on an EM algorithm is developed and the formulas for the conditional reliability function and the mean residual life are derived, illustrated by a numerical example.

Keywords: partially observable system, hidden Markov model, competing risks, residual life prediction

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2432 The Amount of Conformity of Persian Subject Headlines with Users' Social Tagging

Authors: Amir Reza Asnafi, Masoumeh Kazemizadeh, Najmeh Salemi


Due to the diversity of information resources in the web0.2 environment, which is increasing in number from time to time, the social tagging system should be used to discuss Internet resources. Studying the relevance of social tags to thematic headings can help enrich resources and make them more accessible to resources. The present research is of applied-theoretical type and research method of content analysis. In this study, using the listing method and content analysis, the level of accurate, approximate, relative, and non-conformity of social labels of books available in the field of information science and bibliography of Kitabrah website with Persian subject headings was determined. The exact matching of subject headings with social tags averaged 22 items, the approximate matching of subject headings with social tags averaged 36 items, the relative matching of thematic headings with social tags averaged 36 social items, and the average matching titles did not match the title. The average is 116. According to the findings, the exact matching of subject headings with social labels is the lowest and the most inconsistent. This study showed that the average non-compliance of subject headings with social labels is even higher than the sum of the three types of exact, relative, and approximate matching. As a result, the relevance of thematic titles to social labels is low. Due to the fact that the subject headings are in the form of static text and users are not allowed to interact and insert new selected words and topics, and on the other hand, in websites based on Web 2 and based on the social classification system, this possibility is available for users. An important point of the present study and the studies that have matched the syntactic and semantic matching of social labels with thematic headings is that the degree of conformity of thematic headings with social labels is low. Therefore, these two methods can complement each other and create a hybrid cataloging that includes subject headings and social tags. The low level of conformity of thematic headings with social tags confirms the results of backgrounds and writings that have compared the social tags of books with the thematic headings of the Library of Congress. It is not enough to match social labels with thematic headings. It can be said that these two methods can be complementary.

Keywords: Web 2/0, social tags, subject headings, hybrid cataloging

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2431 Development of Scratching Monitoring System Based on Mathematical Model of Unconstrained Bed Sensing Method

Authors: Takuya Sumi, Syoko Nukaya, Takashi Kaburagi, Hiroshi Tanaka, Kajiro Watanabe, Yosuke Kurihara


We propose an unconstrained measurement system for scratching motion based on mathematical model of unconstrained bed sensing method which could measure the bed vibrations due to the motion of the person on the bed. In this paper, we construct mathematical model of the unconstrained bed monitoring system, and we apply the unconstrained bed sensing method to the system for detecting scratching motion. The proposed sensors are placed under the three bed feet. When the person is lying on the bed, the output signals from the sensors are proportional to the magnitude of the vibration due to the scratching motion. Hence, we could detect the subject’s scratching motion from the output signals from ceramic sensors. We evaluated two scratching motions using the proposed system in the validity experiment as follows: First experiment is the subject’s scratching the right side cheek with his right hand, and; second experiment is the subject’s scratching the shin with another foot. As the results of the experiment, we recognized the scratching signals that enable the determination when the scratching occurred. Furthermore, the difference among the amplitudes of the output signals enabled us to estimate where the subject scratched.

Keywords: unconstrained bed sensing method, scratching, body movement, itchy, piezoceramics

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2430 An Optimal Bayesian Maintenance Policy for a Partially Observable System Subject to Two Failure Modes

Authors: Akram Khaleghei Ghosheh Balagh, Viliam Makis, Leila Jafari


In this paper, we present a new maintenance model for a partially observable system subject to two failure modes, namely a catastrophic failure and a failure due to the system degradation. The system is subject to condition monitoring and the degradation process is described by a hidden Markov model. A cost-optimal Bayesian control policy is developed for maintaining the system. The control problem is formulated in the semi-Markov decision process framework. An effective computational algorithm is developed and illustrated by a numerical example.

