Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 592

Search results for: chlorophyll fluorescence

592 Potential Contribution of Combined High-Resolution and Fluorescence Remote Sensing to Coastal Ecosystem Service Assessments

Authors: Yaner Yan, Ning Li, Yajun Qiao, Shuqing An


Although most studies have focused on assessing and mapping terrestrial ecosystem services, there is still a knowledge gap on coastal ecosystem services and an urgent need to assess them. Lau (2013) clearly defined five types of costal ecosystem services: carbon sequestration, shoreline protection, fish nursery, biodiversity, and water quality. While high-resolution remote sensing can provide the more direct, spatially estimates of biophysical parameters, such as species distribution relating to biodiversity service, and Fluorescence information derived from remote sensing direct relate to photosynthesis, availing in estimation of carbon sequestration and the response to environmental changes in coastal wetland. Here, we review the capabilities of high-resolution and fluorescence remote sesing for describing biodiversity, vegetation condition, ecological processes and highlight how these prodicts may contribute to costal ecosystem service assessment. In so doing, we anticipate rapid progress to combine the high-resolution and fluorescence remote sesing to estimate the spatial pattern of costal ecosystem services.

Keywords: ecosystem services, high resolution, remote sensing, chlorophyll fluorescence

Procedia PDF Downloads 397
591 Role of Selenite and Selenate Uptake by Maize Plants in Chlorophyll A and B Content

Authors: F. Garousi, S. Veres, É. Bódi, S. Várallyay, B. Kovács


Extracting and determining chlorophyll pigments (chlorophyll a and b) in green leaves are the procedures based on the solvent extraction of pigments in samples using N,N-dimethylformamide as the extractant. In this study, two species of soluble inorganic selenium forms, selenite (Se( IV)) and selenate (Se( VI)) at different concentrations were investigated on maize plants that were growing in nutrient solutions during 2 weeks and at the end of the experiment, amounts of chlorophyll a and b for first and second leaves of maize were measured. In accordance with the results we observed that our regarded Se concentrations in both forms of Se( IV) and Se( VI) were not effective on maize plants’ chlorophyll a and b significantly although high level of 3 Se( IV) had negative affect on growth of the samples that had been treated by it but about Se( VI) samples we did not observe this state and our different considered Se( VI) concentrations were not toxic for maize plants.

Keywords: maize, sodium selenate, sodium selenite, chlorophyll a and b

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
590 Effect of Pre-treatment with Salicylic Acid on Vegetative Growth and Yield Components of Wheat under Salinity

Authors: Saad M. Howladar, Mike Dennett


At first harvest, results showed that salinity (tap water, 100 and 200 mM NaCl) induced a significant decrease in all growth parameters in both Yecora Rojo and Paragon cultivars. The greatest effect of salinity was a decrease in leaf area. The same tendency was observed with specific leaf area, and total fresh and dry weights and their components. Green leaf and tiller numbers were reduced by the same extent in both cultivars. The corresponding final harvest, all growth parameters also reduced with increased salinity. Yield and yield components were also reduced by salinity with similar effects in both cultivars. Chlorophyll fluorescence, expressed as Fv/Fm, and gas exchange parameters were decreased significantly with increase in salinity in both cultivars. In contrast, seed protein content was increased significantly with increase in salinity. Salicylic acid (SA) application induced no significant improvements in growth parameters and yield components.

Keywords: salinity, salicylic acid, growth, chlorophyll fluorescence, gas exchange, yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 379
589 Effect of Pre-Treatment with Salicylic Acid on Vegetative Growth and Yield Components of Saudi’s Wheat under Salinity

Authors: Saad Howladar, Mike Dennett


At first harvest, results showed that salinity (tap water, 100 and 200 mM NaCl) induced a significant decrease in all growth parameters in both Yecora Rojo and Paragon cultivars. The greatest effect of salinity was a decrease in leaf area. The same tendency was observed with specific leaf area, and total fresh and dry weights and their components. Green leaf and tiller numbers were reduced by the same extent in both cultivars. The corresponding final harvest, all growth parameters also reduced with increased salinity. Yield and yield components were also reduced by salinity with similar effects in both cultivars. Chlorophyll fluorescence, expressed as Fv/Fm, and gas exchange parameters were decreased significantly with increase in salinity in both cultivars. In contrast, seed protein content was increased significantly with increase in salinity. Salicylic acid (SA) application induced no significant improvements in growth parameters and yield components.

Keywords: salinity, salicylic acid, growth, chlorophyll fluorescence, gas exchange, yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
588 Reversibility of Photosynthetic Activity and Pigment-protein Complexes Expression During Seed Development of Soybean and Black Soybean

