Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2369

Search results for: functional annotation

2369 Fuzzy Semantic Annotation of Web Resources

Authors: Sahar Maâlej Dammak, Anis Jedidi, Rafik Bouaziz

Abstract:

With the great mass of pages managed through the world, and especially with the advent of the Web, their manual annotation is impossible. We focus, in this paper, on the semiautomatic annotation of the web pages. We propose an approach and a framework for semantic annotation of web pages entitled “Querying Web”. Our solution is an enhancement of the first result of annotation done by the “Semantic Radar” Plug-in on the web resources, by annotations using an enriched domain ontology. The concepts of the result of Semantic Radar may be connected to several terms of the ontology, but connections may be uncertain. We represent annotations as possibility distributions. We use the hierarchy defined in the ontology to compute degrees of possibilities. We want to achieve an automation of the fuzzy semantic annotation of web resources.

Keywords: fuzzy semantic annotation, semantic web, domain ontologies, querying web

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2368 BingleSeq: A User-Friendly R Package for Single-Cell RNA-Seq Data Analysis

Authors: Quan Gu, Daniel Dimitrov

Abstract:

BingleSeq was developed as a shiny-based, intuitive, and comprehensive application that enables the analysis of single-Cell RNA-Sequencing count data. This was achieved via incorporating three state-of-the-art software packages for each type of RNA sequencing analysis, alongside functional annotation analysis and a way to assess the overlap of differential expression method results. At its current state, the functionality implemented within BingleSeq is comparable to that of other applications, also developed with the purpose of lowering the entry requirements to RNA Sequencing analyses. BingleSeq is available on GitHub and will be submitted to R/Bioconductor.

Keywords: bioinformatics, functional annotation analysis, single-cell RNA-sequencing, transcriptomics

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2367 A Method of the Semantic on Image Auto-Annotation

Authors: Lin Huo, Xianwei Liu, Jingxiong Zhou

Abstract:

Recently, due to the existence of semantic gap between image visual features and human concepts, the semantic of image auto-annotation has become an important topic. Firstly, by extract low-level visual features of the image, and the corresponding Hash method, mapping the feature into the corresponding Hash coding, eventually, transformed that into a group of binary string and store it, image auto-annotation by search is a popular method, we can use it to design and implement a method of image semantic auto-annotation. Finally, Through the test based on the Corel image set, and the results show that, this method is effective.

Keywords: image auto-annotation, color correlograms, Hash code, image retrieval

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2366 Towards a Large Scale Deep Semantically Analyzed Corpus for Arabic: Annotation and Evaluation

Authors: S. Alansary, M. Nagi

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This paper presents an approach of conducting semantic annotation of Arabic corpus using the Universal Networking Language (UNL) framework. UNL is intended to be a promising strategy for providing a large collection of semantically annotated texts with formal, deep semantics rather than shallow. The result would constitute a semantic resource (semantic graphs) that is editable and that integrates various phenomena, including predicate-argument structure, scope, tense, thematic roles and rhetorical relations, into a single semantic formalism for knowledge representation. The paper will also present the Interactive Analysis​ tool for automatic semantic annotation (IAN). In addition, the cornerstone of the proposed methodology which are the disambiguation and transformation rules, will be presented. Semantic annotation using UNL has been applied to a corpus of 20,000 Arabic sentences representing the most frequent structures in the Arabic Wikipedia. The representation, at different linguistic levels was illustrated starting from the morphological level passing through the syntactic level till the semantic representation is reached. The output has been evaluated using the F-measure. It is 90% accurate. This demonstrates how powerful the formal environment is, as it enables intelligent text processing and search.

Keywords: semantic analysis, semantic annotation, Arabic, universal networking language

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2365 Annotation Ontology for Semantic Web Development

Authors: Hadeel Al Obaidy, Amani Al Heela

Abstract:

The main purpose of this paper is to examine the concept of semantic web and the role that ontology and semantic annotation plays in the development of semantic web services. The paper focuses on semantic web infrastructure illustrating how ontology and annotation work to provide the learning capabilities for building content semantically. To improve productivity and quality of software, the paper applies approaches, notations and techniques offered by software engineering. It proposes a conceptual model to develop semantic web services for the infrastructure of web information retrieval system of digital libraries. The developed system uses ontology and annotation to build a knowledge based system to define and link the meaning of a web content to retrieve information for users’ queries. The results are more relevant through keywords and ontology rule expansion that will be more accurate to satisfy the requested information. The level of results accuracy would be enhanced since the query semantically analyzed work with the conceptual architecture of the proposed system.

