Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 945

Search results for: gestational diabetes

945 Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) Increasing Postpartum Screening to Prevent T2D

Authors: Boma Nellie S, Nambiar Ritu, K. Kanchanmala, T. Rashida, Israell Imelda, Moul Khusnud, Michael Marina


Gestational diabetes (GDM) imparts an increased life long risk of developing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease in women. Once diagnosed with GDM women have up to 74% increased cumulative risk developing T2DM in 10-15 years. Identifying women at increased risk of developing T2DM and offering them pharmacological and lifestyle management interventions will delay or eliminate the development of diabetes in this population. While ADA recommends that all gestational diabetics be offered postnatal screening, worldwide the screening rates from 35-75% and Al Rahba Hospital with a robust universal antenatal screening program for GDM was at a dismal 9% in 2011. A multidisciplinary team was put together involving OB/Gyn Physicians, Midwives, Nurses (ward and OPD) Diabetic Educators, Dietitians, Medical Records, Laboratory & IT with the implementation of multiple strategies to increase the uptake of postpartum screening of the gestational diabetic.

Keywords: GDM, postnatal screening, preventing type 2 diabetes, lifestyle management

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944 The Use of Metformin in Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) and Glucose Control in Pregnant Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) at Tripoli Medical Center

Authors: Ebtisam A. Benomran, Abdurrauf M. Gusbi, Malak S. Elazarg, M. Sultan, Layla M. Kafu, Arwa M. Matoug, Esra E. Benamara


Normal pregnancy is associated with metabolic changes leading to decreased insulin sensitivity and reduced glucose tolerance, however, 3-5% of pregnant women proceed to develop gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Researcher studied the use of metformin in many fields and the benefit to risk balance of using metformin during pregnancy and the risk of fetotoxic. In this study we examined the use of Metformin to control Glucose in pregnant Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and evaluate its safety use during the first trimester of pregnancy.A group of pregnant patients with gestational diabetes mellitus from the first trimester of pregnancy, non smoking with no family history of congenital malformation disease, aged between (20-45 years) and have no liver diseases and who had indicating good compliance at more than one visit over several month until delivery put on Metformin were participated in this trial. Our study shown that all the studied group of pregnant women using metformin 500 mg daily delivered a healthy babies. Meta-analysis by mother risk program showed no increase in incidence of malformations by use Metformin during the first trimester of pregnancy. A hundred outpatients were participated in the survey on the general knowledge and awareness of diabetic patients to their illness and medication used their aged between 20-40 years old. In this survey we realize that 90% of the doctors are not giving the patient full information about their illness and the use of metformin during pregnancy, also about 65% of the patients did not know about the nutritionist in the hospital and the right control diet for diabetes. Courses on first aid, rapid diagnosis of poisoning and follow the written procedures to dealing with such cases.

Keywords: gestational diabetes, malformations, metformin, pregnancy

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943 The Relationship Between Weight Gain, Cyclicality of Diabetologic Education and the Experienced Stress: A Study Involving Pregnant Women

Authors: Agnieszka Rolinska, Marta Makara-Studzinska


Introduction: In recent years, there has been an intensive development of research into the physiological relationships between the experienced stress and obesity. Moreover, strong chronic stress leads to the disorganization of a person’s activeness on various levels of functioning, including the behavioral and cognitive sphere (also in one’s diet). Aim: The present work addresses the following research questions: Is there a relationship between an increase in stress related to the disease and the need for the cyclicality of diabetologic education in gestational diabetes? Are there any differences in terms of the experienced stress during the last three months of pregnancy in women with gestational diabetes and in normal pregnancy between the patients with normal weight gains and those with abnormal weight gains? Are there any differences in terms of stress coping styles in women with gestational diabetes and in normal pregnancy between the patients with normal weight gains and those with abnormal weight gains? Method: The study involved pregnant women with gestational diabetes (treated with diet, without insulin therapy) and in normal pregnancy – 206 women in total. The following psychometric tools were employed: Perceived Stress Scale (PSS; Cohen, Kamarck, Mermelstein), Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS; Endler, Parker) and authors’ own questionnaire. Gestational diabetes mellitus was diagnosed on the basis of the results of fasting oral glucose tolerance test (75 g OGTT). Body weight measurements were confirmed in a diagnostic interview, taking into account medical data. Regularities in weight gains in pregnancy were determined according to the recommendations of the Polish Gynecological Society and American norms determined by the Institute of Medicine (IOM). Conclusions: An increase in stress related to the disease varies in patients with differing requirements for the cyclical nature of diabetologic education (i.e. education which is systematically repeated). There are no differences in terms of recently experienced stress and stress coping styles between women with gestational diabetes and those in normal pregnancy. There is a relationship between weight gains in pregnancy and the stress experienced in life as well as stress coping styles – both in pregnancy complicated by diabetes and in physiological pregnancy. In the discussion of the obtained results, the authors refer to scientific reports from English-language magazines of international range.

Keywords: diabetologic education, gestational diabetes, stress, weight gain in pregnancy

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942 The Relationship of Depression Risk and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Yu Chen Su


Introduction: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) refers to impaired glucose tolerance in pregnant women, impacting both the mother and newborn with short and long-term effects. It increases risks of preeclampsia, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, cesarean section, and preterm birth. GDM is associated with fetal macrosomia, shoulder dystocia, neonatal hypoglycemia, and future type 2 diabetes risk. A study on 6,421 pregnant women found 12% experienced high stress, linked to maladaptive coping and depressive emotions. Women with high-risk pregnancies may experience greater stress and depression. Research suggests GDM increases depression prevalence. A study on 632 Hispanic women with GDM showed severe stress and depression tendencies. Involving 95 women with GDM, 33.4% exhibited depression symptoms. Another study compared 180 GDM women to 186 with normal glucose levels, revealing higher depression levels in GDM women. They found GDM women were 1.85 times more likely to receive antidepressants during pregnancy and 1.69 times more likely to experience postpartum depression. Maternal stress and depressive symptoms during pregnancy are significant factors. Early identification by healthcare professionals can greatly benefit GDM women, their infants, and their families. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and the risk of depression. Methods: This study reviewed and analyzed relevant literature on gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and depression in 6,876 patients. The literature search followed PRISMA guidelines and included databases like Embase, PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library. Prospective or retrospective studies with relevant risk ratios and estimates were included, using a random-effects model for the analysis of depression risk correlation. Studies without depression data or relevant risks were excluded. The search period extended until October 2022. Results: Systematic review of 7 studies (6,876 participants) found a significant association (OR = 8.77, CI: 7.98-9.64, p < 0.05) between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and higher depression risk compared to healthy pregnant women. Conclusions: Pregnancy is a significant life transition involving physiological, psychological, and social changes. Gestational diabetes poses challenges to women's physical and mental well-being. Sensitive healthcare professionals identifying issues early can greatly benefit women, babies, and the family.