Authors: Tzan-Chain Lee


Seeds are non-leaves green tissues. Photosynthesis begins with light absorption by chlorophyll and then the energy transfer between two pigment-protein complexes (PPC). Most studies of photosynthesis and PPC expression were focused on leaves; however, during seeds’ development were rare. Developed seeds from beginning pod (stage R3) to dried seed (stage R8), and the dried seed after sowing for 1-4 day, were analyzed for their chlorophyll contents. Thornber and MARS gel systems analysis compositions of PPC. Chlorophyll fluorescence was used to detect maximal photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm). During soybean and black soybean seeds development (stages R3-R6), Fv/Fm up to 0.8, and then down-regulated after full seed (stage R7). In dried seed (stage R8), the two plant seeds lost photosynthetic activity (Fv/Fm=0), but chlorophyll degradation only occurred in soybean after full seed. After seeds sowing for 4 days, chlorophyll drastically increased in soybean seeds, and Fv/Fm recovered to 0.8 in the two seeds. In PPC, the two soybean seeds contained all PPC during seeds development (stages R3-R6), including CPI, CPII, A1, AB1, AB2, and AB3. However, many proteins A1, AB1, AB2, and CPI were totally missing in the two dried seeds (stage R8). The deficiency of these proteins in dried seeds might be caused by the incomplete photosynthetic activity. After seeds germination and seedling exposed to light for 4 days, all PPC were recovered, suggesting that completed PPC took place in the two soybean seeds. This study showed the reversibility of photosynthetic activity and pigment-protein complexes during soybean and black soybean seeds development.

Keywords: light-harvesting complex, pigment–protein complexes, soybean cotyledon, grana development

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587 Alleviation of Salt Stress Effects on Solanum lycopersicum (L.) Plants Grown in a Saline Soil by Foliar Spray with Salicylic Acid

Authors: Saad Howladar


Salinity stress is one of the major abiotic stresses, restricting plant growth and crop productivity in different world regions, especially in arid and semi-arid regions, including Saudi Arabia. The tomato plant is proven to be moderately sensitive to salt stress. Therefore, two field experiments were conducted using tomato plants (Hybrid 6130) to evaluate the effect of four concentrations of salicylic acid (SA; 0, 20, 40, and 60 µM) applied as foliar spraying in improving plant tolerance to saline soil conditions. Tomato plant growth, yield, osmoprotectants, chloeophyll fluorescence, and ionic contents were determined. The results of this study displayed that growth and yield components and physiological attributes of water-sprayed plants (the control) grown under saline soil conditions were negatively impacted. However, under the adverse conditions of salinity, SA-treated plants had enhanced growth and yield components of tomato plants compared to the control. Free proline, soluble sugars, chlorophyll fluorescence, relative water content, membrane stability index, and nutrients contents (e.g., N, P, K⁺, and Ca²⁺) were also improved significantly, while Na⁺ content was significantly reduced in SA-applied tomato plants. SA at 40 µM was the best treatment, which could be recommended to use for salt-stressed tomato plants to enable them to tolerate the adverse conditions of saline soils.

Keywords: tomatoes, salt stress, chlorophyll fluorescence, dehydration tolerance, osmoprotectants

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586 Use of Front-Face Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Multiway Analysis for the Prediction of Olive Oil Quality Features

Authors: Omar Dib, Rita Yaacoub, Luc Eveleigh, Nathalie Locquet, Hussein Dib, Ali Bassal, Christophe B. Y. Cordella


The potential of front-face fluorescence coupled with chemometric techniques, namely parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and multiple linear regression (MLR) as a rapid analysis tool to characterize Lebanese virgin olive oils was investigated. Fluorescence fingerprints were acquired directly on 102 Lebanese virgin olive oil samples in the range of 280-540 nm in excitation and 280-700 nm in emission. A PARAFAC model with seven components was considered optimal with a residual of 99.64% and core consistency value of 78.65. The model revealed seven main fluorescence profiles in olive oil and was mainly associated with tocopherols, polyphenols, chlorophyllic compounds and oxidation/hydrolysis products. 23 MLR regression models based on PARAFAC scores were generated, the majority of which showed a good correlation coefficient (R > 0.7 for 12 predicted variables), thus satisfactory prediction performances. Acid values, peroxide values, and Delta K had the models with the highest predictions, with R values of 0.89, 0.84 and 0.81 respectively. Among fatty acids, linoleic and oleic acids were also highly predicted with R values of 0.8 and 0.76, respectively. Factors contributing to the model's construction were related to common fluorophores found in olive oil, mainly chlorophyll, polyphenols, and oxidation products. This study demonstrates the interest of front-face fluorescence as a promising tool for quality control of Lebanese virgin olive oils.

Keywords: front-face fluorescence, Lebanese virgin olive oils, multiple Linear regressions, PARAFAC analysis

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585 Antioxidant Activity of Chlorophyll from Sauropus androgynus Leaves in Female Mice Induced Sodium Nitrite

Authors: Suparmi, Sampurna


Sodium nitrite which is widespread used as a color fixative and preservative in foods can increase oxidative stress and cause hemolytic anemia. Consumption of food supplement containing sufficient antioxidant, e.g. chlorophyll, reported can decrease these negative effects. This study was conducted to determine the effect of chlorophyll from Sauropus androgynus leaves on Malodialdehide (MDA) and ferritin level. Experimental research with post-test only control group design was conducted using 24 female mice strain Balb-c. Sodium nitrite 0.3 ml/head/day given during 18 days, while the chlorophyll or Cu-chlorophyllin as much as 0.7 ml/head/day given the following day for 14 days. The mean of MDA levels of blood plasma in the control group, NaNO2 induction, induction NaNO2 and chlorophyll of S. androgynus leaves, induction of NaNO2 and Cu-chlorophyllin from K-Liquid in sequence is 2.10±0.11mol/L, 3.44±0.38 mol/L, 2.31±0.18 mol/L, 2.31±0.13 mol/L, whilst the ferritin levels mean in each group is 62.71±6.42 ng/ml; 63.22±7.59 ng/ml; 67.45±8.03 ng/ml, and 64.74±7.80 ng/ml, respectively. Results of Mann Whitney test found no significant difference in MDA levels (p>0.05), while the One-Way Anova test result found no significant difference in ferritin levels between the groups of mice that received S. androgynus chlorophyll with a group of mice that received Cu-chlorophyllin after induction NaNO2 (p>0.05). This indicates that chlorophyll from S. androgynus leaves as effective as Cu-chlorophyllin in decrease of MDA levels and increase of ferritin levels. Chlorophyll from S. androgynus are potential as food supplement in anemic conditions caused by sodium nitrite consumptions.

