Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4743

Search results for: cross protection

4743 The Need to Enhance Online Consumer Protection in KSA

Authors: Abdulrahman Aloufi

Abstract:

E-commerce has evolved to become a functional and mainstream tool of global trading, including in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Consequently, online consumers need protection just as much as consumers in the offline world. In 2019, the Ministry of Commerce in Saudi Arabia established a so-called ‘e-commerce law’; however, this law does not cover the court enforcement of contracts entered into by international vendors, so it is not applicable in cross-border situations. The purpose of this paper is to identify the gaps present in this new e-commerce law in Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: consumer protection, e-commerce law, Saudi consumer, international vendor

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
4742 Energy Metabolites Show Cross-Protective Plastic Responses for Stress Resistance in a Circumtropical Drosophila Species

Authors: Ankita Pathak, Ashok Munjal, Ravi Parkash

Abstract:

Plastic responses to multiple environmental stressors in wet or dry seasonal populations of tropical Drosophila species have received less attention. We tested plastic effects of heat hardening, acclimation to drought or starvation; and changes in trehalose, proline and body lipids in D. ananassae flies reared under wet or dry season specific conditions. Wet season flies revealed significant increase in heat knockdown, starvation resistance and body lipids after heat hardening. However, accumulation of proline was observed only after desiccation acclimation of dry season flies while wet season flies elicited no proline but trehalose only. Therefore, drought-induced proline can be a marker metabolite for dry season flies. Further, partial utilization of proline and trehalose under heat hardening reflects their possible thermoprotective effects. Heat hardening elicited cross-protection to starvation stress. Stressor-specific accumulation or utilization, as well as rates of metabolic change for each energy metabolite, were significantly higher in wet season flies than dry season flies. Energy metabolite changes due to inter-related stressors (heat vs. desiccation or starvation) resulted in possible maintenance of energetic homeostasis in wet or dry season flies. Thus, low or high humidity induced plastic changes in energy metabolites can provide cross-protection to seasonally varying climatic stressors.

Keywords: wet-dry seasons, plastic changes, stress related traits, energy metabolites, cross protection

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
4741 Collective Redress in Consumer Protection in South East Europe: Cross-National Comparisons, Issues of Commonality and Difference

Authors: Veronika Efremova

Abstract:

In recent decades, there have been significant developments in the European Union in the field of collective consumer redress. South East European countries (SEE) covered by this paper, in line with their EU accession priorities and duties under Stabilisation and Association Agreements, have to harmonize their national laws with the relevant EU acquis for consumer protection (Chapter 28: Health and Consumer). In these countries, only minimal compliance is achieved. SEE countries have introduced rudimentary collective redress mechanisms, with modest enforcement of collective redress and case law. This paper is based on comprehensive interdisciplinary research conducted for SEE countries on common principles for injunctive and compensatory collective redress mechanisms, emphasizing cross-national comparisons, underlining issues of commonality and difference aiming to develop recommendations for an adequate enforcement of collective redress. SEE countries are recognized by the sectoral approach for regulating collective redress contrary to the majority of EU Member States with having adopted horizontal approach to collective redress. In most SEE countries, the laws do not recognize compensatory but only injunctive collective redress in consumer protection. All responsible stakeholders for implementation of collective redress in SEE countries, lack information and awareness on collective redress mechanisms and the way they function in practice. Therefore, specific actions are needed in these countries to make the whole system of collective redress for consumer protection operational and efficient. Taking into consideration the various designated stakeholders in collective redress in each SEE countries, there is a need of their mutual coordination and cooperation in order to develop consumer protection system and policies. By putting into practice the national collective redress mechanisms, effective access to justice for all consumers, the principle of rule of law will be secured and appropriate procedural guarantees to avoid abusive litigation will be ensured.

