Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31

Search results for: midwifery

31 Current Situation of Midwifery Student Organization in Turkey

Authors: Yeliz Cakir Kocak, Hafize Ozturk Can, Sibel Icke, Ummahan Yucel, Esin Ceber Turfan


Introduction: Midwifery organization in Turkey became official in 1954 with the foundation of Midwifery Association. Today there are two Professional organizations representing midwives: ‘Midwifery Association’ and ‘Association for Education, Research and Development in Midwifery (AERDM)’. In recent years, conjuction with the increase in the numbers of midwives, professional consciousness and professional organization conscious is increasing. The undergraduates of Midwifery Department of Ege University İzmir Ataturk School of Health have come together for their professions when they’re stil students, so they founded ‘Midwifery Community of Ege University (MCEU) (EGEBET in Turkish)’ in counseling within structors and the confirmation of the university in 2013. Objective: The aim of this presentation is to reveal the activities and grades of an undergraduate community in-three-years, founded by the undergraduates in order to raise awareness in pregraduate Professional organization. Thus it is aimed to be aware towards postgraduate Professional organization, and to reflect Professional unity and solidarity, alongside personal development to midwifery services by maintaining Professional development. In-the-presentation it is aimed to explain what dimension the organization of midwifery students in Turkey is, and to be a stimulus so that ICM can be more active on undergraduate communities. Findings: MCEU’s an activity that has launched in the scope of Social Responsibility Lecture instructed in curricula of second grade in the Midwifery Department. The community have performed lots activities to reach their objectives between the years of 2013-2016. MCEU have had 65 members in a very-soon period. Today the community that goes on its activities on social network in order to abolish the distances and reach more midwifery students’ve 444 members. MCEU aiming to make all the students of the Midwifery Department a member of this association also accepts the applications of national and international midwifery students. More over the community has published two student periodical magazine and carries out activities on Midwifery Day each year. Conclusion: In conjuction with the national introduction of MCEU in the student congress in 2013, it has received consultancy from the members of MCEU as a sample model in the student organization of midwifery department of other universities in Turkey, and stil remains receiving. Furthermore a student community has been founded under the roof of association with the demand of community’s members. Also academician has a responsibility to give direction to the future and shape the future. Therefore, it is thought that the study can be an instance for all branches of science students and academics. Acknowledgment: We thank to founder members of MCEU and all the other students remaining to perform activities because of their contributions to Professional organization.

Keywords: current situation, midwifery, organization, student

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30 Transforming Maternity and Neonatal Services in a Middle Eastern Country

Authors: M. A. Brown, K. Hugill, D. Meredith


Since the establishment of midwifery, as a professional identity in its own right, in the early years of the 20th century, midwifery-led models of childbirth have prevailed in many parts of the world. However, in many locations midwives’ scope of practice remains underdeveloped or absent. In Qatar, all births take place in hospital and are under the professional jurisdiction of obstetricians, predominately supported by internationally trained nurse-midwives and obstetric nurses. The strategic vision for health services in Qatar endorsed a desire to provide women with the ‘Best Care Always’ and the introduction of midwifery was seen as a way to achieve this. In 2015 the process of recruiting postgraduate educated Clinical Midwife Specialists from international sources began. The midwives were brought together to initiate an in hospital and community service transformation plan. This plan set out a series of wide-ranging actions to transform maternity and neonatal services to make care safer and give women more health choices. Change in any organization is a complex and dynamic process. This is made even more complex when multifaceted professional and cross cultural factors are involved. This presentation reports upon the motivations and challenges that exist and the progress around introducing a multicultural midwifery model of childbirth care in the state of Qatar. The paper examines and reflects upon the drivers and unique features of childbirth in the country. Despite accomplishments, progress still needs to be made in order to fully implement sustainable changes to further improve care and ensure women and neonates get the ‘Best Care Always’. The progress within the transformation plan highlights how midwifery may coexist with competing models of maternity care to create an innovative, eclectic and culturally sensitive paradigm that can best serve women and neonatal health needs.

Keywords: culture, managing change, midwifery, neonatal, service transformation plan

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29 Preparing Undergraduate Nursing and Midwifery Students for Culturally Competent Health Care: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Olayide Ogunsiji, Glenda McDonald


Engendering cultural competence in nursing and midwifery students is germane to reducing disparities in contemporary health care settings, increasingly patronized by people from diverse background. Professional standards for registration in Australia require nurses and midwives to be culturally competent. Nursing and midwifery academics worldwide are responsible for preparing students for clinical practice, yet limited attention is paid to exploring how students are being prepared to care for a culturally diverse population. This paper provides insight into the perceptions of academics about how they are preparing undergraduate nursing and midwifery students for culturally competent health care. Academics were drawn from a tertiary educational institution in metropolitan Australia. They responded to a generic email indicating their interest in participating in the study. A total of nine academics who have taught undergraduate nursing and midwifery students in a unit that focused on health and illness perspectives for culturally diverse communities; and provided written consent to participate were included. These academics were engaged in a qualitative digitally-recorded semi-structured face-to-face or telephone interviews which lasted for about 45-60 minutes. Interview data were transcribed verbatim. Through constant comparison, three themes emerged: experiences of the teachers, strategies used for preparing students and challenges in preparing students. The participants spoke about their experiences of teaching in the unit and with the students. They faced challenges related to physical and relational space. They utilised a number of didactic approaches in teaching the unit and critiqued the adequacy of the content in preparing students for practice. This study demonstrated that didactic classroom approaches need to be supported with clinical practice and cultural immersion for a meaningful preparation of nursing and midwifery students to care for culturally diverse populations.

Keywords: cultural competence, nursing students, preparation, undergraduate

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28 The Impact of Online Visit Practice by Midwifery Students on Child-Rearing Midwives during The COVID-19 Pandemic: A Qualitative Descriptive Study

Authors: Mari Murakami, Hiromi Kawasaki, Saori Fujimoto, Yoko Ueno


Background: In Japan, one of the goals of midwifery education is the development of one’s ability to comprehensively support the child-rearing generation in collaboration with professionals from other disciplines. However, in order to prevent the spread of Covid-19, it has become extremely difficult to provide face-to-face support for mothers and children. Early on in the pandemic, we sought help from three parenting midwives as an alternative and attempted an online visit. Since midwives who are raising children respond to the training as both mothers who are care recipients and midwives as care providers. Therefore, we attempted to verify the usefulness of midwives experiencing training as mothers by clarifying the effects on those midwives who are raising children and who have experienced online visit training by students. Methods: The online visitations were conducted in June 2020. The collaborators were three midwives who were devoted to childcare. During the online visit training, we used the feedback records of their questions given by the collaborators (with their permission) to the students. The verbatim record was created from the records. Qualitative descriptive analysis was used, and subcategories and categories were extracted. This study was approved by the Ethical Committee for Epidemiology of Hiroshima University. Results: The average age of the three midwives was 36.3 years, with an average of 12.3 years of experience after graduation. They were each raising multiple children (ranging between a minimum of 2 and a maximum of 4 children). Their youngest infants were 6.7 months old on average for all. Five categories that emerged were: contributing to the development of midwifery students as a senior; the joy of accepting the efforts of a mother while raising children; recalling the humility of beginners through the integrity of midwifery students; learning opportunities about the benefits of online visits; and suggesting further challenges for online visits. Conclusion: The online visit training was an opportunity for midwives who are raising their own children to reinforce an honest and humble approach based on the attitude of the students, for self-improvement, and to reflect on the practice of midwifery from another person’s viewpoint. It was also noted that the midwives contributed to the education of midwifery students. Furthermore, they also agreed with the use of online visitations and considered the advantages and disadvantages of its use from the perspective of mothers and midwives. Online visits were seen to empower midwives on childcare leave, as their child-rearing was accepted and admired. Online visits by students were considered to be an opportunity to not only provide a sense of fulfillment as a recipient of care but also to think concretely about career advancement, during childcare leave, regarding the ideal way for midwifery training and teaching.