Keywords: semantic web services, software engineering, semantic library, knowledge representation, ontology

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2364 Genome-Wide Functional Analysis of Phosphatase in Cryptococcus neoformans

Authors: Jae-Hyung Jin, Kyung-Tae Lee, Yee-Seul So, Eunji Jeong, Yeonseon Lee, Dongpil Lee, Dong-Gi Lee, Yong-Sun Bahn

Abstract:

Cryptococcus neoformans causes cryptococcal meningoencephalitis mainly in immunocompromised patients as well as immunocompetent people. But therapeutic options are limited to treat cryptococcosis. Some signaling pathways including cyclic AMP pathway, MAPK pathway, and calcineurin pathway play a central role in the regulation of the growth, differentiation, and virulence of C. neoformans. To understand signaling networks regulating the virulence of C. neoformans, we selected the 114 putative phosphatase genes, one of the major components of signaling networks, in the genome of C. neoformans. We identified putative phosphatases based on annotation in C. neoformans var. grubii genome database provided by the Broad Institute and National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and performed a BLAST search of phosphatases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus nidulans, Candida albicans and Fusarium graminearum to Cryptococcus neoformans. We classified putative phosphatases into 14 groups based on InterPro phosphatase domain annotation. Here, we constructed 170 signature-tagged gene-deletion strains through homologous recombination methods for 91 putative phosphatases. We examined their phenotypic traits under 30 different in vitro conditions, including growth, differentiation, stress response, antifungal resistance and virulence-factor production.

Keywords: human fungal pathogen, phosphatase, deletion library, functional genomics

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
2363 Tagging a corpus of Media Interviews with Diplomats: Challenges and Solutions

Authors: Roberta Facchinetti, Sara Corrizzato, Silvia Cavalieri

Abstract:

Increasing interconnection between data digitalization and linguistic investigation has given rise to unprecedented potentialities and challenges for corpus linguists, who need to master IT tools for data analysis and text processing, as well as to develop techniques for efficient and reliable annotation in specific mark-up languages that encode documents in a format that is both human and machine-readable. In the present paper, the challenges emerging from the compilation of a linguistic corpus will be taken into consideration, focusing on the English language in particular. To do so, the case study of the InterDiplo corpus will be illustrated. The corpus, currently under development at the University of Verona (Italy), represents a novelty in terms both of the data included and of the tag set used for its annotation. The corpus covers media interviews and debates with diplomats and international operators conversing in English with journalists who do not share the same lingua-cultural background as their interviewees. To date, this appears to be the first tagged corpus of international institutional spoken discourse and will be an important database not only for linguists interested in corpus analysis but also for experts operating in international relations. In the present paper, special attention will be dedicated to the structural mark-up, parts of speech annotation, and tagging of discursive traits, that are the innovational parts of the project being the result of a thorough study to find the best solution to suit the analytical needs of the data. Several aspects will be addressed, with special attention to the tagging of the speakers’ identity, the communicative events, and anthropophagic. Prominence will be given to the annotation of question/answer exchanges to investigate the interlocutors’ choices and how such choices impact communication. Indeed, the automated identification of questions, in relation to the expected answers, is functional to understand how interviewers elicit information as well as how interviewees provide their answers to fulfill their respective communicative aims. A detailed description of the aforementioned elements will be given using the InterDiplo-Covid19 pilot corpus. The data yielded by our preliminary analysis of the data will highlight the viable solutions found in the construction of the corpus in terms of XML conversion, metadata definition, tagging system, and discursive-pragmatic annotation to be included via Oxygen.

Keywords: spoken corpus, diplomats’ interviews, tagging system, discursive-pragmatic annotation, english linguistics

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2362 Automatic Multi-Label Image Annotation System Guided by Firefly Algorithm and Bayesian Method

Authors: Saad M. Darwish, Mohamed A. El-Iskandarani, Guitar M. Shawkat

Abstract:

Nowadays, the amount of available multimedia data is continuously on the rise. The need to find a required image for an ordinary user is a challenging task. Content based image retrieval (CBIR) computes relevance based on the visual similarity of low-level image features such as color, textures, etc. However, there is a gap between low-level visual features and semantic meanings required by applications. The typical method of bridging the semantic gap is through the automatic image annotation (AIA) that extracts semantic features using machine learning techniques. In this paper, a multi-label image annotation system guided by Firefly and Bayesian method is proposed. Firstly, images are segmented using the maximum variance intra cluster and Firefly algorithm, which is a swarm-based approach with high convergence speed, less computation rate and search for the optimal multiple threshold. Feature extraction techniques based on color features and region properties are applied to obtain the representative features. After that, the images are annotated using translation model based on the Net Bayes system, which is efficient for multi-label learning with high precision and less complexity. Experiments are performed using Corel Database. The results show that the proposed system is better than traditional ones for automatic image annotation and retrieval.