Keywords: ferritin, MDA, chlorophyll, sodium nitrite

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584 Growth of Nitella in Response to Cesium Exposure: Implication for Phytoremediation

Authors: Harun Rashid, Keerthi S. S. Atapaththu, Takashi Asaeda


Cesium (Cs) induced growth and stress response of Nitella were studied after exposure to four concentration of the metal; i.e. 0 (control), 0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 ppm Cs in growth media. Each treatment with three replicates were randomly allocated to 12 glass beakers in a complete randomize design and the experiment was continued for 30 days. At the end of the experiment, shoot length, cesium content, total chlorophyll, and plant stress response were compared. Anti-oxidant enzyme activities (peroxidase, catalase, and ascorbic peroxidase) and the concentration of H2O2 were measured to check plant stress. The longest shoot was found in control treatment (0 ppm Cs) and the shoot length of plants exposed to 0.001 ppm was statistically similar to that of control. Concentration of cesium in plants grown at 0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 ppm were significantly higher than those in control treatments. The antioxidant enzymes activities of plants exposed to cesium were significantly higher than those grown without any Cs (control). An elevated level of H2O2 concentration was also observed in former groups of plants. Further, the reduction in chlorophyll concentration and chlorophyll fluorescence in response to cesium exposure indicated the chronically damaged photosynthetic efficiency in cesium stressed Nitella.

Keywords: antioxidant enzymes, cesium, growth, Nitella, oxidative stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
583 Ecophysiological Features of Acanthosicyos horridus (!Nara) to Survive the Namib Desert

Authors: Jacques M. Berner, Monja Gerber, Gillian L. Maggs-Kolling, Stuart J. Piketh


The enigmatic melon species, Acanthosicyos horridus Welw. ex Hook. f., locally known as !nara, is endemic to the hyper-arid Namib Desert, where it thrives in sandy dune areas and dry river banks. The Namib Desert is characterized by extreme weather conditions which include high temperatures, very low rainfall, and extremely dry air. Plant and animals that have made the Namib Dessert their home are dependent on non-rainfall water inputs, like fog, dew and water vapor, for survival. Fog is believed to be the most important non-rainfall water input for most of the coastal Namib Desert and is a life line to many Namib plants and animals. It is commonly assumed that the !nara plant is adapted and dependent upon coastal fog events. The !nara plant shares many comparable adaptive features with other organisms that are known to exploit fog as a source of moisture. These include groove-like structures on the stems and the cone-like structures of thorns. These structures are believed to be the driving forces behind directional water flow that allow plants to take advantage of fog events. The !nara-fog interaction was investigated in this study to determine the dependence of !nara on these fog events, as it would illustrate strategies to benefit from non-rainfall water inputs. The direct water uptake capacity of !nara shoots was investigated through absorption tests. Furthermore, the movement and behavior of fluorescent water droplets on a !nara stem were investigated through time-lapse macrophotography. The shoot water potential was measured to investigate the effect of fog on the water status of !nara stems. These tests were used to determine whether the morphology of !nara has evolved to exploit fog as a non-rainfall water input and whether the !nara plant has adapted physiologically in response to fog. Chlorophyll a fluorescence was used to compare the photochemical efficiency of !nara plants on days with fog events to that on non-foggy days. The results indicate that !nara plants do have the ability to take advantage of fog events as commonly believed. However, the !nara plant did not exhibit visible signs of drought stress and this, together with the strong shoot water potential, indicates that these plants are reliant on permanent underground water sources. Chlorophyll a fluorescence data indicated that temperature stress and wind were some of the main abiotic factors influencing the plants’ overall vitality.

Keywords: Acanthosicyos horridus, chlorophyll a fluorescence, fog, foliar absorption, !nara

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582 Screening of Freezing Tolerance in Eucalyptus Genotypes (Eucalyptus spp.) Using Chlorophyll Fluorescence, Ionic Leakage, Proline Accumulation and Stomatal Density