Keywords: gestational diabetes, depression, systematic review, neta-analysis

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941 Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus in the Western North Part of Libya

Authors: Mustafa Ali Abugila


A total of 13807 diabetic patients [(males 5893(42.68%), females 7914 (57.32%)] were on the registered in diabetic clinics in the western north of Libya at the end of 2012. Of the total clinic population, 865 patients had Type 1 IDDM (6.26%) and the rest cases had Type 2 NIDDM (93.74%). Diabetes mellitus was higher in females than in males (57.32% , 42.68%), the male to female ratio was (0.74 : 1).

Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus (DM), gestational diabetes mellitus, North Western of Libya,

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940 Influence of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus on the Activity of Steroid C17-Hydroxylase-C17,20-Lyase in Patients with Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy

Authors: Leona Ondrejikova, Martin Hill, Antonin Parizek


The incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is higher in women predisposed to developing intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP). Both diseases are associated with altered steroidogenesis when compared with none-ICP controls. However, the effect of GDM on circulating steroids in ICP patients remains unclear. The question remains, whether the levels of circulating steroids differ between ICP patients with and without GDM. In total 10 ICP patients without GDM (ICP+GDM-), 7 ICP patients with GDM (ICP+GDM+), and 15 controls (ICP-GDM-) were monitored during late gestation, at labor, and during three periods postpartum (day 5, week 3, and week 6 postpartum) (Šimják et al., 2018). The relationships between steroid profiles and patients’ status were evaluated using the ANOVA model consisting of subject factor, between-subject factors Group (ICP+GDM+, ICP+GDM-, ICP-GDM-), gestational age at the diagnosis of ICP and gestational age at labor, and within-subject factor Stage and ICP × Stage interaction. The levels of the C21 and C19 Δ5 steroids and 5α/β-reduced C19 steroids were highest in ICP+GDM+, while those for the ICP-GDM-, and ICP+GDM- groups were lower. In the C21 Δ4 steroids and their 5α/β-reduced metabolites, the steroid levels were highest in the ICP+GDM-, intermediate in the ICP-GDM- and lowest in the ICP+GDM+ group. This higher concentration in ICP+GDM- group may be of importance as the 5α-pregnane-3α,20α-diol disulfate, is considered as the substance inducing ICP. In general, these data show that the comorbidity with GDM substantially changes the steroidome in ICP patients towards the higher activity of steroid CYP17A1 lyase step in adrenal zona reticularis reduced CYP17A1 hydroxylase step in zona fasciculata. This is consistent with our previously published hypothesis about the critical role of maternal zona reticularis in the pathophysiology of ICP. Our present data also indicate that the comorbidity with GDM might moderate the gravity of the ICP in this way.

Keywords: CYP17A1, GC-MS, gestational diabetes mellitus, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy

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939 Levels of Selected Adipokines in Women with Gestational Diabetes and Type 2 Diabetes, Their Relationship to Metabolic Parameters

Authors: David Karasek, Veronika Kubickova, Ondrej Krystynik, Dominika Goldmannova, Lubica Cibickova, Jan Schovanek


Introduction: Adiponectin, adipocyte-fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP), and Wnt1 inducible signaling pathway protein-1 (WISP-1) are adipokines particularly associated with insulin resistance. The aim of the study was to compare their levels in women with gestational diabetes (GDM), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and healthy controls and determine their relation with metabolic parameters. Methods: Fifty women with GDM, 50 women with T2DM, and 35 healthy women were included in the study. In addition to adipokines, anthropometric, lipid parameters, and markers, insulin resistance, and glucose control were assessed in all participants. Results: Compared to healthy controls only significantly lower levels of adiponectin were detected in women with GDM, whereas lower levels of adiponectin, higher levels of A-FABP and of WISP-1 were present in women with T2DM. Women with T2DM had also lower levels of adiponectin and higher levels of A-FABP compared to women with GDM. In women with GDM or T2DM adiponectin correlated negatively with body mass index (BMI), triglycerides (TG), C-peptide and positively with HDL-cholesterol; A-FABP positively correlated with BMI, TG, waist, and C-peptide. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between WISP-1 and C-peptide in women with T2DM. Conclusion: Adverse adipokines production detecting dysfunctional fat tissue is in women with GDM less presented than in women with T2DM, but more expressed compared to healthy women. Acknowledgment: Supported by AZV NV18-01-00139 and MH CZ DRO (FNOl, 00098892).

Keywords: adiponectin, adipocyte-fatty acid binding protein, wnt1 inducible signaling pathway protein-1, gestational diabetes, type 2 diabetes mellitus

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938 Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) Knowledge Levels of Pregnant Women with GDM and Affecting Factors

Authors: Nuran Nur Aypar, Merlinda Alus Tokat


The aim of the study is to determine the knowledge level of pregnant women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) about the disease and affecting factors. The data of this descriptive study were collected from 184 pregnant women who were followed up in Dokuz Eylul University Hospital (n=34), Izmir Ege Maternity Hospital, Gynecology Training and Research Hospital (n=133), and Egepol Private Hospital (n=17). Data collection forms were prepared by the researcher according to the literature. ANOVA test, Kruskal Wallis test, Mann-Whitney U test, Student’s t-test, and Pearson correlation test were used for statistical analyses. Average GDM knowledge score of pregnant women was 40.10±19.56. The GDM knowledge scores were affected by factors such as age, educational level, working status, income status, educational level of the spouse, and the GDM background. It has been shown in our study that the GDM knowledge scores were negatively affected by factors such as young age, low educational level, low-income level, unemployment, having a spouse with low educational level, the absence of the GDM story. It has been identified that 86.4% of the pregnant women were trained about GDM. The education provided in the antenatal period significantly increased GDM knowledge scores of pregnant women (p=0.000, U=515.0). It has been determined that GDM knowledge of the pregnant women with GDM is affected by various factors. These factors must be considered in order to determine new strategies.

Keywords: affecting factors, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), knowledge level, nursing, pregnancy

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937 Alteration of Placental Development and Vascular Dysfunction in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Has Impact on Maternal and Infant Health

Authors: Sadia Munir


The aim of this study is to investigate changes in placental development and vascular dysfunction which subsequently affect feto-maternal health in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Fetal and postnatal adverse health outcomes of GDM are shown to be associated with disturbances in placental structure and function. Children of women with GDM are more likely to be obese and diabetic in childhood and adulthood. GDM also increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preeclampsia, birth injuries, macrosomia and neonatal hypoglycemia, respiratory distress syndrome, neonatal cardiac dysfunction and stillbirth. Incidences of type 2 diabetes in the MENA region are growing at an alarming rate which is estimated to become more than double by 2030. Five of the top 10 countries for diabetes prevalence in 2010 were in the Gulf region. GDM also increases the risk of development of type 2 diabetes. Interestingly, more than half of the women with GDM develop diabetes later in their life. The human placenta is a temporary organ located at the interface between mother and fetal blood circulation. Placenta has a central role as both a producer as well as a target of several molecules that are involved in placental development and function. We have investigated performed a Pubmed search with key words placenta, GDM, placental villi, vascularization, cytokines, growth factors, inflammation, hypoxia, oxidative stress and pathophysiology. We have investigated differences in the development and vascularization of placenta, their underlying causes and impact on feto-maternal health through literature review. We have also identified gaps in the literature and research questions that need to be answered to completely understand the central role of placenta in the GDM. This study is important in understanding the pathophysiology of placenta due to changes in the vascularization of villi, surface area and diameter of villous capillaries in pregnancies complicated by GDM. It is necessary to understand these mechanisms in order to develop treatments to reverse their effects on placental malfunctioning, which in turn, will result in improved mother and child health.

