Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 583

Search results for: ionic leakage

583 Simulation and Analysis of Different Parameters in Hydraulic Circuit Due to Leakage

Authors: J.Das, Gyan Wrat


Leakage is the main gradual failure in the fluid power system, which is usually caused by the impurity in the oil and wear of matching surfaces between parts and lead to the change of the gap value. When leakage occurs in the system, the oil will flow from the high pressure chamber into the low pressure chamber through the gap, causing the reduction of system flow as well as the loss of system pressure, resulting in the decreasing of system efficiency. In the fluid power system, internal leakage may occur in various components such as gear pump, reversing valve and hydraulic cylinder, and affect the system work performance. Therefore, component leakage in the fluid power system is selected as the study to characterize the leakage and the effect of leakage on the system. Effect of leakage on system pressure and cylinder displacement can be obtained using pressure sensors and the displacement sensor. The leakage can be varied by changing the orifice using a flow control valve. Hydraulic circuit for leakage will be developed in Matlab/Simulink environment and simulations will be done by changing different parameters.

Keywords: leakage causes, effect, analysis, MATLAB simulation, hydraulic circuit

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
582 The Viscosity of Xanthan Gum Grout with Different pH and Ionic Strength

Authors: H. Ahmad Raji, R. Ziaie Moayed, M. A. Nozari


Xanthan gum (XG) an eco-friendly biopolymer has been recently explicitly investigated for ground improvement approaches. Rheological behavior of this additive strongly depends on electrochemical condition such as pH, ionic strength and also its content in aqueous solution. So, the effects of these factors have been studied in this paper considering various XG contents as 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2% of water. Moreover, adjusting pH values such as 3, 5, 7 and 9 in addition to increasing ionic strength to 0.1 and 0.2 in the molar scale has covered a practical range of electrochemical condition. The viscosity of grouts shows an apparent upward trend with an increase in ionic strength and XG content. Also, pH affects the polymerization as much as other parameters. As a result, XG behavior is severely influenced by electrochemical settings

Keywords: electrochemical condition, ionic strength, viscosity, xhanthan gum

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
581 An Embedded System for Early Detection of Gas Leakage in Hospitals and Industries

Authors: Sehreen Moorat, Hiba, Maham Mahnoor, Faryal Soomro


Leakage of gases in a system makes infrastructures and users vulnerable; it can occur due to its environmental conditions or old groundwork. In hospitals and industries, it is very important to detect any small level of gas leakage because of their sensitivity. In this research, a portable detection system for the small leakage of gases has been developed, gas sensor (MQ-2) is used to find leakage when it’s at its initial phase. The sensor and transmitting module senses the change in level of gas by using a sensing circuit. When a concentration of gas reach at a specified threshold level, it will activate an alarm and send the alarming situation notification to receiver through GSM module. The proposed system works well in hospitals, home, and industries.

Keywords: gases, detection, Arduino, MQ-2, alarm

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
580 A Comparative Study between Ionic Wind and Conventional Fan

Authors: J. R. Lee, E. V. Lau


Ionic wind is developed when high voltage is supplied to an anode and a grounded cathode in a gaseous medium. This paper studies the ionic wind profile with different anode configurations, the relationship between electrode gap against the voltage supplied and finally a comparison of the heat transfer coefficient of ionic wind over a horizontal flat plate against a conventional fan experimentally. It is observed that increase in the distance between electrodes decreases at a rate of 1-e-0.0206x as the voltage supply is increased until a distance of 3.1536cm. It is also observed that the wind speed produced by ionic wind is stronger, 2.7ms-1 at 2W compared to conventional fan, 2.5ms-1 at 2W but the wind produced decays at a fast exponential rate and is more localized as compared to conventional fan wind that decays at a slower exponential rate and is less localized. Next, it is found out that the ionic wind profile is the same regardless of the position of the anode relative to the cathode. Lastly, it is discovered that ionic wind produced a heat transfer coefficient that is almost 1.6 times higher compared to a conventional fan with Nusselt number reaching 164 compared to 102 for conventional fan.