Keywords: child-rearing midwife, COVID-19 pandemic, online visit practice, qualitive descriptive study

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27 Role of the Midwifery Trained Registered Nurse in Postnatal Units at Tertiary Care Hospitals in the Western Province of Sri Lanka: A Postal Survey

Authors: Sunethra Jayathilake, Vathsala Jayasuriya-Illesinghe, Kerstin Samarasinghe, Himani Molligoda, Rasika Perera


In Sri Lanka, postnatal care in the state hospitals is provided by different professional categories: Midwifery trained registered nurses (MTRNs), Registered Nurses (RNs) who do not have midwifery training, doctors and midwives. Even though four professional categories provide postnatal care to mothers and newborn babies, they are not aware of their own tasks and responsibilities in postnatal care. Particularly MTRN’s role in the postnatal unit is unclear. The current study aimed to identify nurses’ (both MTRN and RNs) perception on MTRN’s tasks and responsibilities in postnatal care. This is a descriptive cross sectional study using postal survey. All nurses who were currently working in postnatal units at five selected tertiary care hospitals in the Western Province at that time were invited to participate in the study. Accordingly, the pre evaluated self-administered questionnaire was sent to 201 nurses (53 MTRNs and 148 RNs) in the study setting. The number of valid return questionnaire was 166; response rate was 83%. Respondents rated the responsibility of four professional categories: MTRN, RN, doctor and midwife whether they are 'primarily responsible', 'responsible in absence' and 'not responsible', for each of 15 postnatal (PN) tasks which were previously identified from focus group discussions with care providers during the first phase of the study. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20; descriptive statistics were calculated. Out of the 15 PN tasks, 13 were identified as MTRNs’ primary responsibilities by 71%-93% of respondents. The respondents also considered six (6) tasks out of 15 as primary responsibility of both MTRN and RN, seven (7) tasks as primary responsibility of MTRN, RN and doctor and the remaining two (2) tasks were identified as the primary responsibility of MTRN, RN and midwife. All 15 PN tasks overlapped with other professional categories. Overlapping tasks may create role confusion leading to conflicts among professional categories which affect the quality of care they provide, eventually, threaten the safety of the client. It is recommended that an official job description for each care provider is needed to recognize their own professional boundaries for ensuring safe, quality care delivery in Sri Lanka.

Keywords: overlapping, postnatal, responsibilities, tasks

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26 Birth Path and the Vitality of Caring Models in the Continuity of Midwifery

Authors: Elnaz Lalezari, Ramin Ghasemi Shaya


The birth way is influenced by a fracture within the quiet care handle, making a brokenness of this final one. The pregnant lady has got to interface with numerous experts, both amid the pregnancy, the childbirth, and the puerperium. Be that as it may, amid the final ten a long time, there has been an expanding of the pregnancy care worked by the midwife, who is considered to be the administrator with the correct competences, who can beware of each pregnancy and may profit herself of other professionals' commitments in arrange to make strides the results of maternal and neonatal health. To confirm whether there are proofs of viability that bolster the caseload birthing assistance care show, and in case it is conceivable to apply this show within the birth way in Italy. A amendment of writing has been done utilizing a few look motor (Google, Bing) and particular databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, Domestic - There has, too, been a discussion of the Italian directions, the national rules, and the proposals of WHO. Results: The look string, legitimately adjusted to the three databases, has given the taking after comes about: MEDLINE 64 articles, CINAHL 94 articles, Embase 88 articles. From this choice, 14 articles have been extricated: 1 orderly survey, 3 controlled arbitrary trial, 7 observational ponders, 3 subjective studies. The caseload maternity care appears to be an successful and dependable organisational/caring strategy. It reacts to the criterions of quality and security, to the requirements of ladies not as it were amid the pregnancy but moreover amid the post-partum stage. For these reasons, it appears exceptionally valuable also for the birth way within the Italian reality.

Keywords: midwifery, care, caseload, maternity

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25 Validation of an Acuity Measurement Tool for Maternity Services

Authors: Cherrie Lowe


The TrendCare Patient Dependency System is currently utilized by a large number of Maternity Services across Australia, New Zealand and Singapore. In 2012, 2013, and 2014 validation studies were initiated in all three countries to validate the acuity tools used for Women in Labour, and Postnatal Mothers and Babies. This paper will present the findings of the validation study. Aim: The aim of this study was to; Identify if the care hours provided by the TrendCare Acuity System was an accurate reflection of the care required by Women and Babies. Obtain evidence of changes required to acuity indicators and/or category timings to ensure the TrendCare acuity system remains reliable and valid across a range of Maternity care models in three countries. Method: A non-experimental action research methodology was used across four District Health Boards in New Zealand, two large public Australian Maternity services and a large tertiary Maternity service in Singapore. Standardized data collection forms and timing devices were used to collect Midwife contact times with Women and Babies included in the study. Rejection processes excluded samples where care was not completed/rationed. The variances between actual timed Midwife/Mother/Baby contact and actual Trend Care acuity times were identified and investigated. Results: 87.5% (18) of TrendCare acuity category timings matched the actual timings recorded for Midwifery care. 12.5% (3) of TrendCare night duty categories provided less minutes of care than the actual timings. 100% of Labour Ward TrendCare categories matched actual timings for Midwifery care. The actual times given for assistance to New Zealand independent Midwives in Labour Ward showed a significant deviation to previous studies demonstrating the need for additional time allocations in Trend Care. Conclusion: The results demonstrated the importance of regularly validating the Trend Care category timings with the care hours required, as variances to models of care and length of stay in Maternity units have increased Midwifery workloads on the night shift. The level of assistance provided by the core labour ward staff to the Independent Midwife has increased substantially. Outcomes: As a consequence of this study changes were made to the night duty TrendCare Maternity categories, additional acuity indicators developed and times for assisting independent Midwives increased. The updated TrendCare version was delivered to Maternity services in 2014.