Keywords: gestational diabetes mellitus, placenta, vasculature, villi

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936 Association of Maternal Age, Ethnicity and BMI with Gestational Diabetes Prevalence in Multi-Racial Singapore

Authors: Nur Atiqah Adam, Mor Jack Ng, Bernard Chern, Kok Hian Tan


Introduction: Gestational diabetes (GDM) is a common pregnancy complication with short and long-term health consequences for both mother and fetus. Factors such as family history of diabetes mellitus, maternal obesity, maternal age, ethnicity and parity have been reported to influence the risk of GDM. In a multi-racial country like Singapore, it is worthwhile to study the GDM prevalences of different ethnicities. We aim to investigate the influence of ethnicity on the racial prevalences of GDM in Singapore. This is important as it may help us to improve guidelines on GDM healthcare services according to significant risk factors unique to Singapore. Materials and Methods: Obstetric cohort data of 926 singleton deliveries in KK Women’s and Children’s Hospital (KKH) from 2011 to 2013 was obtained. Only patients aged 18 and above and without complicated pregnancies or chronic illnesses were targeted. Factors such as ethnicity, maternal age, parity and maternal body mass index (BMI) at booking visit were studied. A multivariable logistic regression model, adjusted for confounders, was used to determine which of these factors are significantly associated with an increased risk of GDM. Results: The overall GDM prevalence rate based on WHO 1999 criteria & at risk screening (race alone not a risk factor) was 8.86%. GDM rates were higher among women above 35 years old (15.96%), obese (15.15%) and multiparous women (10.12%). Indians had a higher GDM rate (13.0 %) compared to the Chinese (9.57%) and Malays (5.20%). However, using multiple logistic regression model, variables that are significantly related to GDM rates were maternal age (p < 0.001) and maternal BMI at booking visit (p = 0.006). Conclusion: Maternal age (p < 0.001) and maternal booking BMI (p = 0.006) are the strongest risk factors for GDM. Ethnicity per se does not seem to have a significant influence on the prevalence of GDM in Singapore (p = 0.064). Hence we should tailor guidelines on GDM healthcare services according to maternal age and booking BMI rather than ethnicity.

Keywords: ethnicity, gestational diabetes, healthcare, pregnancy

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935 Parameter Estimation of Additive Genetic and Unique Environment (AE) Model on Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Using Bayesian Method

Authors: Andi Darmawan, Dewi Retno Sari Saputro, Purnami Widyaningsih


Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease in human that occurred if pancreas cannot produce enough of insulin hormone or the body uses ineffectively insulin hormone which causes increasing level of glucose in the blood, or it was called hyperglycemia. In Indonesia, DM is a serious disease on health because it can cause blindness, kidney disease, diabetic feet (gangrene), and stroke. The type of DM criteria can also be divided based on the main causes; they are DM type 1, type 2, and gestational. Diabetes type 1 or previously known as insulin-independent diabetes is due to a lack of production of insulin hormone. Diabetes type 2 or previously known as non-insulin dependent diabetes is due to ineffective use of insulin while gestational diabetes is a hyperglycemia that found during pregnancy. The most one type commonly found in patient is DM type 2. The main factors of this disease are genetic (A) and life style (E). Those disease with 2 factors can be constructed with additive genetic and unique environment (AE) model. In this article was discussed parameter estimation of AE model using Bayesian method and the inheritance character simulation on parent-offspring. On the AE model, there are response variable, predictor variables, and parameters were capable of representing the number of population on research. The population can be measured through a taken random sample. The response and predictor variables can be determined by sample while the parameters are unknown, so it was required to estimate the parameters based on the sample. Estimation of AE model parameters was obtained based on a joint posterior distribution. The simulation was conducted to get the value of genetic variance and life style variance. The results of simulation are 0.3600 for genetic variance and 0.0899 for life style variance. Therefore, the variance of genetic factor in DM type 2 is greater than life style.

Keywords: AE model, Bayesian method, diabetes mellitus type 2, genetic, life style

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934 Prevalence of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Western Australia from 2015 until 2020

Authors: Kumaressan Ragunathan, Arisudhan Anantharachagan


Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the subtype of diabetes that has been rapidly increasing in numbers in Australia. The annual percentage of GDM has increased more than 50 percent in the last decade. According to Diabetes Australia, more than five hundred thousand women in Australia will be diagnosed with GDM. Globally, the prevalence of GDM ranges from single-digit to more than 45%. The prevalence of GDM has increased significantly last five years after the introduction of new diagnostic criteria. Hence, we have decided to investigate the trend in GDM prevalence in a tertiary maternity unit at Western Australia and compare it to national prevalence. Data is derived from STORK Perinatal Database which has been used by Maternity services in Western Australia to populate information on pregnancy and labour. We have selected data from 2015 until 2020, which includes 17508 women. Among 17508 women, 3850 women were diagnosed with GDM. In 2015, we had a total of 2213 deliveries with 345 of them were complicated by GDM. GDM prevalence was 15.6% compared to the Australian national prevalence of 12%. In 2016, total deliveries increased to 2759 with 590 of were with GDM. GDM prevalence was 21.4% compared to the Australian national prevalence of 12%. In 2017, total deliveries further increased to 3049 with 675 with GDM. GDM prevalence was 22.1%, with an Australian national prevalence of 13%. In 2018, total deliveries continued to increase, with numbers reaching 3231 with 749 with GDM. GDM prevalence was 23.2%, with an Australian National prevalence of 14%. In 2019, total deliveries were 3110, with 712 complicated by GDM. GDM prevalence was 22.9%, with Australian national prevalence 14%. In 2020, total deliveries 3146 with 819 complicated by GDM. GDM prevalence increased to 26% and we were unable to compare this to national standard as national prevalence has not been released. Among 3890 women with GDM, 2482 (64%) of them required insulin. Apart from that, a total 1642(42%) from the GDM group were delivered via the Caesarean section. 2121 (55%) women with GDM required induction of labour. Overall, we demonstrated an increase in the prevalence of GDM in our unit from 2015 until 2020. Our prevalence is also higher compared to national prevalence. This could be contributed by the increasing number of obesity and in addition, our unit accepts referrals of women with a body mass index (BMI) of more than 40. Hence, further studies are required to look at other risk factors like ethnicity, socio-economic status, health literacy and age, which could contribute to this high prevalence.

