Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: Ayele Taye Goshu

14 Count Regression Modelling on Number of Migrants in Households

Authors: Tsedeke Lambore Gemecho, Ayele Taye Goshu

Abstract:

The main objective of this study is to identify the determinants of the number of international migrants in a household and to compare regression models for count response. This study is done by collecting data from total of 2288 household heads of 16 randomly sampled districts in Hadiya and Kembata-Tembaro zones of Southern Ethiopia. The Poisson mixed models, as special cases of the generalized linear mixed model, is explored to determine effects of the predictors: age of household head, farm land size, and household size. Two ethnicities Hadiya and Kembata are included in the final model as dummy variables. Stepwise variable selection has indentified four predictors: age of head, farm land size, family size and dummy variable ethnic2 (0=other, 1=Kembata). These predictors are significant at 5% significance level with count response number of migrant. The Poisson mixed model consisting of the four predictors with random effects districts. Area specific random effects are significant with the variance of about 0.5105 and standard deviation of 0.7145. The results show that the number of migrant increases with heads age, family size, and farm land size. In conclusion, there is a significantly high number of international migration per household in the area. Age of household head, family size, and farm land size are determinants that increase the number of international migrant in households. Community-based intervention is needed so as to monitor and regulate the international migration for the benefits of the society.

Keywords: Poisson regression, GLM, number of migrant, Hadiya and Kembata Tembaro zones

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13 Towards Effective Public Consultation and Participation in Nigeria: Lessons from Shoreline Management Plans (SMPs) Activities in England

Authors: Taye O. Famuditi, Jonathan Potts, Malcolm Bray

Abstract:

This paper examines the shoreline management planning policy in England and its suitability for ameliorating the diverse environmental problems associated with Nigeria’s coastal zones. It examines the success of SMPs in England since the mid-1990s and progress achieved, with the aim of understudying the current management approach that can be transferred to Nigeria to strengthen its adoption, and as a necessary corollary, implementation of the SMPs. This paper also examines key elements of the shoreline management frameworks in England and provides answers to the question: Would shoreline management planning approach in England be appropriate and feasible in Nigeria? It further concludes that many of the action plans and principles of participation should be adoptable provided that a participatory approach that involves all stakeholders including community members and relevant sectorial ministries as well as appropriate legal framework is encouraged.

Keywords: shoreline management plans, coastal zone management, stakeholder engagement, participatory approach, Nigeria

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12 Controlled Synthesis of CdSe Quantum Dots via Microwave-Enhanced Process: A Green Approach for Mass Production

Authors: Delele Worku Ayele, Bing-Joe Hwang

Abstract:

A method that does not employ hot injection techniques has been developed for the size-tunable synthesis of high-quality CdSe quantum dots (QDs) with a zinc blende structure. In this environmentally benign synthetic route, which uses relatively less toxic precursors, solvents, and capping ligands, CdSe QDs that absorb visible light are obtained. The size of the as-prepared CdSe QDs and, thus, their optical properties can be manipulated by changing the microwave reaction conditions. The QDs are characterized by XRD, TEM, UV-vis, FTIR, time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectrophotometry. In this approach, the reaction is conducted in open air and at a much lower temperature than in hot injection techniques. The use of microwaves in this process allows for a highly reproducible and effective synthesis protocol that is fully adaptable for mass production and can be easily employed to synthesize a variety of semiconductor QDs with the desired properties. The possible application of the as-prepared CdSe QDs has been also assessed using deposition on TiO2 films.

Keywords: average life time, CdSe QDs, microwave (MW), mass production oleic acid, Na2SeSO3

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11 Design a Small-Scale Irrigation Wind-Powered Water Pump Using a Savonius Type VAWT

Authors: Getnet Ayele Kebede, Tasew Tadiwose Zewdie

Abstract:

In this study, a novel design of a wind-powered water pump for small-scale irrigation application by using the Savonius wind turbine of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine(VAWT) with 2 blades has been used. Calculations have been made on the energy available in the wind and an energy analysis was then performed to see what wind speed is required for the system to work. The rotor has a radius of 0.53 m giving a swept area of 1.27 m2 and this gives a solidity of 0.5, which is the minimum theoretical optimum value for wind turbine. The average extracted torque of the wind turbine is 0.922 Nm and Tip speed ratio is one this shows, the tips are moving at equal the speed of the wind and by 2 rotating of blades. This is sufficient to sustain the desired flow rate of (0.3125X 10-3) m3 per second with a maximum head of 10m and the expected working is 4hr/day, and also overcome other barriers to motion such as friction. Based on this novel design, we are able to achieve a cost-effective solution and simultaneously effective in self-starting under low wind speeds and it can catch the wind from all directions.