Authors: S. Lahijanian, M. Mobli, B. Baninasab, N. Etemadi


Low temperature extremes are amongst the major stresses that adversely affect the plant growth and productivity. Cold stress causes oxidative stress, physiological, morphological and biochemical changes in plant cells. Generally, low temperatures similar to salinity and drought exert their negative effects mainly by disrupting the ionic and osmotic equilibrium of the plant cells. Changes in climatic condition leading to more frequent extreme conditions will require adapted crop species on a larger scale in order to sustain agricultural production. Eucalyptus is a diverse genus of flowering trees (and a few shrubs) in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae. Members of this genus dominate the tree flora of Australia. The eucalyptus genus contains more than 580 species and large number of cultivars, which are native to Australia. Large distribution and diversity of compatible eucalyptus cultivars reflect the fact of ecological flexibility of eucalyptus. Some eucalyptus cultivars can sustain hard environmental conditions like high and low temperature, salinity, high level of PH, drought, chilling and freezing which are intensively effective on crops with tropical and subtropical origin. In this study, we tried to evaluate freezing tolerance of 12 eucalyptus genotypes by means of four different morphological and physiological methods: Chlorophyll fluorescence, electrolyte leakage, proline and stomatal density. The studied cultivars include Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. coccifera, E. darlympleana, E. erythrocorys, E. glaucescens, E. globulus, E. gunnii, E. macrocorpa, E. microtheca, E. rubida, E. tereticornis, and E. urnigera. Except for stomatal density recording, in other methods, plants were exposed to five gradual temperature drops: zero, -5, -10, -15 and -20 degree of centigrade and they remained in these temperatures for at least one hour. Experiment for measuring chlorophyll fluorescence showed that genotypes E. erythrocorys and E. camaldulensis were the most resistant genotypes and E. gunnii and E.coccifera were more sensitive than other genotypes to freezing stress effects. In electrolyte leakage experiment with regard to significant interaction between cultivar and temperature, genotypes E. erythrocorys and E.macrocorpa were shown to be the most tolerant genotypes and E. gunnii, E. urnigera, E. microtheca and E. tereticornis with the more ionic leakage percentage showed to be more sensitive to low temperatures. Results of Proline experiment approved that the most resistant genotype to freezing stress is E. erythrocorys. In the stomatal density experiment, the numbers of stomata under microscopic field were totally counted and the results showed that the E. erythrocorys and E. macrocorpa genotypes had the maximum and E. coccifera and E. darlympleana genotypes had minimum number of stomata under microscopic field (0.0605 mm2). In conclusion, E. erythrocorys identified as the most tolerant genotype; meanwhile E. gunnii classified as the most freezing susceptible genotype in this investigation. Further, remarkable correlation was not obtained between the stomatal density and other cold stress measures.

Keywords: chlorophyll fluorescence, cold stress, ionic leakage, proline, stomatal density

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581 A Study on Real-Time Fluorescence-Photoacoustic Imaging System for Mouse Thrombosis Monitoring

Authors: Sang Hun Park, Moung Young Lee, Su Min Yu, Hyun Sang Jo, Ji Hyeon Kim, Chul Gyu Song


A near-infrared light source used as a light source in the fluorescence imaging system is suitable for use in real-time during the operation since it has no interference in surgical vision. However, fluorescence images do not have depth information. In this paper, we configured the device with the research on molecular imaging systems for monitoring thrombus imaging using fluorescence and photoacoustic. Fluorescence imaging was performed using a phantom experiment in order to search the exact location, and the Photoacoustic image was in order to detect the depth. Fluorescence image obtained when evaluated through current phantom experiments when the concentration of the contrast agent is 25μg / ml, it was confirmed that it looked sharper. The phantom experiment is has shown the possibility with the fluorescence image and photoacoustic image using an indocyanine green contrast agent. For early diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases, more active research with the fusion of different molecular imaging devices is required.

Keywords: fluorescence, photoacoustic, indocyanine green, carotid artery

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
580 Pre-Soaking Application of Salicylic Acid on Four Wheat Cultivars under Saline Concentrations

Authors: Saad M. Howladar, Mike Dennett


The effect of salinity (0-200 mMNaCl) on wheat growth (leaf and tiller numbers, and fresh and dry weights) underseed soaking (6 and 24 hs) insalicylic acid (SA) was investigated. The impact of salinity was less pronounced in salt tolerant cultivars (Sakha 93 and S24) than Paragon and S24. Chlorophyll content was increased as a response to salinity stress. It was raised in 100 mMNaCl more than 200 mMNaCl. The same trend was found in 24 hs soaking, except chlorophyll content in Paragon and S24 under 200 mMNaCl was more than 100 mMNaCl. SA application induced a positive effect on growth parameters in some cultivars, particularly Paragon under saline and non-saline condition. Soaking for 6 hs was more effective than 24 hs soaking, especially in Paragon and Sakha 93. SA supply caused a slight effect on chlorophyll content but this was not significant and there was no significant difference between both soaking hs. The effect of SA on growth parameters and chlorophyll content depends on cultivar genotype and SA concentration.

Keywords: salinity, salicylic acid, growth parameters, chlorophyll content, wheat cultivars

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579 Satellite Statistical Data Approach for Upwelling Identification and Prediction in South of East Java and Bali Sea

Authors: Hary Aprianto Wijaya Siahaan, Bayu Edo Pratama


Sea fishery's potential to become one of the nation's assets which very contributed to Indonesia's economy. This fishery potential not in spite of the availability of the chlorophyll in the territorial waters of Indonesia. The research was conducted using three methods, namely: statistics, comparative and analytical. The data used include MODIS sea temperature data imaging results in Aqua satellite with a resolution of 4 km in 2002-2015, MODIS data of chlorophyll-a imaging results in Aqua satellite with a resolution of 4 km in 2002-2015, and Imaging results data ASCAT on MetOp and NOAA satellites with 27 km resolution in 2002-2015. The results of the processing of the data show that the incidence of upwelling in the south of East Java Sea began to happen in June identified with sea surface temperature anomaly below normal, the mass of the air that moves from the East to the West, and chlorophyll-a concentrations are high. In July the region upwelling events are increasingly expanding towards the West and reached its peak in August. Chlorophyll-a concentration prediction using multiple linear regression equations demonstrate excellent results to chlorophyll-a concentrations prediction in 2002 until 2015 with the correlation of predicted chlorophyll-a concentration indicate a value of 0.8 and 0.3 with RMSE value. On the chlorophyll-a concentration prediction in 2016 indicate good results despite a decline in the value of the correlation, where the correlation of predicted chlorophyll-a concentration in the year 2016 indicate a value 0.6, but showed improvement in RMSE values with 0.2.