Keywords: gestational diabetes mellitus, prevalence, Western Australia, Australia

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933 Changes in Blood Pressure in a Longitudinal Cohort of Vietnamese Women

Authors: Anh Vo Van Ha, Yun Zhao, Luat Cong Nguyen, Tan Khac Chu, Phung Hoang Nguyen, Minh Ngoc Pham, Colin W. Binns, Andy H. Lee


This study aims to study longitudinal changes in blood pressure (BP) during the 1-year postpartum period and to evaluate the influence of parity, maternal age at delivery, prepregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, gestational age at delivery and postpartum maternal weight. A prospective longitudinal cohort study of 883 singleton Vietnamese women was conducted in Hanoi, Haiphong, and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam during 2015-2017. Women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus at 24-28 weeks of gestation, pre-eclampsia, and hypoglycemia was excluded from analysis. BP was repeatedly measured at discharge, 6 and 12 months postpartum using automatic blood pressure monitors. Linear mixed model with repeated measures was used to describe changes occurring during pregnancy to 1-year postpartum. Parity, self-reported prepregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, maternal age and gestational age at delivery will be treated as time-invariant variables and measured maternal weight will be treated as a time-varying variable in models. Women with higher measured postpartum weight had higher mean systolic blood pressure (SBP), 0.20 mmHg, 95% CI [0.12, 0.28]. Similarly, women with higher measured postpartum weight had higher mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP), 0.15 mmHg, 95% CI [0.08, 0.23]. These differences were both statistically significant, P < 0.001. There were no differences in SBP and DBP depending on parity, maternal age at delivery, prepregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain and gestational age at delivery. Compared with discharge measurement, SBP was significantly higher in 6 months postpartum, 6.91 mmHg, 95% CI [6.22, 7.59], and 12 months postpartum, 6.39 mmHg, 95% CI [5.64, 7.15]. Similarly, DBP was also significantly higher in 6 and months postpartum than at discharge, 10.46 mmHg 95% CI [9.75, 11.17], and 11.33 mmHg 95% CI [10.54, 12.12]. In conclusion, BP measured repeatedly during the postpartum period (6 and 12 months postpartum) showed a statistically significant increase, compared with after discharge from the hospital. Maternal weight was a significant predictor of postpartum blood pressure over the 1-year postpartum period.

Keywords: blood pressure, maternal weight, postpartum, Vietnam

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932 Edge Detection and Morphological Image for Estimating Gestational Age Based on Fetus Length Automatically

Authors: Retno Supriyanti, Ahmad Chuzaeri, Yogi Ramadhani, A. Haris Budi Widodo


The use of ultrasonography in the medical world has been very popular including the diagnosis of pregnancy. In determining pregnancy, ultrasonography has many roles, such as to check the position of the fetus, abnormal pregnancy, fetal age and others. Unfortunately, all these things still need to analyze the role of the obstetrician in the sense of image raised by ultrasonography. One of the most striking is the determination of gestational age. Usually, it is done by measuring the length of the fetus manually by obstetricians. In this study, we developed a computer-aided diagnosis for the determination of gestational age by measuring the length of the fetus automatically using edge detection method and image morphology. Results showed that the system is sufficiently accurate in determining the gestational age based image processing.

Keywords: computer aided diagnosis, gestational age, and diameter of uterus, length of fetus, edge detection method, morphology image

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931 Association of Severe Preeclampsia with Offspring Neurodevelopmental and Psychiatric Disorders: A Finnish Population-Based Cohort Study

Authors: Linghua Kong, Xinxia Chen, Mika Gissler, Catharina Lavebratt


Background: Prenatal exposure to preeclampsia has been associated with an increased risk of offspring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and intellectual disability. However, little is known about the association between prenatal exposure to severe preeclampsia and neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders in offspring. Objective: This study aimed to assess the risk of maternal preeclampsia combined with perinatal problems, specifically low birth weight and prematurity, on offspring neuropsychiatric disorders. Methods: All singleton live births in Finland between 1996 and 2014 (n=1 012 723) were followed up in nation-wide registries until 2018. Main exposures included pre-eclampsia, small for gestational age, and delivery before 34 gestational weeks. Offspring neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders (ICD-10 codes) were examined as outcomes variables. Offspring birth year, sex, maternal age at delivery, parity, marital status at birth, mother's country of birth, maternal smoking, maternal gestational diabetes, maternal use of psychotropic medication during pregnancy, and maternal systemic inflammatory diseases were used as covariates. Risks for neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders were estimated using Cox proportional hazards modeling. Results: Of the 1 012 723 offspring, 25 901 (2.6%) were exposed to preeclampsia, and 93 281 (9.2%) were diagnosed with a neuropsychiatric disorder. Compared to births unexposed to preeclampsia, small for gestational age or delivery before 34 gestational weeks, those exposed to preeclampsia only had a 21% increase in the likelihood of any neuropsychiatric disorders after adjusting for potential confounding (adjusted HR=1.21, 95% CI: 1.15-1.26), while exposure to preeclampsia combined with small for gestational age or delivery before 34 gestational weeks had a more than twofold increased risk of having a child with neuropsychiatric disorders (adjusted HR=2.16, 95% CI: 2.02-2.32). The adjusted HR for neuropsychiatric disorders in offspring with small for gestational age or delivery before 34 gestational weeks only was 1.79 (95% CI: 1.73-1.83). In addition, the risk estimate in offspring exposed to both preeclampsia and perinatal problems was greater than those only exposed to preeclampsia for having personality disorders (adjusted HR=1.66; 95% CI: 1.07-2.57), intellectual disabilities (adjusted HR=3.47; 95% CI: 2.86-4.22), specific developmental disorders (adjusted HR=2.91; 95% CI: 2.69-3.15), ASD (adjusted HR=1.75; 95% CI: 1.42-2.17), ADHD and conduct disorders (adjusted HR=2.00; 95%CI: 1.76-2.27), and other behavioral and emotional disorders (adjusted HR=2.09; 95% CI: 1.84-2.37). Conclusion: In utero exposure to severe preeclampsia increased the risk of several neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders in offspring. Our findings are relevant to women with hypertensive disorders with regard to pregnancy consultation and management and may yield effective clues for the prevention of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders in childhood.

Keywords: low birth weight, neurodevelopmental disorders, preeclampsia, prematurity, psychiatric disorders

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930 Effect of Diet and Life Style Modification to Control the Plasma Glucose Level in the 60 Patients of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Vivek Saxena, Shreshtha Saxena


Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as impaired glucose tolerance first recognized during pregnancy. Uncontrolled or untreated GDM is associated with various adverse outcomes to the maternal and fetal health. Overt diabetes mellitus may also develop in such patients. It is universally accepted fact that first and foremost management to treat GDM is dietary control and lifestyle modification even before starting any oral hypoglycemic agent (OHA) or insulin. So, proper dietary management and little changes in the patient’s lifestyle are very effective for reducing her plasma glucose level. Objectives: Proper counselling of the patients and flexibility in their lifestyle and diet can effectively control the plasma glucose level in GDM patients. Methods: Total 60 GDM patients of age > 18 years were taken. We had three counselling sessions with the patient and other members of the family like husband, parents, and in-laws at different intervals, discussed their lifestyle and diet pattern, helped them to eliminate the factors those had an adverse effect on plasma glucose level and promoted them to acquire a healthy lifestyle. We have counselled the patient and her family member separately and then together also. They have explained how increased plasma glucose level can be effectively controlled with the little modification in their diet and routine activities. They were also taught to remain stress-free during their rest of antenatal period. We have excluded the patients from our study who were diabetic before pregnancy and patients with other comorbid illnesses like hypothyroidism and valvular heart disease. Results and conclusions: Results were very rewarding as patients could acquire a lifestyle of their choice. They were happy because extra pill burden was not there. All the 60 patients were normoglycemic in remaining antenatal period, 48 patients were delivered normally and 12 patients underwent cesarean section due to various reasons.Regular counselling of the patients regarding their disease and little alterations in diet and lifestyle controlled the plasma glucose level much effectively. The things were more easier and effective when we included other family members during our counselling session because they play a major role in patient’s day to day activity and influence her life.

