Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4636

Search results for: post-partum family planning

4636 Lactational Amenorrhea Method for Family Planning: An Evaluation of Compliance in the Philippines

Authors: Ellen Bautista, Rebecca M. Flueckiger, Easter Dasmarinas, Rajeev Colaco, Fulbert Alec R. Gillego, Alma M. Lozada, Cristina Bisson

Abstract:

Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM) for family planning is at least 98% effective at preventing pregnancy when all criteria are met; (1) the mother is exclusively or nearly exclusively breastfeeding, (2) the mother is amenorrheic (not menstruating), and (3) the baby is six months old or younger. LAM is particularly suited for women interested in family planning accepted by religious authorities. As a majority catholic nation, LAM is a common and accepted form of family planning in the Philippines. The USAID funded, LuzonHealth project conducted a prospective evaluation in Legazpi City to inform the enhancement of guidelines aimed at increasing LAM compliance and encouraging a second form of contraceptive once LAM protection expires. LAM compliance, reasons for non-compliance, family planning referral and uptake of secondary modern family planning methods were tracked over a nine-month period among 521 postpartum women. The evaluation found that at three months postpartum, 97% of women either met LAM criteria or had shifted to a non-LAM modern family planning method. In month six 87% of women no longer met LAM criteria and of these only 35% had shifted to an alternative modern family planning method. This means that at six-months postpartum 65% of the women in this evaluation were not protected against pregnancy through modern family planning methods. By postpartum month nine, 70% of the women had been referred to family planning counseling, yet of those referred only 34% reported using modern family planning methods. This evaluation clearly indicates scale-up of non-LAM modern family planning does not sufficiently complement the scale-down of LAM compliance. There is a need to increase client knowledge and understanding of LAM as a temporary family planning method with a strong focus on preparing to shift to another form of modern family planning once LAM protection expires. Additionally, there is great need to restructure the referral mechanism to ensure efficacy and quality of care.

Keywords: Philippines, family planning, lactational amenorrhea method, contraceptives

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4635 Factors Affecting Long-Term and Permanent Contraceptive Uptake among Immediate Post-Partum Mothers at Saint Paul’s Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Lemi Tolu

Abstract:

Background: Postpartum family planning (PPFP) focuses on the prevention of unintended and closely spaced pregnancies through the first 12 months following childbirth. Objective: This study assesses the barriers to uptake of long-term and permanent family planning methods among immediate post-partum mothers at Saint Paul’s Hospital Millennium Medical College in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methodology: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from January 1 to June 30, 2017. The six months of study were used as strata, and systematic sampling used to select participants in each month. Post-partum mothers were interviewed using pretested structured questionnaires. Data entry and analysis were done using SPSS version 17. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regressions were fitted to identify determinants of post-partum family planning uptake. An OR with 95% CIs was calculated, and p values set at 005 were used to determine the statistical significance of associations. Results: Four hundred and twenty-two post-partum women were interviewed. Two hundred sixty-eight (63%) women received counselling on family planning, and 241 (66.8 %) got information about contraception. One hundred and fifty-two (45%) of the women accepted long-term and permanent contraception on their immediate postpartum period before discharge. Contraceptive counselling (OR = 2.13, 95% CI 1.004-3.331), getting information from the health facility (OR = 15.15, 95% CI 1.848-19.242), and partner support (OR = 1.367, 95% CI 1.175-2.771) were significantly associated with long-term and permanent contraception uptake. Conclusion: Postpartum counselling on family planning and provision of contraception information improve immediate postpartum FP acceptance, and, hence postpartum programs need to strengthen such services.

Keywords: contraception, immediate postpartum, long-term family planning, post-partum family planning

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4634 Family and Marital Functioning during the Transition to Motherhood

Authors: Fei Wan Ngai

Abstract:

Background: Family and marital functioning has become an important public health issue because it is vital to child development and well-being. Objective: This study was designed to examine the changes in family and marital functioning among Chinese women during the transition to motherhood. Methods: A longitudinal design was used. A convenience sample of 202 Chinese childbearing women completed the Medical Outcomes Study Family and Marital Functioning Measures during pregnancy, at 6 weeks and at 6 months postpartum. Results: The results showed that women experienced substantial decline in their family and marital functioning from pregnancy to 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum. Conclusions: The findings of this study highlight the need for more attention to family and marital functioning among women after childbirth. Culturally relevant interventions should be developed to assist women in facing the challenges of new motherhood and achieving a better family and marital functioning.

Keywords: family and marital functioning, perinatal period, women

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4633 An Under-Recognized Factor in the Development of Postpartum Depression: Infertility

Authors: Memnun Seven, Aygül Akyüz

Abstract:

Having a baby, giving birth and being a mother are generally considered happy events, especially for women who have had a history of infertility and may have suffered emotionally, physically and financially. Although the transition from the prenatal period to the postnatal period is usually desired and planned, it is a developmental and cognitive transition period full of complex emotional reactions. During this period, common mood disorders for women include maternity blues, postpartum depression and postpartum psychosis. Postpartum depression is a common and serious mood disorder which can jeopardize the health of the mother, baby and family within the first year of delivery. Knowing the risks factors is an important issue for the early detection and early intervention of postpartum depression. However, knowing that a history of infertility may contribute to the development of postpartum depression, there are few studies assessing the effects of infertility during the diagnosis and treatment of depression. In this review, the effects of infertility on the development of postpartum depression and nurse/midwives’ roles in this issue are discussed in light with the literature.

Keywords: infertility, postpartum depression, risk factors, mood disorder

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4632 Paternal Postpartum Depression and Its Relationship to Maternal Depression

Authors: Fatemeh Abdollahi, Mehran Zarghami, Jamshid Yazdani Jarati, Mun-Sunn Lye

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Fathers may be at risk of depression during the postpartum period. Some studies have been reported maternal depression is the key predictor of paternal postpartum depression (PPD). This study aimed to explore this association. Using a cross-sectional study design, 591 couples referring to primary health centers at 2-8 weeks postpartum (during 2017) were recruited. Couples screened for depression using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Data on socio-demographic characteristics and psychosocial factors was also gathered. Paternal PPD was analyzed in relation to maternal PPD and other related factors using multiple regressions. The prevalence of Paternal and maternal postpartum depression was 15.7% (93) and 31.8% (188), respectively. The regression model showed that there was increased risk of PPD in fathers whose wives experienced PPD [OR=1.15, (95%CI: 1.04-1.27)], who had a lower state of general health [OR=1.21, (95%CI: 1.11-1.33)], who experienced increased number of life events [OR=1.42, (95%CI: 1.01-1.2.00)], and who were at older age [OR=1.20, (95%CI: 1.05- 1.36)]. Also, there was a decreased risk of depression in fathers with more children compared with those with fewer children [OR=0.20, (95%CI: 0.07-0.53)]. Maternal PPD and psychosocial risk factors were the strong predictors of parental PPD. Being grown up in a family with two depressed parents are an important issue for children and needs futher research and attention.