Keywords: satellite, sea surface temperature, upwelling, wind stress

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578 Chemometric Estimation of Phytochemicals Affecting the Antioxidant Potential of Lettuce

Authors: Milica Karadzic, Lidija Jevric, Sanja Podunavac-Kuzmanovic, Strahinja Kovacevic, Aleksandra Tepic-Horecki, Zdravko Sumic


In this paper, the influence of six different phytochemical content (phenols, carotenoids, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll a + b and vitamin C) on antioxidant potential of Murai and Levistro lettuce varieties was evaluated. Variable selection was made by generalized pair correlation method (GPCM) as a novel ranking method. This method is used for the discrimination between two variables that almost equal correlate to a dependent variable. Fisher’s conditional exact and McNemar’s test were carried out. Established multiple linear (MLR) models were statistically evaluated. As the best phytochemicals for the antioxidant potential prediction, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll a + b and total carotenoids content stand out. This was confirmed through both GPCM and MLR, predictive ability of obtained MLR can be used for antioxidant potential estimation for similar lettuce samples. This article is based upon work from the project of the Provincial Secretariat for Science and Technological Development of Vojvodina (No. 114-451-347/2015-02).

Keywords: antioxidant activity, generalized pair correlation method, lettuce, regression analysis

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577 Comparison of Chlorophyll Contents in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and Runner Bean (P. coccineous L.) Genotypes

Authors: Huseyin Canci


Chlorophylls are green photosynthetic pigment in plants. Therefore, photosynthesis in plants occurs in the leaves. Roles of chlorophylls help plants to get energy from light. The aim of the present study is to compare of chlorophyll contents in some bean species including common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and runner bean (P. coccineous L.) and genotypes. This research was carried out in fields of Faculty of Agriculture, Akdeniz University in Antalya. Species and genotypes were grown in 2 m single row and 50 cm row spacing. A randomized blocks design was used with two replications. Totally, 124 beans species and genotypes which 122 common beans and 2 runner beans were sown on February, 17th 2014 by hand. Chlorophyll a + b (SPAD values) were determined seedling stage, days to flowering 50% and pod setting stage on bean genotypes. Results showed that there were significant differences for genotypes, stages and interaction of genotypes X stages. There was statistically significant relationships between yield and chlorophyll content of bean species and genotypes.

Keywords: bean, chlorophyll, Phaseolus, SPAD values

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576 Antioxidant Defence Systems, Lipid Peroxidation, and Photosynthetic Variables in Salt-Sensitive and Salt-Tolerant Soybean Genotypes in Response to Salt Stress

Authors: Faheema Khan


We have investigated the effects of salt stress on the stability of plant growth, water relations, photosynthetic variables, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system in salt-tolerant (PK-327) and salt-sensitive (PK-471) soybean genotypes. Ten-day-old salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive soybean plants were subjected to 0-150 mM NaCl for 15 days. While the growth of genotype PK-327 was not affected significantly up to 75 mM NaCl treatment, the growth of the PK-471 was reduced significantly beyond 25 mM NaCl treatments. Salt stress caused severe impairments in photosynthetic variables like photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll fluorescence and chlorophyll content, being more pronounced in salt-sensitive genotype than in salt-tolerant.The activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase) were higher in PK-327 than in PK-471 at various levels of salt treatments.It is concluded that tolerance capacity of PK-327 against salinity can be associated with the ability of this genotype in keeping an active photosynthetic system and strong antioxidant defence system.

Keywords: salt stress, soybean, antioxidant, photosynthesis

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575 Fluorescence Sensing as a Tool to Estimate Palm Oil Quality and Yield

Authors: Norul Husna A. Kasim, Siva K. Balasundram


The gap between ‘actual yield’ and ‘potential yield’ has remained a problem in the Malaysian oil palm industry. Ineffective maturity assessment and untimely harvesting have compounded this problem. Typically, the traditional method of palm oil quality and yield assessment is destructive, costly and laborious. Fluorescence-sensing offers a new means of assessing palm oil quality and yield non-destructively. This work describes the estimation of palm oil quality and yield using a multi-parametric fluorescence sensor (Multiplex®) to quantify the concentration of secondary metabolites, such as anthocyanin and flavonoid, in fresh fruit bunches across three different palm ages (6, 9, and 12 years-old). Results show that fluorescence sensing is an effective means of assessing FFB maturity, in terms of palm oil quality and yield quantifications.

