Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Search results for: Lemi Tolu

5 Factors Affecting Long-Term and Permanent Contraceptive Uptake among Immediate Post-Partum Mothers at Saint Paul’s Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Lemi Tolu

Abstract:

Background: Postpartum family planning (PPFP) focuses on the prevention of unintended and closely spaced pregnancies through the first 12 months following childbirth. Objective: This study assesses the barriers to uptake of long-term and permanent family planning methods among immediate post-partum mothers at Saint Paul’s Hospital Millennium Medical College in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methodology: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from January 1 to June 30, 2017. The six months of study were used as strata, and systematic sampling used to select participants in each month. Post-partum mothers were interviewed using pretested structured questionnaires. Data entry and analysis were done using SPSS version 17. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regressions were fitted to identify determinants of post-partum family planning uptake. An OR with 95% CIs was calculated, and p values set at 005 were used to determine the statistical significance of associations. Results: Four hundred and twenty-two post-partum women were interviewed. Two hundred sixty-eight (63%) women received counselling on family planning, and 241 (66.8 %) got information about contraception. One hundred and fifty-two (45%) of the women accepted long-term and permanent contraception on their immediate postpartum period before discharge. Contraceptive counselling (OR = 2.13, 95% CI 1.004-3.331), getting information from the health facility (OR = 15.15, 95% CI 1.848-19.242), and partner support (OR = 1.367, 95% CI 1.175-2.771) were significantly associated with long-term and permanent contraception uptake. Conclusion: Postpartum counselling on family planning and provision of contraception information improve immediate postpartum FP acceptance, and, hence postpartum programs need to strengthen such services.

Keywords: contraception, immediate postpartum, long-term family planning, post-partum family planning

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4 Assessment of Cell-Rebuilding Efficacy of Selected Food Plants in the Lungs of Wild Rats Living in a Polluted Environment

Authors: Yahaya Tajudeen, Joy Okpuzor, Tolu Ajayi

Abstract:

The cell-rebuilding efficacy of four food plants eating as vegetables and spices in Nigeria was assessed in the lungs of wild rats (Rattus rattus) living in a polluted environment. The plants are roselle (Hibiscus sabdarrifa), moringa (Moringa oleifera), ginger (Zingiber officinale) and ugwu (Telfairia occidentalis). Sixty rats were caught from the vicinity of a cement factory in Sagamu, Southwestern-Nigeria and grouped into 6. The control group was administered distilled water, while the test groups were given ethanolic extracts of roselle, moringa, ginger, ugwu and the mixture of the extracts for 180 days. The histopathology of the rats was conducted before and at the end of 180 days extracts administration. Before administering the extracts, the lungs of the rats showed vascular congestion, severe fibrosis and congested alveolus; all which were also observed in the lungs of control rats at the end of the treatment. However, the lungs of rats that were treated with the extracts of the plants showed moderate, mild or no histological damage compared to the control rats. The extract of the mixture of the plants performed best, followed by ginger, ugwu and roselle, respectively. These findings suggest that the food plants contain phytonutrients and phytochemicals, which repaired damaged cells and tissues in the exposed rats. Consequently, the plants could play a role in ameliorating health effects of environmental pollution.

Keywords: food plants, wild rats, lung, histopathology, fibrosis, cell-rebuilding

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3 Local Development and Community Participation in Owo Local Government Area of Ondo State, Nigeria

Authors: Tolu Lawal

Abstract:

The genuine development of the grassroots particularly in the developing societies depends largely on the participation of the rural populace in policy conception and implementation, especially in the area of development policies, fundamentally, the rural people play a vital and significance role in economic and political development of the nation. This is because the bulk of the economic produce as well as votes come from these areas. However, the much needed development has continued to elude the rural communities inspire of the various development policies carried out by successive governments in the state. The exclusion of rural communities from planning and implementation of facilities meant to benefit them, and the international debate on sustainable rural development led Ondo State government to re-think its rural development policy with a view to establishing more effective strategies for rural development. The 31s initiatives introduced in 2009 emphasizes the important role of communities in their own development. The paper therefore critically assessed the 31s initiative of the present government in Ondo State with a view to knowing its impact on rural people. The study adopted both primary and secondary data to source its information. Interviews were conducted with the key informants, and field survey (visit) was also part of method of collecting data. Documents, reports and records on 31s initiatives in the selected villages and from outside were also consulted. The paper submitted that 31s initiative has not impacted positively on the lives of rural dwellers in Ondo-State, most especially in the areas of infrastructure and integrated development. The findings also suggested that 31s initiatives is not hopeless, but needs a different kind of investment, for example introducing measures of accountability, addressing the politicization of the initiative and exploiting key principles of development and service delivery.