Keywords: Savonius wind turbine, Small-scale irrigation, Vertical Axis Wind Turbine, Water pump

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10 Rapid Microwave-Enhanced Process for Synthesis of CdSe Quantum Dots for Large Scale Production and Manipulation of Optical Properties

Authors: Delele Worku Ayele, Bing-Joe Hwang

Abstract:

A method that does not employ hot injection techniques has been developed for the size-tunable synthesis of high-quality CdSe quantum dots (QDs) with a zinc blende structure. In this environmentally benign synthetic route, which uses relatively less toxic precursors, solvents, and capping ligands, CdSe QDs that absorb visible light are obtained. The size of the as-prepared CdSe QDs and, thus, their optical properties can be manipulated by changing the microwave reaction conditions. The QDs are characterized by XRD, TEM, UV-vis, FTIR, time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectrophotometry. In this approach, the reaction is conducted in open air and at a much lower temperature than in hot injection techniques. The use of microwaves in this process allows for a highly reproducible and effective synthesis protocol that is fully adaptable for mass production and can be easily employed to synthesize a variety of semiconductor QDs with the desired properties. The possible application of the as-prepared CdSe QDs has been also assessed using deposition on TiO2 films.

Keywords: CdSe QDs, Na2SeSO3, microwave (MW), oleic acid, mass production, average life time

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9 Diversification of Sweet Potato Blends and Utilization for Malnutrition and Poverty Alleviation

Authors: Ladele Ademola A., Nkiru T. Meludu, Olufunke Ezekiel, Olaoye Taye F., Okanlowan Oluwatoyin M.

Abstract:

Value addition to agricultural produce is of possible potential in reducing poverty, improving food security and malnutrition, therefore the need to develop small and micro-enterprises of sweet potato production. The study was carried out in Nigeria to determine the acceptability of blends sweet potato (Ipomea batatas) and commodities yellow maize (Zea mays), millet (Pennisetum glaucum), soybean (Glycine max), bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean), guinea corn (Sorghum vulgare), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) through sensory evaluation. Sweet potato (Ipomea batatas) roots were processed using two methods. The first method involved the use of a fabricated gas powered cabinet dryer to dry sulphited chips and the second method was the use of traditional sun drying method without the addition of the chemical. The blends were also assessed in terms of functional, chemical and color properties. Most acceptable blends include BAW (80:20 of sweet potato/wheat), BBC (80:20 of sweet potato/guinea corn), AAB (60:40 of sweet potato/guinea corn), YTE (100% soybean), TYG (100% sweet potato), KTN (100% wheat flour), XGP (80:20 of sweet potato/soybean), XAX (60:40 of sweet potato/wheat), LSS (100% Roselle), CHK (100% Guinea corn), and ABC (60:40% of sweet potato/ yellow maize). In addition, chemical analysis carried out revealed that sweet potato has high percentage of vitamins A and C, potassium (K), manganese (Mn), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and iron (Fe) and fibre content. There is also an increase of vitamin A and Iron in the blended products.

Keywords: blends, diversification, sensory evaluation, sweet potato, utilization

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8 Multilingualism as an Impetus to Nigerian Religious and Political Crises: the Way Forward

Authors: Kehinde, Taye Adetutu

Abstract:

The fact that Nigeria as a nation is faced by myriads of problems associated with religious crises and political insecurity is no news, the spoken statement and actions of most political giant were the major cause of this unrest. The 'unlearnt' youth within the regions has encompassed the situation. This scenario is further compounded by multilingual nature of the country as it is estimated that there exists amount 400 indigenous languages in Nigeria. It is an indisputable fact that english language which has assumed the status of an official language in Nigeria, given its status has a language of power and captivity by a few with no privilege to attend school. However, educating people in their indigenous language; crises can be averted through the proper orientation and mass literacy campaign, especially for the timid illiterate one, so as to live in unity, peace, tranquillity, and harmony as indivisible nation. In investigating the problem in this study with an emphasis on three major Nigerian language (Yoruba, Igbo and Hausa), participants observations and survey questionnaire were administered to about one hundred and twenty (120) respondents who were randomly selected throughout the three major ethnic groups in Nigeria. Findings from this study reveals that teaching and learning of cognitive words and information are more effective in ones mother tongue and helps in stimulating new ideas and changes. This paper was able to explore and critically examine the current state of affairs in Nigeria and proffer possible solutions to the prevailing situations by identifying how indigenous languages and linguistics can be used to ameliorate the present political and religious crisis for Nigeria, thus providing a proper recommendation to achieve meaningful stability and coexistence within a nation.