Keywords: Father, Mother, Postpartum depression, Risk factors

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4631 Family Planning Use among Women Living with HIV in Malawi: Analysis from Malawi DHS-2010 Data

Authors: Dereje Habte, Jane Namasasu

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Background: The aim of the analysis was to assess the practice of family planning (FP) among HIV-infected women and the influence of women’s awareness of HIV-positive status in the practice of FP. Methods: The analysis was made among 489 non-pregnant, sexually active, fecund women living with HIV. Result: Of the 489 confirmed HIV positive women, 184 (37.6%) reported that they knew they are HIV positive. The number of women with current use and unmet need of any family planning method were found to be 251 (51.2%) and 107 (21.9%) respectively. Women’s knowledge of HIV-positive status (AOR: 2.32(1.54,3.50)), secondary and above education (AOR: 2.36(1.16,4.78)), presence of 3-4 (AOR: 2.60(1.08,6.28)) and more than four alive children (AOR: 3.03(1.18,7.82)) were significantly associated with current use of family planning. Conclusion: Women’s awareness of HIV-positive status was found to significantly predict family planning practice among women living with HIV.

Keywords: family planning, HIV, Malawi, women

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4630 Prenatal Lead Exposure and Postpartum Depression: An Exploratory Study of Women in Mexico

Authors: Nia McRae, Robert Wright, Ghalib Bello

Abstract:

Introduction: Postpartum depression is a prevalent mood disorder that is detrimental to the mental and physical health of mothers and their newborns. Lead (Pb) is a toxic metal that is associated with hormonal imbalance and mental impairments. The hormone changes that accompany pregnancy and childbirth may be exacerbated by Pb and increase new mothers’ susceptibility to postpartum depression. To the best of the author’s knowledge, this is the only study that investigates the association between prenatal Pb exposure and postpartum depression. Identifying risk factors can contribute to improved prevention and treatment strategies for postpartum depression. Methods: Data was derived from the Programming Research in Obesity, Growth, Environment and Social Stress (PROGRESS) study which is an ongoing longitudinal birth cohort. Postpartum depression was identified by a score of 13 or above on the 10-Item Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) 6-months and 12-months postpartum. Pb was measured in the blood (BPb) in the second and third trimester and in the tibia and patella 1-month postpartum. Quantile regression models were used to assess the relationship between BPb and postpartum depression. Results: BPb in the second trimester was negatively associated with the 80th percentile of depression 6-months postpartum (β: -0.26; 95% CI: -0.51, -0.01). No significant association was found between BPb in the third trimester and depression 6-months postpartum. BPb in the third trimester exhibited an inverse relationship with the 60th percentile (β: -0.23; 95% CI: -0.41, -0.06), 70th percentile (β: -0.31; 95% CI: -0.52, -0.10), and 90th percentile of depression 12-months postpartum (β: -0.36; 95% CI: -0.69, -0.03). There was no significant association between BPb in the second trimester and depression 12-months postpartum. Bone Pb concentrations were not significantly associated with postpartum depression. Conclusion: The negative association between BPb and postpartum depression may support research which demonstrates lead is a nontherapeutic stimulant. Further research is needed to verify these results and identify effect modifiers.

Keywords: depression, lead, postpartum, prenatal

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4629 Narrative Family Therapy and the Treatment of Perinatal Mood and Anxiety Disorders

Authors: Jamie E. Banker

Abstract:

For many families, pregnancy and the postpartum time are filled with both anticipation and change. For some pregnant or postpartum women, this time is marked by the onset of a mood or anxiety disorder. Experiencing a mood or anxiety disorders during this time of life differs from depression or anxiety at other times of life. Not only because of the physical changes occurring in the mother’s body but also the mental and physical preparation necessary to redefine family roles, responsibilities, and develop new identities in the life transition. The presence of a mood or anxiety disorder can influence the way in which a mother defines herself and can complicate her understanding of her abilities and competencies as a mother. The complexity of experiencing a mood or anxiety disorder in the midst of these changes necessitates specific treatment interventions to match both the symptomatology and psychological adjustments. This study explores the use of narrative family therapy techniques when treating a mother who is experiencing postpartum depression. Externalization is a common technique used in narrative family therapy and can help client’s separate their identity from the problems they are experiencing. This is crucial to a new mom who is in the middle of defining her identity during her transition to parenthood. The goal of this study is to examine how the use of externalization techniques help postpartum women separate their mood and anxiety symptoms from their identity as a mother. An exploratory case study design was conducted in a single setting, private practice therapy office, and explored how a narrative family therapy approach can be used to treat perinatal mood and anxiety disorders. The therapy sessions were audio recorded and transcribed. Constructivism and narrative theory are used as theoretical frameworks and data from the therapy sessions, and a follow-up survey was triangulated and analyzed. During the course of the treatment, the participant reports using the new externalizing labels for her symptoms. Within one month of treatment, the participant reports that she could stop herself from thinking the harmful thoughts faster, and within three months, the harmful thoughts went away. The main themes in this study were building courage and less self-blame. This case highlights the role narrative family therapy can play in the treatment of perinatal mood and anxiety disorders and the importance of separating a women’s mood from her identity as a mother. This conceptual framework was beneficial to the postpartum mother when treating perinatal mood and anxiety disorder symptoms.