Keywords: partially observable system, hidden Markov model, competing risks, multivariate Bayesian control

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2429 Energy Efficient Autonomous Lower Limb Exoskeleton for Human Motion Enhancement

Authors: Nazim Mir-Nasiri, Hudyjaya Siswoyo Jo


The paper describes conceptual design, control strategies, and partial simulation for a new fully autonomous lower limb wearable exoskeleton system for human motion enhancement that can support its weight and increase strength and endurance. Various problems still remain to be solved where the most important is the creation of a power and cost efficient system that will allow an exoskeleton to operate for extended period without batteries being frequently recharged. The designed exoskeleton is enabling to decouple the weight/mass carrying function of the system from the forward motion function which reduces the power and size of propulsion motors and thus the overall weight, cost of the system. The decoupling takes place by blocking the motion at knee joint by placing passive air cylinder across the joint. The cylinder is actuated when the knee angle has reached the minimum allowed value to bend. The value of the minimum bending angle depends on usual walk style of the subject. The mechanism of the exoskeleton features a seat to rest the subject’s body weight at the moment of blocking the knee joint motion. The mechanical structure of each leg has six degrees of freedom: four at the hip, one at the knee, and one at the ankle. Exoskeleton legs are attached to subject legs by using flexible cuffs. The operation of all actuators depends on the amount of pressure felt by the feet pressure sensors and knee angle sensor. The sensor readings depend on actual posture of the subject and can be classified in three distinct cases: subject stands on one leg, subject stands still on both legs and subject stands on both legs but transit its weight from one leg to other. This exoskeleton is power efficient because electrical motors are smaller in size and did not participate in supporting the weight like in all other existing exoskeleton designs.

Keywords: energy efficient system, exoskeleton, motion enhancement, robotics

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2428 Autonomy in Teaching and Learning Subject-Specific Academic Literacy

Authors: Maureen Lilian Klos


In this paper, the notion of autonomy in language teaching and learning is explored with a view to designing particular subject-specific academic literacy at higher education level, for mostly English second or third language learners at the Nelson Mandela University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa. These courses that are contextualized in subject-specific fields studied by students in Arts, Education and Social Science Faculties aim to facilitate learners in the manipulation of cognitively demanding academic texts. However, classroom contact time for these courses is limited to one ninety sessions per week. Thus, learners need to be autonomously responsible for developing their own skills when manipulating and negotiating appropriate academic textual conventions. Thus, a model was designed to allow for gradual learner independence in language learning skills. Learners experience of the model was investigated using the Phenomenological Research Approach. Data in the form of individual written reflections and transcripts of unstructured group interviews were analyzed for themes and sub-themes. These findings are discussed in the article with a view to addressing the practical concerns of the learners in this case study.

Keywords: academic literacies, autonomy, language learning and teaching, subject-specific language

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2427 On Copular Constructions in Yemeni Arabic and the Cartography of Subjects