Keywords: development, infrastructure, rural development, participation

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2 Engaging the Terrorism Problematique in Africa: Discursive and Non-Discursive Approaches to Counter Terrorism

Authors: Cecil Blake, Tolu Kayode-Adedeji, Innocent Chiluwa, Charles Iruonagbe

Abstract:

National, regional and international security threats have dominated the twenty-first century thus far. Insurgencies that utilize “terrorism” as their primary strategy pose the most serious threat to global security. States in turn adopt terrorist strategies to resist and even defeat insurgents who invoke the legitimacy of statehood to justify their action. In short, the era is dominated by the use of terror tactics by state and non-state actors. Globally, there is a powerful network of groups involved in insurgencies using Islam as the bastion for their cause. In Africa, there are Boko Haram, Al Shabaab and Al Qaeda in the Maghreb representing Islamic groups utilizing terror strategies and tactics to prosecute their wars. The task at hand is to discover and to use multiple ways of handling the present security threats, including novel approaches to policy formulation, implementation, monitoring and evaluation that would pay significant attention to the important role of culture and communication strategies germane for discursive means of conflict resolution. In other to achieve this, the proposed research would address inter alia, root causes of insurgences that predicate their mission on Islamic tenets particularly in Africa; discursive and non-discursive counter-terrorism approaches fashioned by African governments, continental supra-national and regional organizations, recruitment strategies by major non-sate actors in Africa that rely solely on terrorist strategies and tactics and sources of finances for the groups under study. A major anticipated outcome of this research is a contribution to answers that would lead to the much needed stability required for development in African countries experiencing insurgencies carried out by the use of patterned terror strategies and tactics. The nature of the research requires the use of triangulation as the methodological tool.

Keywords: counter-terrorism, discourse, Nigeria, security, terrorism

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1 Tuberculosis and Associated Transient Hyperglycaemia in Peri-Urban South Africa: Implications for Diabetes Screening in High Tuberculosis/HIV Burden Settings

Authors: Mmamapudi Kubjane, Natacha Berkowitz, Rene Goliath, Naomi S. Levitt, Robert J. Wilkinson, Tolu Oni

Abstract:

Background: South Africa remains a high tuberculosis (TB) burden country globally and the burden of diabetes – a TB risk factor is growing rapidly. As an infectious disease, TB also induces transient hyperglycaemia. Therefore, screening for diabetes in newly diagnosed tuberculosis patients may result in misclassification of transient hyperglycaemia as diabetes. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine and compare the prevalence of hyperglycaemia (diabetes and impaired glucose regulation (IGR)) in TB patients and to assess the cross-sectional association between TB and hyperglycaemia at enrolment and after three months of follow-up. Methods: Consecutive adult TB and non-TB participants presenting at a TB clinic in Cape Town were enrolled in this cross-sectional study and follow-up between July 2013 and August 2015. Diabetes was defined as self-reported diabetes, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥ 7.0 mmol·L⁻¹ or glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥ 6.5%. IGR was defined as FPG 5.5– < 7.0 mmol·L⁻¹ or HbA1c 5.7– < 6.5%. TB patients initiated treatment. After three months, all participants were followed up and screened for diabetes again. The association between TB and hyperglycaemia was assessed using logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders including sex, age, income, hypertension, waist circumference, previous prisoner, marital status, work status, HIV status. Results: Diabetes screening was performed in 852 participants (414 TB and 438 non-TB) at enrolment and in 639 (304 TB and 335 non-TB) at three-month follow-up. The prevalence of HIV-1 infection was 69.6% (95% confidence interval (CI), 64.9–73.8 %) among TB patients, and 58.2% (95% CI, 53.5–62.8 %) among the non-TB participants. Glycaemic levels were much higher in TB patients than in the non-TB participants but decreased over time. Among TB patients, the prevalence of IGR was 65.2% (95% CI 60.1 - 69.9) at enrollment and 21.5% (95% CI 17.2-26.5) at follow-up; and was 50% (45.1 - 54.94) and 32% (95% CI 27.9 - 38.0) respectively, among non-TB participants. The prevalence of diabetes in TB patients was 12.5% (95% CI 9.69 – 16.12%) at enrolment and 9.2% (95% CI, 6.43–13.03%) at follow-up; and was 10.04% (95% CI, 7.55–13.24%) and 8.06% (95% CI, 5.58–11.51) respectively, among non-TB participants. The association between TB and IGT was significant at enrolment (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.26 (95% CI, 1.55-3.31) but disappeared at follow-up 0.84 (0.53 - 1.36). However, the TB-diabetes association remained positive and significant both at enrolment (2.41 (95% CI, 1.3-4.34)) and follow-up (OR 3.31 (95% CI, 1.5 - 7.25)). Conclusion: Transient hyperglycaemia exists during tuberculosis. This has implications on diabetes screening in TB patients and suggests a need for diabetes confirmation tests during or after TB treatment. Nonetheless, the association between TB and diabetes noted at enrolment persists at 3 months highlighting the importance of diabetes control and prevention for TB control. Further research is required to investigate the impact of hyperglycaemia (transient or otherwise) on TB outcomes to ascertain the clinical significance of hyperglycemia at enrolment.

Keywords: diabetes, impaired glucose regulation, transient hyperglycaemia, tuberculosis

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