Keywords: collective redress mechanism, consumer protection, commonality and difference, South East Europe

Procedia PDF Downloads 120
4740 Collaborative Governance in Dutch Flood Risk Management: An Historical Analysis

Authors: Emma Avoyan

Abstract:

The safety standards for flood protection in the Netherlands have been revised recently. It is expected that all major flood-protection structures will have to be reinforced to meet the new standards. The Dutch Flood Protection Programme aims at accomplishing this task through innovative integrated projects such as construction of multi-functional flood defenses. In these projects, flood safety purposes will be combined with spatial planning, nature development, emergency management or other sectoral objectives. Therefore, implementation of dike reinforcement projects requires early involvement and collaboration between public and private sectors, different governmental actors and agencies. The development and implementation of such integrated projects has been an issue in Dutch flood risk management since long. Therefore, this article analyses how cross-sector collaboration within flood risk governance in the Netherlands has evolved over time, and how this development can be explained. The integrative framework for collaborative governance is applied as an analytical tool to map external factors framing possibilities as well as constraints for cross-sector collaboration in Dutch flood risk domain. Supported by an extensive document and literature analysis, the paper offers insights on how the system context and different drivers changing over time either promoted or hindered cross-sector collaboration between flood protection sector, urban development, nature conservation or any other sector involved in flood risk governance. The system context refers to the multi-layered and interrelated suite of conditions that influence the formation and performance of complex governance systems, such as collaborative governance regimes, whereas the drivers initiate and enable the overall process of collaboration. In addition, by applying a method of process tracing we identify a causal and chronological chain of events shaping cross-sectoral interaction in Dutch flood risk management. Our results indicate that in order to evaluate the performance of complex governance systems, it is important to firstly study the system context that shapes it. Clear understanding of the system conditions and drivers for collaboration gives insight into the possibilities of and constraints for effective performance of complex governance systems. The performance of the governance system is affected by the system conditions, while at the same time the governance system can also change the system conditions. Our results show that the sequence of changes within the system conditions and drivers over time affect how cross-sector interaction in Dutch flood risk governance system happens now. Moreover, we have traced the potential of this governance system to shape and change the system context.

Keywords: collaborative governance, cross-sector interaction, flood risk management, the Netherlands

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4739 Influence of Cathodic Protection on High Strength, Pre-Stressed Corroded Tendons

Authors: Ibrahim R. Elomari, Fin O'Flaherty, Ibrahim R. Elomari, Paul Lambert

Abstract:

Cathodic protection (CP) is a technique commonly used to arrest corrosion of steel in infrastructure. However, it is not generally used on high strength, pre-stressed tendons due to the risk of hydrogen generation, leading to possible embrittlement. This paper investigates its use in such circumstances where the applied protection potential is varied to determine if CP can be safely employed on pre-stressed tendons. Plain steel tendons measuring 5.4 mm diameter were pre-stressed in timber moulds and embedded in sand/cement mortar, formulated to represent gunite. Two levels of pre-stressing were investigated (400MPa and 1200MPa). Pre-corrosion of 0% (control), 3% and 6% target loss of cross-sectional area was applied to replicate service conditions. Impressed current cathodic protection (ICCP) was then applied to the tendons at two levels of potential to identify any effect on strength. Instant-off values up to -950mV were used for normal protection with values of -1100mV or more negative to achieve overprotection. Following the ICCP phase, the tendons were removed from the mortar, cleaned and weighed to confirm actual percentage of corrosion. Tensile tests were then conducted on the tendons. The preliminary results show the influence of normal levels and overprotection of CP on the ultimate strength of the tendons.

Keywords: pre-stressed concrete, corrosion, cathodic protection, hydrogen embrittlement

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
4738 Analysis of SCR-Based ESD Protection Circuit on Holding Voltage Characteristics

Authors: Yong Seo Koo, Jong Ho Nam, Yong Nam Choi, Dae Yeol Yoo, Jung Woo Han

Abstract:

This paper presents a silicon controller rectifier (SCR) based ESD protection circuit for IC. The proposed ESD protection circuit has low trigger voltage and high holding voltage compared with conventional SCR ESD protection circuit. Electrical characteristics of the proposed ESD protection circuit are simulated and analyzed using TCAD simulator. The proposed ESD protection circuit verified effective low voltage ESD characteristics with low trigger voltage and high holding voltage.