Keywords: anthocyanin, flavonoid fluorescence sensor, palm oil yield and quality

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574 Analisys of Cereal Flours by Fluorescence Spectroscopy and PARAFAC

Authors: Lea Lenhardt, Ivana Zeković, Tatjana Dramićanin, Miroslav D. Dramićanin


Rapid and sensitive analytical technologies for food analysis are needed to respond to the growing public interest in food quality and safety. In this context, fluorescence spectroscopy offers several inherent advantages for the characterization of food products: high sensitivity, low price, objective, relatively fast and non-destructive. The objective of this work was to investigate the potential of fluorescence spectroscopy coupled with multi-way technique for characterization of cereal flours. Fluorescence landscape also known as excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy utilizes multiple-color illumination, with the full fluorescence spectrum recorded for each excitation wavelength. EEM was measured on various types of cereal flours (wheat, oat, barley, rye, corn, buckwheat and rice). Obtained spectra were analyzed using PARAllel FACtor analysis (PARAFAC) in order to decompose the spectra and identify underlying fluorescent components. Results of the analysis indicated the presence of four fluorophores in cereal flours. It has been observed that relative concentration of fluorophores varies between different groups of flours. Based on these findings we can conclude that application of PARAFAC analysis on fluorescence data is a good foundation for further qualitative analysis of cereal flours.

Keywords: cereals, fluors, fluorescence, PARAFAC

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573 Finding the Reaction Constant between Humic Acid and Aluminum Ion by Fluorescence Quenching Effect

Authors: Wen Po Cheng, Chen Zhao Feng, Ruey Fang Yu, Lin Jia Jun, Lin Ji Ye, Chen Yuan Wei


Humic acid was used as the removal target for evaluating the coagulation efficiency in this study. When the coagulant ions mix with a humic acid solution, a Fluorescence quenching effect may be observed conditionally. This effect can be described by Stern-Volmer linear equation which can be used for quantifying the quenching value (Kq) of the Fluorescence quenching effect. In addition, a Complex-Formation Titration (CFT) theory was conducted and the result was used to explain the electron-neutralization capability of the coagulant (AlCl₃) at different pH. The results indicated that when pH of the ACl₃ solution was between 6 and 8, fluorescence quenching effect obviously occurred. The maximum Kq value was found to be 102,524 at pH 6. It means that the higher the Kq value is, the better complex reaction between a humic acid and aluminum salts will be. Through the Kq value study, the optimum pH can be quantified when the humic acid solution is coagulated with aluminum ions.

Keywords: humic acid, fluorescence quenching effect, complex reaction, titration

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572 Dependence of Free Fatty Acid and Chlorophyll Content on Thermal Stability of Extra Virgin Olive Oil

Authors: Yongjun Ahn, Sung Gyu Choi, Seung-Yeop Kwak


Selective removal of free fatty acid (FFA) and chlorophyll in extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is necessary to enhance the thermal stability in the condition of the deep frying. In this work, we demonstrated improving the thermal stability of EVOO by selective removal of free fatty acid and chlorophyll using (3-Aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (APTMS) functionalized mesoporous silica with controlled pore size. The adsorption kinetics of free fatty acid and chlorophyll into the mesoporous silica were quantitatively analyzed by Freundlich and Langmuir model. The highest chlorophyll adsorption efficiency was shown in the pore size at 5 nm, suggesting that the interaction between the silica and the chlorophyll could be optimized at this point. The amino-functionalized mesoporous silica showed drastically improved removal efficiency of FFA than the bare silica. Moreover, beneficial compounds like tocopherol and phenolic compounds maintained even after adsorptive removal. Extra virgin olive oil treated by aminopropyl-functionalized silica had a smoke point high enough to be used as commercial frying oil. Based on these results, it is expected to attract the considerable amount of interest toward facile adsorptive refining process of EVOO using pore size controlled and amino-functionalized mesoporous silica.

Keywords: mesoporous silica, extra virgin olive oil, selective adsorption, thermal stability

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571 Nano-Particle of π-Conjugated Polymer for Near-Infrared Bio-Imaging

Authors: Hiroyuki Aoki


Molecular imaging has attracted much attention recently, which visualizes biological molecules, cells, tissue, and so on. Among various in vivo imaging techniques, the fluorescence imaging method has been widely employed as a useful modality for small animals in pre-clinical researches. However, the higher signal intensity is needed for highly sensitive in vivo imaging. The objective of the current study is the development of a fluorescent imaging agent with high brightness for the tumor imaging of a mouse. The strategy to enhance the fluorescence signal of a bio-imaging agent is the increase of the absorption of the excitation light and the fluorescence conversion efficiency. We developed a nano-particle fluorescence imaging agent consisting of a π-conjugated polymer emitting a fluorescence signal in a near infrared region. A large absorption coefficient and high emission intensity at a near infrared optical window for biological tissue enabled highly sensitive in vivo imaging with a tumor-targeting ability by an EPR (enhanced permeation and retention) effect. The signal intensity from the π-conjugated fluorescence imaging agent is larger by two orders of magnitude compared to a quantum dot, which has been known as the brightest imaging agent. The π-conjugated polymer nano-particle would be a promising candidate in the in vivo imaging of small animals.