Keywords: dietary management, gestational diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, oral hypoglycemic agent, pregnancy

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929 Increased Risk of Adverse Birth Outcomes of Newborns in Arsenic Exposed- Women with Gestational Diabetes

Authors: Tania Mannan, Rahelee Zinnat, Fatema Jebunnesa, Israt Ara Hossain


Background: Exposure to arsenic has known toxic effects but the effect on pregnancy outcomes is not as widely documented especially in women with diabetes. Growing evidence has suggested a potential role of arsenic exposure in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association of urinary arsenic (UAs) with birth outcomes in GDM subjects. Methods: Under an observational cross-sectional design a total of 263 GDM subjects (age in years, M±SD, 21±3.7) residing in an arsenic affected area of Bangladesh, were subjected to a 2 sample OGTT at the third trimester of gestation. Among them, 73 GDM and 190 non-GDM subjects enrolled in this study. Clinical and anthropometric measurements were done by standard techniques. Degree of chronic arsenic exposure was assessed by the level of UAs level. According to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, GDM was diagnosed and neonatal outcomes using APGAR (Activity Pulse Grimace Appearance Respirations) Score, birth weight and size were assessed by a specialist obstetrician. Serum glucose was measured by the Glucose Oxidase method and UAs level was determined by ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometry. Result: Out of the 263 pregnant women, 28% developed GDM. Urinary Arsenic was significantly higher in the GDM as compared to the non-GDM group [UAs, µg/l, M±SD (range), 204.2±67.0 (67.0-377.0) vs 77.3±38.1 (22.0-99.0), p < 0.001]. Activity Pulse Grimace Appearance Respirations Score of the neonates from GDM mothers was significantly lower compared to the neonates from non-GDM mothers [APGAR Score, M±SD, 4.7±0.8 vs. 6.4±0.7, p<0.001]. Pearson’s correlation analysis in GDM subjects revealed that UA levels were found to have a significant positive correlation with both fasting and postprandial serum glucose levels (p < 0.001) and (p < 0.001) respectively. Again, a significant inverse correlation of UAs with birth weight and size was observed (p < 0.001). The APGAR Score of the neonates were found to have a significant negative correlation (p < 0.001) with UAs level. Conclusion: The effect of chronic arsenic exposure is associated with glucose intolerance during pregnancy and it also adversely affects birth outcomes. The study suggests further research on the impact of total arsenic exposure on pregnancy outcomes.

Keywords: APGAR score, arsenic exposure, birth outcome, gestational diabetes mellitus,

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928 Physical Activity Self-Efficacy among Pregnant Women with High Risk for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Xiao Yang, Ji Zhang, Yingli Song, Hui Huang, Jing Zhang, Yan Wang, Rongrong Han, Zhixuan Xiang, Lu Chen, Lingling Gao


Aim and Objectives: To examine physical activity self-efficacy, identify its predictors, and further explore the mechanism of action among the predictors in mainland Chinese pregnant women with high risk for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Background: Physical activity could protect pregnant women from developing GDM. Physical activity self-efficacy was the key predictor of physical activity. Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2021 to May 2022 in Zhengzhou, China. Methods: 252 eligible pregnant women completed the Pregnancy Physical Activity Self-efficacy Scale, the Social Support for Physical Activity Scale, the Knowledge on Physical Activity Questionnaire, the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, and a socio-demographic data sheet. Multiple linear regression was applied to explore the predictors of physical activity self-efficacy. Structural equation modeling was used to explore the mechanism of action among the predictors. Results: Chinese pregnant women with a high risk for GDM reported a moderate level of physical activity self-efficacy. The best-fit regression analysis revealed four variables explained 17.5% of the variance in physical activity self-efficacy. Social support for physical activity was the strongest predictor, followed by knowledge of the physical activity, intention to do physical activity, and anxiety symptoms. The model analysis indicated that knowledge of physical activity could release anxiety and depressive symptoms and then increase physical activity self-efficacy. Conclusion: The present study revealed a moderate level of physical activity self-efficacy. Interventions targeting pregnant women with high risk for GDM need to include the predictors of physical activity self-efficacy. Relevance to clinical practice: To facilitate pregnant women with high risk for GDM to engage in physical activity, healthcare professionals may find assess physical activity self-efficacy and intervene as soon as possible on their first antenatal visit. Physical activity intervention programs focused on self-efficacy may be conducted in further research.

Keywords: physical activity, gestational diabetes, self-efficacy, predictors

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927 Effect of Maternal Factors and C-Peptide and Insulin Levels in Cord Blood on the Birth Weight of Newborns: A Preliminary Study from Southern Sri Lanka

Authors: M. H. A. D. de Silva, R. P. Hewawasam, M. A. G. Iresha


Macrosomia is common in infants born to not only women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus but also non-diabetic obese women. Maternal Body Mass Index (BMI) correlates with the incidence of large for gestational age infants. Obesity has reached epidemic levels in modern societies. During the past two decades, obesity in children and adolescents has risen significantly in Asian populations including Sri Lanka. There is increasing evidence to believe that infants who are born large for gestational age are more likely to be obese in childhood and adolescence and are at risk of cardiovascular and metabolic complications later in life. It is also established that Asians have lower skeletal muscle mass, low bone mineral content and excess body fat for a given BMI indicating a genetic predisposition in the occurrence of obesity. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of maternal weight, weight gain during pregnancy, c-peptide and insulin concentrations in the cord blood on the birth of appropriate for and large for gestational age infants in a tertiary care center in Southern Sri Lanka. Umbilical cord blood was collected from 90 newborns (Male 40, Female 50; gestational age 35-42 weeks) after double clamping the umbilical cord before separation of the placenta and the concentration of insulin and C-peptide were measured by ELISA technique. Anthropometric parameters of the newborn such as birth weight, length, ponderal index, occipital frontal, chest, hip and calf circumferences were measured, and characteristics of the mother were collected. The relationship between insulin, C-peptide and anthropometrics were assessed by Spearman correlation. The multiple logistic regression analysis examined influences of maternal weight, weight gain during pregnancy, C-peptide and insulin concentrations in cord blood as covariates on the birth of large for gestational age infants. A significant difference (P<0.001) was observed between the insulin levels of infants born large for gestational age (18.73 ± 0.52 µlU/ml) and appropriate for gestational age (13.08 ± 0.56 µlU/ml). Consistently, A significant decrease in concentration (41.68%, P<0.001) was observed between C-peptide levels of infants born large for gestational age and appropriate for gestational age. Cord blood insulin and C-peptide levels had a significant correlation with birth weight (r=0.35, P<0.05) of the newborn at delivery. Maternal weight and BMI which are indicators of maternal nutrition were proven to be directly correlated with birth weight and length. To our knowledge, this relationship was investigated for the first time in a Sri Lankan setting and was also evident in our results. This study confirmed the fact that insulin and C-peptide play a major role in regulating fetal growth. According to the results obtained in this study, we can suggest that the increased BMI of the mother has a direct influence on increased maternal insulin secretion, which may subsequently affect cord insulin and C-peptide levels and also birth weight of the infant.