Keywords: feature extraction, feature selection, image annotation, classification

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2361 The Omani Learner of English Corpus: Source and Tools

Authors: Anood Al-Shibli

Abstract:

Designing a learner corpus is not an easy task to accomplish because dealing with learners’ language has many variables which might affect the results of any study based on learners’ language production (spoken and written). Also, it is very essential to systematically design a learner corpus especially when it is aimed to be a reference to language research. Therefore, designing the Omani Learner Corpus (OLEC) has undergone many explicit and systematic considerations. These criteria can be regarded as the foundation to design any learner corpus to be exploited effectively in language use and language learning studies. Added to that, OLEC is manually error-annotated corpus. Error-annotation in learner corpora is very essential; however, it is time-consuming and prone to errors. Consequently, a navigating tool is designed to help the annotators to insert errors’ codes in order to make the error-annotation process more efficient and consistent. To assure accuracy, error annotation procedure is followed to annotate OLEC and some preliminary findings are noted. One of the main results of this procedure is creating an error-annotation system based on the Omani learners of English language production. Because OLEC is still in the first stages, the primary findings are related to only one level of proficiency and one error type which is verb related errors. It is found that Omani learners in OLEC has the tendency to have more errors in forming the verb and followed by problems in agreement of verb. Comparing the results to other error-based studies indicate that the Omani learners tend to have basic verb errors which can found in lower-level of proficiency. To this end, it is essential to admit that examining learners’ errors can give insights to language acquisition and language learning and most errors do not happen randomly but they occur systematically among language learners.

Keywords: error-annotation system, error-annotation manual, learner corpora, verbs related errors

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2360 The Automatisation of Dictionary-Based Annotation in a Parallel Corpus of Old English

Authors: Ana Elvira Ojanguren Lopez, Javier Martin Arista

Abstract:

The aims of this paper are to present the automatisation procedure adopted in the implementation of a parallel corpus of Old English, as well as, to assess the progress of automatisation with respect to tagging, annotation, and lemmatisation. The corpus consists of an aligned parallel text with word-for-word comparison Old English-English that provides the Old English segment with inflectional form tagging (gloss, lemma, category, and inflection) and lemma annotation (spelling, meaning, inflectional class, paradigm, word-formation and secondary sources). This parallel corpus is intended to fill a gap in the field of Old English, in which no parallel and/or lemmatised corpora are available, while the average amount of corpus annotation is low. With this background, this presentation has two main parts. The first part, which focuses on tagging and annotation, selects the layouts and fields of lexical databases that are relevant for these tasks. Most information used for the annotation of the corpus can be retrieved from the lexical and morphological database Nerthus and the database of secondary sources Freya. These are the sources of linguistic and metalinguistic information that will be used for the annotation of the lemmas of the corpus, including morphological and semantic aspects as well as the references to the secondary sources that deal with the lemmas in question. Although substantially adapted and re-interpreted, the lemmatised part of these databases draws on the standard dictionaries of Old English, including The Student's Dictionary of Anglo-Saxon, An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, and A Concise Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. The second part of this paper deals with lemmatisation. It presents the lemmatiser Norna, which has been implemented on Filemaker software. It is based on a concordance and an index to the Dictionary of Old English Corpus, which comprises around three thousand texts and three million words. In its present state, the lemmatiser Norna can assign lemma to around 80% of textual forms on an automatic basis, by searching the index and the concordance for prefixes, stems and inflectional endings. The conclusions of this presentation insist on the limits of the automatisation of dictionary-based annotation in a parallel corpus. While the tagging and annotation are largely automatic even at the present stage, the automatisation of alignment is pending for future research. Lemmatisation and morphological tagging are expected to be fully automatic in the near future, once the database of secondary sources Freya and the lemmatiser Norna have been completed.

Keywords: corpus linguistics, historical linguistics, old English, parallel corpus

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2359 Extraction of Text Subtitles in Multimedia Systems

Authors: Amarjit Singh

Abstract:

In this paper, a method for extraction of text subtitles in large video is proposed. The video data needs to be annotated for many multimedia applications. Text is incorporated in digital video for the motive of providing useful information about that video. So need arises to detect text present in video to understanding and video indexing. This is achieved in two steps. First step is text localization and the second step is text verification. The method of text detection can be extended to text recognition which finds applications in automatic video indexing; video annotation and content based video retrieval. The method has been tested on various types of videos.