Keywords: fluorescence, conjugated polymer, in vivo imaging, nano-particle, near-infrared

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570 A Turn-on Fluorescent Sensor for Pb(II)

Authors: Ece Kök Yetimoğlu, Soner Çubuk, Neşe Taşci, M. Vezir Kahraman


Lead(II) is one of the most toxic environmental pollutants in the world, due to its high toxicity and non-biodegradability. Lead exposure causes severe risks to human health such as central brain damages, convulsions, kidney damages, and even death. To determine lead(II) in environmental or biological samples, scientists use atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS), fluorescence spectrometry and electrochemical techniques. Among these systems the fluorescence spectrometry and fluorescent chemical sensors have attracted considerable attention because of their good selectivity and high sensitivity. The fluorescent polymers usually contain covalently bonded fluorophores. In this study imidazole based UV cured polymeric film was prepared and designed to act as a fluorescence chemo sensor for lead (II) analysis. The optimum conditions such as influence of pH value and time on the fluorescence intensity of the sensor have also been investigated. The sensor was highly sensitive with a detection limit as low as 1.87 × 10−8 mol L-1 and it was successful in the determination of Pb(II) in water samples.

Keywords: fluorescence, lead(II), photopolymerization, polymeric sensor

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569 Exploring Structure of Human Chromosomes Using Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging

Authors: A. Bhartiya, S. Botchway, M. Yusuf, I. Robinson


Chromatin condensation is maintained by DNA-based proteins and some divalent cations (Mg²⁺, Ca²⁺, etc.). Condensation process during cell division maintains structural and functional organizations of chromosomes by transferring genetic information correctly to daughter cells. Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging (FLIM) technique measures the fluorescence decay of fixed human chromosomes by calculating the lifetime of fluorophores at a pixel x of the arrival of each photon as a function of time delay t, following excitation with a laser pulse. Fixed metaphase human chromosomes were labelled with DNA-binding dye, DAPI and later DAPI fluorescence lifetime measured using multiphoton microscopy. 5 out of 23 pairs of human chromosomes shown shorter lifetime at the centromere region, differentiating proportion of compaction along the length of chromosomes. Different lifetime was observed in a condensed and de-condensed chromosome. It clearly indicates the involvement of divalent cations in the process of condensation.

Keywords: divalent cations, FLIM (Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging), human chromosomes, multiphoton microscopy

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568 Hand-Held X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy for Pre-Diagnostic Studies in Conservation, and Limitations

Authors: Irmak Gunes Yuceil


This paper outlines interferences and analytical errors which are encountered in the qualification and quantification of archaeological and ethnographic artifacts, by means of handheld x-ray fluorescence. These shortcomings were evaluated through case studies carried out on metallic artifacts related to various periods and cultures around Anatolia. An Innov-X Delta Standard 2000 handheld x-ray fluorescence spectrometer was used to collect data from 1361 artifacts, through 6789 measurements and 70 hours’ tube usage, in between 2013-2017. Spectrum processing was done by Delta Advanced PC Software. Qualitative and quantitative results screened by the device were compared with the spectrum graphs, and major discrepancies associated with physical and analytical interferences were clarified in this paper.

Keywords: hand-held x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, art and archaeology, interferences and analytical errors, pre-diagnosis in conservation

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567 Effect of Blanching and Drying Methods on the Degradation Kinetics and Color Stability of Radish (Raphanus sativus) Leaves

Authors: K. Radha Krishnan, Mirajul Alom


Dehydrated powder prepared from fresh radish (Raphanus sativus) leaves were investigated for the color stability by different drying methods (tray, sun and solar). The effect of blanching conditions, drying methods as well as drying temperatures (50 – 90°C) were considered for studying the color degradation kinetics of chlorophyll in the dehydrated powder. The hunter color parameters (L*, a*, b*) and total color difference (TCD) were determined in order to investigate the color degradation kinetics of chlorophyll. Blanching conditions, drying method and drying temperature influenced the changes in L*, a*, b* and TCD values. The changes in color values during processing were described by a first order kinetic model. The temperature dependence of chlorophyll degradation was adequately modeled by Arrhenius equation. To predict the losses in green color, a mathematical model was developed from the steady state kinetic parameters. The results from this study indicated the protective effect of blanching conditions on the color stability of dehydrated radish powder.

Keywords: chlorophyll, color stability, degradation kinetics, drying

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566 The Effect of Different Concentrations of Trichoderma harzianum Fungus on the Phytochemical and Antioxidative Parameters of Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea convar.botrytisl) in Soils Contaminated with Lead

Authors: Mohammad Javad Shakori, Esmaeil Babakhanzadeh Sajirani, Vajihe Esmaili


Today, the increasing contamination is an environmental concern. There is relationship between plants and microorganisms many years ago. In this regard, an experiment was conducted in order to investigate the effect of different levels of lead across three levels ‘zero, 50, and 100 mg/L’ and Trichoderma Harzanium fungus across three levels ‘5, 10, and 15%’ in a factorial design in the form of fully randomized blocks in three replications under form conditions in the climatic conditions of Shahroud in Dehlama Village. This research was performed in 2014-2015 on cauliflower. In this experiment, chlorophyll a, b, total, cartenoid, phenol, flavonoid, and antioxidant properties of cauliflowers were measured. The results indicated that the greatest level of chlorophyll a (75.723 mg/wet weight), chlorophyll b (27.378 mg/wet weight), and total chlorophyll (109.074 mg/wet weight) was related to the interactive effects of 5% treatment of Trichoderma fungus and 0mg/L lead. The results also indicated that the greatest amount of antioxidant (79.88% of free radical) and flavonoides (22.889 mg of coercetin/g of dry weight) was related to the interactive effects of lead 50 mg/L and the treatment of Trichoderma fungus 5%. Further, the greatest level of phenol (21.33 mg of Gaelic acid/ dry weight) was related to the interactive effects of lead 100 mg/L and Trichoderma fungus 5% . As carotenoids are a type of antioxidant and precursor of vitamin A, with the development of alignment effect with other antioxidants such as the total phenol, flavonoid, achieved desirable levels of antioxidant.