Keywords: externalizing techniques, narrative family therapy, perinatal mood and anxiety disorders, postpartum depression

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4628 Knowledge and Practice of Family Planning among Rural Women in Ogun State, South West Nigeria

Authors: Tope Olubodun

Abstract:

Background: Family planning practices help individuals and couples avoid unwanted pregnancies, regulate intervals between pregnancies, and determine the number of children in the family. Family planning is an effective intervention for promoting maternal health, but its acceptability and utilization are impeded by many factors in Southwest Nigeria. Aim: This study was conducted to assess women’s knowledge and practice of family planning in two rural communities in Ogun State, Southwest Nigeria, and to determine factors associated with the utilization of family planning among these women. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 561 women of reproductive age selected by multistage sampling. The data collection was done using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Data obtained were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics version 20. Frequencies were generated, and chi-square test was used to explore associations. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Result: The majority of the respondents were aware of family planning 410 (73.1%). The method most commonly known was male condom 348 (62.0%), then pills 276 (49.2%) and injectables 231(41.3%). The commonest sources of information on family planning were health workers 158 (26.8%), outreaches 162 (27.5%) and TV/radio 136 (23.1%). Respondents that had used family planning, however, only constituted forty–five percent. The methods commonly used were injectables 104 (39.2%) and pills 85 (32.1%). Reasons for choosing not to use family planning include the desire for more children 78 (26.3%), because spouse does not support family planning 56 (18.9%), fear of unbearable side effects 44 (14.9%), and poor knowledge of the methods of family planning as well as where the services can be obtained 39 (13.2%). There is a statistically significant association between age, ethnicity, education, occupation, average monthly income, and use of family planning. Conclusion: Campaigns that promote male involvement in family planning, use of family planning for child spacing, and dispelling of fears is recommended to improve the practice of family planning among such a group of women.

Keywords: family planning, rural, knowledge, practice

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4627 The Prevalence of Postpartum Stress among Jordanian Women

Authors: Khitam Ibrahem Shlash Mohammad

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Background: Postnatal depression is a focus of considerable research attention, but little is known about the pattern of stress across this period. Objective: to investigate the prevalence of stress after childbirth for Jordanian women and identify associated risk factors. Method: Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study. Participants were recruited six to eight weeks postpartum, provided personal, social and obstetric information, and completed the stress subscale of Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-S), the Maternity Social Support Scale (MSSS), and Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale (PSES). Setting: maternal and child health care clinics in four health care centres in Maan city in Southern Jordan. Participants: Arabic speaking women (n = 324) between the ages of 18 and 45 years, six to eight weeks postpartum, primiparous or multiparous at low risk for obstetric complications. Data collection took place between October 2015 and January 2016. Ethical clearance was obtained prior to data collection. Results: The prevalence of postpartum stress among Jordanian women was 39.8 %. A regression analysis revealed that occupation, low social support, financial problems, difficult marital relationships, difficult relationship with family-in-law, giving birth to a female baby, difficult childbirth, and low self-efficacy were associated with postpartum stress. Conclusions and implications for practice: Jordanian women need support during pregnancy, during and after childbirth. Postpartum emotional support and assessment of symptoms of stress need to be incorporated into routine practice. The opportunity for open discussion along with increased awareness and clarification of common misconceptions about postpartum stress is necessary.

Keywords: prevalence, postpartum, stress, Jordanian women

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4626 Rapid Situation Assessment of Family Planning in Pakistan: Exploring Barriers and Realizing Opportunities

Authors: Waqas Abrar

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Background: Pakistan is confronted with a formidable challenge to increase uptake of modern contraceptive methods. USAID, through its flagship Maternal and Child Survival Program (MCSP), in Pakistan is determined to support provincial Departments of Health and Population Welfare to increase the country's contraceptive prevalence rates (CPR) in Sindh, Punjab and Balochistan to achieve FP2020 goals. To inform program design and planning, a Rapid Situation Assessment (RSA) of family planning was carried out in Rawalpindi and Lahore districts in Punjab and Karachi district in Sindh. Methodology: The methodology consisted of comprehensive desk review of available literature and used a qualitative approach comprising of in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus group discussions (FGDs). FGDs were conducted with community women, men, and mothers-in-law whereas IDIs were conducted with health facility in-charges/chiefs, healthcare providers, and community health workers. Results: Some of the oft-quoted reasons captured during desk review included poor quality of care at public sector facilities, affordability and accessibility in rural communities and providers' technical incompetence. Moreover, providers had inadequate knowledge of contraceptive methods and lacked counseling techniques; thereby, leading to dissatisfied clients and hence, discontinuation of contraceptive methods. These dissatisfied clients spread the myths and misconceptions about contraceptives in their respective communities which seriously damages community-level family planning efforts. Private providers were found reluctant to insert Intrauterine Contraceptive Devices (IUCDs) due to inadequate knowledge vis-à-vis post insertion issues/side effects. FGDs and IDIs unveiled multi-faceted reasons for poor contraceptives uptake. It was found that low education and socio-economic levels lead to low contraceptives uptake and mostly uneducated women rely on condoms provided by Lady Health Workers (LHWs). Providers had little or no knowledge about postpartum family planning or lactational amenorrhea. At community level family planning counseling sessions organized by LHWs and Male Mobilizers do not sensitize community men on permissibility of contraception in Islam. Many women attributed their physical ailments to the use of contraceptives. Lack of in-service training, job-aids and Information, Education and Communications (IEC) materials at facilities seriously comprise the quality of care in effective family planning service delivery. This is further compounded by frequent stock-outs of contraceptives at public healthcare facilities, poor data quality, false reporting, lack of data verification systems and follow-up. Conclusions: Some key conclusions from this assessment included capacity building of healthcare providers on long acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) which give women contraception for a longer period. Secondly, capacity building of healthcare providers on postpartum family planning is an enormous challenge that can be best addressed through institutionalization. Thirdly, Providers should be equipped with counseling skills and techniques including inculcation of pros and cons of all contraceptive methods. Fourthly, printed materials such as job-aids and Information, Education and Communications (IEC) materials should be disseminated among healthcare providers and clients. These concluding statements helped MCSP to make informed decisions with regard to setting broad objectives of project and were duly approved by USAID.

Keywords: capacity building, contraceptive prevalence rate, family planning, Institutionalization, Pakistan, postpartum care, postpartum family planning services

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4625 Non-Family Members as Successors of Choice in South African Family Businesses

Authors: Jonathan Marks, Lauren Katz

Abstract:

Family firms are a vital component of a country’s stability, prosperity and development. Their sustainability, longevity and continuity are critical. Given the premise that family firms wish to continue the business for the benefit of the family, the family founder / owner is faced with an emotionally charged transition option; either to transfer the family business to a family member or to transfer the firm to a non-family member. The rationale employed by family founders to select non-family members as successors/ executives of choice and the concomitant rationale employed by non-family members to select family firms as employers of choice, has been under-researched in the literature of family business succession planning. This qualitative study used semi-structured interviews to gain access to family firm founders/ owners, non-family successors/ executives and industry experts on family business. The findings indicated that the rationale for family members to select non-family successors/ executives was underpinned by the objective to grow the family firm for the benefit of the family. If non-family members were the most suitable candidates to ensure this outcome, family members were comfortable to employ non-family members. Non- family members, despite the knowledge that benefit lay primarily with family members, chose to work for family firms for personal benefits in terms of wealth, security and close connections. A commonly shared value system was a pre-requisite for all respondents. The research study provides insights from family founders/ owners, non-family successors/ executives, and industry experts on the subject of succession planning outside the family structure.