Keywords: conventional fan, heat transfer, ionic wind, wind profile

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
579 Elastomer Composites Containing Ionic Liquids

Authors: M. Maciejewska, F. Walkiewicz


The aim of this work was to study the activity of several novel benzalkonium and alkylammonium and alkylimidazolium ionic liquids with 2-mercaptobenzothiazolate for use as accelerators in the sulphur vulcanisation of butadiene-styrene elastomer (SBR). The application of novel ionic liquids allowed for the elimination of N-cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazolesulfenamide from SBR compounds and for the considerable reduction of the amount of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole present in rubber products, which is favourable because, it is an allergenic agent. Synthesised salts could be used alternatively to standard accelerators in the vulcanisation of SBR, without any detrimental effects on the vulcanisation process, the physical properties or the thermal stability of the obtained vulcanisates. Ionic liquids increased the crosslink density of the vulcanisates and improved their thermal stability.

Keywords: ionic liquids, mechanical properties, styrene-butadiene rubber, vulcanisation

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
578 The Effect of Ionic Strength on the Extraction of Copper(II) from Perchlorate Solutions by Capric Acid in Chloroform

Authors: A. Bara, D. Barkat


The liquid-liquid extraction of copper (II) from aqueous solution by capric acid (HL) in chloroform at 25°C has been studied. The ionic strength effect of the aqueous phase shows that the extraction of copper(II) increases with the increase in ionic strength. with different ionic strengths 1, 0.5, 0.25, 0.125 and 0.1M in the aqueous phase. Cu (II) is extracted as the complex CuL2(ClO4).

Keywords: liquid-liquid extraction, ionic strength, copper (II), capric acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 456
577 Research on Placement Method of the Magnetic Flux Leakage Sensor Based on Online Detection of the Transformer Winding Deformation

Authors: Wei Zheng, Mao Ji, Zhe Hou, Meng Huang, Bo Qi


The transformer is the key equipment of the power system. Winding deformation is one of the main transformer defects, and timely and effective detection of the transformer winding deformation can ensure the safe and stable operation of the transformer to the maximum extent. When winding deformation occurs, the size, shape and spatial position of the winding will change, which directly leads to the change of magnetic flux leakage distribution. Therefore, it is promising to study the online detection method of the transformer winding deformation based on magnetic flux leakage characteristics, in which the key step is to study the optimal placement method of magnetic flux leakage sensors inside the transformer. In this paper, a simulation model of the transformer winding deformation is established to obtain the internal magnetic flux leakage distribution of the transformer under normal operation and different winding deformation conditions, and the law of change of magnetic flux leakage distribution due to winding deformation is analyzed. The results show that different winding deformation leads to different characteristics of the magnetic flux leakage distribution. On this basis, an optimized placement of magnetic flux leakage sensors inside the transformer is proposed to provide a basis for the online detection method of transformer winding deformation based on the magnetic flux leakage characteristics.

Keywords: magnetic flux leakage, sensor placement method, transformer, winding deformation

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
576 Screening of Freezing Tolerance in Eucalyptus Genotypes (Eucalyptus spp.) Using Chlorophyll Fluorescence, Ionic Leakage, Proline Accumulation and Stomatal Density