Keywords: video, subtitles, extraction, annotation, frames

Procedia PDF Downloads 511
2358 Contextual Sentiment Analysis with Untrained Annotators

Authors: Lucas A. Silva, Carla R. Aguiar

Abstract:

This work presents a proposal to perform contextual sentiment analysis using a supervised learning algorithm and disregarding the extensive training of annotators. To achieve this goal, a web platform was developed to perform the entire procedure outlined in this paper. The main contribution of the pipeline described in this article is to simplify and automate the annotation process through a system of analysis of congruence between the notes. This ensured satisfactory results even without using specialized annotators in the context of the research, avoiding the generation of biased training data for the classifiers. For this, a case study was conducted in a blog of entrepreneurship. The experimental results were consistent with the literature related annotation using formalized process with experts.

Keywords: sentiment analysis, untrained annotators, naive bayes, entrepreneurship, contextualized classifier

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2357 C-eXpress: A Web-Based Analysis Platform for Comparative Functional Genomics and Proteomics in Human Cancer Cell Line, NCI-60 as an Example

Authors: Chi-Ching Lee, Po-Jung Huang, Kuo-Yang Huang, Petrus Tang

Abstract:

Background: Recent advances in high-throughput research technologies such as new-generation sequencing and multi-dimensional liquid chromatography makes it possible to dissect the complete transcriptome and proteome in a single run for the first time. However, it is almost impossible for many laboratories to handle and analysis these “BIG” data without the support from a bioinformatics team. We aimed to provide a web-based analysis platform for users with only limited knowledge on bio-computing to study the functional genomics and proteomics. Method: We use NCI-60 as an example dataset to demonstrate the power of the web-based analysis platform and data delivering system: C-eXpress takes a simple text file that contain the standard NCBI gene or protein ID and expression levels (rpkm or fold) as input file to generate a distribution map of gene/protein expression levels in a heatmap diagram organized by color gradients. The diagram is hyper-linked to a dynamic html table that allows the users to filter the datasets based on various gene features. A dynamic summary chart is generated automatically after each filtering process. Results: We implemented an integrated database that contain pre-defined annotations such as gene/protein properties (ID, name, length, MW, pI); pathways based on KEGG and GO biological process; subcellular localization based on GO cellular component; functional classification based on GO molecular function, kinase, peptidase and transporter. Multiple ways of sorting of column and rows is also provided for comparative analysis and visualization of multiple samples.

Keywords: cancer, visualization, database, functional annotation

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2356 De Novo Assembly and Characterization of the Transcriptome during Seed Development, and Generation of Genic-SSR Markers in Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.)

Authors: Ozhan Simsek, Dicle Donmez, Burhanettin Imrak, Ahsen Isik Ozguven, Yildiz Aka Kacar

Abstract:

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is known to be one of the oldest edible fruit tree species, with a wide geographical global distribution. Fruits from the two defined varieties (Hicaznar and 33N26) were taken at intervals after pollination and fertilization at different sizes. Seed samples were used for transcriptome sequencing. Primary sequencing was produced by Illumina Hi-Seq™ 2000. Firstly, we had raw reads, and it was subjected to quality control (QC). Raw reads were filtered into clean reads and aligned to the reference sequences. De novo analysis was performed to detect genes expressed in seeds of pomegranate varieties. We performed downstream analysis to determine differentially expressed genes. We generated about 27.09 gb bases in total after Illumina Hi-Seq sequencing. All samples were assembled together, we got 59,264 Unigenes, the total length, average length, N50, and GC content of Unigenes are 84.547.276 bp, 1.426 bp, 2,137 bp, and 46.20 %, respectively. Unigenes were annotated with 7 functional databases, finally, 42.681(NR: 72.02%), 39.660 (NT: 66.92%), 30.790 (Swissprot: 51.95%), 20.212 (COG: 34.11%), 27.689 (KEGG: 46.72%), 12.328 (GO: 20.80%), and 33,833 (Interpro: 57.09%) Unigenes were annotated. With functional annotation results, we detected 42.376 CDS, and 4.999 SSR distribute on 16.143 Unigenes.