Keywords: agency theory, family business, institutional logics, non-family successors, Stewardship Theory

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4624 Policy Analysis on Family Planning in Pakistan: Providing Options to Improve Service Provision

Authors: M. Moiz

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Family planning has been known and accepted as a key tool to decrease fertility, provides birth spacing and plays a vital role to attain better outcomes for maternal and child health. Pakistan initiated various family planning programs to preserve maternal and child health for six decades. However, less contraceptive use leading to high fertility and low birth spacing is ultimately a risk for increasing morbidity and mortality. As an outcome of 2012 London Summit on Family Planning where 20 countries including Pakistan made its commitment to increase contraceptive prevalence rate by 55% and provide a universal access to reproductive health to protect human rights of women and ensure safe, choice informed and affordable contraceptives throughout the country. This paper will assess some of the factors of service delivery, coverage and the role of Ministry of Health and Population Welfare Department in providing Family Planning services and how it can be improved in Pakistan. In view of Pakistan Demographic Health Survey 2017-18, there are total nine million potential users of contraceptives and one third among them never used with unmet need while every fifth pregnancy ends into abortion indicates need for Family Planning services. In order to explain this concern, a comprehensive analysis has been done on role of governance in implementing family planning policy and its limitations are discussed. Moreover, this paper highlights policy options and recommendations for improving service provision through public and private sector in creating demand for Family Planning services in Pakistan.

Keywords: contraceptive prevalence rate, family planning, maternal and child health, policy options

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4623 Changes in Blood Pressure in a Longitudinal Cohort of Vietnamese Women

Authors: Anh Vo Van Ha, Yun Zhao, Luat Cong Nguyen, Tan Khac Chu, Phung Hoang Nguyen, Minh Ngoc Pham, Colin W. Binns, Andy H. Lee

Abstract:

This study aims to study longitudinal changes in blood pressure (BP) during the 1-year postpartum period and to evaluate the influence of parity, maternal age at delivery, prepregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, gestational age at delivery and postpartum maternal weight. A prospective longitudinal cohort study of 883 singleton Vietnamese women was conducted in Hanoi, Haiphong, and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam during 2015-2017. Women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus at 24-28 weeks of gestation, pre-eclampsia, and hypoglycemia was excluded from analysis. BP was repeatedly measured at discharge, 6 and 12 months postpartum using automatic blood pressure monitors. Linear mixed model with repeated measures was used to describe changes occurring during pregnancy to 1-year postpartum. Parity, self-reported prepregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, maternal age and gestational age at delivery will be treated as time-invariant variables and measured maternal weight will be treated as a time-varying variable in models. Women with higher measured postpartum weight had higher mean systolic blood pressure (SBP), 0.20 mmHg, 95% CI [0.12, 0.28]. Similarly, women with higher measured postpartum weight had higher mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP), 0.15 mmHg, 95% CI [0.08, 0.23]. These differences were both statistically significant, P < 0.001. There were no differences in SBP and DBP depending on parity, maternal age at delivery, prepregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain and gestational age at delivery. Compared with discharge measurement, SBP was significantly higher in 6 months postpartum, 6.91 mmHg, 95% CI [6.22, 7.59], and 12 months postpartum, 6.39 mmHg, 95% CI [5.64, 7.15]. Similarly, DBP was also significantly higher in 6 and months postpartum than at discharge, 10.46 mmHg 95% CI [9.75, 11.17], and 11.33 mmHg 95% CI [10.54, 12.12]. In conclusion, BP measured repeatedly during the postpartum period (6 and 12 months postpartum) showed a statistically significant increase, compared with after discharge from the hospital. Maternal weight was a significant predictor of postpartum blood pressure over the 1-year postpartum period.

Keywords: blood pressure, maternal weight, postpartum, Vietnam

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4622 Understanding Chances and Challenges of Family Planning: Qualitative Study in Indonesia's Banyumas District

Authors: Utsamani Cintyamena, Sandra Frans Olivia, Shita Lisyadewi, Ariane Utomo

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Family planning is one of fundamental aspects in preventing maternal morbidity and mortality. However, the prevalence rate of Indonesia’s married women in choosing contraception is low. This study purpose to assess opportunities and challenges in family planning. Methodology: We conducted a qualitative study in Banyumas District which has huge reduction of maternal mortality rate from 2013 to 2015. Four focus group discussions and four small group discussions were conducted to assess knowledge and attitude of women in using contraceptive and their method of choice, as well as in-depth interview to four health workers and two family planning field officers as triangulation. Thematic content analysis was done manually. Results: Key themes emerge across interviews including (1) first choice of contraception is the one that they previously had, provided that they did not encountered problems with it, (2) rumor and fear of side effect affected their method of choice, (3) selection of contraceptive method was influenced by approval of husband, believes, and role model in community. Conclusion: Collaboration of health worker, family planning field officers, community, as well as support from stakeholder, must be increased to socializing family planning.

Keywords: attitude, challenge, chance, family planning, knowledge

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4621 Improving Quality of Family Planning Services in Pakistan

Authors: Mohammad Zakir, Saamia Shams

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Background: Provision of quality family planning services remarkably contribute towards increased uptake of modern contraceptive methods and have important implications on reducing fertility rates. The quality of care in family planning has beneficial impact on reproductive health of women, yet little empirical evidence is present to show the relationship between the impact of adequate training of Community Mid Wives (CMW) and quality family planning services. Aim: This study aimed to enhance the knowledge and counseling skills of CMWs in improving the access to quality client-centered family planning services in Pakistan. Methodology: A quasi-experimental longitudinal study using Initial Quality Assurance Scores-Training-Post Training Quality Assurance Scores design with a non- equivalent control group was adopted to compare a set of experimental CMWs that received four days training package including Family Planning Methods, Counselling, Communication skills and Practical training on IUCD insertion with a set of comparison CMWs that did not receive any intervention. A sample size of 100 CMW from Suraj Social Franchise (SSF) private providers was recruited from both urban and rural Pakistan. Results: Significant improvement in the family planning knowledge and counseling skills (p< 0.001) of the CMWs was evident in the experimental group as compared to comparison group with p > 0.05. Non- significant association between pre-test level family planning knowledge and counseling skills was observed in both the groups (p>0.05). Conclusion: The findings demonstrate that adequate training is an important determinant of quality of family planning services received by clients. Provider level training increases the likelihood of contraceptives uptake and decreases the likelihood of both unintended and unwanted pregnancies. Enhancing quality of family planning services may significantly help reduce the fertility and improve the reproductive health indicators of women in Pakistan.