Keywords: C-peptide, insulin, large for gestational age, maternal weight

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926 Comparison of Gestational Diabetes Influence on the Ultrastructure of Rectus Abdominis Muscle in Women and Rats

Authors: Giovana Vesentini, Fernanda Piculo, Gabriela Marini, Debora Damasceno, Angelica Barbosa, Selma Martheus, Marilza Rudge


Problem statement: Skeletal muscle is highly adaptable, muscle fiber composition and size can respond to a variety of stimuli, such physiologic, as pregnancy, and metabolic abnormalities, as Diabetes mellitus. This study aimed to analyze the effects of pregnancy-associated diabetes on the rectus abdominis muscle (RA), and to compare this changes in rats and women. Methods: Female Wistar rats were maintained under controlled conditions and distributed in Pregnant (P) and Long-term mild pregnant diabetic (LTMd) (n=3 r/group). Diabetes in rats was induced by streptozotocin (100mg/Kg, sc) on the first day of life, for a hyperglycemic state between 120-300 mg/dL in adult life. Female rats were mated overnight, at day 21 of pregnancy were anesthetized, and killed for the harvesting of maternal RA. Pregnant women who attended the Diabetes Prenatal Care Clinic of Botucatu Medical School were distributed in Pregnant non-diabetic (Pnd) and Gestational Diabetic (GDM) (n=3 w/group). The diagnosis of GDM was established according to ADA’s criteria (2016). The harvesting of RA was during the cesarean section. Transversal cross-sections of the RA of both women and rats were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. All procedures were approved by the Ethics Committee on Animal Experiments of the Botucatu Medical School (Protocol Number 1003/2013) and by the Botucatu Medical School Ethical Committee for Human Research in Medical Sciences (CAAE: 41570815.0.0000.5411). Results: The photomicrographs of the RA of rats revealed disorganized Z lines, thinning sarcomeres, and a usual quantity of intermyofibrillar mitochondria in the P group. The LTMd group showed swollen sarcoplasmic reticulum, dilated T tubes and areas with sarcomere disruption. The ultrastructural analysis of Pnd non-diabetic women in the RA showed well-organized myofibrils forming intact sarcomeres, organized Z lines and a normal distribution of intermyofibrillar mitochondria. The GDM group revealed increase in intermyofibrillar mitochondria, areas with sarcomere disruption and increased lipid droplets. Conclusion: Pregnancy and diabetes induce adaptations in the ultrastructure of the rectus abdominis muscle for both women and rats, changing the architectural design of these tissues. However, in rats these changes are more severe maybe because, besides the high blood glucose levels, the quadrupedal animal may suffer an excessive mechanical tension during pregnancy by gravity. Probably, these findings may suggest that these alterations are a risk factor that contributes to the development of muscle dysfunction in women with GDM and may motivate treatment strategies in these patients.

Keywords: gestational diabetes, muscle dysfunction, pregnancy, rectus abdominis

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925 Serum Concentration of the CCL7 Chemokine in Diabetic Pregnant Women during Pregnancy until the Postpartum Period

Authors: Fernanda Piculo, Giovana Vesentini, Gabriela Marini, Debora Cristina Damasceno, Angelica Mercia Pascon Barbosa, Marilza Vieira Cunha Rudge


Introduction: Women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) were significantly more likely to have urinary incontinence (UI) and pelvic floor muscle dysfunction compared to non-diabetic women two years after a cesarean section. Additional results demonstrated that induced diabetes causes detrimental effects on pregnant rat urethral muscle. These results indicate the need for exploration of the mechanistic role of a recovery factor in female UI. Chemokine ligand 7 (CCL7) was significantly over expressed in rat serum, urethral and vaginal tissues immediately following induction of stress UI in a rat model simulating birth trauma. CCL7 over expression has shown potency for stimulating targeted stem cell migration and provide a translational link (clinical measurement) which further provide opportunities for treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the CCL7 levels profile in diabetic pregnant women with urinary incontinence during pregnancy over the first year postpartum. Methods: This study was conducted in the Perinatal Diabetes Research Center of the Botucatu Medical School/UNESP, and was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Institution (CAAE: 20639813.0.0000.5411). The diagnosis of GDM was established between 24th and 28th gestational weeks, by the 75 g-OGTT test according to ADA’s criteria. Urinary incontinence was defined according to the International Continence Society and the CCL7 levels was measured by ELISA (R&D Systems, Catalog Number DCC700). Two hundred twelve women were classified into four study groups: normoglycemic continent (NC), normoglycemic incontinent (NI), diabetic continent (DC) and diabetic incontinent (DI). They were evaluated at six-time-points: 12-18, 24-28 and 34-38 gestational weeks, 24-48 hours, 6 weeks and 6-12 months postpartum. Results: At 12-18 weeks, it was possible to consider only two groups, continent and incontinent, because at this early gestational period has not yet been the diagnosis of GDM. The group with GDM and UI (DI group) showed lower levels of CCL7 in all time points during pregnancy and postpartum, compared to normoglycemic groups (NC and NI), indicating that these women have not recovered from child birth induced UI during the 6-12 months postpartum compared to their controls, and that the progression of UI and/or lack of recovery throughout the first postpartum year can be related with lower levels of CCL7. Instead, serum CCL7 was significantly increased in the NC group. Taken together, these findings of overexpression of CCL7 in the NC group and decreased levels in the DI group, could confirm that diabetes delays the recovery from child birth induced UI, and that CCL7 could potentially be used as a serum marker of injury. Conclusion: This study demonstrates lower levels of CCL7 in the DI group during pregnancy and postpartum and suggests that the progression of UI in diabetic women and/or lack of recovery throughout the first postpartum year can be related with low levels of CCL7. This provides a translational potential where CCL7 measurement could be used as a surrogate for injury after delivery. Successful controlled CCL7 mediated stem cell homing to the lower urinary tract could one day introduce the potential for non-operative treatment or prevention of stress urinary incontinence.