Keywords: maternity, acuity, research, nursing workloads

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24 First Step into a Smoke-Free Life: The Effectivity of Peer Education Programme of Midwifery Students

Authors: Rabia Genc, Aysun Eksioglu, Emine Serap Sarican, Sibel Icke


Today the habit of cigarette smoking is among one of the most important public health concerns because of the health problems it leads to. The most important and hazardous group to use tobacco and tobacco products is adolescents and teenagers. And one of the most effective ways to prevent them from starting to smoke is education. This research is a kind of educational intervention study which was carried out in order to evaluate the effect of peer education on the teenagers' knowledge about smoking. The research was carried out between October 15, 2013 and September 9, 2015 at Ege University Ataturk Vocational Health School. The population of the research comprised of the students that have been studying at Ege University Atatürk Vocational Health School, Midwifery Department (N=390). The peer educator group that would give training on smoking consisted of 10 people, and the peer groups that would be trained were divided into two groups via simple randomization as experimental group (n=185) and control group (n=185). Questionnaire, information evaluation form, and informed consent forms were used as date collection tools. The analysis of the data which were collected in the study was carried out on Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS 15.0). It was found out that 62.5 % of the students who were in peer educator group had smoked in some period of their lives; however, none of them continued to smoke. When they were asked about their reasons to start smoking, 25% said they just wanted to try it, and 25% of them answered that it was because of their friend groups. When the pre-peer education and post-peer education point averages of peer educator group were evaluated, the results showed that there was a significant difference between the point averages (p < 0.05). When the cigarette use of experimental group and the control group were evaluated, it was clear that 18.2% of the experimental group and 24.2%of the control group still smokes. 9.1% of the experimental group and 14.8% of control group stated that they started smoking because of their friend groups. Among the students who smoke 15.9% of the ones who belongs to the experimental group and 21.9% of the ones who belong to the control group stated they are thinking of quitting smoking. It was clear that there is a significant difference between the pre-education and post-education point averages of experimental group statistically (p ≤ 0.05); however, in terms of control group, there were no significant differences between the pre-test post-test averages statistically. Between the pre-test post-test averages of experimental and control groups there were not any statistically significant differences (p > 0.05). It was found out in the study that the peer education programme is not effective on the smoking habit of Vocational Health School students. When the future studies are being planned in order to evaluate the peer education activity, it can be taken into consideration that the peer education takes a long term and the students in the educator group will be more enthusiastic and a kind of leader in their environment.

Keywords: midwifery, peer, peer education, smoking

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23 Support Provided by Midwives to Women during Labour in a Public Hospital, Limpopo Province, South Africa: A Participant Observation Study

Authors: Sonto Maputle


Background: Support during labour increase women's chances of having positive childbirth experiences as well as childbirth outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine the support provided by midwives to women during labour at the public hospital in Limpopo Province. The study was conducted at the Tertiary hospital in Limpopo Province. Methods: A qualitative, participant observation approach was used. Population consisted of all women that were admitted to deliver their babies and the midwives who provided midwifery care in the obstetric unit of one tertiary public hospital in Limpopo Province. Non-probability, purposive and convenience sampling were used to sample 24 women and 12 midwives. Data were collected through participant observations which included unstructured conversations with the use of observational guide, field notes of events and conversations that occurred when women interact with midwives were recorded verbatim and a Visual Analog Scale to complement the observations. Data was analysed qualitatively but were presented in the tables and bar graphs. Results: Five themes emerged as support provided by midwives during labour, namely; communication between women and midwives, informational support, emotional support activities, interpretation of the experienced labour pain and supportive care activities during labour. Conclusion: The communication was occurring when the midwife was rendering midwifery care and very limited for empowering. The information sharing focused on the assistive actions rather than on the activities that would promote mothers’ participation. The emotional support activities indicated lack of respect and disregard cultural preferences and this contributed to inability to exercise choices in decision-making. The study recommended the implementation of Batho Pele principles in order to provide woman-centred care during labour.

Keywords: communication between women and midwives, labour pains, informational and emotional support, physical comforting measures

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22 Learning through Reflective Practice of Nursing Students in the Delivery Room: A Qualitative Research

Authors: Peeranan Wisanskoonwong, Sumitta Sawangtook


Practicum in Midwifery II is the subject that affects most students to be stressed and anxious because they lack of experiences and self-confidence in delivery baby. This study is a qualitative research. That research objectives were (1) to study learning through reflective practice of nursing students (2) to explain the effects of learning through reflective practice of nursing students in the delivery room. The selected key informant method was criterion-based selection. Thirty-two of fourth-year nursing students in Kuakarun Faculty of nursing who practiced in Delivery room at Taksin Hospital in academic year 2014 were selected. Data collection was data triangulation which consisted of in-depth interview, group discussion and reading students’ reflective practice journal. The research instruments were students’ reflective practice journal, semi-structured questionnaires for in-depth interview, group discussion. Data analysis was thematic analysis. The research result found that: The learning method through reflective practice of nursing students in the delivery room were (1) reflective practice journal (2) dialogue (3) critical thinking and problem solving (4) incident analysis (5) self-criticism (6) observation and evaluation of practice. There were eight issues that students learned through their reflective practice were that (1) students' ethics and morality. (2) students' knowledge and comprehension (3) creative thinking of students (4) communications and collaboration (5) experiential learning of students (6) students’memories and impressions (7) students’experience in delivery baby (8) self-learning of students. Learning through reflective practice supported students’ awareness in improving knowledge and learning continuously and systematically. It helped to adjust the attitude to learning and leadership to be careful which help develop their skills, including critical thinking and understand themselves and understand others. Recommendation for applying research results: midwifery and nursing lecturers can apply these results to be a guide for development their clinical teaching in delivery rooms and other wards.

Keywords: learning, reflection, birth, qualitative research

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21 Exploring Barriers to Quality of Care in South African Midwifery Obstetric Units: The Perspective of Nurses and Midwives

Authors: J. Dutton, L. Knight


Achieving quality and respectful maternal health care is part of the global agenda to improve reproductive health and achieve universal reproductive rights. Barriers to quality of care in South African maternal health facilities exist at both systemic and individual levels. Addition to this, the normalization of gender violence within South Africa has a large impact on people seeking health care as well as those who provide care within health facilities. The hierarchical environment of South Africa’s public health system penalizes both patients and providers who battle to assume any assessable power. This paper explores how systemic and individual level barriers to quality of care affect the midwifery profession within South African maternal health services and create, at times, an environment of enmity rather than care. This paper analyzes and discusses the data collected from in-depth, semi-structured interviews with nurses and midwives at three maternal health facilities in South Africa. This study has taken a holistic approach to understand the realities of nurses and midwives in order to explore the ways in which experience informs their practice and treatment of pregnant women. Through collecting and analyzing narratives, linkages between nurses and midwives day-to-day and historical experiences and disrespectful care have been made. Findings from this study show that barriers to quality of care take form in complex and interrelated ways. The physical structure of the health facility, human resource shortages, and the current model of maternal health care, which often lacks a person-centered approach, is entangled within personal beliefs and attitudes of what it means to be a midwife to create an environment that is often not conducive to a positive birthing experience. This entanglement sits within a society of high rates of violence, inequality, and poverty. Having teased out the nuances of each of these barriers and the multiple ways they reinforce each other, the findings of this paper demonstrate that birth, and the work of a midwife, are situated in a mode of discipline and punishment within this context. For analytical purposes, this paper has broken down the individual barriers to quality care and discusses the current and historical significance before returning to the interrelated forms in which barriers to quality maternal health care manifest. In conclusion this paper questions the role of agency in the ability to subvert systemic barriers to quality care and ideas around shifting attitudes and beliefs of and about midwives. International and local policies and guidelines have a role to play in realizing such shifts, however, as this paper suggests, when policy does not speak to the local context there is the risk of it contributing to frustrations and impeding the path to quality and respectful maternal health care.