Keywords: electro-static discharge (ESD), silicon controlled rectifier (SCR), holding voltage, protection circuit

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4737 Strengthening Legal Protection of Personal Data through Technical Protection Regulation in Line with Human Rights

Authors: Tomy Prihananto, Damar Apri Sudarmadi

Abstract:

Indonesia recognizes the right to privacy as a human right. Indonesia provides legal protection against data management activities because the protection of personal data is a part of human rights. This paper aims to describe the arrangement of data management and data management in Indonesia. This paper is a descriptive research with qualitative approach and collecting data from literature study. Results of this paper are comprehensive arrangement of data that have been set up as a technical requirement of data protection by encryption methods. Arrangements on encryption and protection of personal data are mutually reinforcing arrangements in the protection of personal data. Indonesia has two important and immediately enacted laws that provide protection for the privacy of information that is part of human rights.

Keywords: Indonesia, protection, personal data, privacy, human rights, encryption

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
4736 Efficient Backup Protection for Hybrid WDM/TDM GPON System

Authors: Elmahdi Mohammadine, Ahouzi Esmail, Najid Abdellah

Abstract:

This contribution aims to present a new protected hybrid WDM/TDM PON architecture using Wavelength Selective Switches and Optical Line Protection devices. The objective from using these technologies is to improve flexibility and enhance the protection of GPON networks.

Keywords: Wavlenght Division Multiplexed Passive Optical Network (WDM-PON), Time Division Multiplexed PON (TDM-PON), architecture, Protection, Wavelength Selective Switches (WSS), Optical Line Protection (OLP)

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4735 Nanofluid Flow Heat Transfer Through Ducts with Different Cross-Sections

Authors: Amir Dehshiri, Mohammad Reza Salimpour

Abstract:

In the present article, we investigate experimental laminar forced convective heat transfer specifications of TiO2/water nanofluids through conduits with different cross sections. We check the effects of different parameters such as cross-sectional shape, Reynolds number and concentration of nanoparticles in stable suspension on increasing convective heat transfer by designing and assembling of an experimental apparatus. The results demonstrate adding a little amount of nanoparticles to the base fluid, improves heat transfer behavior in conduits. Moreover, conduit with circular cross-section has better performance compared to the square and triangular cross sections. However, conduits with square and triangular cross sections have more relative heat transfer enhancement than conduit with circular cross section.

Keywords: nanofluid, cross-sectional shape, TiO2, convection

Procedia PDF Downloads 360
4734 New Effect of Duct Cross Sectional Shape on the Nanofluid Flow Heat Transfer

Authors: Mohammad R. Salimpour, Amir Dehshiri

Abstract:

In the present article, we investigate experimental laminar forced convective heat transfer specifications of TiO2/water nanofluids through conduits with different cross sections. we check the effects of different parameters such as cross sectional shape, Reynolds number and concentration of nanoparticles in stable suspension on increasing convective heat transfer by designing and assembling of an experimental apparatus. The results demonstrate adding a little amount of nanoparticles to the base fluid, improves heat transfer behavior in conduits. Moreover, conduit with circular cross-section has better performance compared to the square and triangular cross sections. However, conduits with square and triangular cross sections have more relative heat transfer enchantment than conduit with circular cross section.

