Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Search results for: Mette Juel Rothmann

5 Barriers and Challenges to a Healthy Lifestyle for Postpartum Women and the Possibilities in an Information Technology-Based Intervention: A Qualitative Study

Authors: Pernille K. Christiansen, Mette Maria Skjøth, Line Lorenzen, Eva Draborg, Christina Anne Vinter, Trine Kjær, Mette Juel Rothmann

Abstract:

Background and aims: Overweight and obesity are an increasing challenge on a global level. In Denmark, more than one-third of all pregnant women are overweight or obese, and many women exceed the gestational weight gain recommendations from the Institute of Medicine. Being overweight or obese, is associated with a higher risk of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, including gestational diabetes and childhood obesity. Thus, it is important to focus on the women’s lifestyles between their pregnancies to lower the risk of gestational weight retention in the long run. The objective of this study was to explorer what barriers and challenges postpartum women experience with respect to healthy lifestyles during the postpartum period and to access whether an Information Technology based intervention might be a supportive tool to assist and motivate postpartum women to a healthy lifestyle. Materials and methods: The method is inspired by participatory design. A systematic text condensation was applied to semi-structured focus groups. Five focus group interviews were carried out with a total of 17 postpartum women and two interviews with a total of six health professionals. Participants were recruited through the municipality in Svendborg, Denmark, and at Odense University Hospital in Odense, Denmark, during a four-month period in early 2018. Results: From the women’s perspective, better assistance is needed from the health professionals to obtain or maintain a healthy lifestyle. The women need tools that inform and help them understand and prioritise their own health-related risks, and to motivate them to plan and take care of their own health. As the women use Information Technology on a daily basis, the solution could be delivered through Information Technology. Finally, there is room for engaging the partner more in the communication related to the baby and family’s lifestyle. Conclusion: Postpartum women need tools that inform and motivate a healthy lifestyle postpartum. The tools should allow access to high-quality information from health care professionals, when the information is needed, and also allow engagement from the partner. Finally, Information Technology is a potential tool for delivering tools.

Keywords: information technology, lifestyle, overweight, postpartum

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4 Advanced Nurse Practitioners in Clinical Practice - a Leadership Challenge

Authors: Mette Kjerholt, Thora Grothe Thomsen, Connie Bøttcher Berthelsen, Bibi Hølge Hazelton

Abstract:

Academic nursing is a relatively new phenomenon in Denmark. Leadership and management training in nursing does not prepare Danish nurse leaders to become leaders for nurses with academic background, and some leaders may feel estranged with including this kind of nursing staff in clinical settings. Currently there is a debate regarding what academic nurses can contribute with in clinical practice, and some managers express concern regarding whether this will lead to less focus on clinical practice and more focus on theoretical issues that may not seem so relevant in a busy everyday clinical setting. The paper will present the experiences of integrating three advanced nurse practitioners with Ph.D. degrees (ANP) in three different clinical departments at a regional hospital in Denmark with no prior experiences with such profiles among its staff.

Keywords: leadership, advanced nurse practitioners, clinical practice, academic nursing

Procedia PDF Downloads 407
3 Process Optimization for 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel by Laser Metal Deposition

Authors: Siri Marthe Arbo, Afaf Saai, Sture Sørli, Mette Nedreberg

Abstract:

This work aims to establish a reliable approach for optimizing a Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) process for a critical maritime component, based on the material properties and structural performance required by the maritime industry. The component of interest is a water jet impeller, for which specific requirements for material properties are defined. The developed approach is based on the assessment of the effects of LMD process parameters on microstructure and material performance of standard AM 2205 duplex stainless steel powder. Duplex stainless steel offers attractive properties for maritime applications, combining high strength, enhanced ductility and excellent corrosion resistance due to the specific amounts of ferrite and austenite. These properties are strongly affected by the microstructural characteristics in addition to microstructural defects such as porosity and welding defects, all strongly influenced by the chosen LMD process parameters. In this study, the influence of deposition speed and heat input was evaluated. First, the influences of deposition speed and heat input on the microstructure characteristics, including ferrite/austenite fraction, amount of porosity and welding defects, were evaluated. Then, the achieved mechanical properties were evaluated by standard testing methods, measuring the hardness, tensile strength and elongation, bending force and impact energy. The measured properties were compared to the requirements of the water jet impeller. The results show that the required amounts of ferrite and austenite can be achieved directly by the LMD process without post-weld heat treatments. No intermetallic phases were observed in the material produced by the investigated process parameters. A high deposition speed was found to reduce the ductility due to the formation of welding defects. An increased heat input was associated with reduced strength due to the coarsening of the ferrite/austenite microstructure. The microstructure characterizations and measured mechanical performance demonstrate the great potential of the LMD process and generate a valuable database for the optimization of the LMD process for duplex stainless steels.