Keywords: community mid wives, family planning services, quality of care, training

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4620 Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of the Congolese Population from Basic Territorial Entities on Family Planning:a Forgotten issue. Case of Murara Sector(City of Goma, Democratic Republic of Congo)

Authors: Mwamba Mwamini Ruth

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For many authors,the percentage of married or in union persons using family planning methods has increased significantly since the 1960s, despite this progress, important differences across régions are observer.These différences become even greater,to present a paradox,when studying the issue in smallest territorial entities in developing countries.In line with the above,the general objective of this research is to investigate into "knowledge , attitude and practice"of households from a basic territorial entity,here in"Murara Sector"(in the city of Goma, province of North Kivu,Democratic Republic of Congo,Africa)on family planning (as defined and provisioned by the four World Health Organization-WHO key texts on the matter)

Keywords: DRC, family planning methods, information technology, Murara

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4619 Factors Influencing the Uptake of Family Planning Services among Young People (18-24 Years) at Community Level in Rural Budaka District, Uganda

Authors: Mathew Nyashanu, George K. Kiggundu, Mandu S. Ekpenyong

Abstract:

There is an increased number of young people engaging in early sexual relationships worldwide. Furthermore, statistics for early pregnancy among young people have also increased, especially in low and middle-income countries. This has health implications for both the parents and the baby. High uptake in family planning contraception among young people can reduce early pregnancy and subsequent negative health outcomes on the young parents and the baby. This study was set to explore the factors influencing the uptake of family planning contraceptive services among young people (18-24 years) at a community level in rural Budaka district, Uganda. The study utilised an explorative qualitative approach. The study found out that religion, partner resistance; perceived loss of libido, perceived barren, long waiting time and distance from the health facility, lack of privacy/confidentiality, excessive menstrual bleeding, cancer, and fear of having disabled babies, limited the utilisation of family planning contraceptive services while contraception as HIV prevention and child spacing encouraged young people to use family planning contraceptive services. There is a need for a culturally orientated community-based contraceptive health promotion approach to increase the uptake of family planning contraception services among young people.

Keywords: Young people, Family Planning, Contraceptives, Black sub-Sahara African

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4618 Correlations between Pushing Skills and Pushing Perceptions, Second-Stage Labor Duration, Postpartum Fatigue, and Birth Satisfaction

Authors: Yu-Ching Huang

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Background: Delivery bridges the antepartum and postpartum period. Subsequent fatigue can affect indices, including postpartum recovery and life quality. Milk secretion, breastfeeding quality, and newborn participation may be compromised. Correspondingly, using proper pushing skills during the second stage of labor has the potential to effectively reduce postpartum fatigue and enhance birth satisfaction in new mothers. Purpose: To compare the effects of using different pushing skills on maternal pushing perception, postpartum fatigue, and birth satisfaction. Methodology: The present study used a descriptive research approach and recruited 382 participants from a medical center in northern Taiwan. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire, which included a demographic and obstetrics information datasheet, the Labor Pushing Experience Scale, a fatigue scale, and a birth satisfaction scale. Research Results: Using pushing skills (including upright position [t= 2.28, p < .05] and delayed pushing [t= -1.98, p < .05] during the second stage of labor was shown to enhance birth satisfaction in participants. Additionally, open glottis pushing ( t = 5.46, p < .001) resulted in a mean duration of second-stage labor that was 17.67 minutes less than that achieved using Valsalva pushing. Moreover, a better perceived pushing experience was associated with lower perceived postpartum fatigue (r = .46, p < .05) and higher birth satisfaction (r = -.16, p < .05). Finally, postpartum fatigue perception was negatively associated with birth satisfaction (r = -.16, p < .05). Conclusion and Clinical Application: The findings suggest that midwives should advocate that women adopt upright positions, delayed pushing, and open glottis pushing during the second stage of labor in order to enhance their birth satisfaction.

Keywords: second stage labor duration of pushing skill, pushing experience perception, postpartum fatigue, birth satisfaction

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4617 Barriers and Challenges to a Healthy Lifestyle for Postpartum Women and the Possibilities in an Information Technology-Based Intervention: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Pernille K. Christiansen, Mette Maria Skjøth, Line Lorenzen, Eva Draborg, Christina Anne Vinter, Trine Kjær, Mette Juel Rothmann

Abstract:

Background and aims: Overweight and obesity are an increasing challenge on a global level. In Denmark, more than one-third of all pregnant women are overweight or obese, and many women exceed the gestational weight gain recommendations from the Institute of Medicine. Being overweight or obese, is associated with a higher risk of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, including gestational diabetes and childhood obesity. Thus, it is important to focus on the women’s lifestyles between their pregnancies to lower the risk of gestational weight retention in the long run. The objective of this study was to explorer what barriers and challenges postpartum women experience with respect to healthy lifestyles during the postpartum period and to access whether an Information Technology based intervention might be a supportive tool to assist and motivate postpartum women to a healthy lifestyle. Materials and methods: The method is inspired by participatory design. A systematic text condensation was applied to semi-structured focus groups. Five focus group interviews were carried out with a total of 17 postpartum women and two interviews with a total of six health professionals. Participants were recruited through the municipality in Svendborg, Denmark, and at Odense University Hospital in Odense, Denmark, during a four-month period in early 2018. Results: From the women’s perspective, better assistance is needed from the health professionals to obtain or maintain a healthy lifestyle. The women need tools that inform and help them understand and prioritise their own health-related risks, and to motivate them to plan and take care of their own health. As the women use Information Technology on a daily basis, the solution could be delivered through Information Technology. Finally, there is room for engaging the partner more in the communication related to the baby and family’s lifestyle. Conclusion: Postpartum women need tools that inform and motivate a healthy lifestyle postpartum. The tools should allow access to high-quality information from health care professionals, when the information is needed, and also allow engagement from the partner. Finally, Information Technology is a potential tool for delivering tools.