Keywords: nano fluid, cross-sectional shape, TiO2, convection

Procedia PDF Downloads 457
4733 Distance Protection Performance Analysis

Authors: Abdelsalam Omar

Abstract:

This paper presents simulation-based case study that indicate the need for accurate dynamic modeling of distance protection relay. In many cases, a static analysis based on current and voltage phasors may be sufficient to assess the performance of distance protection. There are several circumstances under which such a simplified study does not provide the depth of analysis necessary to obtain accurate results, however. This letter present study of the influences of magnetizing inrush and power swing on the performance of distance protection relay. One type of numerical distance protection relay has been investigated: 7SA511. The study has been performed in order to demonstrate the relay response when dynamic model of distance relay is utilized.

Keywords: distance protection, magnitizing inrush, power swing, dynamic model of protection relays, simulatio

Procedia PDF Downloads 398
4732 Effect of Channel Cross Section Shape on Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient of Nanofluid Flow

Authors: Mohammad Reza Salimpour, Amir Dehshiri

Abstract:

In the present article, we investigate experimental laminar forced convective heat transfer specifications of TiO2/water nanofluids through conduits with different cross sections. We check the effects of different parameters such as cross sectional shape, Reynolds number and concentration of nanoparticles in stable suspension on increasing convective heat transfer by designing and assembling of an experimental apparatus. The results demonstrate adding a little amount of nanoparticles to the base fluid improves heat transfer behavior in conduits. Moreover, conduit with circular cross-section has better performance compared to the square and triangular cross sections. However, conduits with square and triangular cross sections have more relative heat transfer enhancement than conduit with circular cross section.

Keywords: nanofluid, cross-sectional shape, TiO2, convection

Procedia PDF Downloads 372
4731 Thermal Performance Investigation on Cross V-Shape Solar Air Collectors

Authors: Xi Luo, Xu Ji, Yunfeng Wang, Guoliang Li, Chongqiang Yan, Ming Li

Abstract:

Two different kinds of cross V-shape solar air collectors are designed and constructed. In the transverse cross V-shape collector, the V-shape bottom plate is along the air flow direction and the absorbing plate is perpendicular to the air flow direction. In the lengthway cross V-shape collector, the V-shape absorbing plate is along the air flow direction and the bottom plate is perpendicular to the air flow direction. Based on heat balance, the mathematical model is built to evaluate their performances. These thermal performances of the two cross V-shape solar air collectors and an extra traditional flat-plate solar air collector are characterized under various operating conditions by experiments. The experimental results agree well with the calculation values. The experimental results prove that the thermal efficiency of transverse cross V-shape collector precedes that of others. The air temperature at any point along the flow direction of the transverse cross V-shape collector is higher than that of the lengthway cross V-shape collector. For the transverse cross V-shape collector, the most effective length of flow channel is 0.9m. For the lengthway cross V-shape collector, a longer flow channel is necessary to achieve a good thermal performance.

Keywords: cross v-shape, performance, solar air collector, thermal efficiency

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4730 Cross Boader Marriages in 3rd World Countries (Economical Perspective)

Authors: Shagufta Jahangir, Raisa Jahangir

Abstract:

According to researches the 3rd world youth crave to go to developed countries just merely to get sustainable economic situation. To accomplish their wish they use each and every thing like cross boarder marriages is one of them. The basic and main point of cross boarder marriages is financial sustainability neither cross boarder culture nor cross boarder religion or others. The consequences of this research are that 60% to 70% men of 3rd world do cross boarder marriages just for only economic firmness. Due to this thoughts these men flipside to their native areas with only economic firmness rather social attitudes, moral attitudes behaviors, norms, myths and religion.40% to 50 % men do cross boarder marriages to get firmness even they have families in their native areas.2nd family formation is the easy way to get their desired, according to their eyes. After satisfying their needs they back unaccompanied to their native areas even they leave their offspring. They give precedence to their inhabitant families. This study has been design to find out that economic perspective is the basic phenomena of cross boarder marriages in the 3rd world countries men.