Authors: Ameen Alahdal


This paper investigates copular constructions in Raimi Yemeni Arabic (RYA). The aim of the paper is actually twofold. First it explores the types of copular constructions in Raimi Yemeni Arabic, a variety of Arabic that has not attracted a lot of attention. In this connection, the paper shows that RYA manifests ‘bare’, verbal and pronominal/PRON copular constructions, just like other varieties of Arabic and indeed other Semitic languages like Hebrew. The sentences below from RYA represent the three constructions, respectively. (1) a. nada Hilwah Nada pretty.3sf ‘Nada is pretty’ b. kan al-banat hina was the-girls here ‘The girls were here c. ali hu-l mudiir Ali he-the manager ‘Ali is the manager’ Interestingly, in addition to these common types of copular constructions, RYA seems to exhibit dual copula sentences, a construction that features both a pronominal copula and a verbal copula. Such a construction is attested neither in Standard Arabic nor in other modern varieties of Arabic such as Lebanese, Moroccan, Egyptian, Jordanian. Remarkably, dual copular sentences do not appear even in other dialects of Yemeni Arabic such as Sanaani, Adeni and Tehami. (2) is an example. (2) maha kan-ih mudarrisah maha was-she teacher.3sf ‘Maha was a teacehr’ Second, the paper considers the cartography of subject positions in copular constructions proposed by Shlonsky and Rizzi (2018). Different copular constructions seem to involve different subject positions (which might eventually correlate with different interpretations – not our concern in this paper). Here, it is argued that in a bare copular sentence, as in (1a), RYA might exploit two criterial subject positions (in Rizzi’s sense), in addition to the canonical Spec,TP position. Under mainstream minimalist assumption, a copular sentence is analyzed as a PredP. Thus, in addition to the PredP-related thematic subject position, a criterial subject position is posited outside of PredP. (3) below represents the cartography of subject positions in a bare copular construction. (3) [……..DP subj PredP DP Pred DP/AP/PP ] In PRON sentences, as exemplified in (1c), another two subject positions are postulated high in the clause, particularly above PolP. (4) illustrates the hierarchy of the subject positions in a PRON copular construction. The subject resides in Spec,SUBJ2P. (4) …DP SUBJ2 …DP SUBJ1 … Pol … DP subj PredP Another related phenomenon in RYA which sets it apart from other languages like Hebrew is that of negative bare copular construction. This construction involves a PRON, which is not found in its affirmative counterpart. PRON, however, is hosted neither by SUBJ20 nor by SUBJ10. Rather, PRON occurs below Neg0 (Pol0 in the hierarchy). This situation raises interesting issues for the hierarchy of subjects in copular constructions as well as to the syntax of the left periphery in general. With regard to what causes the subject to move, there are different potential triggers. For instance, movement of the subject at the base, i.e., out of PredP is triggered by a labeling failure. Other movements of the subject can be driven by a formal feature like EPP, or a criterial feature like [subj].

Keywords: Yemeni Arabic, copular constructions, cartography of subjects, labeling, criterial positions

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2426 Students’ Satisfaction towards Science Project Subjects Based on Education Quality Assurance

Authors: Satien Janpla, Radasa Pojard


The objective of this study is to study bachelor's degree students’ satisfaction towards the course of Science Project based on education quality assurance. It is a case study of the Faculty of Science and Technology, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. The findings can be used as a guideline for analysis and revision of the content and the teaching/learning process of the subject. Moreover, other interesting factors such as teaching method can be developed based on education quality assurance. Population in this study included 267 students in year 3 and year 4 of the Faculty of Science and Technology, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University who registered in the subject of Science Project in semester 1/2556. The research tool was a questionnaire and the research statistics included arithmetic mean and SD. The results showed that the study of bachelor degree students’ satisfaction towards the subject of Science Project based on education quality assurance reported high satisfaction with the average of 3.51. Students from different departments showed no difference in their satisfaction.

Keywords: satisfaction, science project subject, education quality assurance, students

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2425 Investigating Students' Understanding about Mathematical Concept through Concept Map

Authors: Rizky Oktaviana


The main purpose of studying lies in improving students’ understanding. Teachers usually use written test to measure students’ understanding about learning material especially mathematical learning material. This common method actually has a lack point, such that in mathematics content, written test only show procedural steps to solve mathematical problems. Therefore, teachers unable to see whether students actually understand about mathematical concepts and the relation between concepts or not. One of the best tools to observe students’ understanding about the mathematical concepts is concept map. The goal of this research is to describe junior high school students understanding about mathematical concepts through Concept Maps based on the difference of mathematical ability. There were three steps in this research; the first step was choosing the research subjects by giving mathematical ability test to students. The subjects of this research are three students with difference mathematical ability, high, intermediate and low mathematical ability. The second step was giving concept mapping training to the chosen subjects. The last step was giving concept mapping task about the function to the subjects. Nodes which are the representation of concepts of function were provided in concept mapping task. The subjects had to use the nodes in concept mapping. Based on data analysis, the result of this research shows that subject with high mathematical ability has formal understanding, due to that subject could see the connection between concepts of function and arranged the concepts become concept map with valid hierarchy. Subject with intermediate mathematical ability has relational understanding, because subject could arranged all the given concepts and gave appropriate label between concepts though it did not represent the connection specifically yet. Whereas subject with low mathematical ability has poor understanding about function, it can be seen from the concept map which is only used few of the given concepts because subject could not see the connection between concepts. All subjects have instrumental understanding for the relation between linear function concept, quadratic function concept and domain, co domain, range.