Keywords: information technology, lifestyle, overweight, postpartum

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4616 Impact of Mhealth Tools on Psycho-Social Predictors of Behaviour Regarding Contraceptive Use

Authors: Preeti Tiwari, Jay Wood, Duncan Babbage

Abstract:

Family planning plays a role in saving lives across the globe by preventing unwanted pregnancies. The purpose of this multidisciplinary research was to determine the impact of mHealth tools have on psychosocial determinants of behaviour for family planning. The present study examines a topic that is very relevant in times where human-technology interaction is at its peak. It is probably one of the first studies that have investigated the impact of mobile phone technology on the underlying mechanisms of behaviour change for family planning using primary data. To examine the association between exposure to mHealth tools and predictors of behaviour, data was collected from mHealth intervention areas in India. A post-intervention quasi-experimental study with a 2x2 factorial design was conducted among 831 men and women from the state of Bihar. The quantitative data analysis evaluated the extent of influence that predictors of behaviour (beliefs, social norms, perceived behaviour control, and outcome behaviour) have on a woman’s decisions about family planning. The results indicated an association between exposure to mHealth tools and improved communication about family planning among various family members after receiving health information from a health worker (H1). A relationship between exposure to mHealth tools and increased support women received from their husbands and extended family (mothers-in-law specifically) and peers (H2) was also found. A further result showed that knowledge about family planning was greater among users of family planning (H4). mHealth tools empower women to communicate with family members. This has important implications for developing mobile phone-based tools, as they can be used as a crucial communication channel that can be an effective method of increasing communication among family members about contraceptives. Thus, it can be implied that where women feel nervous talking about contraception, the successful application of mHealth tools can strengthen the interactivity of the health communication and could increase the likelihood of using contraception. However, while it may improve health communication that can inform health decisions, it may be insufficient on its own to cause behaviour change.

Keywords: contraceptive, e-health, psycho-social, women

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4615 Effect of Women`s Autonomy on Unmet Need for Contraception and Family Size in India

Authors: Anshita Sharma

Abstract:

India is one of the countries to initiate family planning with intention to control the growing population by reducing fertility. In effort to this, India had introduced the National family planning programme in 1952. The level of unmet need in India shows a reducing trend with increasing effectiveness of family planning services as in NFHS-1 the unmet need for limiting, spacing and total was 46 percent, 14 percent & 9 percent, respectively. The demand for spacing has reduced to at 8 percent, 8 percent for limiting and total unmet need was 16 percent in NFHS-2. The total unmet need has reduced to 13 percent in NFHS-3 for all currently married women and the demand for limiting and spacing is 7 percent and 6 percent respectively. The level of unmet need in India shows a reducing trend with increasing effectiveness of family planning services. Despite the progress, there is chunk of women who are deprived of controlling unintended and unwanted pregnancies. The present paper examines the socio-cultural and economic and demographic correlates of unmet need for contraception in India. It also examines the effect of women’s autonomy and unmet need for contraception on family size among different socio-economic groups of population. It uses data from national family health survey-3 carried out in 2005-06 and employs bi-variate techniques and multivariate techniques for analysis. The multiple regression analysis has done to seek the level and direction of relationship among various socio-economic and demographic factors. The result reveals that women with higher level of education and economic status have low level of unmet need for family planning. Women living in non-nuclear family have high unmet need for spacing and women living in nuclear family have high unmet need for limiting and family size is slightly higher of women of nuclear family. In India, the level of autonomy varies at different life point; usually women with higher age enjoy higher autonomy than their junior female member in the family. The finding shows that women with higher autonomy have large family size counter to women with low autonomy have low family size. Unmet need for family planning decrease with women’s increasing exposure to mass- media. The demographic factors like experience of child loss are directly related to family size. Women who experience higher child loss have low unmet need for spacing and limiting. Thus, It is established with the help that women’s autonomy status play substantial role in fulfilling demand of contraception for limiting and spacing which affect the family size.

Keywords: family size, socio-economic correlates, unmet need for limiting, unmet need for spacing, women`s autonomy

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4614 Universal Health Coverage 2019 in Indonesia: The Integration of Family Planning Services in Current Functioning Health System

Authors: Fathonah Siti, Ardiana Irma

Abstract:

Indonesia is currently on its track to achieve Universal Health Coverage (UHC) by 2019. The program aims to address issues on disintegration in the implementation and coverage of various health insurance schemes and fragmented fund pooling. Family planning service is covered as one of benefit packages under preventive care. However, little has been done to examine how family planning program are appropriately managed across levels of governments and how family planning services are delivered to the end user. The study is performed through focus group discussion to related policy makers and selected programmers at central and district levels. The study is also benefited from relevant studies on family planning in the UHC scheme and other supporting data. The study carefully investigates some programmatic implications when family planning is integrated in the UHC program encompassing the need to recalculate contraceptive logistics for beneficiaries (eligible couple); policy reformulation for contraceptive service provision including supply chain management; establishment of family planning standard of procedure; and a call to update Management Information System. The study confirms that there is a significant increase in the numbers of contraceptive commodities needs to be procured by the government. Holding an assumption that contraceptive prevalence rate and commodities cost will be as expected increasing at 0.5% annually, the government need to allocate almost IDR 5 billion by 2019, excluded fee for service. The government shifts its focus to maintain eligible health facilities under National Population and Family Planning Board networks. By 2019, the government has set strategies to anticipate the provision of family planning services to 45.340 health facilities distributed in 514 districts and 7 thousand sub districts. Clear division of authorities has been established among levels of governments. Three models of contraceptive supply planning have been developed and currently in the process of being institutionalized. Pre service training for family planning services has been piloted in 10 prominent universities. The position of private midwives has been appreciated as part of the system. To ensure the implementation of quality and health expenditure control, family planning standard has been established as a reference to determine set of services required to deliver to the clients properly and types of health facilities to conduct particular family planning services. Recognition to individual status of program participation has been acknowledged in the Family Enumeration since 2015. The data is precisely recorded by name by address for each family and its members. It supplies valuable information to 15.131 Family Planning Field Workers (FPFWs) to provide information and education related to family planning in an attempt to generate demand and maintain the participation of family planning acceptors who are program beneficiaries. Despite overwhelming efforts described above, some obstacles remain. The program experiences poor socialization and yet removes geographical barriers for those living in remote areas. Family planning services provided for this sub population conducted outside the scheme as a complement strategy. However, UHC program has brought remarkable improvement in access and quality of family planning services.