Keywords: next generation sequencing, SSR, RNA-Seq, Illumina

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2355 A Fundamental Functional Equation for Lie Algebras

Authors: Ih-Ching Hsu

Abstract:

Inspired by the so called Jacobi Identity (x y) z + (y z) x + (z x) y = 0, the following class of functional equations EQ I: F [F (x, y), z] + F [F (y, z), x] + F [F (z, x), y] = 0 is proposed, researched and generalized. Research methodologies begin with classical methods for functional equations, then evolve into discovering of any implicit algebraic structures. One of this paper’s major findings is that EQ I, under two additional conditions F (x, x) = 0 and F (x, y) + F (y, x) = 0, proves to be a fundamental functional equation for Lie Algebras. Existence of non-trivial solutions for EQ I can be proven by defining F (p, q) = [p q] = pq –qp, where p and q are quaternions, and pq is the quaternion product of p and q. EQ I can be generalized to the following class of functional equations EQ II: F [G (x, y), z] + F [G (y, z), x] + F [G (z, x), y] = 0. Concluding Statement: With a major finding proven, and non-trivial solutions derived, this research paper illustrates and provides a new functional equation scheme for studies in two major areas: (1) What underlying algebraic structures can be defined and/or derived from EQ I or EQ II? (2) What conditions can be imposed so that conditional general solutions to EQ I and EQ II can be found, investigated and applied?

Keywords: fundamental functional equation, generalized functional equations, Lie algebras, quaternions

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2354 Consumer Choice Determinants in Context of Functional Food

Authors: E. Grochowska-Niedworok, K. Brukało, M. Kardas

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The aim of this study was to analyze and evaluate the consumption of functional food by consumers by: age, sex, formal education level, place of residence and diagnosed diseases. The study employed an ad hoc questionnaire in a group of 300 inhabitants of Upper Silesia voivodship. Knowledge of functional food among the group covered in the study was far from satisfactory. The choice of functional food was of intuitive character. In addition, the group covered was more likely to choose pharmacotherapy instead of diet-related prevention then, which can be associated with presumption of too distant effects and a long period of treatment.

Keywords: consumer choice, functional food, healthy lifestyle, consumer knowledge

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2353 Monotonicity of the Jensen Functional for f-Divergences via the Zipf-Mandelbrot Law

Authors: Neda Lovričević, Đilda Pečarić, Josip Pečarić

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The Jensen functional in its discrete form is brought in relation to the Csiszar divergence functional, this time via its monotonicity property. This approach presents a generalization of the previously obtained results that made use of interpolating Jensen-type inequalities. Thus the monotonicity property is integrated with the Zipf-Mandelbrot law and applied to f-divergences for probability distributions that originate from the Csiszar divergence functional: Kullback-Leibler divergence, Hellinger distance, Bhattacharyya distance, chi-square divergence, total variation distance. The Zipf-Mandelbrot and the Zipf law are widely used in various scientific fields and interdisciplinary and here the focus is on the aspect of the mathematical inequalities.

Keywords: Jensen functional, monotonicity, Csiszar divergence functional, f-divergences, Zipf-Mandelbrot law

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2352 A Framework for Secure Information Flow Analysis in Web Applications

Authors: Ralph Adaimy, Wassim El-Hajj, Ghassen Ben Brahim, Hazem Hajj, Haidar Safa

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Huge amounts of data and personal information are being sent to and retrieved from web applications on daily basis. Every application has its own confidentiality and integrity policies. Violating these policies can have broad negative impact on the involved company’s financial status, while enforcing them is very hard even for the developers with good security background. In this paper, we propose a framework that enforces security-by-construction in web applications. Minimal developer effort is required, in a sense that the developer only needs to annotate database attributes by a security class. The web application code is then converted into an intermediary representation, called Extended Program Dependence Graph (EPDG). Using the EPDG, the provided annotations are propagated to the application code and run against generic security enforcement rules that were carefully designed to detect insecure information flows as early as they occur. As a result, any violation in the data’s confidentiality or integrity policies is reported. As a proof of concept, two PHP web applications, Hotel Reservation and Auction, were used for testing and validation. The proposed system was able to catch all the existing insecure information flows at their source. Moreover and to highlight the simplicity of the suggested approaches vs. existing approaches, two professional web developers assessed the annotation tasks needed in the presented case studies and provided a very positive feedback on the simplicity of the annotation task.