Authors: S. Lahijanian, M. Mobli, B. Baninasab, N. Etemadi


Low temperature extremes are amongst the major stresses that adversely affect the plant growth and productivity. Cold stress causes oxidative stress, physiological, morphological and biochemical changes in plant cells. Generally, low temperatures similar to salinity and drought exert their negative effects mainly by disrupting the ionic and osmotic equilibrium of the plant cells. Changes in climatic condition leading to more frequent extreme conditions will require adapted crop species on a larger scale in order to sustain agricultural production. Eucalyptus is a diverse genus of flowering trees (and a few shrubs) in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae. Members of this genus dominate the tree flora of Australia. The eucalyptus genus contains more than 580 species and large number of cultivars, which are native to Australia. Large distribution and diversity of compatible eucalyptus cultivars reflect the fact of ecological flexibility of eucalyptus. Some eucalyptus cultivars can sustain hard environmental conditions like high and low temperature, salinity, high level of PH, drought, chilling and freezing which are intensively effective on crops with tropical and subtropical origin. In this study, we tried to evaluate freezing tolerance of 12 eucalyptus genotypes by means of four different morphological and physiological methods: Chlorophyll fluorescence, electrolyte leakage, proline and stomatal density. The studied cultivars include Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. coccifera, E. darlympleana, E. erythrocorys, E. glaucescens, E. globulus, E. gunnii, E. macrocorpa, E. microtheca, E. rubida, E. tereticornis, and E. urnigera. Except for stomatal density recording, in other methods, plants were exposed to five gradual temperature drops: zero, -5, -10, -15 and -20 degree of centigrade and they remained in these temperatures for at least one hour. Experiment for measuring chlorophyll fluorescence showed that genotypes E. erythrocorys and E. camaldulensis were the most resistant genotypes and E. gunnii and E.coccifera were more sensitive than other genotypes to freezing stress effects. In electrolyte leakage experiment with regard to significant interaction between cultivar and temperature, genotypes E. erythrocorys and E.macrocorpa were shown to be the most tolerant genotypes and E. gunnii, E. urnigera, E. microtheca and E. tereticornis with the more ionic leakage percentage showed to be more sensitive to low temperatures. Results of Proline experiment approved that the most resistant genotype to freezing stress is E. erythrocorys. In the stomatal density experiment, the numbers of stomata under microscopic field were totally counted and the results showed that the E. erythrocorys and E. macrocorpa genotypes had the maximum and E. coccifera and E. darlympleana genotypes had minimum number of stomata under microscopic field (0.0605 mm2). In conclusion, E. erythrocorys identified as the most tolerant genotype; meanwhile E. gunnii classified as the most freezing susceptible genotype in this investigation. Further, remarkable correlation was not obtained between the stomatal density and other cold stress measures.

Keywords: chlorophyll fluorescence, cold stress, ionic leakage, proline, stomatal density

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
575 Ionic Liquid Membranes for CO2 Separation

Authors: Zuzana Sedláková, Magda Kárászová, Jiří Vejražka, Lenka Morávková, Pavel Izák


Membrane separations are mentioned frequently as a possibility for CO2 capture. Selectivity of ionic liquid membranes is strongly determined by different solubility of separated gases in ionic liquids. The solubility of separated gases usually varies over an order of magnitude, differently from diffusivity of gases in ionic liquids, which is usually of the same order of magnitude for different gases. The present work evaluates the selection of an appropriate ionic liquid for the selective membrane preparation based on the gas solubility in an ionic liquid. The current state of the art of CO2 capture patents and technologies based on the membrane separations was considered. An overview is given of the discussed transport mechanisms. Ionic liquids seem to be promising candidates thanks to their tunable properties, wide liquid range, reasonable thermal stability, and negligible vapor pressure. However, the uses of supported liquid membranes are limited by their relatively short lifetime from the industrial point of view. On the other hand, ionic liquids could overcome these problems due to their negligible vapor pressure and their tunable properties by adequate selection of the cation and anion.

Keywords: biogas upgrading, carbon dioxide separation, ionic liquid membrane, transport properties

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574 Biocompatible Ionic Liquids in Liquid-Liquid Extraction of Lactic Acid: A Comparative Study

Authors: Konstantza Tonova, Ivan Svinyarov, Milen G. Bogdanov


Ionic liquids consisting of pairs of imidazolium or phosphonium cation and chloride or saccharinate anion were synthesized and compared with respect to their extraction efficiency towards the fermentative L-lactic acid. The acid partitioning in the equilibrated biphasic systems of ionic liquid and water was quantified through the extraction degree and the partition coefficient. The water transfer from the aqueous into the ionic liquid-rich phase was also always followed. The effect of pH, which determines the state of lactic acid in the aqueous source was studied. The effect of other salting-out substances that modify the ionic liquid/water equilibrium was also investigated in view to reveal the best liquid-liquid system with respect to low toxicity, high extraction and back extraction efficiencies and performance simplicity.