Keywords: multilingualism, political crisis, religious, Nigeria

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7 Neural Network Supervisory Proportional-Integral-Derivative Control of the Pressurized Water Reactor Core Power Load Following Operation

Authors: Derjew Ayele Ejigu, Houde Song, Xiaojing Liu

Abstract:

This work presents the particle swarm optimization trained neural network (PSO-NN) supervisory proportional integral derivative (PID) control method to monitor the pressurized water reactor (PWR) core power for safe operation. The proposed control approach is implemented on the transfer function of the PWR core, which is computed from the state-space model. The PWR core state-space model is designed from the neutronics, thermal-hydraulics, and reactivity models using perturbation around the equilibrium value. The proposed control approach computes the control rod speed to maneuver the core power to track the reference in a closed-loop scheme. The particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is used to train the neural network (NN) and to tune the PID simultaneously. The controller performance is examined using integral absolute error, integral time absolute error, integral square error, and integral time square error functions, and the stability of the system is analyzed by using the Bode diagram. The simulation results indicated that the controller shows satisfactory performance to control and track the load power effectively and smoothly as compared to the PSO-PID control technique. This study will give benefit to design a supervisory controller for nuclear engineering research fields for control application.

Keywords: machine learning, neural network, pressurized water reactor, supervisory controller

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6 Development of a Laboratory Laser-Produced Plasma “Water Window” X-Ray Source for Radiobiology Experiments

Authors: Daniel Adjei, Mesfin Getachew Ayele, Przemyslaw Wachulak, Andrzej Bartnik, Luděk Vyšín, Henryk Fiedorowicz, Inam Ul Ahad, Lukasz Wegrzynski, Anna Wiechecka, Janusz Lekki, Wojciech M. Kwiatek

Abstract:

Laser produced plasma light sources, emitting high intensity pulses of X-rays, delivering high doses are useful to understand the mechanisms of high dose effects on biological samples. In this study, a desk-top laser plasma soft X-ray source, developed for radio biology research, is presented. The source is based on a double-stream gas puff target, irradiated with a commercial Nd:YAG laser (EKSPLA), which generates laser pulses of 4 ns time duration and energy up to 800 mJ at 10 Hz repetition rate. The source has been optimized for maximum emission in the “water window” wavelength range from 2.3 nm to 4.4 nm by using pure gas (argon, nitrogen and krypton) and spectral filtering. Results of the source characterization measurements and dosimetry of the produced soft X-ray radiation are shown and discussed. The high brightness of the laser produced plasma soft X-ray source and the low penetration depth of the produced X-ray radiation in biological specimen allows a high dose rate to be delivered to the specimen of over 28 Gy/shot; and 280 Gy/s at the maximum repetition rate of the laser system. The source has a unique capability for irradiation of cells with high pulse dose both in vacuum and He-environment. Demonstration of the source to induce DNA double- and single strand breaks will be discussed.

Keywords: laser produced plasma, soft X-rays, radio biology experiments, dosimetry

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5 Impact of Climate Variability on Household's Crop Income in Central Highlands and Arssi Grain Plough Areas of Ethiopia

Authors: Arega Shumetie Ademe, Belay Kassa, Degye Goshu, Majaliwa Mwanjalolo

Abstract:

Currently the world economy is suffering from one critical problem, climate change. Some studies done before identified that impact of the problem is region specific means in some part of the world (temperate zone) there is improvement in agricultural performance but in some others like in the tropics there is drastic reduction in crop production and crop income. Climate variability is becoming dominant cause of short-term fluctuation in rain-fed agricultural production and income of developing countries. The purely rain-fed Ethiopian agriculture is the most vulnerable sector to the risks and impacts of climate variability. Thus, this study tried to identify impact of climate variability on crop income of smallholders in Ethiopia. The research used eight rounded unbalanced panel data from 1994- 2014 collected from six villages in the study area. After having all diagnostic tests the research used fixed effect method of regression. Based on the regression result rainfall and temperature deviation from their respective long term averages have negative and significant effect on crop income. Other extreme devastating shocks like flood, storm and frost, which are sourced from climate variability, have significant and negative effect on crop income of households’. Parameters that notify rainfall inconsistency like late start, variation in availability at growing season, and early cessation are critical problems for crop income of smallholder households as to the model result. Given this, impact of climate variability is not consistent in different agro-ecologies of the country. Rainfall variability has similar impact on crop income in different agro-ecology, but variation in temperature affects cold agro-ecology villages negatively and significantly, while it has positive effect in warm villages. Parameters that represent rainfall inconsistency have similar impact in both agro-ecologies and the aggregate model regression. This implies climate variability sourced from rainfall inconsistency is the main problem of Ethiopian agriculture especially the crop production sub-sector of smallholder households.