Keywords: web applications security, secure information flow, program dependence graph, database annotation

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2351 Grammatically Coded Corpus of Spoken Lithuanian: Methodology and Development

Authors: L. Kamandulytė-Merfeldienė

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The paper deals with the main issues of methodology of the Corpus of Spoken Lithuanian which was started to be developed in 2006. At present, the corpus consists of 300,000 grammatically annotated word forms. The creation of the corpus consists of three main stages: collecting the data, the transcription of the recorded data, and the grammatical annotation. Collecting the data was based on the principles of balance and naturality. The recorded speech was transcribed according to the CHAT requirements of CHILDES. The transcripts were double-checked and annotated grammatically using CHILDES. The development of the Corpus of Spoken Lithuanian has led to the constant increase in studies on spontaneous communication, and various papers have dealt with a distribution of parts of speech, use of different grammatical forms, variation of inflectional paradigms, distribution of fillers, syntactic functions of adjectives, the mean length of utterances.

Keywords: CHILDES, corpus of spoken Lithuanian, grammatical annotation, grammatical disambiguation, lexicon, Lithuanian

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2350 Functional Dyspepsia and Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Life sketches of Functional Illnesses (Non-Organic) in West Bengal, India

Authors: Urmita Chakraborty

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To start with, Organic Illnesses are no longer considered as only health difficulties. Functional Illnesses that are emotional in origin have become the search areas in many investigations. In the present study, an attempt has made to study the psychological nature of Functional Gastro-Intestinal Disorders (FGID) in West Bengal. In the specialty of Gastroenterology, the medically unexplained symptom-based conditions are known as Functional Gastrointestinal Disorder (FGID). In the present study, Functional Dyspepsia (FD) and Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) have been taken for investigations. 72 cases have been discussed in this context. Results of the investigation have been analyzed in terms of a qualitative framework. Theoretical concepts on persistent thoughts and behaviors will be delineated in the analysis. Processes of self-categorization will be implemented too. Aspects of Attachments and controlling of affect as well as meta-cognitive appraisals are further considered for the depiction.

Keywords: functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome, self-categorization

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2349 Relations of Progression in Cognitive Decline with Initial EEG Resting-State Functional Network in Mild Cognitive Impairment

Authors: Chia-Feng Lu, Yuh-Jen Wang, Yu-Te Wu, Sui-Hing Yan

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This study aimed at investigating whether the functional brain networks constructed using the initial EEG (obtained when patients first visited hospital) can be correlated with the progression of cognitive decline calculated as the changes of mini-mental state examination (MMSE) scores between the latest and initial examinations. We integrated the time–frequency cross mutual information (TFCMI) method to estimate the EEG functional connectivity between cortical regions, and the network analysis based on graph theory to investigate the organization of functional networks in aMCI. Our finding suggested that higher integrated functional network with sufficient connection strengths, dense connection between local regions, and high network efficiency in processing information at the initial stage may result in a better prognosis of the subsequent cognitive functions for aMCI. In conclusion, the functional connectivity can be a useful biomarker to assist in prediction of cognitive declines in aMCI.

Keywords: cognitive decline, functional connectivity, MCI, MMSE

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2348 The Publishing Process and Results of the Chinese Annotated Edition of John Dewey’s “Experience and Education: The 60th Anniversary Edition”

Authors: Wen-jing Shan

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The Chinese annotated edition of “Experience and education: The 60th anniversary edition,” originally written in English by John Dewey (1859-1952), was published in 2015 by this author. A report of the process and results of the translation and annotation of the book is the purpose of this paper. It is worth mentioning that the original 1938 edition was considered as the best concise statement on education by John Dewey, one the most important educational theorists of the twentieth century. One of the features of this The 60th anniversary edition is that the original publisher, Kappa Delta Pi International Honor Society, invited four contemporary Deweyan scholars who had been awarded the Society’s Laureate Scholar to write a review of the book published by Dewey, who was the first to receive this honor. The four scholars are Maxine Greene(1917-2014), Philip W. Jackson(1928-2015), Linda Darling-Hammond(1951-), and O. L. Davis, Jr.(1928-). The original 1938 edition, the best concise statement on education by the most important educational theorist of the twentieth century, was translated into Chinese for five times after its publication in the U.S.A, three in the 1940s, one in the 1990s, and one in 2010s. Nonetheless, the five translations have few or no annotations and have some flaws of mis-interpretations and lack of information. The author retranslated and annotated the book to make the interpretations more faithful, expressive, and elegant, and providing the readers with more understanding and more correct information. This author started the project of translation and annotation sponsored by Taiwan Ministry of Science and Technology in August 2011 and finished and published by July 2015. The work, the author, did was divided into three stages. First, in the preparatory stage of the project, the summary of each chapter, the rationale of the book, the textual commentary, the development of the original and Chinese editions, and reviews and criticisms, as well as Dewey’s biography and bibliography were initially investigated. Secondly, on the basis of the above preliminary work, the translation with annotation of Experience and Education, an epitome of Dewey’s biography and bibliography, a chronology, and a critical introduction for the Experience and Education were written. In the critical introduction, Dewey’s philosophy of experience and educational ideas will be examined along the timeline of human thought. And the vast literature about Dewey and his work will be instrumental to reveal the historical significance of Experience and Education on the modern age and make the critical introduction more knowledgeable. Third, the final stage took another two years to review and revise the draft of the work and send it for publication. There are two parts in the book. The first part is a scholarly introduction including Dewey’s chronicle (in short form), Dewey’s mind, people and life, the importance of “Experience and education”, the necessity of re-translation and re-annotation of “Experience and education” into Chinese. The second part is the re-translation and re-annotation version, including Dewey’s “Experience and education” and four papers written by contemporary scholars.