Keywords: disrespect and abuse in childbirth, midwifery, South African maternal health care, quality of care

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20 The Effect of Midwifery Counseling Based on Gamble Approach on the Coping Strategies of Women with Abortion: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

Authors: Farzaneh Hasanzadeh Tahraband, Masoomeh Kheirkhah


The trauma resulting from Abortion causes fear, frustration, inability, lack of self-confidence and psychological distress in women. The present study was conducted to determine the effect of midwifery counseling based on the Gamble approach on coping strategies of women with abortion. This randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on women with abortions in April – October 2021, Karaj, Iran. Ninety-six eligible women were randomly assigned to two 48-member groups with 4, 6 and 8 blocks. The women in the intervention group participated in two 45-75-minute Gamble counseling programs. They were asked to fill out the demographic and fertility information questionnaire before the intervention and cope operations preference inquiry questionnaire before, immediately (in the 4-6th week of the study) and 3 months after the intervention. The analysis of the data was done through Chi-square, independent sample t-test. The significance level was considered P<0.05. The results showed that the differences between the two groups before the intervention were not statistically significant in terms of demographic and fertility variables (P>0.05). However, the total mean score of the problem-focused dimension in 3-month post-abortion (97/34±8/69) and emotion-focused dimension in 4-6 weeks and 3-month post-abortion (34/14±3/48 and 32/41±3/41) in the intervention group was significantly different from the control group (P<0.001). According to the results of the repeated measures ANOVA, the level of cope and its dimensions significantly changed in the intervention group over time (P<0.001). The results of the present study showed that Gamble counseling promoted the problem-focused dimension score and reduced the emotion-focused dimension score in women with abortion. It is recommended that Gamble counseling should be used as midwife-led counseling to increase coping strategies and reduce the psychological distress of women who have experienced abortion.

Keywords: midwife-led counseling, coping strategies, post-abortion, psychological distress, Iran

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19 Prenatal Genetic Screening and Counselling Competency Challenges of Nurse-Midwife

Authors: Girija Madhavanprabhakaran, Frincy Franacis, Sheeba Elizabeth John


Introduction: A wide range of prenatal genetic screening is introduced with increasing incidences of congenital anomalies even in low-risk pregnancies and is an emerging standard of care. Being frontline caretakers, the role and responsibilities of nurses and midwives are critical as they are working along with couples to provide evidence-based supportive educative care. The increasing genetic disorders and advances in prenatal genetic screening with limited genetic counselling facilities urge nurses and midwifery nurses with essential competencies to help couples to take informed decision. Objective: This integrative literature review aimed to explore nurse midwives’ knowledge and role in prenatal screening and genetic counselling competency and the challenges faced by them to cater to all pregnant women to empower their autonomy in decision making and ensuring psychological comfort. Method: An electronic search using keywords prenatal screening, genetic counselling, prenatal counselling, nurse midwife, nursing education, genetics, and genomics were done in the PUBMED, SCOPUS and Medline, Google Scholar. Finally, based on inclusion criteria, 8 relevant articles were included. Results: The main review results suggest that nurses and midwives lack essential support, knowledge, or confidence to be able to provide genetic counselling and help the couples ethically to ensure client autonomy and decision making. The majority of nurses and midwives reported inadequate levels of knowledge on genetic screening and their roles in obtaining family history, pedigrees, and providing genetic information for an affected client or high-risk families. The deficiency of well-recognized and influential clinical academic midwives in midwifery practice is also reported. Evidence recommended to update and provide sound educational training to improve nurse-midwife competence and confidence. Conclusion: Overcoming the challenges to achieving informed choices about fetal anomaly screening globally is a major concern. Lack of adequate knowledge and counselling competency, communication insufficiency, need for education and policy are major areas to address. Prenatal nurses' and midwives’ knowledge on prenatal genetic screening and essential counselling competencies can ensure services to the majority of pregnant women around the globe to be better-informed decision-makers and enhances their autonomy, and reduces ethical dilemmas.

Keywords: challenges, genetic counselling, prenatal screening, prenatal counselling

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18 An Audit of the Care in Recovery in Women after an Obstetrics Procedure

Authors: A. Haddick, A. Soltan


Background: During the period of recovery from an operative obstetric procedure, a woman is not only at risk of the life-threatening complications accompanying labour but also those associated with surgery and anaesthesia. It is speculated that women in the recovery area may receive a lower standard of care over a night shift. Thus obstetric recovery room care should be evaluated regularly to ensure all women receive an equally high standard of care 24/7. Aim: The aim of this audit was to undertake an audit in the Liverpool Women’s Hospital on the care in recovery, and to ascertain the extent to which the standards were met. This audit included the full audit cycle. Method: Standards were taken from the AAGBI, RCOA, NICE and CNST guidelines. There were 12 standards including appropriate documentation of vital signs and appropriate length of stay after surgery. Notes from 100 patients were analysed from March 2011-March 2012. There were 52 day notes and 48 night notes; these were accessed to gain the relevant data. In the re audit 35 notes were accessed from March 14-September 14. Results: The Liverpool Women’s Hospital met in total 10 of these standards. 10 were met during the day shift (83%) and 0 met during the night shift. In the re audit, there was a significant improvement in the standards met at night. 9 of the standards were met during the day and 7 of the standards were met at night. Clearly there are still improvements to be made. Conclusions: In the original audit, an audit action plan was formulated. This was following discussion of the results of this audit in an MDT meeting and presentation with a consultant Obstetrician, the head of Midwifery, the head of Obstetrics theatres and a recovery nurse. This audit will be further discussed in the Liverpool Woman's Hospital in July 2015 for further implementation for improvement.

Keywords: care, recovery, room, women

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17 Raising Awareness to Health Professionals about Emotional Needs of Families Suffering Perinatal Loss through a Short Documentary

Authors: Elisenda Camprecios, Alicia Macarrila, Montse Albiol, Neus Garriga Garriga


The loss of a child during pregnancy, or shortly after birth, is not a common occurrence, but it is a prevalent fact in our society. When this loss happens, life and death walk together. The grief that parents experience following a perinatal loss is a devastating experience. Professionals are aware that the quality of care offered during this first period is crucial to support the families experiencing a perinatal loss and meet their needs. However, it is not always easy for the health care professionals to know what to say and what to do in these difficult circumstances. Given the complexity of the Health, painful process that a family must face when is affected by such loss, we believe that the creation of a protocol that pays special attention to the emotional needs of those couples can be a very valuable tool for the professionals. The short documentary named ‘When the illusion vanished’ was created as part of the material of this protocol, which focuses on the emotional needs of the families who have suffered a perinatal loss. This video is designed to see what impact has a perinatal death and to raise awareness among professionals working in this field. The methodology is based on interviews with couples who have experienced perinatal death and to professionals who accompany families suffering from perinatal loss. The use of sensitive and empathized words, being encouraged to express feelings, respect the time, appropriate training for the professionals are some of the issues reflected in this documentary. We believe that this video has contributed to help health care professionals to empathize and understand the need to be able to accompany these families with the appropriate care, respectful, empathetic attitude and professionalism so that they can start the path to a ‘healthy’ mourning.