Keywords: CCL7, gestational diabetes, pregnancy, urinary incontinence

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924 Renal Transplant, Pregnancy, and Complications: A Literature Review

Authors: Sara Iqbal


Introduction:Renal transplant is increasingly one of the most popular transplants within the UK; with an aging population along with obesity epidemic we are witnessing increasing rates of diabetes – one of the commonest indications for renal transplant. However, the demand is far greater than supply. Many donors are provided by women of child-bearing age; however the long-term effects are still uncertain. Aim:Determine pregnancy outcomes and complications of women of child-bearing age following renal donation. Methods: A review of the current available literature was preformed using MEDLINE and EMBASE up to 2014. Search criteria included key terms such as pregnancy outcome post-renal donor, pregnancy outcomes and complications. Relevant articles were selected based on pure methodological medical research, after careful analysis, they were recorded within this review. Results: Out of 1141 women involved in transplant studies, 574 pregnancies reported having donated a single-renal donor prior to pregnancy. Of which a staggering miscarriage rate 32.4% (n=186) was reported, amongst this other complications included gestational hypertension of 10% (n=59) and gestational diabetes 2.3% (n=13). Other significantly noted complications included chronic hypertension, low-birth weights, and pregnancy-related death. Conclusions: After unilateral renal donor transplant, haemodynamics change along with pregnancy, predisposing women to developing several complications compared to pregnancies with no history any renal-donor transplant. Despite this, further investigation is required in order to accurately determine the safety of renal-donors in women of child-bearing age.

Keywords: renal transplant, pregnancy, complications, medical and health sciences

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
923 The Physiological Effects of Thyriod Disorders During the Gestatory Period on Fetal Neurological Development: A Descriptive Review

Authors: Vanessa Bennemann, Gabriela Laste, Márcia Inês Goettert


The gestational period is a phase in which the pregnant woman undergoes constant physiological and hormonal changes, which are part of the woman’s biological cycle, the development of the fetus, childbirth, and lactation. These are factors of response to the immunological adaptation of the human reproductive process that is directly related to the pregnancy’s well-being and development. Although most pregnancies occur without complications, about 15% of pregnant women will develop potentially fatal complications, implying maternal and fetal risk. Therefore, requiring specialized care for high-risk pregnant women (HRPW) with obstetric interventions for the survival of the mother and/or fetus. Among the risk factors that characterize HRPW are the women's age, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), autoimmune diseases, infectious diseases such as syphilis and HIV, hypertension (SAH), preeclampsia, eclampsia, HELLP syndrome, uterine contraction abnormalities, and premature placental detachment (PPD), thyroid disorders, among others. Thus, pregnancy has an impact on the thyroid gland causing changes in the functioning of the mother's thyroid gland, altering the thyroid hormone (TH) profiles and production as pregnancy progresses. Considering, throughout the gestational period, the interpretation of the results of the tests to evaluate the thyroid functioning depends on the stage in which the pregnancy is. Thyroid disorders are directly related to adverse obstetric outcomes and in child development. Therefore, the adequate release of TH is important for a pregnancy without complications and optimal fetal growth and development. Objective: Investigate the physiological effects caused by thyroid disorders in the gestational period. Methods: A search for articles indexed in PubMed, Scielo, and MDPI databases, was performed using the term “AND”, with the descriptors: Pregnancy, Thyroid. With several combinations that included: Melatonin, Thyroidopathy, Inflammatory processes, Cytokines, Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant, High-risk pregnancy. Subsequently, the screening was performed through the analysis of titles and/or abstracts. The criteria were: including clinical studies in general, randomized or not, in the period of 10 years prior to the research, in the English literature; excluded: experimental studies, case reports, research in the development phase. Results: In the preliminary results, a total of studies (n=183) were found, (n=57) excluded, such as studies of cancer, diabetes, obesity, and skin diseases. Conclusion: To date, it has been identified that thyroid diseases can impair the fetus’s brain development. Further research is suggested on this matter to identify new substances that may have a potential therapeutic effect to aid the gestational period with thyroid diseases.

Keywords: pregnancy, thyroid, melatonin, high-risk pregnancy

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922 The Descriptions of vBloggers with Type 1 Diabetes about Overcoming Diabetes Burnout

Authors: Samereh Abdoli, Amit Vora, Anusha Vora


Background: Diabetes burnout is one of the most common contributors to decreased quality of life, poor psychosocial well-being, and increased morbidity, mortality and diabetes cost. While the term diabetes burnout is widely accepted particularly in type 1 diabetes (T1D), the state of the science on diabetes burnout is lacking a systematic approach to overcome diabetes burnout. Objective: The study aimed to explore the strategies to overcome burnout by integrating the voices of individuals with T1D. Methods: In this study, we applied a descriptive qualitative design using YouTube videos produced by individuals with T1D. Seven YouTube videos (Austria= 1, U.S=6) with the highest rate of views which met the inclusion criteria were analyzed using a qualitative content analysis approach. Results: Participants verbalized overcoming diabetes burnout as a 'difficult hole to climb out of' which make them empowered. Themes that describes their strategies to overcome burnout in T1D, in general, include; 'make plan and take action', 'start with small steps', 'ask for help', 'get engage in diabetes community' and 'do not be perfect'. Future Work: These findings can begin the examination of different strategies to overcome diabetes burnout, which may change the course of action for diabetes care and management to improve quality of diabetes care and quality of life.

Keywords: diabetes burnout, type 1 diabetes, qualitative research, YouTube videos

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
921 Rising Prevalence of Diabetes among Elderly People in Kerala: Evidence from NSS Data

Authors: Narendra Kumar


In developing countries, the majority of people with diabetes are in the age range of 45-64 years and more women than men. As in many areas of the India, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus has become major problems. Now it is spreading among the middle class and poor at an alarming stage in India and Kerala is turning to be the world capital of diabetes. This study uses two round NSS data from the ‘National Sample Survey Organization, India’ to investigate the predictors of diabetes in Kerala. The overall estimates for diabetes prevalence among elderly show that higher in men than women, but there are more women with diabetes than men. Education of respondent has been found a significant characteristics, further respondent working status, caste/tribe have substantial impact on diabetes in Kerala. The disease is more common for people who are mostly physically inactive. This whole picture is very much prominent in the urban areas compared with the rural ones. Not working elderly have significantly higher with diabetes than for those working in elderly. Socioeconomic status was inversely associated with diabetes prevalence. For men and women, the prevalence of diabetes and hypertension were significantly higher in the urban population while smoking, smokeless tobacco consumption was more prevalent in the rural population. High alcohol intake increases diabetes risk among elderly. Finally these findings specified that an increase improve health care services and changing life style of elderly which should in turn raise diabetes patient survival and should decrease comorbidities due to diabetes in Kerala.