Keywords: ionic liquids, biphasic system, extraction, lactic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 385
573 Study of Aerosol Deposition and Shielding Effects on Fluorescent Imaging Quantitative Evaluation in Protective Equipment Validation

Authors: Shinhao Yang, Hsiao-Chien Huang, Chin-Hsiang Luo


The leakage of protective clothing is an important issue in the occupational health field. There is no quantitative method for measuring the leakage of personal protective equipment. This work aims to measure the quantitative leakage of the personal protective equipment by using the fluorochrome aerosol tracer. The fluorescent aerosols were employed as airborne particulates in a controlled chamber with ultraviolet (UV) light-detectable stickers. After an exposure-and-leakage test, the protective equipment was removed and photographed with UV-scanning to evaluate areas, color depth ratio, and aerosol deposition and shielding effects of the areas where fluorescent aerosols had adhered to the body through the protective equipment. Thus, this work built a calculation software for quantitative leakage ratio of protective clothing based on fluorescent illumination depth/aerosol concentration ratio, illumination/Fa ratio, aerosol deposition and shielding effects, and the leakage area ratio on the segmentation. The results indicated that the two-repetition total leakage rate of the X, Y, and Z type protective clothing for subject T were about 3.05, 4.21, and 3.52 (mg/m2). For five-repetition, the leakage rate of T were about 4.12, 4.52, and 5.11 (mg/m2).

Keywords: fluorochrome, deposition, shielding effects, digital image processing, leakage ratio, personal protective equipment

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
572 Research on Axial End Flux Leakage and Detent Force of Transverse Flux PM Linear Machine

Authors: W. R. Li, J. K. Xia, R. Q. Peng, Z. Y. Guo, L. Jiang


According to 3D magnetic circuit of the transverse flux PM linear machine, distribution law is presented, and analytical expression of axial end flux leakage is derived using numerical method. Maxwell stress tensor is used to solve detent force of mover. A 3D finite element model of the transverse flux PM machine is built to analyze the flux distribution and detent force. Experimental results of the prototype verified the validity of axial end flux leakage and detent force theoretical derivation, the research on axial end flux leakage and detent force provides a valuable reference to other types of linear machine.

Keywords: axial end flux leakage, detent force, flux distribution, transverse flux PM linear machine

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
571 Ionic Liquids as Corrosion Inhibitors in CO2 Capture Systems

Authors: A. Acidi, A. Abbaci


We present the viability of using thermally stable, practically non-volatile ionic liquids as corrosion inhibitors in aqueous monoethanolamine system. Carbon steel 1020, which widely used as construction material in CO2 capture plants, has been taken as a test material. Corrosion inhibition capacities of typical room-temperature ionic liquids constituting imidazolium cation in concentration range ≤ 3% by weight in CO2 capture applications were investigated. Electrochemical corrosion experiments using the potentiodynamic polarization technique for measuring corrosion current were carried out. The results show that ionic liquids possess ability to suppressing severe operational problems of corrosion in typical CO2 capture plants.

Keywords: carbon dioxide, carbon steel, monoethanolamine, corrosion rate, ionic liquids, tafel fit

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
570 Gas Separation Membranes Using Stability Improved Ion Gels

Authors: Y. H. Hwang, J. Won, Y. S. Kang


Since ionic liquids have a special interaction with gas specially CO2 and/or olefin, supported ionic liquids membrane (SILM) are fabricated for practical gas separation. However, SILM has a problem in practical application due to the low mechanical stability under high pressure for gas separation. In order to improve the mechanical strength of the selective ionic liquid layer, we prepared supported ion gel membrane by the formation of gel on the surface of Nylon support. The ion gel was prepared by the addition of poly(styrene-block-ethyleneoxide-block-styrene) triblock copolymer in four tricyanomethanide ionic liquids have different cation; 1-ethyl-3-methlyimidazolium tricyanomethanide, 1-butyl-3-methlyimidazolium tricyanomethanide, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium tricyanomethanide, 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium tricyanomethanide using methylenechloride as a solvent. The characters of ion gel with different cation were studied. Four different gases (CO2, N2, O2, and CH4) permeance were measured at room temperature by bubble flow meter and cation effect of tricyanomethanide ionic liquids investigated.

Keywords: membrane, ionic liquid, ion gel, nanostructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
569 Water Leakage Detection System of Pipe Line using Radial Basis Function Neural Network

Authors: A. Ejah Umraeni Salam, M. Tola, M. Selintung, F. Maricar


Clean water is an essential and fundamental human need. Therefore, its supply must be assured by maintaining the quality, quantity and water pressure. However the fact is, on its distribution system, leakage happens and becomes a common world issue. One of the technical causes of the leakage is a leaking pipe. The purpose of the research is how to use the Radial Basis Function Neural (RBFNN) model to detect the location and the magnitude of the pipeline leakage rapidly and efficiently. In this study the RBFNN are trained and tested on data from EPANET hydraulic modeling system. Method of Radial Basis Function Neural Network is proved capable to detect location and magnitude of pipeline leakage with of the accuracy of the prediction results based on the value of RMSE (Root Meant Square Error), comparison prediction and actual measurement approaches 0.000049 for the whole pipeline system.