Keywords: beneficiary, family planning services, national population and family planning board, universal health coverage

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4613 Antepartum and Postpartum Pulmonary Cryptococcosis: A Case Report and Systematic Review

Authors: Ghadeer M Alkusayer, Adelicia Yu, Pamela Orr

Abstract:

Study objective: To report a case of postpartum pulmonary cryptococcal infection (CCI) in an otherwise healthy 35-year-old woman. Additionally, the cases of pulmonary cryptococcal infections either in the antepartum or the postpartum period with pregnancy outcomes, were systematically reviwed. Methods: A systematic search of Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, and EMBASE was conducted for peer-reviewed studies without date restrictions, published in English and relating to CCI during pregnancy or postpartum period. Conference press, editorials, opinion pieces and letters were excluded. Two authors independently screened citations and full-text articles, extracted data and assessed study quality. Given the heterogeneity of study designs, a narrative synthesis was conducted. Results: The search identified 128 references, of which 22 case reports and series met the inclusion criteria. This is a total of 29 women (including the current case) . The mean age of the women was 28.3 ± 12.3 years. Nine (31.03%) presented and were diagnosed in the postpartum period. Two (6.90%) of the patients were reported as immunocompromised with HIV. Four maternal deaths (13.79%) were found in this case series with one (4.3%) patient with severe neurological deficits. Four (17.4%) infant deaths were reported. Women primary presentation varied with chest pain 13 (44.82%), headache 10 (35.70%), dyspnea 19 (65.51%), or fever 12 (41.38%). Three studies reported placental pathology positive for C. neoformans. Conclusion: This case of pulmonary cryptococcal infection in the postpartum period is an important addition to the literature of this rare infection in pregnancy. The patient is not immunocompromised. The patient was successfully treated with 4 months of Fluconazole 400 mg and continued to breastfeed the healthy baby.

Keywords: pulmonary cryptococcus, pregnancy, cryptococci , postpartum

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4612 Comparing Quality of Care in Family Planning Services in Primary Public and Private Health Care Facilities in Ethiopia

Authors: Gizachew Assefa Tessema, Mohammad Afzal Mahmood, Judith Streak Gomersall, Caroline O. Laurence

Abstract:

Introduction: Improving access to quality family planning services is the key to improving health of women and children. However, there is currently little evidence on the quality and scope of family planning services provided by private facilities, and this compares to the services provided in public facilities in Ethiopia. This is important, particularly in determining whether the government should further expand the roles of the private sector in the delivery of family planning facility. Methods: This study used the 2014 Ethiopian Services Provision Assessment Plus (ESPA+) survey dataset for comparing the structural aspects of quality of care in family planning services. The present analysis used a weighted sample of 1093 primary health care facilities (955 public and 138 private). This study employed logistic regression analysis to compare key structural variables between public and private facilities. While taking the structural variables as an outcome for comparison, the facility type (public vs private) were used as the key exposure of interest. Results: When comparing availability of basic amenities (infrastructure), public facilities were less likely to have functional cell phones (AOR=0.12; 95% CI: 0.07-0.21), and water supply (AOR=0.29; 95% CI: 0.15-0.58) than private facilities. However, public facilities were more likely to have staff available 24 hours in the facility (AOR=0.12; 95% CI: 0.07-0.21), providers having family planning related training in the past 24 months (AOR=4.4; 95% CI: 2.51, 7.64) and possessing guidelines/protocols (AOR= 3.1 95% CI: 1.87, 5.24) than private facilities. Moreover, comparing the availability of equipment, public facilities had higher odds of having pelvic model for IUD demonstration (AOR=2.60; 95% CI: 1.35, 5.01) and penile model for condom demonstration (AOR=2.51; 95% CI: 1.32, 4.78) than private facilities. Conclusion: The present study suggests that Ethiopian government needs to provide emphasis towards the private sector in terms of providing family planning guidelines and training on family planning services for their staff. It is also worthwhile for the public health facilities to allocate funding for improving the availability of basic amenities. Implications for policy and/ or practice: This study calls policy makers to design appropriate strategies in providing opportunities for training a health care providers working in private health facility.

Keywords: quality of care, family planning, public-private, Ethiopia

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4611 Preventive and Attenuative Effect of Vitamin E on Selenite-induced Cataract in Rat

Authors: Seyedeh Zeinab Peighambarzadeh, Mehdi Tavana

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Cataract is the most common cause of blindness worldwide and its incidence will increase as the World’s population ages. Even in modern ophthalmology, there is no effective medical treatment for cataract except surgery. Development of a drug which could prevent or delay the onset of cataract will lessen this burden and reduce the number of blind patients waiting for cataract surgery. This study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of vitamin E on Selenite-induced Cataract in Sprague-dawely rats. Cataracts were induced in rats by administration of sodium selenite. On postpartum day ten, in group I, saline was injected subcutaneously. Group II rat pups received subcutaneous injection of vitamin E (60mg/kg B.W.) at day 8 postpartum and every other day thereafter. Group III and IV rat pups received a subcutaneous injection of sodium selenite (13mg/kg B.W.) at day 10 postpartum. Group IV also received subcutaneous injection of vitamin E (60mg/kg B.W.) at day 8 postpartum and every other day thereafter. The development of cataract in rats was assessed clinically by slit-lamp biomicroscope from day 14 up to postpartum day 28. After sacrifice, extricated pup lenses were analyzed for total and soluble protein concentrations and eletrophoretic pattern (SDS-PAGE). There was no opacification of lens in Group I and II. There was mature cataract in 95% of Group III. In group IV, 55% of rats developed sub capsular or cortical cataract. Cataractous and biochemical changes of the crystalline lens proteins due to selenite can be retard or prevented by vitamin E.

Keywords: preventive effect, selenite-induced cataract, vitamin E, rat

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4610 Gender of the Infant and Interpersonal Relationship Correlates of Postpartum Depression among Women in Gilgit, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan

Authors: Humaira Mujeeb, Farah Qadir

Abstract:

The present study aimed to explore the association between interpersonal relationship and postpartum depression with a special focus on gender of the infant among women in Gilgit, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan. The research was quantitative in nature. It was a correlation study with a cross-sectional study design. The target population was women between six weeks to six months after the delivery of a baby. The sample size of 158 women has been computed by using G*Power (3.0.10 version). The sample was taken through quota sampling technique which was used to gather data according to the specifically predefined groups (79 women with female infants and 79 women with male infants). The sample was selected non-randomly according to the fixed quota. A protocol which had demographic and interpersonal relationship variables alongside with the Urdu version Edinburgh postnatal depression scale was used to collect the relevant data. The data was analyzed by using SPSS 16.0 software package. A statistically significant association between the attachment with husband in women who had a female infant and postpartum depression has been found. The association between the husband’s emotional and physical support in women who had a female infant and postpartum depression had also been found significant. In case of women with a male infant, the association between support of in-laws and postpartum depression is statistically significant. An association between the violence/discrimination based on the basis of infant's gender in women who had a female infant and postpartum depression is also found. These findings points out that when studying the correlates of postpartum depression, it is imperative to carry out an analysis in the context of gender by considering gender of the infant especially in societies where strict gender preferences exists.