Keywords: duplex stainless steel, laser metal deposition, process optimization, microstructure, mechanical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
2 Designing Presentational Writing Assessments for the Advanced Placement World Language and Culture Exams

Authors: Mette Pedersen

Abstract:

This paper outlines the criteria that assessment specialists use when they design the 'Persuasive Essay' task for the four Advanced Placement World Language and Culture Exams (AP French, German, Italian, and Spanish). The 'Persuasive Essay' is a free-response, source-based, standardized measure of presentational writing. Each 'Persuasive Essay' item consists of three sources (an article, a chart, and an audio) and a prompt, which is a statement of the topic phrased as an interrogative sentence. Due to its richness of source materials and due to the amount of time that test takers are given to prepare for and write their responses (a total of 55 minutes), the 'Persuasive Essay' is the free-response task on the AP World Language and Culture Exams that goes to the greatest lengths to unleash the test takers' proficiency potential. The author focuses on the work that goes into designing the 'Persuasive Essay' task, outlining best practices for the selection of topics and sources, the interplay that needs to be present among the sources and the thinking behind the articulation of prompts for the 'Persuasive Essay' task. Using released 'Persuasive Essay' items from the AP World Language and Culture Exams and accompanying data on test taker performance, the author shows how different passages, and features of passages, have succeeded (and sometimes not succeeded) in eliciting writing proficiency among test takers over time. Data from approximately 215.000 test takers per year from 2014 to 2017 and approximately 35.000 test takers per year from 2012 to 2013 form the basis of this analysis. The conclusion of the study is that test taker performance improves significantly when the sources that test takers are presented with express directly opposing viewpoints. Test taker performance also improves when the interrogative prompt that the test takers respond to is phrased as a yes/no question. Finally, an analysis of linguistic difficulty and complexity levels of the printed sources reveals that test taker performance does not decrease when the complexity level of the article of the 'Persuasive Essay' increases. This last text complexity analysis is performed with the help of the 'ETS TextEvaluator' tool and the 'Complexity Scale for Information Texts (Scale)', two tools, which, in combination, provide a rubric and a fully-automated technology for evaluating nonfiction and informational texts in English translation.

Keywords: advanced placement world language and culture exams, designing presentational writing assessments, large-scale standardized assessments of written language proficiency, source-based language testing

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1 Examination of Porcine Gastric Biomechanics in the Antrum Region

Authors: Sif J. Friis, Mette Poulsen, Torben Strom Hansen, Peter Herskind, Jens V. Nygaard

Abstract:

Gastric biomechanics governs a large range of scientific and engineering fields, from gastric health issues to interaction mechanisms between external devices and the tissue. Determination of mechanical properties of the stomach is, thus, crucial, both for understanding gastric pathologies as well as for the development of medical concepts and device designs. Although the field of gastric biomechanics is emerging, advances within medical devices interacting with the gastric tissue could greatly benefit from an increased understanding of tissue anisotropy and heterogeneity. Thus, in this study, uniaxial tensile tests of gastric tissue were executed in order to study biomechanical properties within the same individual as well as across individuals. With biomechanical tests in the strain domain, tissue from the antrum region of six porcine stomachs was tested using eight samples from each stomach (n = 48). The samples were cut so that they followed dominant fiber orientations. Accordingly, from each stomach, four samples were longitudinally oriented, and four samples were circumferentially oriented. A step-wise stress relaxation test with five incremental steps up to 25 % strain with 200 s rest periods for each step was performed, followed by a 25 % strain ramp test with three different strain rates. Theoretical analysis of the data provided stress-strain/time curves as well as 20 material parameters (e.g., stiffness coefficients, dissipative energy densities, and relaxation time coefficients) used for statistical comparisons between samples from the same stomach as well as in between stomachs. Results showed that, for the 20 material parameters, heterogeneity across individuals, when extracting samples from the same area, was in the same order of variation as the samples within the same stomach. For samples from the same stomach, the mean deviation percentage for all 20 parameters was 21 % and 18 % for longitudinal and circumferential orientations, compared to 25 % and 19 %, respectively, for samples across individuals. This observation was also supported by a nonparametric one-way ANOVA analysis, where results showed that the 20 material parameters from each of the six stomachs came from the same distribution with a level of statistical significance of P > 0.05. Direction-dependency was also examined, and it was found that the maximum stress for longitudinal samples was significantly higher than for circumferential samples. However, there were no significant differences in the 20 material parameters, with the exception of the equilibrium stiffness coefficient (P = 0.0039) and two other stiffness coefficients found from the relaxation tests (P = 0.0065, 0.0374). Nor did the stomach tissue show any significant differences between the three strain-rates used in the ramp test. Heterogeneity within the same region has not been examined earlier, yet, the importance of the sampling area has been demonstrated in this study. All material parameters found are essential to understand the passive mechanics of the stomach and may be used for mathematical and computational modeling. Additionally, an extension of the protocol used may be relevant for compiling a comparative study between the human stomach and the pig stomach.

Keywords: antrum region, gastric biomechanics, loading-unloading, stress relaxation, uniaxial tensile testing

Procedia PDF Downloads 51