Keywords: John Dewey, experience and education: the 60th anniversary edition, translation, annotation

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2347 Antiglycemic Activity of Raw Plant Materials as Potential Components of Functional Food

Authors: Ewa Flaczyk, Monika Przeor, Joanna Kobus-Cisowska, Józef Korczak

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The aim of this paper was to collect the information concerning the most popular raw plant materials of antidiabetic activity, in a context of functional food developing production. The elaboration discusses morphological elements possible for an application in functional food production of the plants such as: common bean, ginger, Ceylon cinnamon, white mulberry, fenugreek, French lilac, ginseng, jambolão, and bitter melon. An activity of bioactive substances contained in these raw plant materials was presented, pointing their antiglycemic and also hypocholesterolemic, antiarthritic, antirheumatic, antibacterial, and antiviral activity in the studies on humans and animals. Also the genesis of functional food definition was presented.

Keywords: antiglycemic activity, raw plant materials, functional food, food, nutritional sciences

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2346 Study on Fabrication of Surface Functional Micro and Nanostructures by Femtosecond Laser

Authors: Shengzhu Cao, Hui Zhou, Gan Wu, Lanxi Wanhg, Kaifeng Zhang, Rui Wang, Hu Wang

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The functional micro and nanostructures, which can endow material surface with unique properties such as super-absorptance, hydrophobic and drag reduction. Recently, femtosecond laser ablation has been demonstrated to be a promising technology for surface functional micro and nanostructures fabrication. In this paper, using femtosecond laser ablation processing technique, we fabricated functional micro and nanostructures on Ti and Al alloy surfaces, test results showed that processed surfaces have 82%~96% absorptance over a broad wavelength range from ultraviolet to infrared. The surface function properties, which determined by micro and nanostructures, could be modulated by variation laser parameters. These functional surfaces may find applications in such areas as photonics, plasmonics, spaceborne devices, thermal radiation sources, solar energy absorbers and biomedicine.

Keywords: surface functional, micro and nanostructures, femtosecond laser, ablation

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2345 Systematic Review of Functional Analysis in Brazil

Authors: Felipe Magalhaes Lemos

Abstract:

Functional behavior analysis is a procedure that has been studied for several decades by behavior analysts. In Brazil, we still have few studies in the area, so it was decided to carry out a systematic review of the articles published in the area by Brazilians. A search was done on the following scientific article registration sites: PsycINFO, ERIC, ISI Web of Science, Virtual Health Library. The research includes (a) peer-reviewed studies that (b) have been carried out in Brazil containing (c) functional assessment as a pre-treatment through (d) experimental procedures, direct or indirect observation and measurement of behavior problems (e) demonstrating a relationship between environmental events and behavior. During the review, 234 papers were found; however, only 9 were included in the final analysis. Of the 9 articles extracted, only 2 presented functional analysis procedures with manipulation of environmental variables, while the other 7 presented different procedures for a descriptive behavior assessment. Only the two studies using "functional analysis" used graphs to demonstrate the prevalent function of the behavior. Other studies described procedures and did not make clear the causal relationship between environment and behavior. There is still confusion in Brazil regarding the terms "functional analysis", "descriptive assessment" and "contingency analysis," which are generally treated in the same way. This study shows that few articles are published with a focus on functional analysis in Brazil.

Keywords: behavior, contingency, descriptive assessment, functional analysis

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2344 The Influence of Winding Angle on Functional Failure of FRP Pipes

Authors: Roham Rafiee, Hadi Hesamsadat

Abstract:

In this study, a parametric finite element modeling is developed to analyze failure modes of FRP pipes subjected to internal pressure. First-ply failure pressure and functional failure pressure was determined by a progressive damage modeling and then it is validated using experimental observations. The influence of both winding angle and fiber volume fraction is studied on the functional failure of FRP pipes and it corresponding pressure. It is observed that despite the fact that increasing fiber volume fraction will enhance the mechanical properties, it will be resulted in lower values for functional failure pressure. This shortcoming can be compensated by modifying the winding angle in angle plies of pipe wall structure.