Keywords: cross boarder marriages, moral attitudes, native areas, flipside, norms

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
4729 A Comparative Study on Multimodal Metaphors in Public Service Advertising of China and Germany

Authors: Xing Lyu

Abstract:

Multimodal metaphor promotes the further development and refinement of multimodal discourse study. Cultural aspects matter a lot not only in creating but also in comprehending multimodal metaphor. By analyzing the target domain and the source domain in 10 public service advertisements of China and Germany about environmental protection, this paper compares the source when the target is alike in each multimodal metaphor in order to seek similarities and differences across cultures. The findings are as follows: first, the multimodal metaphors center around three major topics: the earth crisis, consequences of environmental damage, and appeal for environmental protection; second, the multimodal metaphors mainly grounded in three universal conceptual metaphors which focused on high level is up; earth is mother and all lives are precious. However, there are five Chinese culture-specific multimodal metaphors which are not discovered in Germany ads: east is high leve; a purposeful life is a journey; a nation is a person; good is clean, and water is mother. Since metaphors are excellent instruments on studying ideology, this study can be helpful on intercultural/cross-cultural communication.

Keywords: multimodal metaphor, cultural aspects, public service advertising, cross-cultural communication

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4728 A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Ethical Standards in Social and Behavioral Research

Authors: Xiwu Feng

Abstract:

The paper is to analyze research ethics in social and behavioral sciences from a cross-cultural perspective. A multi-phase study investigated implementations of ethical standards and guidelines in higher institutions in China. Institutional policies and procedures on human subject research and perceptions of human subject protection were assessed in the Chinese research universities from different regions. The findings of the study indicate that the implementations of ethical standards and guidelines vary from institution to institution and from region to region. Education and cultural backgrounds of the participants influence their perceptions of the welfare and privacy of human subjects. The results of the study reveal great differences and complexities in ethical standards for the protection of human subjects of research in contrast to the Western world. The Chinese collectivistic values and the cooperative-harmonious democracy play a significant role in perceiving and implementing ethical guidelines. Chinese researchers find themselves a long way to go before seeing implementations of regulations and guidelines on human subject research in social and behavioral sciences.

Keywords: ethical standards, human subjects, research ethics, social and behavioral research

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
4727 Lightning Protection Design Applied to Sustainable Development

Authors: Sylvain Fauveaux, T. Nowicki

Abstract:

Lightning protection is nowadays applied worldwide since the advent of international standards. Lightning protection is widely justified by the casualties and damages involved. As a matter of fact, the lightning business is constantly growing as more and more sensible areas need to be protected. However, the worldwide demand of copper materiel is increasing as well, its price too. Furthermore, the most frequently used method of protection is consuming a lot of copper. The copper production is also consuming a large amount of natural and power resources, not to mention the ecologic balance.

Keywords: ESEAT, Lightning protection , natural resources management, NF C 17-102, sustainable development

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
4726 Pilot Directional Protection Scheme Using Wireless Communication

Authors: Nitish Sharma, G. G. Karady

Abstract:

This paper presents a scheme for the protection of loop system from all type of faults using the direction of fault current. The presence of distributed generation in today’s system increases the complexity of fault detection as the power flow is bidirectional. Hence, protection scheme specific to this purpose needs to be developed. This paper shows a fast protection scheme using communication which can be fiber optic or wireless. In this paper, the possibility of wireless communication for protection is studied to exchange the information between the relays. The negative sequence and positive sequence directional elements are used to determine the direction of fault current. A PSCAD simulation is presented and validated using commercial SEL relays.