Keywords: radial basis function neural network, leakage pipeline, EPANET, RMSE

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568 Modified DNA as a Base Material for Nonlinear Optics

Authors: Ewelina Nowak, Anna Wisla-Swider


Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a biomolecule which exhibits an electro-optic properties. These features are related with structure of double-stranded helix. Modification of DNA with ionic liquids allows intensify these properties. The aim of our study was synthesis of ionic liquids that are used the formation of DNA-surfactant complexes in order to obtain new materials with potential application for nonlinear optics. Complexes were achieved through the ion exchange reactions of carbazole-based and imidazole-based ionic liquids with H+ ions from salmon DNA. To examination the properties of obtained complexes DNA-ionic liquids there were investigated using circular dichroism (CD), UV-Vis spectra and infrared spectroscopy (IR). Additionally, the resulting DNA-surfactant complexes were characterized in terms of solubility in common organic solvents and water.

Keywords: deoxyribonucleic acid, biomolecule, carbazole, imidazole, ionic liquids, ion exchange reactions

Procedia PDF Downloads 392
567 Role of Ionic Solutions Affect Water Treeing Propagation in XLPE Insulation for High Voltage Cable

Authors: T. Boonraksa, B. Marungsri


This paper presents the experimental results on role of ionic solutions affect water treeing propagation in cross-linked polyethylene insulation for high voltage cable. To study the water treeing expansion due to the ionic solutions, discs of 4mm thickness and 4cm diameter were taken from 115 kV XLPE insulation cable and were used as test specimen in this study. Ionic solutions composed of CuSO4, FeSO4, Na2SO4 and K2SO4 were used. Each specimen was immersed in 0.1 mole ionic solutions and was tested for 120 hrs. under a voltage stress at 7 kV AC rms, 1000 Hz. The results show that Na2SO4 and CuSO4solutions play an important role in the expansion of water treeing and cause degradation of the cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) in the presence of the applied electric field.

Keywords: ionic solutions, water treeing, water treeing expansion, cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE)

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566 Regenerated Cotton/Feather Keratin Composite Materials Prepared Using Ionic Liquids

Authors: Rasike De Silva, Xungai Wang, Nolene Byrne


We report on the blending of cotton and duck feather towards developing a new textile fibre. The cotton and duck feather were blended together by dissolving both components in an ionic liquid. Ionic liquids are designer solvents consisting entirely of ions with a melting point below 100˚C. Ionic liquids can be designed to have numerous and varied properties which include the ability to dissolve bio polymers. The dissolution of bio polymers such as cotton or wool generally requires very harsh acid or alkaline conditions and high temperatures. The ionic liquids which can dissolve bio polymers can be considered environmentally benign since they have negligible vapor pressure and can be recycled and reused. We have selected the cellulose dissolving and recyclable ionic liquid 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AMIMCl) as the dissolving and blending solvent for the cotton and duck feather materials. We have casted films and wet spun fibres at varying cotton and duck feather compositions and characterized the material properties of these. We find that the addition of duck feather enhances the elasticity of regenerated cotton. The strain% at breakage of the regenerated film was increased from 4.2% to 11.63% with a 10% duck feather loading, while the corresponding stress at breakage reduced from 54.89 MPa to 47.16 MPa.

Keywords: textile materials, bio polymers, ionic liquids, duck feather

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565 Effect of Aryl Imidazolium Ionic Liquids as Asphaltene Dispersants

Authors: Raghda Ahmed El-Nagar


Oil spills are one of the most serious environmental issues that have occurred during the production and transportation of petroleum crude oil. Chemical asphaltene dispersants are hazardous to the marine environment, so Ionic liquids (ILs) as asphaltene dispersants are a critical area of study. In this work, different aryl imidazolium ionic liquids were synthesized with high yield and elucidated via tools of analysis (Elemental analysis, FT-IR, and 1H-NMR). Thermogravimetric analysis confirmed that the prepared ILs posses high thermal stability. The critical micelle concentration (CMC), surface tension, and emulsification index were investigated. Evaluation of synthesized ILs as asphaltene dispersants were assessed at various concentrations, and data reveals high dispersion efficiency.