Keywords: neonatal loss, midwifery, perinatal bereavement, perinatal loss

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16 How Validated Nursing Workload and Patient Acuity Data Can Promote Sustained Change and Improvements within District Health Boards. the New Zealand Experience

Authors: Rebecca Oakes


In the New Zealand public health system, work has been taking place to use electronic systems to convey data from the ‘floor to the board’ that makes patient needs, and therefore nursing work, visible. For nurses, these developments in health information technology puts us in a very new and exciting position of being able to articulate the work of nursing through a language understood at all levels of an organisation, the language of acuity. Nurses increasingly have a considerable stake-hold in patient acuity data. Patient acuity systems, when used well, can assist greatly in demonstrating how much work is required, the type of work, and when it will be required. The New Zealand Safe Staffing Unit is supporting New Zealand nurses to create a culture of shared governance, where nursing data is informing policies, staffing methodologies and forecasting within their organisations. Assisting organisations to understand their acuity data, strengthening user confidence in using electronic patient acuity systems, and ensuring nursing and midwifery workload is accurately reflected is critical to the success of the safe staffing programme. Nurses and midwives have the capacity via an acuity tool to become key informers of organisational planning. Quality patient care, best use of health resources and a quality work environment are essential components of a safe, resilient and well resourced organisation. Nurses are the key informers of this information. In New Zealand a national level approach is paving the way for significant changes to the understanding and use of patient acuity and nursing workload information.

Keywords: nursing workload, patient acuity, safe staffing, New Zealand

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15 The Effect of Fetal Movement Counting on Maternal Antenatal Attachment

Authors: Esra Güney, Tuba Uçar


Aim: This study has been conducted for the purpose of determining the effects of fetal movement counting on antenatal maternal attachment. Material and Method: This research was conducted on the basis of the real test model with the pre-test /post-test control groups. The study population consists of pregnant women registered in the six different Family Health Centers located in the central Malatya districts of Yeşilyurt and Battalgazi. When power analysis is done, the sample size was calculated for each group of at least 55 pregnant women (55 tests, 55 controls). The data were collected by using Personal Information Form and MAAS (Maternal Antenatal Attachment Scale) between July 2015-June 2016. Fetal movement counting training was given to pregnant women by researchers in the experimental group after the pre-test data collection. No intervention was applied to the control group. Post-test data for both groups were collected after four weeks. Data were evaluated with percentage, chi-square arithmetic average, chi-square test and as for the dependent and independent group’s t test. Result: In the MAAS, the pre-test average of total scores in the experimental group is 70.78±6.78, control group is also 71.58±7.54 and so there was no significant difference in mean scores between the two groups (p>0.05). MAAS post-test average of total scores in the experimental group is 78.41±6.65, control group is also is 72.25±7.16 and so the mean scores between groups were found to have statistically significant difference (p<0.05). Conclusion: It was determined that fetal movement counting increases the maternal antenatal attachments.

Keywords: antenatal maternal attachment, fetal movement counting, pregnancy, midwifery

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14 An Exploration of Nursing Assistants' Continuing Professional Development (CPD) Engagement in a Acute Healthcare Setting: A Qualitative Case Study Pilot in England

Authors: Ana Fouto


Background: Continuing Personal Development (CPD) enables professionals to keep up to date with the professional requirements, broadening their knowledge and expertise. However, much of the research explores the registered professionals’ experiences and the factors that influence their choice of engaging, despite the unregistered staff providing the majority of the direct patient care. Aim: To explore the Nursing/Midwifery Assistants’ (NAs) perception of the concept of CPD, as well as explore the factors that influence the NAs to engage (or not) with CPD experiences. Methodology: This pilot study used a qualitative approach through a case study, where a semi-structured interview was applied to three NAs to explore the factors that influence the decision-making of process of CPD engagement. Thematic analysis was used to analyse their answers and interpret patterns and associations. Findings: All the participants agreed that CPD is important and relevant to their practice and personal lives. Five main categories were identified: NAs’ scope of practice, the impact of CPD; decision-making process; challenges; changes required. Although similar findings to the registered nurses were identified, the lack of CPD regulation for NAs and the rapid evolution of their role make the CPD engagement more problematic. Conclusion: Engagement with CPD is influenced by a wide range of professional (organisational and national) and personal factors. NAs perceive lack of management support at different stages of the CPD activities as a main influence. Organisations should be more flexible in the recruitment, offer of CPD choices, content, delivery, and contractual arrangements of NAs, which may increase engagement.

Keywords: nursing assistants, engagement, factors, pilot, continuing professional development (CPD)

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13 Improving Effectiveness of Students' Learning during Clinical Rotations at a Teaching Hospital in Rwanda

Authors: Nanyombi Lubimbi, Josette Niyokindi


Background: As in many other developing countries in Africa, Rwanda suffers from a chronic shortage of skilled Health Care professionals including Clinical Instructors. This shortage negatively affects the clinical instruction quality therefore impacting student-learning outcomes. Due to poor clinical supervision, it is often noted that students have no structure or consistent guidance in their learning process. The Clinical Educators and the Rwandan counterparts identified the need to create a favorable environment for learning. Description: During orientation the expectations of the student learning process, collaboration of the clinical instructors with the nurses and Clinical Educators is outlined. The ward managers facilitate structured learning by helping the students identify a maximum of two patients using the school’s objectives to guide the appropriate selection of patients. Throughout the day, Clinical Educators with collaboration of Clinical Instructors when present conduct an ongoing assessment of learning and provide feedback to the students. Post-conference is provided once or twice a week to practice critical thinking skills of patient cases that they have been taking care of during the day. Lessons Learned: The students are found to be more confident with knowledge and skills gained during rotations. Clinical facility evaluations completed by students at the end of their rotations highlight the student’s satisfaction and recommendation for continuation of structured learning. Conclusion: Based on the satisfaction of both students and Clinical Instructors, we have identified need for structured learning during clinical rotations. We acknowledge that more evidence-based practice is necessary to effectively address the needs of nursing and midwifery students throughout the country.

Keywords: Rwanda, clinical rotation, structured learning, critical thinking skills, post-conference

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12 Exclusive Breastfeeding Abandonment among Adolescent Mothers: A Cohort Study

Authors: Maria I. Nuñez-Hernández, Maria L. Riesco


Background: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) up to 6 months old infant have been considered one of the most important factors in the overall development of children. Nevertheless, as resources are scarce, it is essential to identify the most vulnerable groups that have major risk of EBF abandonment, in order to deliver the best strategies. Children of adolescent mothers are within these groups. Aims: To determine the EBF abandonment rate among adolescent mothers and to analyze the associated factors. Methods: Prospective cohort study of adolescent mothers in the southern area of Santiago, Chile, conducted in primary care services of public health system. The cohort was established from 2014 to 2015, with a sample of 105 adolescent mothers and their children at 2 months of life. The inclusion criteria were: adolescent mother from 14 to 19 years old; not twin babies; mother and baby leaving the hospital together after birthchild; correct attachment of the baby to the breast; no difficulty understanding the Spanish language or communicating. Follow-up was performed at 4 and 6 months old infant. Data were collected by interviews, considering EBF as breastfeeding only, without adding other milk, tea, juice, water or other product that not breast milk, except drugs. Data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics, by Kaplan-Meier estimator and Log-Rank test, admitting the probability of occurrence of type I error of 5% (p-value = 0.05). Results: The cumulative EBF abandonment rate at 2, 4 and 6 months was 33.3%, 52.2% and 63.8%, respectively. Factors associated with EBF abandonment were maternal perception of the quality of milk as poor (p < 0.001), maternal perception that the child was not satisfied after breastfeeding (p < 0.001), use of pacifier (p < 0.001), maternal consumption of illicit drugs after delivery (p < 0.001), mother return to school (p = 0.040) and presence of nipple trauma (p = 0.045). Conclusion: EBF abandonment rate was higher in the first 4 months of life and is superior to the population of women who breastfeed. Among the EBF abandonment factors, one of them is related to the adolescent condition, and two are related to the maternal subjective perception.