Keywords: smart grid protection, pilot protection, power system simulation, wireless communication

Procedia PDF Downloads 568
4725 Broad Protection against Avian Influenza Virus by Using a Modified Vaccinia Ankara Virus Expressing a Mosaic Hemagglutinin

Authors: Attapon Kamlangdee, Brock Kingstad-Bakke, Tavis K. Anderson, Tony L. Goldberg, Jorge E. Osorio

Abstract:

A critical failure in our preparedness for an influenza pandemic is the lack of a universal vaccine. Influenza virus strains diverge by 1 to 2% per year, and commercially available vaccines often do not elicit protection from one year to the next, necessitating frequent formulation changes. This represents a major challenge to the development of a cross-protective vaccine that can protect against circulating viral antigenic diversity. We have constructed a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) that expresses an H5N1 mosaic hemagglutinin (H5M) (MVA-H5M). This mosaic was generated in silico using 2,145 field-sourced H5N1 isolates. A single dose of MVA-H5M provided 100% protection in mice against clade 0, 1, and 2 avian influenza viruses and also protected against seasonal H1N1 virus (A/Puerto Rico/8/34). It also provided short-term (10 days) and long-term (6 months) protection post vaccination. Both neutralizing antibodies and antigen-specific CD4+and CD8+ T cells were still detected at 5 months post vaccination, suggesting that MVA-H5M provides long-lasting immunity.

Keywords: modified vaccinia Ankara, MVA, H5N1, hemagglutinin, influenza vaccine

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
4724 Experimental Analysis of Laminar Nanofluid Flow Convection

Authors: Mohammad R. Salimpour

Abstract:

In this study, we investigate experimental laminar forced convective heat transfer specifications of TiO2/water nanofluids through conduits with different cross sections. Ee check the effects of different parameters such as cross sectional shape, Reynolds number and concentration of nanoparticles in stable suspension on increasing convective heat transfer by designing and assembling of an experimental apparatus. The results demonstrate adding a little amount of nanoparticles to the base fluid, improves heat transfer behavior in conduits. Moreover, conduit with circular cross-section has better performance compared to the square and triangular cross sections. However, conduits with square and triangular cross sections have more relative heat transfer enhancement than conduit with circular cross section.

Keywords: nanofluid, cross-sectional shape, TiO2, convection

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
4723 The Influence of the Concentration and Temperature on the Rheological Behavior of Carbonyl-Methylcellulose

Authors: Mohamed Rabhi, Kouider Halim Benrahou

Abstract:

The rheological properties of the carbonyl-methylcellulose (CMC), of different concentrations (25000, 50000, 60000, 80000 and 100000 ppm) and different temperatures were studied. We found that the rheological behavior of all CMC solutions presents a pseudo-plastic behavior, it follows the model of Ostwald-de Waele. The objective of this work is the modeling of flow by the CMC Cross model. The Cross model gives us the variation of the viscosity according to the shear rate. This model allowed us to adjust more clearly the rheological characteristics of CMC solutions. A comparison between the Cross model and the model of Ostwald was made. Cross the model fitting parameters were determined by a numerical simulation to make an approach between the experimental curve and those given by the two models. Our study has shown that the model of Cross, describes well the flow of "CMC" for low concentrations.

Keywords: CMC, rheological modeling, Ostwald model, cross model, viscosity

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4722 A Machining Method of Cross-Shape Nano Channel and Experiments for Silicon Substrate

Authors: Zone-Ching Lin, Hao-Yuan Jheng, Zih-Wun Jhang

Abstract:

The paper innovatively proposes using the concept of specific down force energy (SDFE) and AFM machine to establish a machining method of cross-shape nanochannel on single-crystal silicon substrate. As for machining a cross-shape nanochannel by AFM machine, the paper develop a method of machining cross-shape nanochannel groove at a fixed down force by using SDFE theory and combining the planned cutting path of cross-shape nanochannel up to 5th machining layer it finally achieves a cross-shape nanochannel at a cutting depth of around 20nm. Since there may be standing burr at the machined cross-shape nanochannel edge, the paper uses a smaller down force to cut the edge of the cross-shape nanochannel in order to lower the height of standing burr and converge the height of standing burr at the edge to below 0.54nm as set by the paper. Finally, the paper conducts experiments of machining cross-shape nanochannel groove on single-crystal silicon by AFM probe, and compares the simulation and experimental results. It is proved that this proposed machining method of cross-shape nanochannel is feasible.