Keywords: ionic liquids, oil spill, asphaltene dispersants, CMC, efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
564 Design of a Hand-Held, Clamp-on, Leakage Current Sensor for High Voltage Direct Current Insulators

Authors: Morné Roman, Robert van Zyl, Nishanth Parus, Nishal Mahatho


Leakage current monitoring for high voltage transmission line insulators is of interest as a performance indicator. Presently, to the best of our knowledge, there is no commercially available, clamp-on type, non-intrusive device for measuring leakage current on energised high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission line insulators. The South African power utility, Eskom, is investigating the development of such a hand-held sensor for two important applications; first, for continuous real-time condition monitoring of HVDC line insulators and, second, for use by live line workers to determine if it is safe to work on energised insulators. In this paper, a DC leakage current sensor based on magnetic field sensing techniques is developed. The magnetic field sensor used in the prototype can also detect alternating current up to 5 MHz. The DC leakage current prototype detects the magnetic field associated with the current flowing on the surface of the insulator. Preliminary HVDC leakage current measurements are performed on glass insulators. The results show that the prototype can accurately measure leakage current in the specified current range of 1-200 mA. The influence of external fields from the HVDC line itself on the leakage current measurements is mitigated through a differential magnetometer sensing technique. Thus, the developed sensor can perform measurements on in-service HVDC insulators. The research contributes to the body of knowledge by providing a sensor to measure leakage current on energised HVDC insulators non-intrusively. This sensor can also be used by live line workers to inform them whether or not it is safe to perform maintenance on energized insulators.

Keywords: direct current, insulator, leakage current, live line, magnetic field, sensor, transmission lines

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
563 S-S Coupling of Thiols to Disulfides Using Ionic Liquid in the Presence of Free Nano Fe2O3 Catalyst

Authors: Askar Sabet, Abdolrasoul Fakhraee, Motahahre Ramezanpour, Noorallah Alipour


An efficient and green method for oxidation of thiols to the corresponding disulfides is reported using ionic liquid [HSO3N(C2H4OSO3H)3] in the presence of free nano-Fe2O3 at 60°C. Ionic liquid is selective oxidant for S-S Coupling variety aliphatic and aromatic of thiols to corresponding disulfide in the presence of free nano-Fe2O3 as recoverable catalyst. Reaction has been performed in methanol as an inexpensive solvent. This reaction is clean and easy work-up with no side reaction.

Keywords: thiol, disulfide, ionic liquid, free nano-Fe2O3, oxidation, coupling

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562 Heat Transfer Investigation in a Dimple Plate Heat Exchanger Using Ionic Liquid and Ionanofluid

Authors: Divya P. Soman, S. Karthika, P. Kalaichelvi, T. K. Radhakrishnan


Heat transfer characteristics of ionic liquid solution as cold fluid in plate heat exchanger with dimple plate geometry was studied. The ionic liquid solution used in this study was 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide in water. The present experimental study is to understand the heat transfer behavior of different 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide concentrations (0.1 and 0.2% w/w) in water. In addition, the heat transfer activity of ionanofluid as cold fluid was investigated. The ionanofluid was prepared by dispersing 0.3% w/w Al2O3 in the ionic liquid solution as base fluid. Experiments were also conducted to determine thermophysical properties of ionanofluid. The empirical correlations as a function of temperature were developed to predict the thermophysical properties. Finally, the heat transfer performance of ionic liquid solution, ionanofluid, nanofluid and water were compared. The impact of hot fluid’s (water) Reynolds number on overall heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number of cold fluids were analyzed. The nanofluid and ionanofluid were found to possess better heat transfer behavior than water and ionic liquid solution. Heat transfer augmentation was observed for ionanofluid when compared with the base fluid (0.1% w/w ionic liquid solution).