Keywords: concept map, concept mapping, mathematical concepts, understanding

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2424 Creativity, Formative Assessment and Students’ Writing of Subject-Specific Texts

Authors: Per Blomqvist


This study is part of a larger research project on creativity and writing cultures in upper secondary schools in Sweden, with the purpose of exploring how formative assessment practices can be developed to better support students' writing of subject-specific texts. The purpose of the study is to shed light on how writing has changed over time in the subjects of Social Studies and Swedish, especially regarding changes in the formative assessment practice in relation to students opportunities to take part in creative writing processes that can develop their subject specific-writing. Theoretically, the study is based on concepts and models concerning creativity, writing instructions and formative assessment, especially regarding scaffolding in relation to the development of students' subject-specific writing. The empirical data consists of video recordings of teacher groups' conversations from five upper secondary schools in Sweden, compromising a total of twenty teachers. The conversations were conducted as so-called collective remembering interviews, a method to stimulate the participants' memory through social interaction, and focused on addressing issues on how writing assessment has changed over time. Topic analysis was used to analyze the conversations in order to identify common descriptions and expressions among the teachers in each group. The result highlights two different assessment practices that are described as giving students different opportunities to take part in creative writing processes to develop their writing of subject-specific texts. One of the assessment practices is characterized by teachers focusing on explaining to the students what the grading criteria mean and showing sample texts that correspond to a certain grade. The teachers describe that this assessment practice has led to a formalized, instrumental and product-oriented writing culture that has negative consequences for the student's development of their subject-specific writing, which often lacks independent reasoning, own conclusions and understanding of concepts. The other assessment practice is characterized by students examining text qualities and discussing a variety of sample texts to understand what different texts require. These teachers describe the assessment practice as an exploratory work that leads to more creative writing processes where the students gradually deepen their understanding of subject-specific texts and develop their writing.

Keywords: teaching for creativity, writing processes, formative assessment, subject-specific writing

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2423 Perceptions of Islamic Education Teachers on the Implementation of 21st Century Learning Practices

Authors: Hafizul Rasdi


This study was conducted to find out the perceptions of Islamic Education teachers on the implementation of 21st century learning practices in Kuching, Sarawak. This study uses the field method. Eight respondents were selected based on the interviews and focus group discussions conducted among teachers in four primary school in Kuching, Sarawak. This study is focused to find out the perceptions of Islamic Education teachers on the implementation of 21st century learning as well as the importance of 21st century learning in the subject of Islamic Education. Data were collected using library research, semi-structured interview transcripts and focus group discussions. Data analysis methods used was descriptive analysis. The findings of the study have shown that Islamic Education teachers in primary school in Kuching, Sarawak agreed on the implementation of 21st Century Learning Practices in Islamic Education subject. The finding also show that the application of 21st Century Learning Practices in the subject of Islamic Education can help improve students mastery of the subject.

Keywords: perceptions, Islamic education, 21st century learning practices, teachers

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2422 Tenure Track System and Its Impact on Grading Leniency and Student Effort: A Quasi-Experimental Approach

Authors: Shao-Hsun Keng, Hwang-Ruey Song


This paper examines the causal effect of the tenure track system on instructors’ grading practices and teaching effectiveness by taking advantage of a natural experiment in Taiwan. The results show that assistant professors subject to the tenure track policy are more likely to grade leniently and fail fewer students. The course grade is 5% higher in classes taught by assistant professors subject to the tenure system. However, the tendency to grade leniently is reversed after assistant professors subject to the tenure system are promoted to a higher rank. Our findings are consistent with the exchange theory. We also show that teaching and student efforts are adversely affected by the tenure policy, which could reduce student learning and the quality of the workforce in the long run.

Keywords: tenure track system, grading leniency, study time, grade inflation

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