Keywords: atomic force microscopy (AFM), cross-shape nanochannel, silicon substrate, specific down force energy (SDFE)

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
4721 The Use of Crisis Workplace Technology to Protect Communication Processes of Critical Infrastructure

Authors: Jiri Barta, Jiří F. Urbanek

Abstract:

This paper deals with a protection of the national and European infrastructure. It is issue nowadays. The paper deals with the perspectives and possibilities of "smart solutions" to critical infrastructure protection. The research project deals with computers aided technologies are used from the perspective of new, better protection of selected infrastructure objects. Protection is focused on communication and information channels. These communication and information channels are very important for the functioning of the system of protection of critical infrastructure elements.

Keywords: interoperability, communication systems, controlling proces, critical infrastructure, crisis workplaces, continuity

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
4720 Production Structures of Energy Based on Water Force, Its Infrastructure Protection, and Possible Causes of Failure

Authors: Gabriela-Andreea Despescu, Mădălina-Elena Mavrodin, Gheorghe Lăzăroiu, Florin Adrian Grădinaru

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the enhancement of a hydroelectric plant protection by coordinating protection measures and existing security and introducing new measures under a risk management process. Also, the plan identifies key critical elements of a hydroelectric plant, from its level vulnerabilities and threats it is subjected to in order to achieve the necessary protection measures to reduce the level of risk.

Keywords: critical infrastructure, risk analysis, critical infrastructure protection, vulnerability, risk management, turbine, impact analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 441
4719 Property Rights and Trade Specialization

Authors: Sarma Binti Aralas

Abstract:

The relationship between property rights and trade specialization is examined for developing and developed countries using panel data analysis. Property rights is measured using the international property rights index while trade specialization is measured using the comparative advantage index. Cross country differences in property rights are hypothesized to lead to differences in trade specialization. Based on the argument that a weak protection of natural resources implies greater trade in resource-intensive goods, developing countries with less defined property rights are hypothesized to have a comparative advantage in resource-based exports while countries with more defined property rights will not have an advantage in resource-intensive goods. Evidence suggests that developing countries with weaker environmental protection index but are rich in natural resources do specialize in the trade of resource-intensive goods. The finding suggests that institutional frameworks to increase the stringency of environmental protection of resources may be needed to diversify exports away from the trade of resource-intensive goods.

Keywords: environmental protection, panel data, renewable resources, trade specialization

Procedia PDF Downloads 377
4718 Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives on Climate-Induced Migration in Brazil: Legislation, Policies and Practice

Authors: Heloisa H. Miura, Luiza M. Pallone

Abstract:

In Brazil, people forced to move due to environmental causes, called 'environmental migrants', have always been neglected by public policies and legislation. Meanwhile, the numbers of climate-induced migration within and to Brazil continues to increase. The operating Immigration Law, implemented in 1980 under the Brazilian military regime, is widely considered to be out of date, once it does not offer legal protection to migrants who do not fit the definition of a refugee and are not allowed to stay regularly in the country. Aiming to reformulate Brazil’s legislation and policies on the matter, a new Migration Bill (PL 2516/2015) is currently being discussed in the Senate and is expected to define a more humanized approach to migration. Although the present draft foresees an expansion of the legal protection to different types of migrants, it still hesitates to include climate-induced displacements in its premises and to establish a migration management strategy. By introducing a human rights-based approach, this paper aims to provide a new multidisciplinary perspective to the protection of environmental migrants in Brazil.

Keywords: environmental migrants, human mobility, climate change, migration policy

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
4717 SCR-Based Advanced ESD Protection Device for Low Voltage Application

Authors: Bo Bae Song, Byung Seok Lee, Hyun young Kim, Chung Kwang Lee, Yong Seo Koo

Abstract:

This paper proposed a silicon controller rectifier (SCR) based ESD protection device to protect low voltage ESD for integrated circuit. The proposed ESD protection device has low trigger voltage and high holding voltage compared with conventional SCR-based ESD protection devices. The proposed ESD protection circuit is verified and compared by TCAD simulation. This paper verified effective low voltage ESD characteristics with low trigger voltage of 5.79V and high holding voltage of 3.5V through optimization depending on design variables (D1, D2, D3, and D4).