Keywords: elderly, diabetes, prevalence, Kerala

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920 Prevalence, Awareness, and Risk Factors of Diabetes in Ahvaz: South West of Iran

Authors: Leila Yazdanpanah, Hajieh Shahbazian, Seyed Mahmoud Latifi, Armaghan Moravej Aleali, Saeed Ghanbari


Introduction: This study was designed to determine the prevalence of diabetes in people aged over 20 years in Ahvaz, Iran. Material and Methods: The study population selected by cluster sampling. Fasting blood sugar (FBS) assessed after minimum 8 hours night fasting. A questionnaire included: age, sex, weight, height, blood pressure, waist circumference and previous history of diabetes were completed for each patient. FBS≥126mg/dl and/or oral hypoglycemic treatment and/or insulin was defined as diabetes, FBS=100-125 mg/dl as impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and FBS<100mg/dl as normal. Results: Study population was 936 persons (47.2 % male and 52.8% female). The mean age of a population was 42.2±14 years. Diabetes was detected in 15.1 % of population. Only 57cases(6.1%) were aware of their disease and 9% had unknown diabetes. Diabetes was detected in 14.5% of male (11.3% unknown and 3.2 % known diabetes) and in 11.7% of female (7% unknown and 4.7% known diabetes). Prevalence of diabetes had no significant difference (P=0.21) in male and female but unknown diabetes was significantly higher in male (P=0.025). Prevalence of diabetes was increased with rising of age between 20-60 years old but decreasing after 60 years old. Diabetes was related to age, waist circumference and systolic and diastolic blood pressure, TG level and BMI in both sex (P=0.0001). Conclusion: More than half of female and three-fourth of male diabetic patients are unaware of their disease in South of Iran. Diabetes screening should be intensified in this population.

Keywords: diabetes, prevalence, risk factor, awareness

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919 The Control of Type 2 Diabetes with Specific References to Dietary Factors

Authors: Reham Algheshairy


The purpose of this research study is to identify the beneficial effects of Nigella sativa seeds, cherries and Ajwah dates on blood glucose levels among people with type 2 diabetes in the KSA population and healthy people in the UK. My hypothesis questions whether or not people with type 2 diabetes can lead a healthier life using these dietary supplements.

Keywords: diabetes type 2, cherry, nigella seeds, Ajwa date

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918 An Early Detection Type 2 Diabetes Using K - Nearest Neighbor Algorithm

Authors: Ng Liang Shen, Ngahzaifa Abdul Ghani


This research aimed at developing an early warning system for pre-diabetic and diabetics by analyzing simple and easily determinable signs and symptoms of diabetes among the people living in Malaysia using Particle Swarm Optimized Artificial. With the skyrocketing prevalence of Type 2 diabetes in Malaysia, the system can be used to encourage affected people to seek further medical attention to prevent the onset of diabetes or start managing it early enough to avoid the associated complications. The study sought to find out the best predictive variables of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, developed a system to diagnose diabetes from the variables using Artificial Neural Networks and tested the system on accuracy to find out the patent generated from diabetes diagnosis result in machine learning algorithms even at primary or advanced stages.

Keywords: diabetes diagnosis, Artificial Neural Networks, artificial intelligence, soft computing, medical diagnosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
917 The Role of Serum Fructosamine as a Monitoring Tool in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Treatment in Vietnam

Authors: Truong H. Le, Ngoc M. To, Quang N. Tran, Luu T. Cao, Chi V. Le


Introduction: In Vietnam, the current monitoring and treatment for ordinary diabetic patient mostly based on glucose monitoring with HbA1c test for every three months (recommended goal is HbA1c < 6.5%~7%). For diabetes in pregnant women or Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), glycemic control until the time of delivery is extremly important because it could reduce significantly medical implications for both the mother and the child. Besides, GDM requires continuos glucose monitoring at least every two weeks and therefore an alternative marker of glycemia for short-term control is considering a potential tool for the healthcare providers. There are published studies have indicated that the glycosylated serum protein is a better indicator than glycosylated hemoglobin in GDM monitoring. Based on the actual practice in Vietnam, this study was designed to evaluate the role of serum fructosamine as a monitoring tool in GDM treament and its correlations with fasting blood glucose (G0), 2-hour postprandial glucose (G2) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Methods: A cohort study on pregnant women diagnosed with GDM by the 75-gram oralglucose tolerance test was conducted at Endocrinology Department, Cho Ray hospital, Vietnam from June 2014 to March 2015. Cho Ray hospital is the final destination for GDM patient in the southern of Vietnam, the study population has many sources from other pronvinces and therefore researchers belive that this demographic characteristic can help to provide the study result as a reflection for the whole area. In this study, diabetic patients received a continuos glucose monitoring method which consists of bi-weekly on-site visit every 2 weeks with glycosylated serum protein test, fasting blood glucose test and 2-hour postprandial glucose test; HbA1c test for every 3 months; and nutritious consultance for daily diet program. The subjects still received routine treatment at the hospital, with tight follow-up from their healthcare providers. Researchers recorded bi-weekly health conditions, serum fructosamine level and delivery outcome from the pregnant women, using Stata 13 programme for the analysis. Results: A total of 500 pregnant women was enrolled and follow-up in this study. Serum fructosamine level was found to have a light correlation with G0 ( r=0.3458, p < 0.001) and HbA1c ( r=0.3544, p < 0.001), and moderately correlated with G2 ( r=0.4379, p < 0.001). During study timeline, the delivery outcome of 287 women were recorded with the average age of 38.5 ± 1.5 weeks, 9% of them have macrosomia, 2.8% have premature birth before week 35th and 9.8% have premature birth before week 37th; 64.8% of cesarean section and none of them have perinatal or neonatal mortality. The study provides a reference interval of serum fructosamine for GDM patient was 112.9 ± 20.7 μmol/dL. Conclusion: The present results suggests that serum fructosamine is as effective as HbA1c as a reflection of blood glucose control in GDM patient, with a positive result in delivery outcome (0% perinatal or neonatal mortality). The reference value of serum fructosamine measurement provided a potential monitoring utility in GDM treatment for hospitals in Vietnam. Healthcare providers in Cho Ray hospital is considering to conduct more studies to test this reference as a target value in their GDM treatment and monitoring.

Keywords: gestational diabetes mellitus, monitoring tool, serum fructosamine, Vietnam

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916 Detection of Arterial Stiffness in Diabetes Using Photoplethysmograph

Authors: Neelamshobha Nirala, R. Periyasamy, Awanish Kumar


Diabetes is a metabolic disorder and with the increase of global prevalence of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and mortality related to diabetes has also increased. Diabetes causes the increase of arterial stiffness by elusive hormonal and metabolic abnormalities. We used photoplethysmograph (PPG), a simple non-invasive method to study the change in arterial stiffness due to diabetes. Toe PPG signals were taken from 29 diabetic subjects with mean age of (65±8.4) years and 21 non-diabetic subjects of mean age of (49±14) years. Mean duration of diabetes is 12±8 years for diabetic group. Rise-time (RT) and area under rise time (AUR) were calculated from the PPG signal of each subject and Welch’s t-test is used to find the significant difference between two groups. We obtained a significant difference of (p-value) 0.0005 and 0.03 for RT and AUR respectively between diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. Average value of RT and AUR is 0.298±0.003 msec and 14.4±4.2 arbitrary units respectively for diabetic subject compared to 0.277±0.0005 msec and 13.66±2.3 a.u respectively for non-diabetic subjects. In conclusion, this study support that arterial stiffness is increased in diabetes and can be detected early using PPG.

Keywords: area under rise-time, AUR, arterial stiffness, diabetes, photoplethysmograph, PPG, rise-time (RT)

Procedia PDF Downloads 200