Keywords: adolescent, breastfeeding, midwifery, nursing

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11 Jordanian Health Care Providers' Attitudes toward Overweigth and Obese Women during Childbirth

Authors: Salwa Obeisat


Obesity had become a global issue and a major public health concern, because of its impact on the public health. Obstetric and midwifery evidences reported that maternal obesity an important issue, because of its associated complications like obstructed labors, infections, and hemorrhage. People who are obese are often stigmatized and blamed for their weight. Health care providers are not immune to obesity-related prejudice, and the literature features several examples of their negative attitudes towards obese patients. In Jordan, few studies were conducted to investigate obesity prevalence rate and its associated factors. The purposes of this study were to assess the health care providers' attitudes toward overweight and obese women during the childbirth in the North of Jordan and to investigate the relationships between health care providers' socio-demographic characteristics and their attitudes. A descriptive, cross-sectional design was utilized. A convenient sample was consisted of 95 midwives, 30 nurses and 62 obstetricians, who were working in the labor rooms. A self-administered questionnaire consisted of three sections: demographical data, Arabic version of Fat Phobia Scale (FPS), and Arabic version of Nurses' Attitudes toward Obesity and Obese Patients Scale (NATOOPS). Results: The study findings revealed that the majority of Jordanian health care providers held negative attitudes toward overweight and obese women during childbirth. Midwives held less negative attitudes than did obstetricians and nurses. The majority of participants were perceived the overweight and obese pregnant women during childbirth as overate people, shapeless, slow and unattractive. Age, specialty, education and years of experience were found to be associated with health care providers’ attitudes. The Conclusion: Health care providers negative attitudes toward overweight and obese pregnant women are a cause for concern. Therefore, maternal obesity was needed to be more adequately addressed in basic education courses, and in the continuing professional education classes of practicing health care providers.

Keywords: attitudes, obesity, prevalence rate, nurses, midwives, obstetrician, childbirth

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10 Improving Numeracy Standards for UK Pharmacy Students

Authors: Luke Taylor, Samantha J. Hall, Kenneth I. Cumming, Jakki Bardsley, Scott S. P. Wildman


Medway School of Pharmacy, as part of an Equality Diversity and Inclusivity (EDI) initiative run by the University of Kent, decided to take steps to try and negate disparities in numeracy competencies within students undertaking the Master of Pharmacy degree in order to combat a trend in pharmacy students’ numerical abilities upon entry. This included a research driven project 1) to identify if pharmacy students are aware of weaknesses in their numeracy capabilities, and 2) recognise where their numeracy skillset is lacking. In addition to gaining this student perspective, a number of actions have been implemented to support students in improving their numeracy competencies. Reflective and quantitative analysis has shown promising improvements for the final year cohort of 2014/15 when compared to previous years. The method of involving student feedback into the structure of numeracy teaching/support has proven to be extremely beneficial to both students and teaching staff alike. Students have felt empowered and in control of their own learning requirements, leading to increased engagement and attainment. School teaching staff have received quality data to help improve existing initiatives and to innovate further in the area of numeracy teaching. In light of the recognised improvements, further actions are currently being trialled in the area of numeracy support. This involves utilising Virtual Learning Environment platforms to provide individualised support as a supplement to the increased numeracy mentoring (staff and peer) provided to students. Mentors who provide group or one-to-one sessions are now given significant levels of training in dealing with situations that commonly arise from mentoring schemes. They are also provided with continued support throughout the life of their degree. Following results from this study, Medway School of Pharmacy hopes to drive increasing numeracy standards within Pharmacy (primarily through championing peer mentoring) as well as other healthcare professions including Midwifery and Nursing.

Keywords: attainment, ethnicity, numeracy, pharmacy, support

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9 Evaluation of a Higher Diploma in Mental Health Nursing Using Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Effects on Student Behavior, Attitude and Perception

Authors: T. Frawley, G. O'Kelly


The UCD School of Nursing, Midwifery and Health Systems Higher Diploma in Mental Health (HDMH) nursing programme commenced in January 2017. Forty students successfully completed the programme. Programme evaluation was conducted from the outset. Research ethics approval was granted by the UCD Human Research Ethics Committee – Sciences in November 2016 (LS-E-16-163). Plan for Sustainability: Each iteration of the programme continues to be evaluated and adjusted accordingly. Aims: The ultimate purpose of the HDMH programme is to prepare registered nurses (registered children’s nurse (RCN), registered nurse in intellectual disability (RNID) and registered general nurse (RGN)) to function as effective registered psychiatric nurses in all settings which provide care and treatment for people experiencing mental health difficulties. Curriculum evaluation is essential to ensure that the programme achieves its purpose, that aims and expected outcomes are met and that required changes are highlighted for the programme’s continuing positive development. Methods: Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used in the evaluation. A series of questionnaires were used (the majority pre and post programme) to determine student perceptions of the programme, behaviour and attitudinal change from commencement to completion. These included the student assessment of learning gains (SALG); mental health knowledge schedule (MAKS); mental health clinician attitudes scale (MICA); reported and intended behaviour scale (RIBS); and community attitudes towards the mentally ill (CAMI). In addition, student and staff focus groups were conducted. Evaluation methods also incorporated module feedback. Outcome/Results: The evaluation highlighted a very positive response in relation to the achievement of programme outcomes and preparation for future work as registered psychiatric nursing. Some areas were highlighted for further development, which have been taken cognisance of in the 2019 iteration of the programme.

Keywords: learning gains, mental health, nursing, stigma

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8 A Cross-Sectional Study on Clinical Self-Efficacy of Final Year School of Nursing Students among Universities of Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia

Authors: Awole Seid, Yosef Zenebe, Hadgu Gerensea, Kebede Haile Misgina


Background: Clinical competence is one of the ultimate goals of nursing education. Clinical skills are more than successfully performing tasks; it incorporates client assessment, identification of deficits and the ability to critically think to provide solutions. Assessment of clinical competence, particularly identifying gaps that need improvement and determining the educational needs of nursing students have great importance in nursing education. Thus this study aims determining clinical self-efficacy of final year school of nursing students in three universities of Tigray Region. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 224 final year school of nursing students from department of nursing, psychiatric nursing, and midwifery on three universities of Tigray region. Anonymous self-administered questionnaire was administered to generate data collected on June, 2017. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. The result is described using tables and charts as required. Logistic regression was employed to test associations. Result: The mean age of students was 22.94 + 1.44. Generally, 21% of students have been graduated in the department in which they are not interested. The study demonstrated 28.6% had poor and 71.4% had good perceived clinical self-efficacy. Beside this, 43.8% of psychiatric nursing and 32.6% of comprehensive nursing students have poor clinical self-efficacy. Among the four domains, 39.3% and 37.9% have poor clinical self- efficacy with regard to ‘Professional development’ and ‘Management of care’. Place of the institution [AOR=3.480 (1.333 - 9.088), p=0.011], interest during department selection [AOR=2.202 (1.045 - 4.642), p=.038], and theory-practice gap [AOR=0.224 (0.110 - 0.457), p=0.000] were significantly associated with perceived clinical self-efficacy. Conclusion: The magnitude of students with poor clinically self efficacy was high. Place of institution, theory-practice gap, students interest to the discipline were the significant predictors of clinical self-efficacy. Students from youngest universities have good clinical self-efficacy. During department selection, student’s interest should be respected. The universities and other stakeholders should improve the capacity of surrounding affiliate teaching hospitals to set and improve care standards in order to narrow the theory-practice gap. School faculties should provide trainings to hospital staffs and monitor standards of clinical procedures.