Keywords: ionic liquid, nanofluid, ionanofluid, dimple plate heat exchanger, Nusselt number, overall heat transfer coefficient

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561 Spectroscopic Determination of Functionalized Active Principles from Coleus aromaticus Benth Leaf Extract Using Ionic Liquids

Authors: Zharama M. Llarena


Green chemistry for plant extraction of active principles is the main interest of many researchers concerned with climate change. While classical organic solvents are detrimental to our environment, greener alternatives to ionic liquids are very promising for sustainable organic chemistry. This study focused on the determination of functional groups observed in the main constituents from the ionic liquid extracts of Coleus aromaticus Benth leaves using FT-IR Spectroscopy. Moreover, this research aimed to determine the best ionic liquid that can separate functionalized plant constituents from the leaves Coleus aromaticus Benth using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Coleus aromaticus Benth leaf extract in different ionic liquids, elucidated pharmacologically important functional groups present in major constituents of the plant, namely, rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid. In connection to distinctive appearance of functional groups in the spectrum and highest % transmittance, potassium chloride-glycerol is the best ionic liquid for green extraction.

Keywords: chlorogenic acid, coleus aromaticus, ionic liquid, rosmarinic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
560 A Double PWM Source Inverter Technique with Reduced Leakage Current for Application on Standalone Systems

Authors: Md.Noman Habib Khan, M. S. Tajul Islam, T. S. Gunawan, M. Hasanuzzaman


The photovoltaic (PV) panel with no galvanic isolation system is well-known technique in the world which is effective and deliver power with enhanced efficiency. The PV generation presented here is for stand-alone system installed in remote areas when as the resulting power gets connected to electronic load installation instead of being tied to the grid. Though very small, even then transformer-less topology is shown to be with leakage in pico-ampere range. By using PWM technique PWM, leakage current in different situations is shown. The results that are demonstrated in this paper show how the pico-ampere current is reduced to femto-ampere through use of inductors and capacitors of suitable values of inductor and capacitors with the load.

Keywords: photovoltaic (PV) panel, duty cycle, pulse duration modulation (PDM), leakage current

Procedia PDF Downloads 468
559 Ternary Content Addressable Memory Cell with a Leakage Reduction Technique

Authors: Gagnesh Kumar, Nitin Gupta


Ternary Content Addressable Memory cells are mainly popular in network routers for packet forwarding and packet classification, but they are also useful in a variety of other applications that require high-speed table look-up. The main TCAM-design challenge is to decrease the power consumption associated with the large amount of parallel active circuitry, without compromising with speed or memory density. Furthermore, when the channel length decreases, leakage power becomes more significant, and it can even dominate dynamic power at lower technologies. In this paper, we propose a TCAM-design technique, called Virtual Power Supply technique that reduces the leakage by a substantial amount.

Keywords: match line (ML), search line (SL), ternary content addressable memory (TCAM), Leakage power (LP)

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558 Enhancing Reused Lubricating Oil Performance Using Novel Ionic Liquids Based on Imidazolium Derivatives

Authors: Mohamed Deyab


The global lubricant additives market size was USD 14.35 billion in 2015. The industry is characterized by increasing additive usage in base oil blending for longer service life and performance. These additives improve the viscosity of oil, act as detergents, defoamers, antioxidants, and antiwear agents. Since additives play a significant role in base oil blending and subsequent formulations as they are critical materials in improving specification and performance of oils. Herein, we report on the synthesis and characterization of three imidazolium derivatives and their application as antioxidants, detergents and antiwear agents. The molecular structure and characterizations of these ionic liquids were confirmed by elemental analysis, FTIR, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and 1HNMR spectroscopy. Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), is used to study the degradation and thermal stability of the studied base stock samples. It was found that all the prepared ionic liquids additives have excellent power of dispersion and detergency. The ionic liquids as additives to engine oil reduced the friction (38%) and wear volume (76%) of steel balls. The obtained results show that the ionic liquids have an oxidation inhibitor up to 95%.