Keywords: climate variability, crop income, household, rainfall, temperature

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4 Petrogenesis of the Neoproterozoic Rocks of Megele Area, Asosa, Western Ethiopia

Authors: Temesgen Oljira, Olugbenga Akindeji Okunlola, Akinade Shadrach Olatunji, Dereje Ayalew, Bekele Ayele Bedada

Abstract:

The Western Ethiopian Shield (WES) is underlain by volcano-sedimentary terranes, gneissic terranes, and ophiolitic rocks intruded by different granitoid bodies. For the past few years, Neoproterozoic rocks of the Megele area in the western part of the WES have been explored. Understanding the geology of the area and assessing the mineralized area's economic potential requires petrological, geochemical, and geological characterization of the Neoproterozoic granitoids and associated metavolcanic rocks. Thus, the geological, geochemical, and petrogenetic features of Neoproterozoic granitoids and associated metavolcanic rocks were elucidated using a combination of field mapping, petrological, and geochemical study. The Megele area is part of a low-grade volcano-sedimentary zone that has been intruded by mafic (dolerite dyke) and granitoid intrusions (granodiorite, diorite, granite gneiss). The granodiorite, associated diorite, and granite gneiss are calc-alkaline, peraluminous to slightly metaluminous, S-type granitoids formed in volcanic arc subduction (VAG) to syn-collisional (syn-COLD) tectonic setting by fractionation of LREE-enriched, HREE-depleted basaltic magma with considerable crustal input. While the metabasalt is sub-alkaline (tholeiitic), metaluminous bodies are generated at the mid-oceanic ridge tectonic setting by partially melting HREE-depleted and LREE-enriched basaltic magma. The reworking of sediment-loaded crustal blocks at depth in a subduction zone resulted in the production of S-type granitoids. This basaltic magma was supplied from an LREE-enriched, HREE-depleted mantle.

Keywords: fractional crystallization, geochemistry, Megele, petrogenesis, s-type granite

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3 Determinants of Post-Psychotic Depression in Schizophrenia Patients in ACSH and Mekellle Hospital Tigray, Ethiopia, 2019

Authors: Ashenafi Ayele, Shewit Haftu, Tesfalem Araya

Abstract:

Background: “Post-psychotic depression”, “post schizophrenic depression”, and “secondary depression” have been used to describe the occurrence of depressive symptoms during the chronic phase of schizophrenia. Post-psychotic depression is the most common cause of death due to suicide in schizophrenia patients. Overall lifetime risk for patients with schizophrenia is 50% for suicide attempts and 9-13% lifetime risk for completed suicide and also it is associated with poor prognosis and poor quality of life. Objective: To assess determinant of post psychotic depression in schizophrenia patients ACSH and Mekelle General Hospital, Tigray Ethiopia 2019. Methods: An institutional based unmatched case control study was conducted among 69 cases and 138 controls with the ratio of case to control 1 ratio 2. The sample is calculated using epi-info 3.1 to assess the determinant factors of post-psychotic depression in schizophrenia patients. The cases were schizophrenia patients who have been diagnosed at least for more than one-year stable for two months, and the controls are any patients who are diagnosed as schizophrenia patients. Study subjects were selected using a consecutive sampling technique. The Calgary depression scale for schizophrenia self-administered questionnaire was used. Before the interview, it was assessed the client’s capacity to give intended information using a scale called the University of California, San Diego Brief Assessment of Capacity to Consent (UBACC). Bivariant and multiple Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine between the independent and dependent variables. The significant independent predictor was declared at 95% confidence interval and P-value of less than 0.05. Result: Females were affected by post psychotic depression with the (AOR=2.01, 95%CI: 1.003- 4.012, P= 0.49).Patients who have mild form of positive symptom of schizophrenia affected by post psychotic depression with (AOR =4.05, 95%CI: 1.888- 8.7.8, P=0001).Patients who have minimal form of negative symptom of schizophrenia are affected by post psychotic depression with (AOR =4.23, 95%CI: 1.081-17.092, P=.038). Conclusion: In this study, sex (female) and presence of positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia were significantly associated. It is recommended that the post psychotic depression should be assessed in every schizophrenia patient to decrease the severity of illness, and to improve patient’s quality of life.