Keywords: clinical self-efficacy, nursing students, Tigray, northern Ethiopia

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7 The Developmental Model of Teaching and Learning Clinical Practicum at Postpartum Ward for Nursing Students by Using VARK Learning Styles

Authors: Wanwadee Neamsakul


VARK learning style is an effective method of learning that could enhance all skills of the students like visual (V), auditory (A), read/write (R), and kinesthetic (K). This learning style benefits the students in terms of professional competencies, critical thinking and lifelong learning which are the desirable characteristics of the nursing students. This study aimed to develop a model of teaching and learning clinical practicum at postpartum ward for nursing students by using VARK learning styles, and evaluate the nursing students’ opinions about the developmental model. A methodology used for this study was research and development (R&D). The model was developed by focus group discussion with five obstetric nursing instructors who have experiences teaching Maternal Newborn and Midwifery I subject. The activities related to practices in the postpartum (PP) ward including all skills of VARK were assigned into the matrix table. The researcher asked the experts to supervise the model and adjusted the model following the supervision. Subsequently, it was brought to be tried out with the nursing students who practiced on the PP ward. Thirty third year nursing students from one of the northern Nursing Colleges, Academic year 2015 were purposive sampling. The opinions about the satisfaction of the model were collected using a questionnaire which was tested for its validity and reliability. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The developed model composed of 27 activities. Seven activities were developed as enhancement of visual skills for the nursing students (25.93%), five activities as auditory skills (18.52%), six activities as read and write skills (22.22%), and nine activities as kinesthetic skills (33.33%). Overall opinions about the model were reported at the highest level of average satisfaction (mean=4.63, S.D=0.45). In the aspects of visual skill (mean=4.80, S.D=0.45) was reported at the highest level of average satisfaction followed by auditory skill (mean=4.62, S.D=0.43), read and write skill (mean=4.57, S.D=0.46), and kinesthetic skill (mean=4.53, S.D=0.45) which were reported at the highest level of average satisfaction, respectively. The nursing students reported that the model could help them employ all of their skills during practicing and taking care of the postpartum women and newborn babies. They could establish self-confidence while providing care and felt proud of themselves by the benefits of the model. It can be said that using VARK learning style to develop the model could enhance both nursing students’ competencies and positive attitude towards the nursing profession. Consequently, they could provide quality care for postpartum women and newborn babies effectively in the long run.

Keywords: model, nursing students, postpartum ward, teaching and learning clinical practicum

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6 Obstacles and Ways-Forward to Upgrading Nigeria Basic Nursing Schools: A Survey of Perception of Teaching Hospitals’ Nurse Trainers and Stakeholders

Authors: Chijioke Oliver Nwodoh, Jonah Ikechukwu Eze, Loretta Chika Ukwuaba, Ifeoma Ndubuisi, Ada Carol Nwaneri, Ijeoma Lewechi Okoronkwo


Presence of nursing workforce with unequal qualification and status in Nigeria has undermined the growth of nursing profession in the country. Upgrading of the existing basic and post-basic nursing schools to degree-awarding institutions in Nigeria is a way-forward to solving this inequality problem and Nigeria teaching hospitals are in vantage position for this project due to the already existing supportive structure and manpower in those hospitals. What the nurse trainers and the stakeholders of the teaching hospitals may hold for or against the upgrading is a determining factor for the upgrading project, but that is not clear and has not been investigated in Nigeria. The study investigated the perception of nurse trainers and stakeholders of teaching hospitals in Enugu State of Nigeria on the obstacles and ways-forward to upgrading nursing schools to degree-awarding institutions in Nigeria. The study specifically elicited what the subjects may view as obstacles to upgrading basic and post-basic nursing schools to degree-awarding institutions in Nigeria and ascertained their suggestions on the possible ways of overcoming the obstacles. By utilizing cross-sectional descriptive design and a purposive sampling procedure, 78 accessible subjects out of a total population of 87 were used for the study. The generated data from the subjects were analyzed using frequencies, percentages and mean for the research questions and Pearson’s chi-square for the hypotheses, with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version 20.0. The result showed that lack of extant policy, fund, and disunity among policy makers and stakeholders of nursing profession are the main obstacles to the upgrading. However, the respondents did not see items like: stakeholders and nurse trainers of basic and post-basic schools of nursing; fear of admitting and producing poor quality nurses; and so forth, as obstacles to the upgrading project. Institution of the upgrading policy by Nursing and Midwifery Council of Nigeria, funding, awareness creation for the upgrading and unison among policy makers and stakeholders of nursing profession are the major possible ways to overcome the obstacles. The difference in the subjects’ perceptions between the two hospitals was found to be statistically insignificant (p > 0.05). It is recommended that the policy makers and stakeholders of nursing in Nigeria should unite and liaise with Federal Ministries of Health and Education for modalities and actualization of upgrading nursing schools to degree-awarding institutions in Nigeria.

Keywords: nurse trainers, obstacles, perception, stakeholders, teaching hospital, upgrading basic nursing schools, ways-forward

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5 Efficacy of Ergonomics Ankle Support on Squatting Pushing Skills during the Second Stage of Labor

Authors: Yu-Ching Lin, Meei-Ling Gau, Ghi-Hwei Kao, Hung-Chang Lee


Objective: To compare the pushing experiences and birth outcomes of three different pushing positions during the second stage of labor. The three positions were: semi-recumbent, squatting, and squatting with the aid of ergonomically designed ankle supports. Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted at a regional teaching hospital in northern Taiwan. Data were collected from 168 primiparous women in their 38th to 42nd gestational week. None of the participants received epidural analgesia during labor and all were free of pregnancy and labor-related complications. Intervention: During labor, after full cervical dilation and when the fetal head had descended to at least the +1 station and had turned to the occiput anterior position, the experimental group was asked to push in the squatting position while wearing the ergonomically designed ankle supports; comparison group A was asked to push in the squatting position without the use of these supports; and comparison group B was asked to push in a standard semi-recumbent position. Measures: The participants completed a demographic and obstetrics datasheet, the Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ-SF), and the Labor Pushing Experience scale within 4-hours postpartum. Conclusion: In terms of delivery time, the duration between the start of pushing to crowning for the experimental group (squatting with ankle supports) averaged 25.52 minutes less (F =6.02, p< .05) than the time for comparison group B (semi-recumbent). Furthermore, the duration between the start of pushing to infant birth averaged 25.21 minutes less for the experimental group than for comparison group B (F =6.14, p< .05). Moreover, the experimental group had a lower average VAS pain score (5.05±3.22) than comparison group B and the average McGill pain score for the experimental group was lower than both comparison groups (F=18.12, p< .001). In summary, the participants in the group that delivered from a squatting position with ankle supports had better labor pushing experiences than their peers in the comparison groups. Results: In comparison to both unsupported squatting and semi-recumbent pushing, squatting with the aid of ergonomically designed ankle supports reduced pushing times, ameliorated labor pain, and improved the pushing experience. Clinical application and suggestion: The squatting with ankle-support intervention introduced in the present study may significantly reduce tiredness and difficulties in maintaining balance as well as increase pushing efficiency. Thus, this intervention may reduce the caring needs of women during the second stage of labor. This intervention may be introduced in midwifery education programs and in clinical practice as a method to improve the care of women during the second stage of labor.