Keywords: reused lubricating oil, waste, petroleum, ionic liquids

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557 Unsteady Numerical Analysis of Sediment Erosion Affected High Head Francis Turbine

Authors: Saroj Gautam, Ram Lama, Hari Prasad Neopane, Sailesh Chitrakar, Biraj Singh Thapa, Baoshan Zhu


Sediment flowing along with the water in rivers flowing in South Asia erodes the turbine components. The erosion of turbine components is influenced by the nature of fluid flow along with components of typical turbine types. This paper examines two cases of high head Francis turbines with the same speed number numerically. The numerical investigation involves both steady-state and transient analysis of the numerical model developed for both cases. Furthermore, the influence of leakage flow from the clearance gap of guide vanes is also examined and compared with no leakage flow. It presents the added pressure pulsation to rotor-stator-interaction in the turbine runner for both cases due to leakage flow. It was also found that leakage flow was a major contributor to the sediment erosion in those turbines.

Keywords: sediment erosion, Francis turbine, leakage flow, rotor stator interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
556 Ionic Liquid Effects on Metal Ion-Based Extractions of Olefin/Paraffin Hydrocarbon

Authors: Ellen M. Lukasik


In coordination and support of the Center for Innovative and Strategic Transformation of Alkane Resources (CISTAR) Research Experience for Teachers (RET) at the University of Texas at Austin and under the guidance and direction of Professor Joan Brennecke, this study examined the addition of silver in an ionic liquid used to separate cyclohexane from cyclohexene. We recreated the liquid-liquid separation experimental results from the literature on cyclohexene, cyclohexane, and [allylmim][Tf2N] to verify our method, then evaluated the separation performance of silver - ionic liquid (IL) mixtures by various characterization techniques. To introduce the concepts of this research in high school education, a lesson plan was developed to instruct students on the principles of liquid-liquid separation.

Keywords: ionic liquids, liquid-liquid separation, hydrocarbon, research experience for teachers

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555 Determination of Inactivation and Recovery of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cells after the Gas-Phase Plasma Treatment

Authors: Z. Herceg, V. Stulic, T. Vukusic, A. Rezek Jambrak


Gas phase plasma treatment is a new nonthermal technology used for food and water decontamination. In this study, we have investigated influence of the gas phase plasma treatment on yeast cells of S. cerevisiae. Sample was composed of 10 mL of yeast suspension and 190 mL of 0.01 M NaNO₃ with a medium conductivity of 100 µS/cm. Samples were treated in a glass reactor with a point- to-plate electrode configuration (high voltage electrode-titanium wire in the gas phase and grounded electrode in the liquid phase). Air or argon were injected into the headspace of the reactor at the gas flow of 5 L/min. Frequency of 60, 90 and 120 Hz, time of 5 and 10 min and positive polarity were defined parameters. Inactivation was higher with the applied higher frequency, longer treatment time and injected argon. Inactivation was not complete which resulted in complete recovery. Cellular leakage (260 nm and 280 nm) was higher with a longer treatment time and higher frequency. Leakage at 280 nm which defines a leakage of proteins was higher than leakage at 260 nm which defines a leakage of nucleic acids. The authors would like to acknowledge the support by Croatian Science Foundation and research project 'Application of electrical discharge plasma for preservation of liquid foods'.

Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, inactivation, gas-phase plasma treatment, cellular leakage

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554 Leakage Current Analysis of FinFET Based 7T SRAM at 32nm Technology

Authors: Chhavi Saxena


FinFETs can be a replacement for bulk-CMOS transistors in many different designs. Its low leakage/standby power property makes FinFETs a desirable option for memory sub-systems. Memory modules are widely used in most digital and computer systems. Leakage power is very important in memory cells since most memory applications access only one or very few memory rows at a given time. As technology scales down, the importance of leakage current and power analysis for memory design is increasing. In this paper, we discover an option for low power interconnect synthesis at the 32nm node and beyond, using Fin-type Field-Effect Transistors (FinFETs) which are a promising substitute for bulk CMOS at the considered gate lengths. We consider a mechanism for improving FinFETs efficiency, called variable supply voltage schemes. In this paper, we’ve illustrated the design and implementation of FinFET based 4x4 SRAM cell array by means of one bit 7T SRAM. FinFET based 7T SRAM has been designed and analysis have been carried out for leakage current, dynamic power and delay. For the validation of our design approach, the output of FinFET SRAM array have been compared with standard CMOS SRAM and significant improvements are obtained in proposed model.

Keywords: FinFET, 7T SRAM cell, leakage current, delay

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