Keywords: ESD, SCR, holding voltage, latch-up

Procedia PDF Downloads 424
4716 Cross Ventilation in Waterfront Urban Canyons: The Case Study of Alexandria

Authors: Bakr Gomaa

Abstract:

Cross ventilation is an important and practical mean to achieve thermal comfort and conserve energy. This is especially true in the breezy waterfront settings. However, due to a number of factors, cross ventilation in buildings is usually studied by using oversimplified scenarios. It is then reasonable to study the impact of complex set of factors on the accuracy of predicting air flow rate because of wind driven cross ventilation. The objective of this paper is to provide architects with the tools necessary to achieve natural ventilation for cooling purposes in a waterfront urban canyon context. Also, urban canyons have not received much attention in terms of their impact on cross ventilation, and while we know how the wind flows between buildings in different urban canyon settings, the effect of the parallel-to-the-wind urban canyon on cross ventilation in buildings remains unclear. For this, we use detailed weather data, boundary layer correction factor, and CFD simulations to study the pressure patterns that form on the canyons surfaces in the case study of Alexandria. We found that the simplified numerical methods of calculating the cross ventilation in buildings can lead to inaccurate design decisions.

Keywords: cross ventilation, Alexandria, CFD, urban canyon

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
4715 Preparation and Evaluation of siRNA Loaded Polymeric Nanoparticles

Authors: Riddhi Trivedi, Shrenik Shah

Abstract:

For Si RNA to be delivered various biodegradable polymers are trialed by many researchers. One of them is Chitosan (CS) nanoparticles which have been extensively studied for siRNA delivery but the stability and efficacy of such particles are highly dependent on the types of cross-linker used. Hence the attempts are made in this study with PGA To address this issue, three common cross-linkers; Ethylene glycol diacrylate (ED) and poly-D-glutamic acid (PGA) were used to prepare siRNA loaded CS-ED/PGA nanoparticles by ionic gelation method. The nanoparticles which were obtained were compared for its characterization in terms of its physicochemical properties i.e. particle size of the resultant particles, zeta potential, its encapsulation capacity in the polymer. Among all the formulations prepared with different crosslinker PGA siRNA had the smallest particle size (ranged from 120 ± 1.7 to 500 ± 10.9 nm) with zeta potential ranged from 22.1 ± 1.5 to +32.4 ± 0.5 mV, and high entrapment ( > 91%) and binding efficiencies. Similarly, CS-ED nanoparticles showed better siRNA protection during storage at 4˚C and as determined by serum protection assay. TEM micrographs revealed the assorted morphology of CS-PGA-siRNA nanoparticles in contrast to irregular morphology displayed by CS-ED-siRNA. All siRNA loaded nanoparticles were found to give initial burst release which after some time followed by a sustained release of siRNA which were loaded inside. All the formulations showed concentration-dependent cytotoxicity with when cytotoxicity performed by HeLa and normal vero cell lines.

Keywords: chitosan, siRNA, cytotoxicity, cell line study

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
4714 Protection Plan of Medium Voltage Distribution Network in Tunisia

Authors: S. Chebbi, A. Meddeb

Abstract:

The distribution networks are often exposed to harmful incidents which can halt the electricity supply of the customer. In this context, we studied a real case of a critical zone of the Tunisian network which is currently characterized by the dysfunction of its plan of protection. In this paper, we were interested in the harmonization of the protection plan settings in order to ensure a perfect selectivity and a better continuity of service on the whole of the network.

Keywords: distribution network Gabes-Tunisia, continuity of service, protection plan settings, selectivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 421