Keywords: second stage of labor, pushing, squatting with ankle supports, squatting

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4 Antenatal Monitoring of Pre-Eclampsia in a Low Resource Setting

Authors: Alina Rahim, Joanne Moffatt, Jessica Taylor, Joseph Hartland, Tamer Abdelrazik


Background: In 2011, 15% of maternal deaths in Uganda were due to hypertensive disorders (pre-eclampsia and eclampsia). The majority of these deaths are avoidable with optimum antenatal care. The aim of the study was to evaluate how antenatal monitoring of pre-eclampsia was carried out in a low resource setting and to identify barriers to best practice as recommended by the World Health Organisation (WHO) as part of a 4th year medical student External Student Selected component field trip. Method: Women admitted to hospital with pre-eclampsia in rural Uganda (Villa Maria and Kitovu Hospitals) over a year-long period were identified using the maternity register and antenatal record book. It was not possible to obtain notes for all cases identified on the maternity register. Therefore a total of thirty sets of notes were reviewed. The management was recorded and compared to Ugandan National Guidelines and WHO recommendations. Additional qualitative information on routine practice was established by interviewing staff members from the obstetric and midwifery teams. Results: From the records available, all patients in this sample were managed according to WHO recommendations during labour. The rate of Caesarean section as a mode of delivery was noted to be high in this group of patients; 56% at Villa Maria and 46% at Kitovu. Antenatally two WHO recommendations were not routinely met: aspirin prophylaxis and calcium supplementation. This was due to lack of resources, and lack of attendance at antenatal clinic leading to poor detection of high-risk patients. Medical management of pre-eclampsia varied between individual patients, overall 93.3% complied with Ugandan national guidelines. Two patients were treated with diuretics, which is against WHO guidance. Discussion: Antenatal monitoring of pre-eclampsia is important in reducing severe morbidity, long-term disability and mortality amongst mothers and their babies 2 . Poor attendance at antenatal clinic is a barrier to healthcare in low-income countries. Increasing awareness of the importance of these visits for women should be encouraged. The majority of cases reviewed in this sample of women were treated according to Ugandan National Guidelines. It is recommended to commence the use of aspirin prophylaxis for women at high-risk of developing pre-eclampsia and the creation of detailed guidelines for Uganda which would allow for standardisation of care county-wide.

Keywords: antenatal monitoring, low resource setting, pre-eclampsia, Uganda

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3 Establishment of Nursing School in the Backward Region of Nepal

Authors: Shyam lamsal


Introduction: Karnali Academy of Health Sciences (KAHS) has been established in 2011, by an Act of parliament of Nepal, in Jumla, to provide health services in easy way in backward areas, to produce skilled health professionals & conduct research. The backward areas mentioned in act of KAHS are Humla, Jumla, Kalikot, Dolpa, Mugu districts of Karnali zone, Jajarkot district of Bheri zone & Bajura, Baghang & Achham districts of Seti zone in Nepal occupying around 25 % of the total national geography. Backward area of Nepal is specific to having worst health indicators with life expectancy (47 years), HDI (0.35), Literacy rate (58%), global acute malnutrition (13%), crude birth rate (33.6), crude death rate (9.6), Total fertility rate (4.2), infant mortality rate (61.5 per 1000 live births), under five mortality rate (59 per 1000 live births) and maternal mortality ratio (400 per 1000 live births). History of health facilities in backward region: All the nine districts of this region have a district hospital with very few grass root level health manpower. Government of Nepal regularly deploys one or two medical officers to each district who generally are not regular to their care. Jumla district itself was having one medical officer before the establishment of KAHS. Development activities: Establishment of 100 bedded specialty teaching hospital with 10 medical officers and five specialists, accredited its own nursing school for running diploma nursing programme, started “Karnali health survey” which covers 55 thousand households of backward region, started community care and school health camps, planning phase completed for 300 bedded teaching hospital construction. Future Plan: Expansion of the teaching hospital to 300 beds within 3 years, start health assistant and bachelor midwifery course in 2015 AD, start bachelor in laboratory and bachelor in public health course in 2016 AD and start MBBS course in 2018 AD. Deploy the medical officers and family physicians to all the district hospitals within 3 years. KAHS provides reservation up to 45% students from backward region with the commitment to stay for at least five years of their service period. Conclusion: This institution may be the example for the rest of the world in providing nursing care, education in remote areas as well as the best model for nursing manpower retention in remote areas of developing countries.

Keywords: backward area, nursing school

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2 Prospective Service Evaluation of Physical Healthcare In Adult Community Mental Health Services in a UK-Based Mental Health Trust

Authors: Gracie Tredget, Raymond McGrath, Karen Ang, Julie Williams, Nick Sevdalis, Fiona Gaughran, Jorge Aria de la Torre, Ioannis Bakolis, Andy Healey, Zarnie Khadjesari, Euan Sadler, Natalia Stepan


Background: Preventable physical health problems have been found to increase morbidity rates amongst adults living with serious mental illness (SMI). Community mental health clinicians have a role in identifying, and preventing physical health problems worsening, and supporting primary care services to administer routine physical health checks for their patients. However, little is known about how mental health staff perceive and approach their role when providing physical healthcare amongst patients with SMI, or the impact these attitudes have on routine practice. Methods: The present study involves a prospective service evaluation specific to Adult Community Mental Health Services at South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust (SLaM). A qualitative methodology will use semi-structured interviews, focus groups and observations to explore attitudes, perceptions and experiences of staff, patients, and carers (n=64) towards physical healthcare, and barriers or facilitators that impact upon it. 1South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, SE5 8AZ, UK 2 Centre for Implementation Science, King’s College London, London, SE5 8AF, UK 3 Psychosis Studies, King's College London, London, SE5 8AF, UK 4 Department of Biostatistics and Health Informatics, King’s College London, London, SE5 8AF, UK 5 Kings Health Economics, King's College London, London, SE5 8AF, UK 6 Behavioural and Implementation Science (BIS) research group, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK 7 Department of Nursing, Midwifery and Health, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK 8 Mind and Body Programme, King’s Health Partners, Guy’s Hospital, London, SE1 9RT *[email protected] Analysis: Data from across qualitative tasks will be synthesised using Framework Analysis methodologies. Staff, patients, and carers will be invited to participate in co-development of recommendations that can improve routine physical healthcare within Adult Community Mental Health Teams at SLaM. Results: Data collection is underway at present. At the time of the conference, early findings will be available to discuss. Conclusions: An integrated approach to mind and body care is needed to reduce preventable deaths amongst people with SMI. This evaluation will seek to provide a framework that better equips staff to approach physical healthcare within a mental health setting.

Keywords: severe mental illness, physical healthcare, adult community mental health, nursing

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