Keywords: antioxidant, lead, flavonoid, cauliflower, chlorophyll

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565 Highly Selective Polymeric Fluorescence Sensor for Cd(II) Ions

Authors: Soner Cubuk, Ozge Yilmaz, Ece Kok Yetimoglu, M. Vezir Kahraman


In this work, a polymer based highly selective fluorescence sensor membrane was prepared by the photopolymerization technique for the determination Cd(II) ion. Sensor characteristics such as effects of pH, response time and foreign ions on the fluorescence intensity of the sensor were also studied. Under optimized conditions, the polymeric sensor shows a rapid, stable and linear response for 4.45x10-⁹ mol L-¹ - 4.45x10-⁸ mol L-¹ Cd(II) ion with the detection limit of 6.23x10-¹⁰ mol L-¹. In addition, sensor membrane was selective which is not affected by common foreign metal ions. The concentrations of the foreign ions such as Pb²+, Co²+, Ag+, Zn²+, Cu²+, Cr³+ are 1000-fold higher than Cd(II) ions. Moreover, the developed polymeric sensor was successfully applied to the determination of cadmium ions in food and water samples. This work was supported by Marmara University, Commission of Scientific Research Project.

Keywords: cadmium(II), fluorescence, photopolymerization, polymeric sensor

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564 Ionic Liquid and Chemical Denaturants Effects on the Fluorescence Properties of the Laccase

Authors: Othman Saoudi


In this work, we have interested in the investigation of the chemical denaturants and synthesized ionic liquids effects on the fluorescence properties of the laccase from Trametes versicolor. The fluorescence properties of the laccase result from the presence of Tryptophan, which has an aromatic core responsible for the absorption in ultra violet domain and the emission of the photons of fluorescence. The effect Pyrrolidinuim Formate ([pyrr][F]) and Morpholinium Formate ([morph][F]) ionic liquids on the laccase behavior for various volumetric fractions are studied. We have shown that the fluorescence spectrum relative to the [pyrr][F] presents a single band with a maximum around 340 nm and a secondary peak at 361 nm for a volumetric fraction of 20% v/v. For concentration superiors to 40%, the fluorescence intensity decreases and a displacement of the peaks toward higher wavelengths has occurred. For the [morph][F], the fluorescence spectrum showed a single band around 340 nm. The intensity of the principal peak decreases for concentration superiors to 20% v/v. From the plot representing the variation of the λₘₐₓ versus the volumetric concentration, we have determined the concentration of the half-transitions C1/2. These concentrations are equal to 42.62% and 40.91% v/v in the presence of [pyrr][F] and [morph][F] respectively. For the chemical denaturation, we have shown that the fluorescence intensity decreases with increasing denaturant concentrations where the maximum of the wavelength of emission shifts toward the higher wavelengths. We have also determined from the spectrum relative to the urea and GdmCl, the unfolding energy, ∆GD. The results show that the variation of the unfolding energy as a function of the denaturant concentrations varies according to the linear regression model. We have demonstrated also that the half-transitions C1/2 have occurred for urea and GdmCl denaturants concentrations around 3.06 and 3.17 M respectively.

Keywords: laccase, fluorescence, ionic liquids, chemical denaturants

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563 Fluorescence Quenching as an Efficient Tool for Sensing Application: Study on the Fluorescence Quenching of Naphthalimide Dye by Graphene Oxide

Authors: Sanaz Seraj, Shohre Rouhani


Recently, graphene has gained much attention because of its unique optical, mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. Graphene has been used as a key material in the technological applications in various areas such as sensors, drug delivery, super capacitors, transparent conductor, and solar cell. It has a superior quenching efficiency for various fluorophores. Based on these unique properties, the optical sensors with graphene materials as the energy acceptors have demonstrated great success in recent years. During quenching, the emission of a fluorophore is perturbed by a quencher which can be a substrate or biomolecule, and due to this phenomenon, fluorophore-quencher has been used for selective detection of target molecules. Among fluorescence dyes, 1,8-naphthalimide is well known for its typical intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) and photo-induced charge transfer (PET) fluorophore, strong absorption and emission in the visible region, high photo stability, and large Stokes shift. Derivatives of 1,8-naphthalimides have found applications in some areas, especially fluorescence sensors. Herein, the fluorescence quenching of graphene oxide has been carried out on a naphthalimide dye as a fluorescent probe model. The quenching ability of graphene oxide on naphthalimide dye was studied by UV-VIS and fluorescence spectroscopy. This study showed that graphene is an efficient quencher for fluorescent dyes. Therefore, it can be used as a suitable candidate sensing platform. To the best of our knowledge, studies on the quenching and absorption of naphthalimide dyes by graphene oxide are rare.

Keywords: fluorescence, graphene oxide, naphthalimide dye, quenching

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