Keywords: determinants, post-psychotic depression, Mekelle city

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2 Association of Copy Number Variation of the CHKB, KLF6, GPC1, and CHRM3 Genes with Growth Traits of Datong Yak (Bos grunniens)

Authors: Habtamu Abera Goshu, Ping Yan

Abstract:

Copy number variation (CNV) is a significant marker of the genetic and phenotypic diversity among individuals that accounts for complex quantitative traits of phenotype and diseases via modulating gene dosage, position effects, alteration of downstream pathways, modification of chromosome structure, and position within the nucleus and disrupting coding regions in the genome. Associating copy number variations (CNVs) with growth and gene expression are a powerful approach for identifying genomic characteristics that contribute to phenotypic and genotypic variation. A previous study using next-generation sequencing illustrated that the choline kinase beta (CHKB), Krüpple-like factor 6 (KLF6), glypican 1(GPC1), and cholinergic receptor muscarinic 3 (CHRM3) genes reside within copy number variable regions (CNVRs) of yak populations that overlap with quantitative trait loci (QTLs) of meat quality and growth. As a result, this research aimed to determine the association of CNVs of the KLF6, CHKB, GPC1, and CHRM3 genes with growth traits in the Datong yak breed. The association between the CNV types of the KLF6, CHKB, GPC1, and CHRM3 genes and the growth traits in the Datong yak breed was determined by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SPSS software. The CNV types were classified as a loss (a copy number of 0 or 1), gain (a copy number >2), and normal (a copy number of 2) relative to the reference gene, BTF3 in the 387 individuals of Datong yak. These results indicated that the normal CNV types of the CHKB and GPC1 genes were significantly (P<0.05) associated with high body length, height and weight, and chest girth in six-month-old and five-year-old Datong yaks. On the other hand, the loss CNV types of the KLF6 gene is significantly (P<0.05) associated with body weight and length and chest girth at six-month-old and five-year-old Datong yaks. In the contrary, the gain CNV type of the CHRM3 gene is highly (P<0.05) associated with body weight, length, height, and chest girth in six-month-old and five-year-old. This work provides the first observation of the biological role of CNVs of the CHKB, KLF6, GPC1, and CHRM3 genes in the Datong yak breed and might, therefore, provide a novel opportunity to utilize data on CNVs in designing molecular markers for the selection of animal breeding programs for larger populations of various yak breeds. Therefore, we hypothesized that this study provided inclusive information on the application of CNVs of the CHKB, KLF6, GPC1, and CHRM3 genes in growth traits in Datong yaks and its possible function in bovine species.

Keywords: Copy number variation, growth traits, yak, genes

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1 Challenges and Prospects of Preservation of Tangible Cultural Heritage Management: A Case Study in Lake Tana Islands, Ethiopia

Authors: Ayele Tamene

Abstract:

Cultural heritage is the legacy of physical artifacts and intangible attributes of a group or society that are inherited from past generations, maintained in the present and bestowed for the benefit of future generations. Tangible heritage e includes buildings and historic places, monuments, artifacts, etc., which are considered worthy of preservation for the future. These include objects significant to the archaeology, architecture, science or technology of a specific culture. The research addressed the challenges and prospects of preservation of tangible cultural heritage management in Lake Tana islands; Amahara Regional State. Specifically, the research inquired the major factors which affected tangible cultural heritage management, investigated how communities successfully involved in tangible cultural heritage management, and described the contribution of cultural management to tourism development. It employed qualitative research approaches to grasp the existing condition in the study area. Major techniques of data gathering such as in-depth interview, observation/photographing and Focus Group Discussion (FGDs) were used. Related documents collected through secondary sources were examined and analyzed. In Lake Tana Islands precious heritages such as ancient religious manuscripts (written since 9th century), sacral wall paintings, gold and silver Crosses, crowns and prestigious clothes of the various kings of the medieval and the 19th century are found. The study indicated that heritages in Tana islands were affected by both natural and manmade problems. In Lake Tana Islands, movable heritages were looted several times by foreign aggressors, tourists, and local people who serve there. Some heritages were affected by visitors by their camera flash light and hand touch. Most heritages in the Tana islands lacked community ownership and preserved non- professionally which highly affected their originality and authenticity. Therefore, the local community and the regional government should work together in the preservation of these heritage sites and enhance their role for socio-economic development as a center of research and tourist destinations.

Keywords: cultural heritages, heritage preservation, lake Tana heritages, non professional preservation tangible heritages

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