Keywords: composite pipe, functional failure, progressive modeling, winding angle

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2343 Quantitative Analysis of the Functional Characteristics of Urban Complexes Based on Station-City Integration: Fifteen Case Studies of European, North American, and East Asian Railway Stations

Authors: Dai Yizheng, Chen-Yang Zhang

Abstract:

As station-city integration has been widely accepted as a strategy for mixed-use development, a quantitative analysis of the functional characteristics of urban complexes based on station-city integration is urgently needed. Taking 15 railway stations in European, North American, and East Asian cities as the research objects, this study analyzes their functional proportion, functional positioning, and functional correlation with respect to four categories of functional facilities for both railway passenger flow and subway passenger flow. We found that (1) the functional proportion of urban complexes was mainly concentrated in three models: complementary, dominant, and equilibrium. (2) The mathematical model affected by the functional proportion was created to evaluate the functional positioning of an urban complex at three scales: station area, city, and region. (3) The strength of the correlation between the functional area and passenger flow was revealed via data analysis using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Finally, the findings of this study provide a valuable reference for research on similar topics in other countries that are developing station-city integration.

Keywords: urban complex, station-city integration, mixed-use, function, quantitative analysis

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2342 Functional English: Enhancing Competencies at the Undergraduate Level in Nagaland, India

Authors: Arenkala Kichu

Abstract:

This paper consolidates and tries to bring out the findings that investigated in Kohima and Mokokchung districts in Nagaland, which is in the northeastern part of India. The aim of this paper is to test the speaking and writing skills of the undergraduate learners who opt functional English as one of their papers. functional English is taught in just two colleges; Fazl Ali College and Kohima Colleges, out of 15 government and 36 private colleges in the state. This research (based on several observations made by Naga researchers) hypothesizes that functional English enhances competencies at the undergraduate level, which would open doors to work, learn more and better prospects. It is expected that learners in Functional English class, which follows the communicative language teaching method, might be the answers to those problems, as to why proficiency level still leaves much to be desired, in spite of the advent of the education over a hundred years ago. This type of teaching follows only in functional English class in these two colleges.

Keywords: enhancing competencies, speaking skills, undergraduate level, writing skills

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2341 Functional Food Industry in Thailand: Perspectives from Government, Education, and Private Sector

Authors: Charintorn Suwannawong, Tananpon Yavilas, Sopida Boonaneksap, Chotika Viriyarattanasak, Chairath Tangduangdee

Abstract:

With increasing aging population and health conscious consumers, the demand for health promoting products such as functional foods, dietary supplements, and nutraceutical products has continuously increased in Thailand. Nevertheless, the strategic framework for regulatory functional food developments in Thailand is still unclear. The objective of this study was to survey stakeholders’ perspectives on three scopes, consisting of 1) the current status 2) obstacles, and 3) future trend for the development and production of functional foods in Thailand. A survey was conducted by interviewing ten experts from governmental organization, industrial sector and academic institute. The obtained results show that there is no established definition for functional foods in Thailand. There is a variety of raw materials that are capable to be potential ingredients for functional food production in Thailand and exported to global market. However, the scaling up technology into a commercial production is limited. Moreover, there is a need to establish the infrastructures, such as testing laboratory, and regulatory standards for quality control and ensuring product safety. This information is useful for government in the development of the strategic framework and policy statement on improvement of functional food industry in Thailand.

Keywords: functional foods, interview, perspective, Thailand

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2340 Detecting Logical Errors in Haskell

Authors: Vanessa Vasconcelos, Mariza A. S. Bigonha

Abstract:

In order to facilitate both processes, this paper presents HaskellFL, a tool that uses fault localization techniques to locate a logical error in Haskell code. The Haskell subset used in this work is sufficiently expressive for those studying functional programming to get immediate help debugging their code and to answer questions about key concepts associated with the functional paradigm. HaskellFL was tested against functional programming assignments submitted by students enrolled at the functional programming class at the Federal University of Minas Gerais and against exercises from the Exercism Haskell track that are publicly available on GitHub. Furthermore, the EXAM score was chosen to evaluate the tool’s effectiveness, and results showed that HaskellFL reduced the effort needed to locate an error for all tested scenarios. Results also showed that the Ochiai method was more effective than Tarantula.

Keywords: debug, fault localization, functional programming, Haskell

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