Keywords: infant, gender, attachment, husband, in-laws, support, violence, discrimination, Edinburgh postnatal depression scale, Gilgit, Pakistan

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4609 The Health Impact of Intensive Case Management on Women with an Opioid Use Disorder and Their Infants

Authors: Shannon Rappe, Elizabeth Morse, David Phillippi

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Postpartum women with an opioid use disorder (OUD) are at high risk for treatment disengagement, leaving them vulnerable to overdose and death between seven and twelve months postpartum. Intensive case management programs have been proposed as an effective strategy to reduce barriers and increase treatment engagement among postpartum women. The purpose of this project is to determine the effects of early engagement in an intensive case management program on postpartum engagement and infant health outcomes among postpartum women with opioid use. This retrospective review of secondary data was collected on 225 infants, and 221 postpartum women enrolled in an intensive case management program in Tennessee between May 1, 2019, and May 5, 2020. Chi-squares were computed to examine the timing of engagement during pregnancy, maternal treatment outcomes, and infant health outcomes, including neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS), birth weight, gestational age, and length of stay. The mean prenatal program engagement was 109 days (SD = 67.6); 16.7% (n = 37) enrolled during the first trimester, 37.6% (n = 83) in the second trimester, and 45.7% (n = 101) in the third trimester. Of the 221 women engaged, 45.2% (n = 100) remained engaged in the case of management at the time of data collection, and 40% (n = 89) remained engaged in MAT at the time of data collection. Twenty- five percent (n = 25) of mothers who graduated sustained engagement in MAT. Of 225 infants 28.9% (n = 65) had a positive NAS status, mean birth weight was 6.5 lbs. (SD = 19.3); mean gestational age was 38.3 weeks (SD = 19.3) and mean length of stay was 8.19 days (SD = 9.8). This study's findings identified that engaging mothers during pregnancy in a program designed to meet their unique challenges positively impacts both the mother and infant outcomes, regardless of their timing.

Keywords: intensive case management, neonatal abstinence syndrome, opioid addiction, opioid crisis, opioid use in pregnant women, postpartum addiction

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4608 Postpartum Female Sexual Dysfunctions in Hungary: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Katalin Szöllősi, László Szabó

Abstract:

Introduction and purpose: Even though female sexual dysfunctions are common among women in the postpartum period, the profile of these disturbances has not been well investigated in Hungary yet. The aim of the study was to evaluate the postpartum female sexual functions in Hungary. This research sought to investigate the possible predictor factors which can influence postpartum female sexual functions. Method and sample: This was a cross-sectional study, including patients from two maternity clinics in Budapest. 113 women were recruited into our study 3 months after their childbirth. 53 had vaginal birth, 60 had a caesarian section. Data were collected from medical reports in addition by using self-developed questions and validated questionnaires in order to measure important predictors which may be responsible for postpartum sexual dysfunctions such as mode of delivery, parity, urinary incontinence and body image. Sexual functions were evaluated by the Hungarian version of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). The Hungarian version of Body Image Questionnaire-Short Form14 (BSQ-SF14) was applied for assessing body image. Results: 82,3% of the participants began to have sexual intercourse within three months postpartum. 53,98% of the participants reported sexual dysfunctions (cut-off FSFI score 26,55). According to our results mode of delivery, parity, hemorrhoids, time of intercourse, resumption was not associated with female sexual dysfunctions. We found correlation at a tendential level between urinary incontinence and sexual dysfunctions (p=0,003, R=0,26). We found a negative correlation at a tendential level between the total score of BSQ-SF14 and FSFI (p=0,03, R=-0,269). Only 32,74% of women reported discussing sexual life with health care professionals. However, 67,25% of them would have had the need to be asked about their postpartum health issues. Conclusions and recommendations: The prevalence of female sexual dysfunctions were relatively high after childbirth. We found that incontinence and body image was associated with sexual dysfunctions; other risk factors remained unknown. Despite regular contact with health care professionals, women rarely get any information about postpartum sexual health issues. The high prevalence of dysfunctions indicates the need for further investigation to address other risk factors and proper counselling of women after childbirth.

Keywords: body image, postpartum, sexual dysfunction, urinary incontinence

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4607 Contribution of Family Planning Effort to Demographic and Macroeconomic Outcomes in High Fertility Countries: A Longitudinal Study

Authors: Jane N. O'Sullivan

Abstract:

In most studies relating change in fertility to potentially causal factors (such as girls’ educational attainment, infant mortality or urbanization), the presence or nature of family planning efforts are not examined, potentially misattributing their contributions. Modest impacts of voluntary family planning programs on fertility change have been claimed, citing the near-term effects of historical quasi-experimental projects – notably in Bangladesh and in Ghana – where recipients and non-recipients could be contrasted. By their nature, such experiments lacked the wider cultural impacts of national programs. Concurrently, analyses relating population growth with economic advancement have been equivocal, discrediting previous widespread concern which prevailed before the 1980s. This neutral view has been revised more recently with demographic dividend theory crediting higher working-age proportion with some economic stimulus if supported by sufficient institutional and human capacity. In this study of country-level data, cross-country comparisons spanning six decades relate fertility decline with family planning effort, GDP per capita and female education, finding that the timing of rapid fertility decline aligns with commencement of voluntary family planning programs, while economic betterment came after substantial fertility fall. The relationship between fertility and primary education completion was inconsistent, with potential channels of causation operating in both directions. GDP per capita was unrelated to rate of fertility decline, but total fertility rates above three children per woman strongly impeded enrichment. By synchronizing countries with respect to their fertility transition, strong relationships are revealed which suggest lower fertility enables economic betterment, rather than the other way around. These results argue in favour of elevating voluntary family planning as a development priority.

Keywords: economic advance, family planning effort, fertility decline, population growth rate

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